Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 26 November 2012, pp 3394–95; Journals of the Senate, 26 February 2013, p. 3659.

Chapter 2 - The drivers behind the growth in the Australian imprisonment rate

[1]        Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Report on Government Services 2013, Vol. 1, p. 8.5.

[2]        Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Report on Government Services 2013, Vol. 1, p. 8.5.

[3]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[4]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[5]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[6]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[7]        NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, p. 4.

[8]        Youth Justice Advisory Committee, Submission 125, p. 2.

[9]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[10]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012; Northern Territory Chief Magistrate, Submission 119, 3.

[11]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0.Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[12]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[13]      Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Report on Government Services 2013, Vol. 1, p. C.21.

[14]      The Australian Bureau of Statistics noted that the willingness of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to self identify may contribute to movements in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prison numbers.

[15]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2012.

[16]      Youth Justice Advisory Committee, Submission 125, p. 4.

[17]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, p. 3.

[18]      St Vincent de Paul Society, Submission 108, pp 2–3.

[19]      Youth Justice Advisory Committee, Submission 125, p. 4.

[20]      Jesuit Social Services, Submission 104, p. 6.

[21]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, pp 5–6.

[22]      See for example, Freedom Socialist Party, Submission 12; Justice Reinvest NSW, Submission 44; Alcohol and Other Drugs Council of Australia, Submission 109; Legal Aid NSW, Submission 38; Western Australian Council of Social Services, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64; South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28.

[23]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, p. 3.

[24]      Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, p. 1.

[25]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, pp 4–5.

[26]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 2.

[27]      Jesuit Social Services, Submission 104, p. 7; see also Freedom Socialist Party, Submission 12; Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Submission 54; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71.

[28]      Prisoner's Legal Service, Submission 94, p. 2.

[29]      Western Australian Council of Social Service, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 5.

[30]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p 7–8.

[31]      North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Submission 47, p. 2.

[32]      Mr Peter Collins, Director, Legal Services, Aboriginal Legal Service of Western Australia Inc., Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 37.

[33]      Justice Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 9; see also Prisoners' Legal Services, Submission 94, p. 2.

[34]      Department of Correctional Services, South Australian Government, Submission 110, p. 3.

[35]      National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 53, p. 4.

[36]      Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 120, p. 19.

[37]      St Vincent de Paul Society, Submission 108, p. 3.

[38]      Top End Women's Legal Service, Submission 116, p. 4.

[39]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 7.

[40]      Chief Magistrate of the Northern Territory, Submission 119, pp 5–6.

[41]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 6.

[42]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 9.

[43]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 6.

[44]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, pp 7–8.

[45]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 8.

[46]      Youth Justice Advisory Committee, Submission 125, p. 3.

[47]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 8.

[48]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Answer to question on notice No. 1, received 4 June 2013.

[49]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 8.

[50]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Answer to question on notice No. 1, received 4 June 2013.

[51]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 12.

[52]      Chief Magistrate of the Northern Territory, Submission 119, p. 4.

[53]      White Ribbon, Submission 115, p. 3.

[54]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 3.

[55]      Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association, Submission 92, p. 4.

[56]      Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association, Submission 92, pp 4–5.

[57]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 6; see also Outcare, Submission 61, p. 5.

[58]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 74, p. 3.

[59]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 11.

[60]      Justice Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 18.

[61]      Alcohol and other Drugs Council of Australia, Submission 109, p. 5.

[62]      Alcohol and other Drugs Council of Australia, Submission 109, p. 5.

[63]      South Australian Network of Drug and Alcohol Services, Submission 37, p. 3.

[64]      Justice Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 11,.

[65]      South Australian Network of Drug and Alcohol Services, Submission 37, p. 4.

[66]      Alcohol and other Drugs Council of Australia, Submission 109, p. 5.

[67]      Australian Youth Affairs Coalition, Submission 105, p.16

[68]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 10.

[69]      Indigenous Social Justice Association Melbourne, Submission 14, p. 5.

[70]      New South Wales Reconciliation Council, Submission 31, p. 3.

[71]      Western Australian Council of Social Services, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 13.

[72]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Group, Submission 28, p. 3.

[73]      Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission, Submission 42, p. 5; Flat Out, Submission 51, p. 2; Top End Women's Legal Service, Submission 116, p. 9.

[74]      Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission, Submission 42, p. 5.

[75]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 10.

Chapter 3 - The economic and social costs of imprisonment

[1]        Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Report on Government Services 2013, Vol. 1, p. C.9. Expenditure is for real recurrent expenditure in 2011–12 dollars.

[2]        Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Report on Government Services 2013, Vol. 1, pp 8.3–8.4.

[3]        Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Report on Government Services 2013, Vol. 1, pp 8.24, 8.27, 8.28.

[4]        Commissioner for Children and Young People, Submission 23, p. 4.

[5]        South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 4.

[6]        Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, p. 4.

[7]        Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission, Submission 42, p. 4.

[8]        Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, p. 4

[9]        Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, pp 13–14.

[10]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 13.

[11]      Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, pp 5; 9.

[12]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 4.

[13]      Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission, Submission 42, p. 6.

[14]      Community Legal Centres NSW, Submission 102, p. 10.

[15]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 8.

[16]      North Australian Aboriginal Family Violence Legal Service, Submission 55, p. 4.

[17]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 8.

[18]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 15.

[19]      National Family Violence Prevention Legal Services Forum, Submission 39, p. 4.

[20]      Ms Tammy Solonec, Director, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 18.

[21]      Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission, Submission 42, p. 4.

[22]      North Australian Aboriginal Family Violence Legal Service, Submission 55, pp 3–4; see also Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 12; Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, Submission 63, p. 11.

[23]      Ms Tammy Solonec, Director, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 18.

[24]      NSW Reconciliation Council, Submission 31, p. 4.

[25]      Australian Youth Affairs Coalition, Submission 105, p. 16.

[26]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 12.

[27]      National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Submission 40, p. 4.

[28]      Western Australian Council of Social Service, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 22; see also, Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, pp 14, 23–24.

[29]      Western Australian Council of Social Service, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 14.

[30]      Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation, Submission 112, p. 6.

[31]      Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation, Submission 112, pp 6–7.

[32]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 15.

Chapter 4 - The over-representation of disadvantaged groups within Australian prisons

[1]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 3.

[2]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 73, p. 2.

[3]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 4.

[4]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 1.

[5]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 6.

[6]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 16.

[7]        Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Submission 54, p. 14.

[8]        Commissioner for Children and Young People WA, Submission 23, p. 2.

[9]        The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, Attachment 1, Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 4.

[10]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 9.

[11]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 10.

[12]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Juvenile detention population in Australia 2012, Juvenile justice series No. 11, 2012, Tables S2, S10.

[13]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Youth justice in Australia 2011–12: an overview, Bulletin 115, April 2013, p. 16.

[14]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Juvenile detention population in Australia 2012, Juvenile justice series No. 11, 2012, p. vii.

[15]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 73, p. 3.

[16]      Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Submission 54, p. 13.

[17]      Legal Aid NSW, Submission 38, p. 3.

[18]      Legal Aid NSW, Submission 38, p. 3.

[19]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 19.

[20]      North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Submission 47, p. 7.

[21]      Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Submission 54, pp 14; 17.

[22]      Western Australian Council of Social Services, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 28.

[23]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 73, p. 3.

[24]      Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Report on Government Services 2013 Indigenous Compendium, pp 8.3–8.4.

[25]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 5. Note: Hudson commented that the increase in the proportion of Indigenous offenders is partly due to more Aboriginal offenders identifying as Indigenous and not just the result of increases in offending rates.

[26]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 9.

[27]      NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, p. 5.

[28]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 6.

[29]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 6; see also Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 8.

[30]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 9; Victorian Aboriginal and Community Controlled Health Organisation, Submission 112, p. 8.

[31]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, pp 6–7.

[32]      NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, pp 6–7.

[33]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 10.

[34]      Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 12.

[35]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 15.

[36]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 7.

[37]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 8.

[38]      NSW Reconciliation Council, Submission 31, p. 3.

[39]      Mr Craig Comrie, Chief Executive Officer, Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 29.

[40]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, The mental health of prison entrants in Australia, Bulletin 104, June 2012, p. 6.

[41]      Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, Submission 63, p. 7.

[42]      Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 120, p. 7.

[43]      Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 88, p. 16.

[44]      National Centre for Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Offender Health Capacity Building Group, Submission 83, p. 2.

[45]      Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 120, pp 20–21.

[46]      Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Association ACT, ACT Council of Social Service, Mental Health Community Coalition ACT, Submission 117, p. 6.

[47]      National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 53, p. 8.

[48]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 6.

[49]      National Centre for Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Offender Health Capacity Building Group, Submission 83, p. 2.

[50]      Alcohol and other Drugs Council of Australia, Submission 109, pp 5–6.

[51]      Families and Friends for Drug Law Reform, Submission 123, pp 9–10.

[52]      Families and Friends for Drug Law Reform, Submission 123, p. 10.

[53]      Women in Prison Advocacy Network, Submission 50, p. 6.

[54]      North Australian Aboriginal Family Violence Legal Service, Submission 55, p. 3.

[55]      National Organisation for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum and Related Disorders, Submission 106, p. 7.

[56]      The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, Submission 19, pp 8–9.

[57]      Dr Raewyn Mutch, Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Alcohol, Pregnancy and FASD Research Group of the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 1.

[58]      Dr Raewyn Mutch, Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Alcohol, Pregnancy and FASD Research Group of the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 1.

[59]      National Organisation for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum and Related Disorders, Submission 106, p. 8.

[60]      The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, Submission 19, p. 9.

[61]      Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 16.

[62]      National Disability Services, Submission 41, p. 3.

[63]      The Advocacy and Support Centre, Submission 21, Attachment 1, p. 4.

[64]      The Advocacy and Support Centre, Submission 21, Attachment 1, p. 11.

[65]      Redfern Legal Centre on behalf of the CRPD Shadow Report Project Group, Submission 84, p. 15.

[66]      National Disability Service, Submission 41, p. 3.

[67]      National Disability Service, Submission 41, p. 2.

[68]      The Advocacy and Support Centre, Submission 21, Attachment 1, p. 11.

[69]      The Advocacy and Support Centre, Submission 21, Attachment 1, p. 37.

[70]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 13.

[71]      Public Interest Advocacy, Submission 88, p. 23.

[72]      Redfern Legal Centre on behalf of the CRPD Shadow Report Project Group, Submission 84, p. 21.

[73]      Legal Aid NSW, Submission 38, pp 3–4.

[74]      See for example, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 53; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71; National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72; Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124.

[75]      National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 53, p. 6; National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 10.

[76]      National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 53, p. 6.

[77]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 14.

[78]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 8.

[79]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, p. 7.

[80]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 14.

[81]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 14.

[82]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Hear Us: Inquiry into Hearing Health in Australia, May 2010, p. 147.

[83]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Hear Us: Inquiry into Hearing Health in Australia, May 2010, p. 147.

[84]      Associate Professor Pamela Snow and Professor Martine Powell, Submission 18, p. 1.

Chapter 5 - The methodology and objectives of justice reinvestment

[1]        South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 8.

[2]        Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 4.

[3]        See for example, Prisoners' Legal Service Inc, Submission 94, p. 1; Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, p. 5.

[4]        Professor Chris Cunneen, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 58.

[5]        South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 8.

[6]        South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 8.

[7]        Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 6.

[8]        Cited in Uniting Church in Western Australia, Submission 65, p. 8.

[9]        Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, p. 7.

[10]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, Attachment 1, Tom Calma, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Social Justice Report 2009, Australian Human Rights Commission, p. 16.

[11]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 13.

[12]      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 16.

[13]      House of Commons Justice Committee, Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment, First Report of Session 2009–10, Vol. 1, HC 94-1, p. 118.

[14]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 23.

[15]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 24.

[16]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 57.

[17]      Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 20.

[18]      Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 20.

[19]      House of Commons Justice Committee, Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment, First Report of Session 2009–10, Vol. 1, HC 94-1, p. 126.

[20]      House of Commons Justice Committee, Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment, First Report of Session 2009–10, Vol. 1, HC 94-1, p. 152.

[21]      Kate Burns, Justice Reinvestment: The Economic Benefits for Victoria, Thesis, 2012, p.xxiii.

[22]      Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, p. 8.

[23]      Council of State Government Justice Center, Submission 95, p. 1.

[24]      Cited in National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 53, p. 15.

[25]      Council of State Government Justice Center, Submission 95, p. 2.

[26]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 74, pp 7–8.

[27]      Council of State Government Justice Center, Submission 95, p. 2.

[28]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 10.

[29]      The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime and Corrections Spending, January 2011, p. 55.

[30]      The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime and Corrections Spending, January 2011, pp 56–57; NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, November 2011, p. 15.

[31]      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 20.

[32]      The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime and Corrections Spending, January 2011, pp 56–59.

[33]      The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime and Corrections Spending, January 2011, pp 60–62.

[34]      Jessica's Law provides for the mandatory sentencing of 25 years in prison and lifetime electronic monitoring of adults convicted of sexual acts against a victim less than 12 years old.

[35]      NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, November 2011, pp 16–17.

[36]      Council of State Government Justice Center, Submission 95, pp 2–4.

[37]      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 26.

[38]      House of Commons Justice Committee, Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment, Volume 1, December 2009, p. 5.

[39]      Professor Andrew Coyle, Submission 122, p. 7.

[40]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 74, p. 9.

[41]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Social Inclusion Division, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 12; see also Australian Red Cross, Submission 113, p. 11.

[42]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 74, p. 9.

[43]      Australian Red Cross, Submission 113, p. 11.

[44]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 10.

[45]      National Centre for Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Offender Health Capacity Building Group, Submission 83, p. 7; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 74, p. 9.

[46]      NSW Juvenile Justice, Submission 124, p. 14.

[47]      James Austin et al, Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a new Justice Reinvestment. 2013.

[48]      James Austin et al, Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a new Justice Reinvestment, 2013, p. 5.

[49]      James Austin et al, Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a new Justice Reinvestmen,. 2013, p. 5.

[50]      Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, p. 17; National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Submission 40, p. 2.

[51]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 57.

[52]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 9; see also The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 3.

[53]      The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 2.

[54]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 14; see also The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 2.

[55]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, p. 14.

[56]      Professor David Brown, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 61.

[57]      Victorian Drug and Alcohol Association, Submission 92, p. 13.

[58]      The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 2.

[59]      Flat Out, Submission 51, p. 4.

[60]      Professor Todd Clear, Rutgers University, Unpublished paper.

[61]      NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, November 2011, p. 17.

[62]      Women in Prison Advocacy Network, Submission 50, p. 5

[63]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 74, p. 9.

[64]      The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 2.

[65]      Professor Todd Clear, Rutgers University, Unpublished paper.

Chapter 6 - The benefits of a justice reinvestment approach for Australia

[1]        Mr Robert Tickner, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Red Cross, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 29.

[2]        Prisoners' Legal Service Inc, Submission 94, p. 1.

[3]        See for example, Central Australian Aboriginal Family Legal Unit Aboriginal Corporation, Submission 32, p. 3.

[4]        Anglican Diocese of Brisbane, Submission 36, p. 2.

[5]        Professor Todd Clear, Rutgers University, Unpublished paper.

[6]        See for example, Goldfields Land and Sea Council, Submission 27, p. 2.

[7]        Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 21.

[8]        Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 2.

[9]        See for example, Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 22.

[10]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 22.

[11]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 27.

[12]      Public Advocate for Queensland, Submission 45, p. 1.

[13]      Mr Jonathon Hunyor, Principal Legal Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 13.

[14]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 16.

[15]      Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, p. 10.

[16]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 27.

[17]      Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association, Submission 92, p. 12.

[18]      Mr Jonathon Huyor, Principal Legal Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 8.

[19]      Smart Justice for Young People, Submission 91, pp 11–12.

[20]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 9.

[21]      Noetic Group, Submission 98, p. 7.

[22]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 27.

[23]      Noetic Group, Submission 98, p. 7.

[24]      See for example, Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association, Submission 92, p. 12; Mission Australia, Submission 99, pp 8–9.

[25]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 21; see also Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 8.

[26]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Legal Service, Submission 72, pp 26–27.

[27]      Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, p. 9.

[28]      Professor Chris Cunneen, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 60.

[29]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, pp 11–12.

[30]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 16.

[31]      Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 8.

[32]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 9.

[33]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 2.

[34]      Professor Chris Cunneen, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 61.

[35]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 2.

[36]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 2.

[37]      Ms Kerry Graham, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 21.

[38]      See for example, Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, pp 1–2; Central Australian Aboriginal Family Legal Unit Aboriginal Corporation, Submission 32, p. 2; Ms Kerry Graham, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 21; Central Australian Aboriginal Family Legal Unit Aboriginal Corporation, Submission 32, p. 2.

[39]      Central Australian Aboriginal Family Legal Unit Aboriginal Corporation, Submission 32, p. 2.

[40]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 9.

[41]      National Family Violence Prevention Legal Service Forum, Submission 39, p. 5.

[42]      Cited in The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 3.

[43]      National Family Violence Prevention Legal Service Forum, Submission 39, p. 5.

[44]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 19.

[45]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 19.

[46]      Central Australian Aboriginal Family Legal Unit Aboriginal Corporation, Submission 32, p. 2.

[47]      See for example, Central Australian Aboriginal Family Legal Unit Aboriginal Corporation, Submission 32, p. 3.

[48]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 15.

[49]      Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 8.

[50]      Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 8.

[51]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 28.

[52]      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 16.

[53]      Australian Youth Affairs Coalition, Insights from the coalface: The value of justice reinvestment for young Australians, 2013, p. 11.

[54]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, pp 10–11; Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 22.

[55]      Smart Justice for Young People, Submission 91, pp 11–12.

[56]      Commissioner for Children and Young People WA, Submission 23, p. 5.

[57]      Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, p. 9.

[58]      Commissioner for Children and Young People WA, Submission 23, p. 5.

[59]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, pp 11–12.

[60]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, pp 11–12.

[61]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, pp 11–12.

[62]      Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 22.

[63]      Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, p. 10.

[64]      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 56.

[65]      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Social Justice Report 2009, p. 56.

[66]      Senate Select Committee on Regional and Remote Indigenous Communities, Final Report 2010, September 2010, p. 21.

[67]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Access to Justice, December 2009, p. 110.

[68]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Affairs, Doing Time – Time for Doing: Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System, June 2011, p. 321.

[69]      Australian Government, Government Response to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Affairs report; Doing Time – Time for Doing: Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System, November 2011, p. 36.

[70]      Australian Government, Government Response to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Affairs report; Doing Time – Time for Doing: Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System, November 2011, p. 43.

[71]      NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, November 2011, provided 17 May 2013.

[72]      Cited in Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, Submission 63, p. 20.

[73]      Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, Submission 63, p. 20.

[74]      Western Australia Legislative Assembly, Community Development and Justice Standing Committee, 'Making our prisons work': An inquiry into the efficiency and effectiveness of prisoner education, training and employment strategies, Report No. 6 in the 38th Parliament, 2010, p. 113.

[75]      Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Submission 54, pp 19–20.

[76]      'Lift for crime prevention spending', The West Australia, 6 May 2013.

[77]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, pp 21–23.

[78]      Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, p. 1.

[79]      National Centre for Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Offender Health Capacity Building Group, Submission 83.

[80]      Indigenous Social Justice Association Melbourne, Submission 14, pp 4, 9.

[81]      Freedom Socialist Party, Submission 12, pp 4–5.

[82]      Professor Michael Levy, Submission 25, p. 4.

[83]      The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 3.

[84]      The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 3.

[85]      The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, pp 3–4.

[86]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 13.

[87]      Flat Out, Submission 51, p. 4.

[88]      Mr Ralph Bonig, Joint Co-Ordinator, South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 18.

[89]      Mr Ian Coverdale, National Manager, Australian Red Cross, Committee Hansard. 1 May 2013, p. 33.

[90]      Mr Jonathon Hunyor, Principal Legal Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 13.

[91]      Mr Jonathon Hunyor, Principal Legal Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 13.

[92]      Professor Andrew Coyle, Submission 122, p. 9.

Chapter 7 - Challenges to implementing a justice reinvestment approach in Australia

[1]        Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 5.

[2]        Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, pp 9–10.

[3]        Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, pp 56- 57.

[4]        Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, p. 10.

[5]        Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 18.

[6]        Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 13.

[7]        Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 13.

[8]        Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 5.

[9]        Professor David Brown, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 60.

[10]      See for example, Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 3; Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 20; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 74, p. 5; National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 29.

[11]      Ms Tammy Solonec, Director, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 19.

[12]      Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 23.

[13]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 62.

[14]      See for example, Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 20.

[15]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 29.

[16]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 3.

[17]      Mr Ralph Bonig, Joint Co-Ordinator, South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 16; Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, Submission 63, p. 26.

[18]      Australian Red Cross, Submission 113, p. 35.

[19]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 14.

[20]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 7.

[21]      Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 23.

[22]      Mr Chris Twomey, Director Social Policy, Western Australian Council of Social Service, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 8.

[23]      Australian Red Cross, Submission 113, pp 35–36.

[24]      Professor Chris Cunneen, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 61.

[25]      Mr Ralph Bonig, Joint Co-Ordinator, South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 17.

[26]      Australian Red Cross, Submission 113, p. 36.

[27]      Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 22.

[28]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 15.

[29]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 57.

[30]      Australian Red Cross, Submission 113, p. 37.

[31]      Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, p. 10; Youth Justice Advisory Committee, Submission 125, p. 13.

[32]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 29.

[33]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 29.

[34]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 12.

[35]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 18.

[36]      Ms Kerry Graham, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 21.

[37]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 13; see also, Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013.

[38]      Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, p. 13.

[39]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 13.

[40]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 8.

[41]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 8.

[42]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 27.

[43]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 2.

[44]      St Vincent de Paul Society, Submission 108, p. 7.

[45]      NSW Justice and Forensic Mental Health Network, Submission 13, p. 1.

[46]      Youth Advocacy Centre, Submission 90, p. 10; St Vincent de Paul Society, Submission 108, p. 7.

[47]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 13.

[48]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 57; see also, Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 9; Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, pp 22–23; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 23; Youth Justice Advisory Committee, Submission 125, p. 13.

[49]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 97, p. 17.

[50]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 57.

[51]      Australian Justice Reinvestment  Project, Submission 114, pp 11–12.

[52]      North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Submission 47, p. 5.

[53]      Mr David Woodroffe, Managing Solicitor, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 9.

[54]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 10.

[55]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 10.

[56]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 6.

[57]      Sara Hudson, 'Panacea to Prison? Justice Reinvestment in Indigenous Communities', Policy Monographs, The Centre for Independent Studies, No. 134, 2013, p. 13; see also, The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, p. 13.

[58]      House of Commons Justice Committee, Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment, First Report of Session 2009–10, Vol. 1, HC 94-1, pp 118, 152.

[59]      Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Submission 114, p. 14.

[60]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 10.

[61]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 9.

[62]      Professor Chris Cunneen, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 63.

[63]      National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 53, p. 13; Sisters Inside, Submission 69, p. 24.

[64]      Western Australian Council of Social Services, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 35.

[65]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, pp 20–21.

[66]      Professor David Brown, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 64.

[67]      Federation of Community Legal Centres, Submission 93, p. 4.

[68]      Central Australian Aboriginal Legal Aid Service, Submission 62, p. 21; see also Ms Jill Rundle, Chief Executive Officer, The Western Australian Network of Alcohol and Other Drug Agencies, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 10.

[69]      Mr Ralph Bonig, Joint Co-Ordinator, South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 18.

[70]      Western Australian Council of Social Services, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 30.

[71]      Community Legal Centres NSW, Submission 102, pp 15–16.

[72]      Mr Chris Twomey, Director Social Policy, Western Australian Council of Social Service, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 8.

[73]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates 2012–13, Answer to question on notice No. 183, Attorney-General's Department.

[74]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 73, pp 2–3.

[75]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 73, p. 4.

[76]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 73, p. 4.

[77]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 9.

[78]      Mr Chris Twomey, Director Social Policy, Western Australian Council of Social Service, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 8.

[79]      Professor Chris Cunneen, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 61.

[80]      Mr Craig Comrie, Chief Executive Officer, Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 26.

[81]      See for example, Ms Tammy Solonec, Director, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 18; Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia, Submission 54, p. 21.

[82]      Mr Jared Sharp, Advocacy Manager, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 14.

[83]      Mrs Debbie Kilroy, Chief Executive Officer, Sisters Inside Inc, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 42; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 12.

[84]      Dr Caitlin Hughes, Research Fellow, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 52.

[85]      Dr Caitlin Hughes, Research Fellow, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 51.

[86]      Mr Rodney Astbury, Chief Executive Officer, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 14.

[87]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 8; see also, Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 14.

[88]      NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, p. 9.

[89]      Department of Communities and Social Inclusion, South Australian Government, Submission 111, p. 10.

[90]      James Austin et al, Ending Mass Incarceration: Charting a new Justice Reinvestment. 2013, p. 4.

[91]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 11.

[92]      NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, p. 10.

[93]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 4.

[94]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 14.

[95]      Mr Jonathon Hunyor, Principal Legal Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard. 1 May 2013, p. 12.

[96]      Mr Jonathon Hunyor, Principal Legal Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard. 1 May 2013, p. 12.

[97]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 9.

[98]      Productivity Commission, Better Indigenous Policies: The Role of Evaluation, Roundtable Proceedings, Canberra, 22–23 October 2012.

[99]      DA Cobb-Clark, 'The case for making public policy evaluations public', in Productivity Commission, Better Indigenous Policies: The Role of Evaluation, Roundtable Proceedings, Canberra, 22–23 October 2012, pp 85–86.

[100]    NJCEOs Working Group, Justice Reinvestment/Causes of Crime, p. 9.

[101]    Western Australian Council of Social Services, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, pp 20, 31.

[102]    Deloitte Access Economics, An economic analysis for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders: prison vs residential treatment, ANCD research paper 24, 2013, p. xi.

[103]    North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Submission 47, p. 3.

[104]    Ms Priscilla Collins, Chief Executive Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 10.

[105]    Mr Jared Sharp, Advocacy Manager, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 11.

[106]    Mr Jared Sharp, Advocacy Manager, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 11.

[107]    Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 16; see also Mr Andrew Walter, Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 17.

[108]    Council of State Governments Justice Center, The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime, and Corrections Spending, 2011, p. 59.

[109]    Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, p. 24.

[110]    The Minister for Health and Ageing, the Hon Nicola Roxon, MP, 'Helping close the gap through innovative home visit program', Media Release, 5 February 2008.

[111]    Central Australian Aboriginal Congress, From America to our homes: ANFPP – A new program to support young Indigenous mums and their children.

[112]    Ernst & Young, ANFPP Stage 1 Formative Evaluation Final Report, http://www.anfpp.com.au/evaluation

[113]    Mr Andrew Walter, Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 15.

[114]    Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 14.

[115]    Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 13.

[116]    Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 13.

[117]    Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, pp 13-14.

[118]    Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 16.

[119]    Productivity Commission, Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage 2011, p. 2.11.

[120]    Productivity Commission, Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage 2011, pp 3, 15–16.

[121]    Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 10.

[122]    National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, pp 16–17.

[123]    Community Legal Centres NSW, Submission 102, pp 15–16

[124]    Juvenile Justice NSW, Submission 124, pp 12, 15.

[125]    Mr Chris Twomey, Director Social Policy, Western Australian Council of Social Service, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 16.

[126]    YACWA, WACOSS, Youth Legal Services, The report and recommendations of the Youth Justice Think Tank, February 2013, p. 3.

[127]    Just Reinvest NSW, Submission 44, pp 22–23.

[128]    Ms Sarah Hopkins, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 23.

[129]    Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 16.

[130]    National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 28.

[131]    The Centre for Independent Studies, Submission 46, pp 3–4.

[132]    Law Society Northern Territory, Submission 101, p. 3.

[133]    Mr Jonathon Hunyor, Principal Legal Officer, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 12.

Chapter 8 - Towards a justice reinvestment approach for Australia

[1]        Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 10.

[2]        Noetic Group, Submission 98, p. 9.

[3]        Mr Jonathon Hunyor, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 15; see also, Mission Australia, Submission 99, pp 10–11.

[4]        Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 10.

[5]        Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 120, p. 1.

[6]        See for example, Western Australian Council of Social Service, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 41; Noetic Group, Submission 98, p. 9.

[7]        Mr Rodney Astbury, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 11.

[8]        National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 30.

[9]        Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 10.

[10]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 11.

[11]      Ms Kerry Graham, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 26.

[12]      Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 11.

[13]      Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 11.

[14]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 14.

[15]      Mr Kym Duggan, First Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 17.

[16]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 59.

[17]      Mr Ralph Bonig, Joint Co-Ordinator, South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 17.

[18]      Mission Australia, Submission 99, p. 10; see also Ms Kerry Graham, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 26.

[19]      Mr Ralph Bonig, Joint Co-Ordinator, South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 17.

[20]      Western Australian Council of Social Service, Western Australian Association for Mental Health, Western Australia Network of Alcohol and Drug Agencies, Submission 64, p. 41.

[21]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 71, p. 24.

[22]      Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association, Submission 92, p. 16.

[23]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 20.

[24]      Australian Red Cross, Submission 113, p. 35.

[25]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 16.

[26]      Noetic Group, Submission 98, p. 9.

[27]      Ms Kerry Graham, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 22.

[28]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 11.

[29]      South Australian Justice Reinvestment Working Group, Submission 28, p. 11.

[30]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 85, p. 11.

[31]      Ms Tammy Solonec, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 22.

[32]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 3.

[33]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 5.

[34]      Ms Kerry Graham, Just Reinvest NSW, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2103, p. 25.

[35]      Ms Melanie Schwartz, Chief Investigator, Australian Justice Reinvestment Project, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, pp 56-57.

[36]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, pp 29–30; see also, Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 2.

[37]      National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 20.

[38]      National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 72, p. 31.

[39]      National Centre for Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Offender Health Capacity Building Group, Submission 83, p. 9.

[40]      Mr Lawrence McDonald, Assistant Commissioner, Productivity Commission, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p. 11.

[41]      See for example, Community Legal Centres NSW, Submission 102, p. 18; National Association of Community Legal Centres, Submission 103, p. 20.

[42]      Ms Emilie Priday, Senior Policy Officer, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2013, p. 2.

[43]      Commissioner for Children and Young People WA, Submission 23, pp 6–7.

[44]      Ms Tammy Solonec, Director, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Committee Hansard, 17 April 2013, p. 21.

[45]      National Centre for Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Offender Health Capacity Working Group, Submission 83, p. 10 (revised).

[46]      Standing Committee on Attorneys-General, Communique, 12 and 22 July 2011.

MINORITY REPORT BY COALITION SENATORS

[1]        D. Brown et al, The Promise of Justice Reinvestment AltLJ Vol 37:2, 96, 2012, pp 100–101.

[2]        Mr Andrew Walter, Assistant Secretary, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2013, p 17.

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