Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction and context of inquiry

[1]        Journals of the Senate No. 98, 18 June 2015, p. 2708.

[2]        Journals of the Senate No. 138, 22 February 2016, p. 3747.

[3]        Journals of the Senate No. 152, 3 May 2016, p. 4210. The substantive interim report was the second interim report of the committee. The report can be found at: http://www.aph.gov.au/
Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional_Affairs_and_Transport/Shipping/Second_Interim_Report
  

[4]        Journals of the Senate No. 7, 15 September 2016, p. 225.

[5]        See  http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional_Affairs_and_Transport

[6]        Cindy Lazenby, 'SOS: The Call Sign of the 'Ships of Shame'', Deakin Law Review, Volume 4, No 1 (1998), p. 74.

[7]        Cindy Lazenby, 'SOS: The Call Sign of the 'Ships of Shame'', Deakin Law Review, Volume 4, No 1 (1998), p. 75.

[8]        United Nations, Convention on the High Seas, 29 April 1958, p. 3, http://www.gc.noaa.gov/documents/8_1_1958_high_seas.pdf

[9]        United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, p. 58, http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf

[10]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Submission 7, p. 5.

[11]      See for example the International Chamber of Shipping, Submission 8. The issue of contested terminology is discussed in Chapter 1 of the interim report.

[12]      International Transport Workers' Federation, Flags of Convenience, 2016, http://www.itfglobal.org/en/transport-sectors/seafarers/in-focus/flags-of-convenience-campaign/ (accessed 10 July 2017).

[13]      Craig Moran, 'Flags of Convenience: Panama Papers on the high seas', World Policy Blog, 20 July 2016, http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2016/07/20/flags-convenience-panama-papers-high-seas (accessed 7 November 2016).

[14]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Submission 7, p. 8.

[15]      International Transport Workers' Federation, 'ITF comment on Panama Papers revelations', press release, 7 April 2016, http://www.itfglobal.org/en/news-events/press-releases/2016/april/itf-comment-on-panama-papers-revelations/ (accessed 21 November 2016).

[16]      International Transport Workers' Federation, 'ITF comment on Panama Papers revelations', press release, 7 April 2016.

[17]      Josie Albertson-Grove and Masako Melissa Hirsch, 'Family's shipping company could pose problems for Trump's Transportation pick', ProPublica, 12 December 2016, https://www.propublica.org/article/familys-shipping-company-could-pose-problems-for-trumps-transportation-pick (accessed 19 December 2016).

[18]      Polly Toynbee, 'How Britain sank its shipping industry by waiving the rules', The Guardian, 30 August 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/aug/30/malaviya-twenty-britain-sank-shipping-industry (accessed 7 November 2016).

[19]      International Chamber of Shipping, Submission 8, p. 10.

[20]      Kali Kotoski, 'Flag of convenience scheme retired', The Phnom Penh Post, 1 September 2016, http://www.phnompenhpost.com/business/flag-convenience-scheme-retired (accessed 7 November 2016).

[21]      International Transport Workers' Federation, Defining FOCs and the Problems they Pose, http://www.itfseafarers.org/defining-focs.cfm (accessed 10 July 2017).

[22]      International Transport Workers' Federation, Flags of Convenience, 2016, http://www.itfglobal.org/en/transport-sectors/seafarers/in-focus/flags-of-convenience-campaign/ (accessed 10 July 2017).

[23]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Factsheet: Coastal Shipping Reform, 7 January 2015, https://infrastructure.gov.au/maritime/publications/factsheets.aspx (accessed 6 July 2017).

[24]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Transport Security to 2025, 2014, p. 9.

[25]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Transport Security to 2025, 2014, p. 9.

[26]      Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics, Maritime Statistical Report: Australian sea freight 2014‑15, April 2017, p. 59.

[27]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Transport Security to 2025, 2014, p. 8.

[28]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, p. 7.

[29]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, pp. 7, 24.

[30]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, pp. 4-5, http://www.amsa.gov.au/forms-and-publications/international/publications/Ship-Safety/PSC-Annual-Reports/PSCREPORT-2016.pdf.

[31]      27.8 per cent of vessels detained in 2016 concerned ISM infringements.

[32]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, pp. 6, 24.

[33]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, p. 6.

[34]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, p. 27.

[35]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Submission 7, p. 16.

[36]      Shipping Australia Limited, Submission 2, p. 2.

[37]      Navy League of Australia, Submission 6.

[38]      The Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 19, p. 2.

[39]      Ann Marlowe, 'Whose Convenience? The murky world of bottom-feeding shipping registries', The Weekly Standard, 12 December 2016, http://www.weeklystandard.com/whose-convenience/article/2005622 (accessed 19 December 2016).

[40]      Megha Rajagopalan, 'Trump has said cutting off North Korea's trade is easy. Here's why he's wrong', BuzzFeed News, 6 June 2017, https://www.buzzfeed.com/meghara/north-korea-flags-of-convenience?utm_term=.axwN69NDY#.lla3p03B6 (accessed 7 June 2017).

[41]      Ann Marlowe, 'Whose Convenience? The murky world of bottom-feeding shipping registries', The Weekly Standard, 12 December 2016.

[42]      Fiona Hamilton, ''Ghost ships' spark European terror fears', The Times, 10 March 2017, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/ghost-ships-in-european-waters-spark-terror-fears-hkdbffdv5 (accessed 14 March 2017).

[43]      Craig Moran, 'Flags of Convenience: Panama Papers on the high seas', World Policy Blog, 20 July 2016.

[44]      International Organization for Migration, Report on Human Trafficking, Forced Labour and Fisheries Crime in the Indonesian Fishing Industry, 2016, pp. xi-xii.

[45]      Australian Maritime Officers Union, Submission 20, pp. 2-3.

[46]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Transport Security to 2025, 2014, p. 9.

[47]      Detailed discussion on working conditions, training and standards can be found in Chapter 3 of the committee's interim report.

[48]      David Walters and Nick Bailey, Lives in Peril: Profit or Safety in the Global Maritime Industry? as cited by Mr Brian Mitchell MP, House of Representatives Hansard, 1 June 2017, p. 72.

[49]      The interim report is available on the committee's website at: http://www.aph.gov.au/
Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional_Affairs_and_Transport/Shipping
, with recommendations found on pp. vii-viii.

[50]      Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Committee, Increasing use of so-called Flag of Convenience Shipping in Australia, Interim report May 2016, p. 2.

[51]      Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, Minister for Education and Training, Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, pp. 3345-3348.

[52]      Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, pp. 3345-3347.

[53]      Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 3345.

[54]      Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, pp. 3346-3347.

Chapter 2 - Australian shipping reviews and regulations

[1]        Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Maritime Labour Convention, 2006: A Guide to the implementation of the MLC in Australia, Version 3, March 2016, p. 1. 

[2]        Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Maritime Labour Convention, 2006: A Guide to the implementation of the MLC in Australia, Version 3, March 2016, pp. 2‑3. 

[3]        Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Maritime Labour Convention, 2006: A Guide to the implementation of the MLC in Australia, Version 3, March 2016, p. 19. 

[4]        International Chamber of Shipping, Submission 8, p. 7.

[5]        Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, p. 8.

[6]        House of Representatives Standing Committee on Transport, Communications and Infrastructure, Ships of Shame: Inquiry into Ship Safety, December 1992; House of Representatives Standing Committee on Transport, Communications and Infrastructure, Ships of Shame: A Sequel, December 1995. Both reports can be found at: http://www.aph.gov.au/
Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=report_register/bycomlist.asp?id=120

[7]        House of Representatives Standing Committee on Transport, Communications and Infrastructure, Ships of Shame: Inquiry into Ship Safety, December 1992, pp. ix, xv.

[8]        House of Representatives Standing Committee on Transport, Communications and Infrastructure, Ships of Shame: Inquiry into Ship Safety, December 1992, p. ix.

[9]        House of Representatives Standing Committee on Transport, Communications and Infrastructure, Ships of Shame: Inquiry into Ship Safety, December 1992, p. x.

[10]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Transport, Communications and Infrastructure, Ships of Shame: Inquiry into Ship Safety, December 1992, p. 76.

[11]      Discussion on the Ships of Shame reports, and evidence as to the progress made since their completion, can be found in Chapter 1 of the committee's interim report.

[12]      The final report can be found at http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/
House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=itrdlg/coastalshipping/report.htm
. A Government Response was not received for this inquiry.

[13]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development & Local Government, Rebuilding Australia's Coastal Shipping Industry: Inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation, October 2008, pp. 6-7, 11.

[14]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development & Local Government, Rebuilding Australia's Coastal Shipping Industry: Inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation, October 2008, p. 10.

[15]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development & Local Government, Rebuilding Australia's Coastal Shipping Industry: Inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation, October 2008, pp. 20-22.

[16]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development & Local Government, Rebuilding Australia's Coastal Shipping Industry: Inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation, October 2008, pp. 56-67.

[17]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development & Local Government, Rebuilding Australia's Coastal Shipping Industry: Inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation, October 2008, p. v.

[18]      Explanatory Memorandum, Coastal Trading (Revitalising Australian Shipping) Bill 2012, pp. 2-3.

[19]      Explanatory Memorandum, Coastal Trading (Revitalising Australian Shipping) Bill 2012, p. 4.

[20]      Les Nielson and Michele Brennan, Coastal Trading (Revitalising Australian Shipping) Bill 2012 [and] Coastal Trading (Revitalising Australian Shipping) (Consequential Amendments and Transitional Provisions) Bill 2012, Bills Digest No. 151, 2011-12, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2012, p. 14.

[21]      The Hon Anthony Albanese, Minister for Infrastructure and Transport, House of Representatives Hansard, 22 March 2012, p. 3935.

[22]      Anne Holmes and Jaan Murphy, Shipping Legislation Amendment Bill 2015, Bills Digest No. 53, 2015‑16, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2015, p. 23. 

[23]      Explanatory Memorandum, Coastal Trading (Revitalising Australian Shipping) Bill 2012, pp. 6-7.

[24]      Ms Judith Zielke, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 118.

[25]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Coastal Shipping Reforms: Discussion Paper, March 2017, p. 5. 

[26]      Ms Judith Zielke, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 118.

[27]      Explanatory Memorandum, Coastal Trading (Revitalising Australian Shipping) Bill 2012, pp. 23-24.

[28]      Ms Judith Zielke, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 116.

[29]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Factsheet: Coastal Shipping Reform, 7 January 2015, https://infrastructure.gov.au/maritime/publications/factsheets.aspx (accessed 6 July 2017).

[30]      International Labour Organization, ILO body adopts new minimum monthly wage for seafarers, http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_236644/lang--en/index.htm (accessed 7 July 2017).

[31]      International Labour Organization, ILO body adopts new minimum monthly wage for seafarers, http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_236644/lang--en/index.htm (accessed 7 July 2017).

[32]      Fair Work Ombudsman, Maritime industry – workplace rights and entitlements, https://www.fairwork.gov.au/how-we-will-help/templates-and-guides/fact-sheets/rights-and-obligations/maritime-industry-workplace-rights-and-entitlements (accessed 3 July 2017).

[33]      Anne Holmes and Jaan Murphy, Shipping Legislation Amendment Bill 2015, Bills Digest No. 53, 2015‑16, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2015, p. 19.

[34]      Ms Judith Zielke, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 117.

[35]      Mr Ian Bray, Maritime Union of Australia, Committee Hansard, 3 February 2016, p. 14.

[36]      'Shipping company allegedly underpaid crew', The West Australian, 8 April 2017, https://thewest.com.au/news/wa/shipping-company-allegedly-underpaid-crew-ng-b88440741z (accessed 29 June 2017).

[37]      'Shipping company allegedly underpaid crew', The West Australian, 8 April 2017.

[38]      'Shipping company allegedly underpaid crew', The West Australian, 8 April 2017.

[39]      Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Proof Estimates Hansard, 30 May 2017, pp. 44-45.

[40]      Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Proof Estimates Hansard, 30 May 2017, p. 45.

[41]      Mr Michael Campbell, Fair Work Ombudsman, Proof Estimates Hansard, 30 May 2017, p. 46.

[42]      Proof Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, pp. 101-102.

[43]      Proof Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, pp. 102-103.

[44]      Further discussion on seafarer welfare assistance can be found in Chapter 3 of the committee's interim report.

[45]      ITF Seafarers' Trust at http://www.seafarerstrust.org/; Mission to Seafarers at: http://www.mts.org.au/what-we-do/ ; Australian Seafarers Welfare Council at http://www.amsa.gov.au/seafarers_welfare/index.asp; SeafarerHelp at http://www.seafarerhelp.
org/?ref=iswan

[46]      Hunterlink National Employee Assistance Provider, http://hunterlink.org.au/# (accessed 5 July 2017); Owen Jacques, 'Death Ship: 'They didn't want to be killed on board'', Fraser Coast Chronicle, 2 July 2017, https://www.frasercoastchronicle.com.au/news/death-ship-they-didnt-want-be-killed-board/3195698/ (accessed 5 July 2017).

[47]      Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p.  113.

[48]      Merchant Navy Association, Submission 10.

[49]      International Seafarers' Welfare and Assistance Network, 'About ISWAN', http://seafarers
welfare.org/about-iswan
(accessed 5 July 2017).

[50]      Discussion of incidences in and around Australian waters is in Chapter 3 of this report.

[51]      Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, Minister for Employment, Proof Estimates Hansard, 30 May 2017, p. 46.

Chapter 3 - Maritime incidents with FOC vessels

[1]        Detailed discussion on the case of the MV Portland can be found in Chapter 2 of the committee's interim report.

[2]        Nick Toscano, 'Sacked crew on CSL Melbourne stir new shipping jobs fight', The Age, 3 February 2016, http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/sacked-crew-on-csl-melbourne-stir-new-shipping-jobs-fight-20160203-gmkmm8.html (accessed 17 November 2016).

[3]        Elizabeth Colman, 'Angry politicians take up case of sacked CSL Melbourne crew', The Australian, 6 February 2016, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/industrial-relations/angry-politicians-take-up-case-of-sacked-csl-melbourne-crew/news-story/0a4488b3b9752fbb74874f64f94584d3 (accessed 17 November 2016).

[4]        Nick Toscano, 'Sacked crew on CSL Melbourne stir new shipping jobs fight', The Age, 3 February 2016.

[5]        Mich-Elle Myers, 'Important Note to Members Regarding CSL Brisbane', Maritime Union of Australia, 1 October 2016, http://www.mua.org.au/important_note_to_members_regarding_
csl_brisbane
(accessed 9 June 2017).

[6]        MarineTraffic, Adelie, Bulk Carrier, http://www.marinetraffic.com/en/ais/details/ships/
shipid:373415/mmsi:311038300/imo:9207807/vessel:ADELIE
(accessed 9 June 2017); Vessel Finder, Adelie – Bulk Carrier, https://www.vesselfinder.com/vessels/ADELIE-IMO-9207807-MMSI-311038300 (accessed 9 June 2017).

[7]        Kaye Broom, 'Resisting Rio Tinto', Red Flag, 3 April 2017, https://redflag.org.au/node/5755  (accessed 4 April 2017).

[8]        Fergus Hunter, 'Union fears shipping giant CSL will bring in dozens of cheaper foreign workers under 457 visas', The Sydney Morning Herald, 3 April 2017, http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/union-fears-shipping-giant-csl-will-bring-in-dozens-of-cheaper-foreign-workers-under-457-visas-20170330-gv9wli.html (accessed 5 April 2017).

[9]        Detailed discussion on the case of the MV Sage Sagittarius can be found in Chapter 3 of the committee's interim report.

[10]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, p. 84. The coroner's report is discussed in further detail later in the chapter.

[11]      Owen Jacques, '18 Syrian crew let off ship after rushed security checks', Gladstone Observer, 25 July 2016, https://www.gladstoneobserver.com.au/news/19-syrian-sailors-allowed-into-gladstone-without-v/3067124/ (accessed 9 November 2016).

[12]      Owen Jacques, '18 Syrian crew let off ship after rushed security checks', Gladstone Observer, 25 July 2016.

[13]      Cargo ship crew 'abandoned' off central Queensland coast', ABC News, 16 August 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-08-16/crew-stuck-on-abandoned-ship/7748084

[14]      Cargo Ship crew 'abandoned' off central Queensland coast', ABC News, 16 August 2016.

[15]      'Five Stars Fujian Released, Banned from Australia for a Year', World Maritime News, 2 September 2016, http://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/201048/five-stars-fujian-released-banned-from-australia-for-a-year/ (accessed 14 June 2017).

[16]      Nick Toscano, 'Very little food, drinking water is brown': Ship probed over pay and conditions', Sydney Morning Herald, 12 October 2016, http://www.smh.com.au/business/workplace-relations/very-little-food-drinking-water-is-brown-ship-probed-over-pay-and-conditions-20161012-gs0tv3.html (accessed 8 May 2017).

[17]      Cathy Van Extel, 'Ships of shame: Bulk carrier chartered by Rio Tinto subsidiary caught failing to pay crew', ABC News, 12 October 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-10-12/ships-of-shame-bulk-carriers-failing-to-pay-crew/7924982 (accessed 8 May 2017).

[18]      Nick Toscano, 'Very little food, drinking water is brown': Ship probed over pay and conditions', Sydney Morning Herald, 12 October 2016.

[19]      Giselle Wakatama, 'Man presumed dead after falling overboard from coal ship en route to Newcastle', ABC News, 26 May 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-05-26/man-overboard-from-coal-ship-en-route-to-newcastle/6497266 (accessed 6 June 2017).

[20]      Giselle Wakatama, 'Man presumed dead after falling overboard from coal ship en route to Newcastle', ABC News, 26 May 2015.

[21]      Giselle Wakatama, 'Man presumed dead after falling overboard from coal ship en route to Newcastle', ABC News, 26 May 2015.

[22]      Gabriel Wingate-Pearse, 'K Pride: police search ship in Newcastle after crew member lost off Papua New Guinea', Newcastle Herald, 28 May 2015, http://www.theherald.com.au
/story/3109510/police-search-ship-after-crew-member-lost/
(accessed 9 June 2017).

[23]      Joseph Dunstan, 'Union calls for investigation into disappearance of worker on iron ore carrier off WA coast', ABC News, 23 May 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-23/union-calls-for-afp-investigation-worker-disappearance/7437006 (accessed 9 June 2017).

[24]      Thomas Oriti, 'Flag of convenience ships a major security risk in Australian waters, union warns', ABC News, 9 June 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-06-07/flag-of-convenience-ships-continue-to-pose-threat/7487992 (accessed 9 June 2017).

[25]      Joseph Dunstan, 'Union calls for investigation into disappearance of worker on iron ore carrier off WA coast', ABC News, 23 May 2016.

[26]      Shakira Sellen, 'Man disappears from bulk carrier heading to Hay Point', Daily Mercury, 13 January 2017, https://www.dailymercury.com.au/news/man-disappears-from-bulk-carrier-heading-to-hay-po/3131571/ (accessed 23 January 2017).

[27]      Shakira Sellen, 'Man disappears from bulk carrier heading to Hay Point', Daily Mercury, 13 January 2017.

[28]      Owen Jacques, 'Lost sailor may have "consumed toxic substance"', Mackay Daily Mercury, 17 January 2017, https://www.dailymercury.com.au/news/lost-sailor-may-have-consumed-toxic-substance/3132626/ (accessed 23 January 2017).

[29]      Owen Jacques, 'Lost sailor may have "consumed toxic substance"', Mackay Daily Mercury, 17 January 2017.

[30]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, p. 10.

[31]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, p. 84.

[32]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, pp. 84-85.

[33]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, p. 85.

[34]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (answered 21 June 2017).

[35]       Shakira Sellen, 'Man disappears from bulk carrier heading to Hay Point', Daily Mercury, 13 January 2017.

[36]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, pp. 87-88.

[37]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, response to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[38]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, response to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

Chapter 4 - Security concerns and the visa clearance process

[1]        Detailed discussion on the risks to national security presented by FOC vessels can be found in Chapter 3 of the committee's interim report, pp. 21-23.

[2]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 21, p. 3. 

[3]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 21, p. 4. 

[4]        Ms Sachi Wimmer, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 106.

[5]        Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Submission 7, pp. 8-9.

[6]        Ms Sachi Wimmer, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, pp. 106-107.

[7]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[8]        Mr Clive Murray, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 21 June 2017, p. 2.

[9]        Mr Clive Murray, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 21 June 2017, p. 15.

[10]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development & Local Government, Rebuilding Australia's Coastal Shipping Industry: Inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation, October 2008, p. 48.

[11]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, 'FWO Should Be Seeking Job and Fuel Security for All Australians', Media Release, 13 April 2017, https://www.actu.org.au/media/1033237/actu-release-170413-fwo.pdf (accessed 30 June 2017).

[12]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[13]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[14]      Mr Richard Farmer, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, pp. 111, 113.

[15]      Ms Sachi Wimmer, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 114.

[16]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Submission 7, p. 10.

[17]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Applicants and cardholders, 5 June 2017, https://infrastructure.gov.au/security/identity/ASIC-MSIC-applicants-cardholders-information/index.aspx (accessed 6 July 2017).

[18]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Maritime Crew visa (subclass 988), https://www.border.gov.au/Trav/Visa-1/988- (accessed 6 July 2017).

[19]      Mr David Wilden, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 13 June 2017, p. 1.

[20]      Mr Mike Mrdak, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 109.

[21]      Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 110.

[22]      Proof Estimates Hansard, 23 May 2017, p. 110.

[23]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, response to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017); Proof Committee Hansard, 21 June 2017, p. 10.

[24]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, response to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[25]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 21 June 2017 (answered 5 July 2017).

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 21 June 2017, pp. 10-11; Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 21 June 2017 (answered 5 July 2017).

[27]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 21 June 2017 (answered 5 July 2017).

[28]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Maritime Crew visa (subclass 988)https://www.border.gov.au/Trav/Visa-1/988-

[29]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 8 November 2016 (answered 28 November 2016).

[30]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, answers to questions taken on notice, 8 November 2016 (answered 28 November 2016).

[31]      Mr David Wilden, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 13 June 2017, p. 2.

[32]      Mr Jim Williams, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 13 June 2017, p. 7.

[33]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, p. 19.

[34]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, pp. 21, 31-32.

[35]      State Coroner's Court of New South Wales, Inquest into the disappearance and suspected death of Cesar Llanto and Inquest into the death of Hector Collado, 31 May 2017, p. 32.

[36]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, response to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[37]      Mr Jim Williams, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 21 June 2017, p. 8.

[38]      Mr Terance Price, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard 13 June 2017, p. 4.

[39]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, response to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[40]      Mr Terance Price, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard 13 June 2017, p. 10.

[41]      Mr Terance Price, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard 13 June 2017, p. 4.

[42]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, response to questions taken on notice, 13 June 2017 (received 21 June 2017).

[43]      Mr Clive Murray, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 21 June 2017, p. 8.

[44]      Mr Clive Murray, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Proof Committee Hansard, 21 June 2017, pp. 8-9.

Chapter 5 - The Australian shipping industry

[1]        Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 3345.

[2]        Adam Creighton, 'Let's get the most out of infrastructure spending', The Australian: Special Report, 24 February 2017, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/opinion/lets-return-to-rational-infrastructure-spending/news-story/382a9f28ea94401d76ff4066ffacd945 (accessed 24 February 2017).

[3]        Michael Murray, 'Explainer: why Hanjin's ships are stranded around the globe', The Conversation, 14 September 2016, https://theconversation.com/explainer-why-hanjins-ships-are-stranded-around-the-globe-65337 (accessed 29 May 2017).

[4]        Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Port State Control – 2016 Report, p. 7.

[5]        Peter Bremner, 'Industry Opinion: Aussies at a disadvantage with coastal bulk trades', Lloyd's List Australia, 22 November 2016, https://www.lloydslistaustralia.com.au/lla/market-sectors/dry-bulk-and-commodity-trades/INDUSTRY-OPINION-Aussies-at-a-disadvantage-with-coastal-bulk-trades-543312.html (accessed 23 November 2016).

[6]        Peter Bremner, 'Industry Opinion: Aussies at a disadvantage with coastal bulk trades', Lloyd's List Australia, 22 November 2016.

[7]        Peter Bremner, 'Industry Opinion: Aussies at a disadvantage with coastal bulk trades', Lloyd's List Australia, 22 November 2016.

[8]        Andrew Kidd Fraser, 'Owners press again for coastal reform', The Australian: Special Report, 24 February 2017, http://specialreports.theaustralian.com.au/710712/owners-for-coastal-reform/ (accessed 24 February 2017).

[9]        Andrew Kidd Fraser, 'Owners press again for coastal reform', The Australian: Special Report, 24 February 2017.

[10]      John Vidal, 'Shipping 'progressives' call for industry carbon emission cuts', The Guardian, 19 October 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/oct/19/shipping-progressives-call-for-industry-carbon-emission-cuts (accessed 7 November 2016).

[11]      John Vidal, 'Shipping 'progressives' call for industry carbon emission cuts', The Guardian, 19 October 2016.

[12]      WWF-Australia, Submission 14, p. 1.

[13]      WWF-Australia, Submission 14, p. 2.

[14]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Submission 7, pp. 11-12.

[15]      Detailed discussion on the issue of cabotage can be found in Chapter 2 of the committee's interim report.

[16]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy, 26 May 2017, https://infrastructure.gov.au/transport/freight/national-strategy.aspx (accessed 26 May 2017).

[17]      The Hon Darren Chester MP, 'Consensus will launch maritime reform', The Australian: Special Report, 24 February 2017, http://specialreports.theaustralian.com.au/710712/consensus-will-launch-maritime-reform/ (accessed 24 February 2017).

[18]      The Hon Darren Chester MP, 'Consensus will launch maritime reform', The Australian: Special Report, 24 February 2017.

[19]      The Hon Darren Chester MP, Minister for Infrastructure and Transport, 'Call for comment on proposed coastal shipping reforms', Media Release DC063/2017, 21 March 2017.

[20]      The Hon Darren Chester MP, Minister for Infrastructure and Transport, 'Call for comment on proposed coastal shipping reforms', Media Release DC063/2017, 21 March 2017.

[21]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Coastal Shipping Reforms: Discussion Paper, March 2017, p. 4. 

[22]      Rod Nairn, 'Unleash coastal shipping and let Australians benefit', Shipping Australia Limited, Media release, 9 February 2017, https://shippingaustralia.com.au/unleash-coastal-shipping/ (accessed 22 June 2017). 

[23]      The Treasury, Tax Incentives for the Shipping Industry, http://www.treasury.gov.au/
ConsultationsandReviews/Consultations/2012/Tax-incentives-for-the-shipping-industry
(accessed 3 July 2017).

[24]      The Hon Anthony Albanese, Minister for Infrastructure and Transport, 'Training Australia's future maritime workforce', Media Release, 19 July 2013.

[25]      The Hon Anthony Albanese, ''Prime minister for infrastructure' fails industry by scrapping maritime workforce forum', The Australian, 22 November 2013, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/in-depth/prime-minister-for-infrastructure-fails-industry-by-scrapping-maritime-workforce-forum/news-story/914a8fb9f9e238caf
d9c1126a87a0f5e
(accessed 3 July 2017).

[26]      Senate Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Legislation Committee, Shipping Legislation Amendment Bill 2015 [Provisions], October 2015, pp. 20-21. The Bill failed to pass the Senate.

[27]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development & Local Government, Rebuilding Australia's Coastal Shipping Industry: Inquiry into coastal shipping policy and regulation, October 2008, pp 53-56.

[28]      David Anderson, 'Ships' lanes to wharves are critical infrastructure', The Australian: Special Report, 24 February 2017, http://specialreports.theaustralian.com.au/710712/ships-lanes-to-wharves-infrastructure/ (accessed 24 February 2017). 

[29]      Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Inquiry into National Freight and Supply Chain Priorities – Discussion Paper, May 2017, p. 13, https://infrastructure.gov.au/
transport/freight/files/national-freight-supply-chain-priorities.pdf
(accessed 26 May 2017).

[30]      Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham, Minister for Education and Training, Proof Senate Hansard, 10 May 2017, p. 101.

[31]      Strengthening Economic Relations between Australia and NZ (2012): http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/australia-new-zealand/report/trans-tasman.pdf ; Tasmanian Shipping and Freight inquiry (2014): http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/tasmanian-shipping/report
/tasmanian-shipping.pdf
; Competition Policy Review (2015): http://competitionpolicyreview.gov.au/files/2015/03/Competition-policy-review-report_online.pdf; Regulation of Australian Agriculture (2017): http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/agriculture/report/
agriculture-overview.pdf