Aid and achieving the sustainable development goals
This chapter will examine Australia's aid funding to Africa, including an
overview of Australian aid to Africa, Australia's 'aid for trade' policy, the
work of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the
Australia Awards program, and the potential for partnerships, particularly in
the areas of mining and renewable energy technology. The chapter will also
discuss the role of Australian trade and investment in helping to achieve the United
Nations Sustainable Development Goals in Africa.
Historically, Australia has been party to a number of multilateral
agreements that have informed our approach to aid funding in Africa. Agreements
such as the 2005 Paris Declaration, and subsequent Accra Agenda in 2008, saw
Australia undertake to co-ordinate its aid funding with other donor countries
to increase the effectiveness of our contributions.
Australian aid contributions to African countries are currently
concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, and total $121.1 million for budget year
On 29 May 2017, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon Julie Bishop
MP announced that the government would provide an additional $19.3 million to
provide emergency food, healthcare, water and sanitation to people in South
Sudan, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Kenya.
The Minister indicated that the additional funding would bring the
government's contribution towards the international response to conflict,
drought and famine in Africa to $68 million since July 2016. This additional
...supplements Australia's regular funding to United Nations
Central Emergency Response Fund and humanitarian organisations to respond to
humanitarian crises globally, including in Africa.
Amount of aid
World Vision Australia pointed out that the Australian Government has
'reduced its ODA [official development assistance] to the countries of Africa
and the Middle East over the last five years as it refocuses aid on the Asia
Pacific region and reduced the overall aid budget'.
It highlighted that:
This decline in Australia's ODA [Official Development
Assistance] to African countries may be problematic for Australian trade in the
region as there is an emerging correlation between aid and trade.
It also suggested that:
...if Australia intends to grow its trade and investment with
the countries of Africa, then it should increase its foreign aid to the region.
Instead of withdrawing from Africa, Australia should instead work with the emerging
economies of Africa to assist their development and help integrate them into
Australian and international markets.
Aid for Trade
World Vision Australia noted that the World Trade Organization defines
aid for trade as:
...helping developing countries, in particular least developed,
to build the trade capacity and infrastructure they need to benefit from trade
Aid for trade was borne out of the recognition that although international
trade is an essential driver for economic growth and therefore poverty
reduction, developing countries often lack the capacity to realise these
benefits of trade.
Aid for trade now represents approximately 30 per cent of
global ODA flows each year.
Currently, Australian aid to Africa is largely structured around a
policy of aid for trade. The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT)
describes this as follows:
Through aid for trade, Australia assists African and other
developing countries to integrate into the global trading system by creating a
business-enabling environment for all players.
African countries should continue to be included in aid for
trade engagement, particularly where there is opportunity to improve the
regulatory environment and enhance trade facilitation across the continent.
A number of submissions to the inquiry expressed their support for the
current policy of aid for trade, noting that access to global markets for the
purpose of trade can be an effective method of achieving development outcomes.
In its submission, the Export Council of Australia highlighted the benefits of
Aid for trade investments in support of policy and regulatory
reform in developing countries can help close the gap in rules, administration
and standards between developing countries and developed countries. In doing
so, it encourages trade and investment across borders. Aid for trade provides
the necessary hand-up for entrepreneurs and new businesses in developing
countries to grow and create new jobs. Their success provides opportunities for
Australian firms to form partnerships with them, including through the
provision of support services and a link in global value chains.
Aid for trade can also be a useful tool in encouraging
developing country partners to continue their engagement in multilateral
forums, undertake reforms for economic growth and advocate the benefits of
trade. Aid for trade investments could provide reformist governments in
developing countries with clear evidence of the positive impacts of
trade-related reforms and capacity building, especially if those investments
are targeted at relevant groups, such as small businesses and women.
Focus of aid
The Export Council noted, however, that Australia has focussed the
majority of its aid for trade in the Asia-Pacific region. It suggested that aid
for trade needs to expand beyond Asia Pacific to 'include more strategic
economic initiatives in Africa that can facilitate trade and investment'.
Australia’s development assistance through aid for trade
needs to be better incorporated strategically in the pursuit of Australia’s
foreign and trade agendas. Assistance to developing countries to enable them to
trade can have a positive impact on the poor, and their prosperity can benefit
Australia in terms of improved security and trade relationship.
World Vision Australia was also of the view that the regional allocation
of aid for trade expenditure is in need of review to ensure that it is targeted
towards counties with the greatest need:
Africa, despite arguably having the greatest need for trade
capacity building, received the least funding. According to Global Finance
Magazine, all ten of the poorest countries in the world are located in Africa,
as measured by their gross domestic product and purchasing power parity per
capita. World Vision Australia therefore recommends that the Australian
Government review its regional allocation of aid for trade funding to ensure
expenditure is targeted towards countries with the greatest need, while also
keeping in mind the huge potential of future trade with Africa. Australia
should not divert aid for trade funding from other regions of the world, but
rather increase net aid for trade funding to Africa and, in doing so, increase
the proportion of the aid for trade budget allocated to Africa.
With expenditure distributed across three broad topic categories: trade
policy and regulations; economic infrastructure; and building productive
capacity, World Vision Australia noted:
In recent years, Australia's aid for trade expenditure has
been weighted more heavily towards economic infrastructure. According to the Performance
of Australian Aid 2015 report, Australia spent 61 per cent of aid for trade
funding on infrastructure, 30 per cent on productive capacity building and 7
per cent on macro trade policy and regulations over the reporting period. Prior
to 2013, Australia spent 50-60 per cent of aid for trade on productive capacity
World Vision Australia suggested that 50–60 per cent of aid for trade
funding should be allocated to productive capacity building to 'improve the
capacity of African countries and peoples, especially small-holder farmers,
producers and micro-entrepreneurs, to engage in local, national and
World Vision Australia stressed:
While the importance of providing economic infrastructure has
been established, it is more effective when coupled with increases in labour force
and supply-side capacity...Australia’s aid for trade portfolio could be
strengthened by increasing investment in the productivity and supply-side
capacity of micro enterprises, SGBs, [Small and Growing Businesses] smallholder
farmers and producers – particularly women and those operating in the informal
sector. These interventions should be integrated as part of Australia’s broader
trade facilitation and reform efforts.
Noting that investment by Australian companies operating in Africa
exceeds aid funding, ActionAid was of the view that:
...further trade and investment in Africa should be matched
with an investment of aid geared towards civil society strengthening. This is
critical to not only protecting Australia's business interests but also
ensuring that trade and investment relationships contribute to poverty
reduction over the longer term.
Acknowledging that Australia cannot match Chinese aid for example on a
quantum basis, Mr Fessehaie Abraham noted that Australia should focus on areas
of particular strength when allocating aid funding:
Obviously Australia can't match the billions that the Chinese
or any other big governments are going to do. I think the main thing is
psychological, that wanting to do things. At the strategic level, if Australia
decides it wants to fully engage with Africa economically then obviously things
will follow. There could be some technical cooperation to facilitate economic
development. There may well be some things similar to Aid for Trade or there
could be a huge drive for capacity building and for governance. It's one thing
for Africa to develop, but I think the other side is for that development to be
used for the betterment of the people, to have the right governance and to have
the right skills. I think the opportunities are quite huge in agriculture. The
untilled land in Africa is huge. Certainly the government could create some
incentives for some Australian companies to move to Africa. It's all about
backing Australian companies or even trying to interest them. If there is a
will, I'm sure there would be 100 ways that Australia can support. The current
ODA allocation is very small. Clearly, if the government is going to move, that
amount has to increase, not just for humanitarian but mainly for the economic
empowerment of Africa.
Australian Centre for International
As noted in chapters 3 and 4, the Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research (ACIAR) is an Australian Government statutory authority
within the Foreign Affairs portfolio. ACIAR specialises in leveraging
Australian agricultural research to assist developing countries.
ACIAR operates in 11 African countries, primarily in eastern and
southern Africa, and is funded from the Australian aid budget.
ACIAR 'invests 15 percent of its annual administered appropriation of about
$96.8 million to projects in 11 countries in eastern and southern Africa'.
ACIAR states that, due to climatic and environmental similarities
between certain regions of Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa, their development
approach is to leverage Australian agricultural expertise in these challenging
On opposite sides of the Indian Ocean, the agricultural
environments of Africa and Australia have much in common — the wet tropics of
Rwanda with northern Queensland, the semi-arid tropics of eastern Africa with
central Queensland, and the arid rangelands of Ethiopia and southern Africa
with the Northern Territory. Accordingly, Australian agricultural science has
expertise that is directly relevant in the African context and for more than
three decades ACIAR projects have used this expertise in its research for
development to deliver sustainable development outcomes in eastern and southern
Africa. Although ACIAR does not work exclusively with Australian companies,
ACIAR plays a role in taking Australian expertise and technological innovations
to developing countries through their application in ACIAR projects throughout
eastern and southern Africa with great success.
ACIAR's involvement in Africa has resulted in improvements to supply
chains through initiatives such as the Australia-Africa Plant Biosecurity Partnership
(AAPBP). This partnership has not only improved food security in Africa, a
major barrier to development, but improved market access for farmers in 10
countries in eastern and southern Africa:
To assist with overcoming these barriers and impediments to
trade and food security, ACIAR developed the Australia–Africa Plant Biosecurity
Partnership (AAPBP). Established in 2014, the first phase of the AAPBP was a
three-year $1.7 million investment. Harnessing Australia’s world-class
biosecurity expertise and led by the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research
Centre, the AAPBP has directly enhanced plant biosecurity capacity in Africa by
sharing Australian expertise with African colleagues through a program of
capacity building activities and knowledge exchange. Longer-term benefits to
Australia’s plant biosecurity and market access interests should also accrue
due to improvements in pest management and certification processes for plant
products, such as cut flowers, exported from Africa to Australia.
ACIAR has also exported a number of other Australian innovations to
African countries, including vaccines, resilient farming models, and
agricultural equipment well-suited to African conditions.
Additionally, ACIAR fund their own scholarship program, providing
support to partner country scientists and economists working on ACIAR projects.
The John Allwright Fellowship and the John Dillon Fellowship allow
recipients from partner countries to obtain postgraduate qualifications at
Australian universities, or to participate in career development activities in
Professor Andrew Campbell, Chief Executive Officer, ACIAR, outlined the
benefits of these fellowships to the committee:
There are many Australian awards recipients of Australian
scholarships across Africa. Our ACIAR-funded John Allwright Fellowship and John
Dillon Fellowship also have African participants. That's a very good long-term
investment for Australia in building future leadership across the region. I
think we could do a better job than we are now. We're trying to improve on
staying in touch with those people after they go back, through an alumni
program, so that we have a lifelong relationship with those people rather than
just while they're receiving their scholarships.
Australia Awards Scholarships in
The Australia Awards Scholarships provide funding to foreign students
seeking to undertake short course and Masters-level study in Australia. These
awards form an important part of Australia's bilateral relationship with many
African countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.
DFAT provided the following information on the benefits of the Australia Awards
Australia's flagship aid investment to Africa is a
substantial but targeted Australia Awards Scholarship program. Australia Awards
bring many benefits for Australia and recipients’ home countries including
investment, job creation and wealth generation. Through Australia Awards, we
contribute to African leadership and human capacity development in the areas of
extractives, agricultural and public policy, where Australia has extensive
experience and expertise. By contributing to African leadership and skills
development in these fields, Australia Awards are also supporting Australia's
national interest in the security, stability and prosperity of Sub-Saharan
Africa. Australia Awards have been offered in Africa since the 1960s. Australia
will fund up to 500 short and long term awards for African students in 2018.
The annual value of the Australia Awards—Africa program is $31.9 million,
funded through Australia's aid budget.
DFAT estimated that there are currently approximately 6000 alumni of the
Australia Awards Program in Africa,
and identified this group as an important mechanism in the development of
strong people-to-people links between Australia and Africa.
Ms HK Yu, First Assistant Secretary of the Middle East and Africa
Division at DFAT stated:
I think the Australia Awards are one of the most effective
ways to build relationships with countries. Often, we find students through the
Australia Awards going back to their country and taking on significant roles of
decision-making and influence. Those relationships have actually really
assisted in advancing Australia's interest in so many ways. So while we may not
have a great deal that we are really allocating to Africa, with what we do have
we believe that the Australia Awards program has actually served Australia very
Mr Andrew Dinning, a Director of the Australia-Africa Minerals and
Energy Group (AAMEG), suggested that the program should be more strongly linked
to capacity building in funding recipients' home countries:
I think anything that builds capacity there is good, but you
need to look at what [scholarship recipients] go back to. If someone has a
scholarship and then uses that to spring into Europe or Canada or wherever to
work offshore, we haven't achieved anything...When we talk about capacity
building, it's about people having those business skills and that business
understanding, and it's about those people getting into the decision-making
processes within the government. A lot of countries already have the processes
there that you need; it's just that they're applied inconsistently or ignored.
So I think the education program is great, but there needs to
be some hook to tie them to going home and doing something useful rather than
using it as a springboard into either a high-paying job with an NGO or an
offshore job. It should be about building capacity and it should be quite
targeted, in my mind.
In order to strengthen connections with alumni of the Australia Awards program,
DFAT have stated that they work with a number of alumni networks across Africa
in order to deliver further training opportunities to former Australia Awards
The Australia Awards Alumni Ambassador initiative taps into
the enormous potential of alumni by forming a cadre of volunteer champions
across the continent committed to promoting and representing the Australia
Awards program in Africa and further raising the profile of Australia in
Africa. There are currently 24 alumni associations across Africa. We offered
nine training opportunities to support 98 alumni in 2017, eight of which took
place in Africa.
As mentioned briefly in chapter 4, witnesses also drew attention to the
potential for partnerships between government and business for the delivery of
development projects in Africa, particularly in sectors of Australian expertise.
Witnesses that advocated for this aid partnership model drew attention to the
mutual benefit for communities in developing areas, and the financial benefit
for Australian companies who would receive support in accessing new markets.
Mr Edwin Adjei, High Commissioner of the Republic of Ghana was
supportive of this model:
Earlier on, the issue was raised of what else can be done in
strengthening how companies operate. At the moment, we are looking at an Africa
beyond aid. In Ghana, for example, we have embarked on a program called Ghana
Beyond Aid. Africa is not only looking for aid; we are looking for strengthened
partnerships in areas where we have a competitive advantage, where we can
benefit from ideas from Australian companies that operate in Africa and where
they can also benefit from what Africa is doing. We have highlighted in what we
are presenting that African countries are aware of the need to improve the
business environment in their various countries, and they are doing quite a lot
in that regard. That should be an encouragement for Australian companies to be
able to take that bold step and enter into Africa. There are so many other
sectors that are open for investment. We are talking of infrastructure development,
iron and steel industry, garments and textiles, pharmaceuticals, the
petrochemical industry and so on. All these are open.
Noting the importance of African countries benefiting from their natural
as described in chapter 4, mining companies are also contributing to improving
outcomes for communities. The partnership between Business for Development,
Base Resources and the Cotton On Group in the form of the Kwale cotton project
is one example providing numerous benefits. Ms Meg Kauthen, of Business for
Development, described the model as follows:
We follow a model which very much is not a handout but a hand
up, giving them the training and capacity to understand the agricultural inputs
that are required with a view that they look after the program independently
themselves. We also established what is called a long-term inclusive commercial
enterprise, whereby the farmers have established a business which is an
inclusive agribusiness. There is a CEO and there are members of that business.
Each farmer that belongs to the program is a shareholder.
It's like a co-op—essentially, it's like a co-op. So as the
program grows so does the cooperative grow. Initially, we started with a
hundred farmers and got their confidence. They don't designate the whole farm
to the commercial cash crop; it's only a portion of that because they have food
security issues. Then, over time, we've grown to 3,000 farmers. Because of the
confidence in the program and the confidence in the government, hopefully, that
is going to grow to 10,000 farmers by 2020. That is how we have grown slowly
and built the confidence in the community that this is a program for them and
owned by them, as opposed to a handout mentality.
Renewable energy technology
The potential to partner the mining industry with renewable energy was
pointed out to the committee. The committee heard from a number of witnesses
who described limited access to power in many regions of Africa, and the
unreliability of supply in areas that are connected to an energy grid. Rolling
blackouts and brownouts were described as being common in many areas.
Mr Rob Fisher, Chief Financial and Operating Officer, Windlab,
characterised the energy landscape in Africa as follows:
The reason we as an Australian company are in Africa is that
there is a fundamental shortage of electricity. The continent is largely
unelectrified, although admittedly that is not uniform: South Africa has high
rates of electrification, albeit with ageing infrastructure and rolling
blackouts and brownouts. A country like Tanzania might have rural
electrification of less than one per cent.
Mr Fisher also stated that improved energy connectivity, and
particularly renewable energy, could play a role in economic development across
Electrification is an opportunity to assist African economic
development. It is our view, and that of many industry experts, that the
cheapest way to electrify Africa is with renewable energy. There is now strong
evidence that wind in particular, and solar to a lesser extent, are the
cheapest forms of new generation available today.
In his evidence to the committee, Dr Michael Ottaviano, Managing
Director of Carnegie Clean Energy, stated that microgrid technology may be a
means to provide electrification to regions of Africa that are currently
off-grid. He also indicated that Australian companies are well positioned to
deliver this infrastructure, particularly through co-operation with mining
The opportunity here that we would see in an African context
would be to leverage our world-leading mining capability that we export to
Africa...bundling that capability up with a power and potentially water
solution capability. They're going in, effectively, almost packaged into
country, and the benefits there are then multiple. One is that we're exporting
not just mining capability but a more sustainably based mining capability
powered by renewable energy microgrids, and, obviously, bringing infrastructure
into these developing countries in Africa.
Dr Ottaviano also suggested that the development of renewable energy
infrastructure in African countries may constitute an effective use of Australian
aid and development funding, delivering benefits to communities in those areas
and to Australia businesses:
...when we look at the way that we distribute aid and
development funding, if we were using that to actually have the benefit of
developing local industry at the same time and developing an export market
around specific capabilities, power systems being one, then we would capture a
much broader range of benefits. We certainly see, when we're out in the field
talking to other developing nations, that other governments do that very well.
Mr Rajiv Babooram, Economic Counsellor of the Mauritius High Commission,
gave an African perspective on the role that Australia could play in this
...in new sectors such as renewable energy and more towards
sustainable development goals in the sectors related to innovation and
technology, Australia enjoys a very good reputation, and I think that, in
Africa today, this is what the demand is for these new sectors.
Sustainable development goals
In September 2015, the United Nations endorsed the non-binding
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (the 2030 Agenda). The 2030 Agenda
is made up of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 targets and applies
to all countries at all stages of development, including Australia. They lay
out a path to end extreme poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and protect
the planet, and provide a framework for global and local sustainable
The goals will determine the future direction of development work over
the next 15 years. The 2030 Agenda is domestic and international. DFAT noted:
Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require
moving from billions of dollars in Official Development Assistance (ODA) to
trillions of dollars in investment of all kinds. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda recognises
this large financing gap and looks beyond aid to domestic resources, trade and
private sector to finance the Goals. The Addis Agenda also recognises that
meeting the "billions" to "trillions" financing gap will
require broader coalitions that bring together these resources – coalitions in
which aid can play an important catalytic role.
The importance of partnerships
The August 2015 Ministerial Statement on engaging the private sector in
aid and development 'sets out the government's commitment to enhance
collaboration with the private sector to address development challenges and
identified the private sector as an essential partner to achieving sustainable
development outcomes in our region'.
The United Nations Global Compact 'is the world's largest corporate
sustainability initiative, encouraging businesses worldwide to adopt
sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on their
In Australia, the business-led Global Compact Network Australia (GCNA) brings
together signatories to the UN Global Compact in Australia.
Since 2015 DFAT has a partnered with GCNA to enhance the ability to engage with
businesses whose interests align with advancing the SDGs. Businesses can use
the GCNA Australian Hub for Business as a resource to engage with and
contribute to the SDGs.
DFAT spoke about the importance of financing the SDGs:
With the sustainable development goals the reality is without
private sector finance—and that is why we talked about the sustainable
development goals as agenda 2030—the development for finance outcome in Addis
Ababa in 2015 was about the financing of the sustainable development goals.
Now, financing of the sustainable development goals is trillions of dollars
each year to achieve what we want to achieve by 2030. Our current official
development assistance is about $135 billion. It is well short of what we need
so this is a real focus across the development sector and donors across that.
Launched in November 2015, Australia's Business Partnerships Platform (BPP)
brings together DFAT and private sector funding to advance Australia’s
development objectives and the social impact of business. DFAT explained:
The BPP enables business and their partners (including not
for profits, NGOs, and academia) to apply for co-funding of initiatives through
funding rounds, that will create new business opportunities whilst also
directly addressing specific aid objectives of the Australian Government.
In its first two rounds, the BPP attracted many applications from
business. One of the nine successful partnerships was between Base Titanium,
Cotton On Group and Business for Development
which is highlighted in this and other chapters. Base Resources, Business for
Development, and Cotton On Group spoke to the committee about their experience
in applying for a grant through DFAT's Business BPP to deliver their Kwale
Cotton Project in Kenya.
Mr Robin Budden, mining engineer and member of AAMEG indicated that
outside Australia, many mining industry players are embracing the SDGs, as are
the CEOs of Australia's leading companies.
On 7 September 2016, at the inaugural Australian SDG summit,
more than 30 business leaders publicly signed a statement supporting the UN
SDGs agreeing that business has a critical contribution to make towards
achievement of the SDGs:
The SDGs provide points of focus around which we can innovate
and collaborate in the search for solutions to critical global and local
sustainability challenges, while at the same time positioning competitively for
This was reiterated by Mr Fisher, of Windlab, who expressed a belief
that Australian businesses working in the renewable energy sector are well
positioned to help achieve sustainable development goals in Africa:
Electrifying Africa will contribute significantly to the
Sustainable Development Goals. Turning the lights on fundamentally changes the
lives of people who don't have power, and being able to keep the lights on, as
more generation is added, makes a real difference to the people in the
countries we're operating in. That said, we're still a commercial operation: we
think we can make money and bring it back to Australia, while also helping to
achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
Sustainable development and the
Owing to our well-developed domestic mining sector, Australia has
established an extensive regulatory framework for the extractives industries.
Australia is considered a global leader in resource governance and has
partnered with African governments and civil society organisations in
capacity-building efforts, and to support technical assistance programs in
The adaptation of Australian policy and regulation for an African
context, and adoption of these settings by African countries hosting Australian
mining companies, would encourage a more certain operating environment these
companies, while delivering greater benefit to communities.
The committee also heard evidence that recommended using Australia's
mining presence in Africa as a platform for providing services to a local
community that can be maintained beyond the life of the mining project.
These services, including healthcare, energy, transportation infrastructure,
and clean water and sanitation, are key for the operation of extractives projects
and also align with a number of SDGs.
Benefits of co-operation between the extractives industry and other sectors are
also covered in chapter 4 of this report.
Building on this, in order to capture best practice, in consultation
with the mining sector, the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science has produced
the Leading Practice Sustainable Development Program for the Mining Industry.
This document provides a guide to extractive industry best-practice for
sustainable development across the lifecycle of a mining project. While the
program focuses primarily on environmental sustainability, aspects of social
sustainability such as gender inclusion, community engagement, consultation
with indigenous communities, and socio-economic development of areas near mine
sites are also examined to a limited degree.
Assistance to improve the
regulatory environment z
With particular reference to the mining industry, the committee heard
evidence about initiatives seeking to strengthen the regulatory environment in
DFAT advised that, through the Australian development cooperation
program, 'Australia is supporting improved extractives governance
internationally, including in Africa'.
The Government of Western Australia's Department of Mines, Industry Regulation
and Safety (DMIRS) has successfully shared expertise through capacity building
DMIRS has successfully leveraged its status as a leading
regulator of resources safety, health and environmental management; manager of
equitable and secure titles and royalty systems; and provider of world-class
geoscience information, by sharing its expertise through capacity-building
activities for African countries. Western Australia's approach to resources
sector development and regulation may be a model for countries in Africa.
DMIRS has also co-operated with the Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA) and relevant Australian missions to deliver a series
of policy and capacity-building workshops in a number of African countries.
The workshops have focused primarily on capacity-building in the
legislative, policy, and administrative frameworks for the extractives and
petroleum sectors, providing mutual benefit to both Australia companies
operating in African markets, and the governments hosting them.
AAMEG has also been engaged with government efforts to promote broader
based sustainable development in Africa:
Areas of aid focus in Africa including mining skills
development and mining governance are areas in which Australia has expertise to
share and where both African Governments and business see opportunities for
economic growth and development.
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