Australia's involvement in peacekeeping operations

Australia's involvement in peacekeeping operations

26 August 2008

© Commonwealth of Australia 2008
ISBN 978-0-642-71901-0

View the report as a single document - (PDF 5190KB)

View the report as separate downloadable parts:

Members of the committee (PDF 67KB)
Acronyms and abbreviations (PDF 72KB)
Overview (PDF 112KB)
Executive summary (PDF 198KB)
Chapter 1 - Introduction and conduct of the inquiry (PDF 187KB)

Referral of inquiry
Terms of reference
Conduct of inquiry
Background to inquiry
  Previous inquiries
  Current inquiry
  Australia's peacekeeping operations
Scope and terminology
Structure of report

Part I—Background to Peacekeeping

Chapter 2 - Changing nature of peacekeeping operations (PDF 172KB)

UN—maintaining peace
  Foundations for a peacekeeping operation
Changing international environment
  Peacekeeping operations and the Cold War
  Peacekeeping operations in the post-Cold War era
  Brahimi Report
  Regional peacekeeping operations

Part II—Decision to participate

Chapter 3 - Decision-making process (PDF 163KB)

Threats to international peace
  Involvement of government agencies
UN peacekeeping operations
  Interdepartmental consultation and National Security Committee of Cabinet
  Consultation with other countries
  Timeframe for decision
  Effectiveness of decision-making process
Non-UN peacekeeping operations

Chapter 4 - Policy frameworks and mandates (PDF 188KB)

Australia's foreign policy interests
Australia's security interests
  Mission mandate—the ideal
  Mission mandate—the reality
Other key factors considered by government

Chapter 5 - Humanitarian considerations—Responsibility to protect (PDF 194KB)

Humanitarian intervention
  Sovereignty and non-intervention
Responsibility to Protect doctrine
  International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty report 2001
  High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (2004)
  2005 World Summit
  Security Council resolutions
Australia and the Responsibility to Protect doctrine
  Implementing the doctrine
  Responsibility to prevent

Chapter 6 - Legal foundation for peacekeeping operations (PDF 184KB)

UN operations
Non-UN operations
Australia's engagement in regional operations
  Consent and legal instruments
  International Stabilisation Force—Timor-Leste
  Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands
  Legality and legitimacy

Chapter 7 - Use of force and force protection (PDF 194KB)

Rules governing conduct of deployment
Use of force—legal considerations
Force protection—health and safety of peacekeepers
Mandates and rules of engagement
  Clarity of mandates
  Adequacy of mandates
  Adequacy of force protection
Mental health

Chapter 8 - Exit date, exit state, exit strategy (PDF 187KB)

Timeframe for peacekeeping operations
  Traditional operations
  Complex operations
End state
Exit strategy

Part III—Preparation and coordination for peacekeeping operations

Chapter 9 - Australian Defence Force (PDF 678KB)

Training for peacekeeping operations
  Pre-deployment training
  Scope for improvement
Permanent peacekeeping capability
Training in health, safety and wellbeing
ADF's duty of care

Chapter 10 - Australian Federal Police (PDF 662KB)

Changing AFP contribution
  International Deployment Group
  Operational Response Group
  Equipment and logistics
Training for peacekeeping operations
  Prerequisites for international policing
  Pre-deployment training
  Adequacy of pre-deployment training
Training in health, safety and wellbeing
  Concerns relating to training and preparedness

Chapter 11 - ADF and AFP interoperability (PDF 466KB)

Separate and joint roles of ADF and AFP
Removing capability gaps
Enhancing interoperability

Chapter 12 - DFAT, AUSAID and other government agencies (PDF 201KB)

Government agencies and their roles
  Agency-specific training
  Training the trainers

Chapter 13 - Coordinating Australia's contribution (PDF 230KB)

Coordination—strategic level
  Peace Operations Working Group and other contacts
  Adequacy of existing arrangements
Coordination—operational level
  Staff secondments
  Joint training
  Adequacy of training

Chapter 14 - Non-government organisations (PDF 218KB)

Role of NGOs
Importance of pre-deployment training and education
Government–NGO coordination
Importance of cooperation and coordination
Planning at strategic level
Joint preparation and training

Chapter 15 - Civil-military coordination (PDF 942KB)

Importance of CIMIC
Defence CIMIC Doctrine
Planning at pre-deployment level
CIMIC at operational level
  Developing CIMIC capability
Challenges for CIMIC
  Mutual misunderstanding
  NGOs—independence and impartiality
  Information sharing
  Command structures
  Summary of impediments
  Pre-deployment training
  Joint training exercises
  Suggestions for strengthening CIMIC

Part IV—Partnerships—Host and participating countries

Chapter 16 - Working with host countries (PDF 362KB)

Sovereignty and intervention
Legitimacy and credibility
  Conflicting priorities
  Conduct of peacekeepers
Local values and institution building
  Australia's dominance in the region
Local ownership and capacity building
  Involving the host country
  Working with community groups
  Building local capacity—Australian Electoral Commission

Chapter 17 - Working with participating countries (PDF 326KB)

Common understandings
Cultural and professional differences

Chapter 18 - Effective partnerships (PDF 857KB)

Language skills and cultural awareness
  DFAT and AusAID
Joint training and exchange programs
Women in peacekeeping operations—Resolution 1325
  Role of women
  Implementation of Resolution 1325 in Australia

Chapter 19 - International coordination (PDF 267KB)

Australia's engagement with the UN
  Australia's Permanent Mission to the UN
  Agency contact with the UN
  Placements in the UN DPKO
  Increasing representation in the UN
Regional engagement
  ASEAN Regional Forum
  Pacific Islands Forum
  Proposed Australia–Pacific Islands Council
  Limits to regional capacity
International engagement programs and future regional capacity
  Australian initiatives in the region
  UN programs in the region
  Global Peace Operations Initiative

Part V—Safety and welfare of Australian personnel

Chapter 20 - Safety and welfare on deployment (PDF 202KB)

Operational environment
  Command of Australian forces
  Information gathering
  Medical care of Australian peacekeeping personnel
Rest and recreation
  Leave and redeployment

Chapter 21 - Post-deployment welfare (PDF 252KB)

Debriefing and medical clearance
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  ADF preventative measures
  Services available for PTSD in the ADF
  Care for personnel with PTSD or related illness
  Stigma of PTSD
Health studies

Chapter 22 - Compensation and rehabilitation (PDF 212KB)

  Veterans' Entitlements Act 1986
  Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004
  Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988
Proposed legislation for the AFP
Processing claims
  Onus of proof
  Medical records

Chapter 23 - Recognition of service (PDF 213KB)

Importance of recognition
Conditions of service
  Differences between ADF and AFP
  Classification of service
  Recordkeeping of personnel movements
  War Memorial Roll of Honour
  National Peacekeeping Memorial
  Knowledge of Australia's contribution to peacekeeping

Part VI—Improving Australia's effectiveness

Chapter 24 - Evaluation and accountability (PDF 226KB)

Evaluating peacekeeping operations
Agencies' current evaluation practices
Performance indicators
Capturing lessons learnt
Request to Auditor-General
Whole-of-government evaluation
Independent assessment
  Annual reports
White paper on peacekeeping

Chapter 25 - National peacekeeping institution (PDF 301KB)

Current situation in Australia
International models
  United States
  Nordic military training cooperation
Attitudes towards a peacekeeping institute
  Previous inquiry
  Evidence to current inquiry
  Committee's findings
  Asia–Pacific Centre for Civil–Military Cooperation

Chapter 26 - Conclusion (PDF 141KB)
Selected Bibliography (PDF 146KB)
Appendix 1 - Public submissions (PDF 67KB)
Appendix 2 - Public hearings and witnesses (PDF 77KB)
Appendix 3 - Additional information, tabled documents and answers to questions on notice (PDF 122KB)
Appendix 4 - Findings of previous parliamentary inquiries (PDF 69KB)
Appendix 5 - International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS)—criteria for military intervention (PDF 113KB)
Appendix 6 - Australians who have died on peacekeeping operations (PDF 107KB)


For further information, contact:

Committee Secretary
Senate Standing Committees on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade
PO Box 6100
Parliament House
Canberra ACT 2600

Phone: +61 2 6277 3538
Fax: +61 2 6277 5818