Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 2016–17, no. 22 (30 November 2016), pp. 710–11.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, 2016–17, no. 45 (19 June 2017), p. 1472.

[3]        Journals of the Senate, 28 November 2017, p. 2312.

[4]        Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE), 'Sharks in Australian waters', www.environment.gov.au/marine/marine-species/sharks (accessed 2 November 2017).

[5]        DoEE, 'Sharks in Australian waters'.

[6]        DoEE, 'Sharks in Australian waters'.

[7]        DoEE, 'Sharks in Australian waters'.

[8]        Taronga Conservation Society Australia, 'Australian shark attack file: FAQs', https://taronga.org.au/conservation/conservation-science-research/australian-shark-attack-file/faqs (accessed 5 December 2016). See also New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (DPI), 'Identifying sharks', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/identifying-sharks (accessed 5 December 2016).

[9]        DoEE, 'Sharks in Australian waters', www.environment.gov.au/marine/marine-species/sharks (accessed 2 November 2017).

[10]      Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 'Sharks', www.fao.org/ipoa-sharks/background/sharks/en/ (accessed 20 January 2017).

[11]      FAO, 'Sharks', www.fao.org/ipoa-sharks/background/sharks/en/ (accessed 20 January 2017).

[12]      Professor Colin Simpfendorfer, Committee Hansard, 30 August 2017, pp. 1–2.

[13]      Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks 2012, www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollection‌Documents/fisheries/environment/sharks/sharkplan2-final/sharkplan2-action.pdf (accessed 10 January 2017), p. 1.

[14]      DoEE, 'Sharks in Australian waters'.

[15]      DoEE, 'Sharks in Australian waters'.

[16]      International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, 'Carcharodon carcharias', www.iucnredlist.org/details/3855/0 (accessed 12 July 2017). The IUCN Red List catalogues the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. It seeks to determine the relative risk of extinction and highlight those that are facing a higher risk of global extinction. See IUCN Red List, 'Introduction', www.iucnredlist.org/about/introduction (accessed 12 July 2017).

[17]      DoEE, Answers to questions on notice, 16 March 2017 (received 19 April 2017), p. 3.

[18]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 7.

[19]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 7 (citation omitted). See also Dr Daniel Bucher and
Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, pp. 2–3.

[20]      SEA LIFE Trust, Submission 25, pp. 3–4.

[21]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 6.

[22]      Professor Nic Bax explained that 'if you...look at the simple demographics of white shark—how long they live, how many pups they produce, how frequently the females reproduce—you would come up with an estimate that the total population of sharks would be about 10 times the adult population'. Professor Nic Bax, Senior Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 4.

[23]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 3 (citations omitted).

[24]      Sharksafe Barrier, Submission 29, p. 4.

[25]      Sharksafe Barrier, Submission 29, p. 4.

[26]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 2.

[27]      Mrs Rebecca Clough, Submission 66, p. 1.

[28]      Mr Donald Munro, President, Le-Ba Boardriders; and Spokesperson, Lennox Head National Surfing Reserve, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 3.

[29]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 4.

[30]      Humane Society International, Submission 43, p. 5.

[31]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 36.

[32]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44.

[33]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44.

[34]      Professor Daniel Bucher, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 50.

[35]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44.

[36]      Professor Colin Simpfendorfer, Committee Hansard, 30 August 2017, p. 3.

[37]      Ms Tooni Mahto, Senior Marine Campaigner, Australian Marine Conservation Society, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 53.

[38]      See Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 2.

[39]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 1.

[40]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 7.

[41]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 3.

[42]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 10.

[43]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 4.

[44]      CSIRO, Answers to questions on notice, 20 October 2017 (received 24 November 2017), p. 2.

[45]      The committee was also advised that 'white sharks are highly specialised endotherms capable of maintaining high metabolic rates in cool temperate areas, and hence they do not follow predicable seasonal patterns of movement'. See Government of South Australia, Submission 65, p. 2.

[46]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 1.

[47]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 7.

[48]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 3 (citations omitted).

[49]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 3 (citations omitted).

[50]      Professor Daniel Bucher, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 50.

[51]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 4 (citation omitted). Similar evidence about the role performed by sharks as apex predators and how they regulate the food chain was provided by Ms Amanda Elizabeth Morgan (see Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 2); Dr Jan-Olaf Meynecke (see Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 11); and Mr Paul O'Dowd, Committee Hansard, 29 August 2017, pp. 2–3.

[52]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 9.

[53]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Northern Beaches Branch President, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 23.

[54]      Mr John Heaton, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 3.

[55]      See, for example, Ms Amanda Elizabeth Morgan, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 4; Mr Kent Stannard, Founder and Trustee, Tag For Life, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 41.

[56]      CSIRO, Answers to questions on notice, 20 October 2017 (received 24 November 2017), p. 2.

[57]      Professor Shaun Collin, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 37, 38.

[58]      Mr Ian Wiese, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 41.

[59]      Professor Meeuwig referred to behavioural studies to demonstrate this point. In Professor Meewig's words: 'within a population or a species, it is the young animals that are aggressive. It is not the big ones. It is the teenagers who do not understand a V8 engine. They just bang into your cameras and are quick to come in, and the older sharks within the same species—the bigger ones—are sitting there going, "Not too sure about that".' Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 45

[60]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 45.

[61]      Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 'CMS', www.cms.int/en/legalinstrument/cms (accessed 8 April 2017).

[62]      Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, ss. 34E, 37H, 54, 140 and 146L.

[63]      Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, 'Sharks', www.agriculture.gov.au/fisheries/environment/sharks (accessed 10 January 2017).

[64]      Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks 2012, www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollection‌Documents/fisheries/environment/sharks/sharkplan2-final/sharkplan2-action.pdf (accessed 10 January 2017), p. 16.

Chapter 2 - Human–shark interactions

[1]        The committee received evidence from: Mr Dale Carr, who was bitten in August 2015 off Port Macquarie (see Submission 26; Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, pp. 13–18);
Mr Rick Gerring, whose brother Ben died in May 2016 as the result of a shark bite (Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 46–50); and Dr Sharon Burden, whose 21‑year‑old son Kyle died in a shark bite incident in 2011 while boogie boarding near Bunker Bay (see Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, pp. 17–33).

[2]        Taronga Conservation Society Australia (TCSA), 'Australian shark attack file', http://taronga.org.au/‌conservation/conservation-science-research/australian-shark-attack-file (accessed 2 December 2016).

[3]        Examples include when a person is bitten after grabbing a shark or while removing a shark from a fishing hook, interactions with spearfishers while spearing fish or the shark, and when a person steps on a shark. TCSA, 'Australian shark attack file'.

[4]        Mr Fred Pawle, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 28.

[5]        Mr Fred Pawle, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 28.

[6]        TCSA, 'Australian shark attack file'. This research was referred to by Ms Amanda Elizabeth Morgan during her evidence (see Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 1).

[7]        D McPhee, 'Unprovoked shark bites: are they becoming more prevalent?', Coastal Management, vol. 42, 2014, p. 485.

[8]        Dr Leah Gibbs, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 1.

[9]        Mr Leon Deschamps, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 28.

[10]      Mr Leon Deschamps, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 28.

[11]      Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 1.

[12]      TCSA, 'Australian shark attack file', http://taronga.org.au/‌conservation/conservation-science-research/australian-shark-attack-file (accessed 2 December 2016).

[13]      TCSA, 'Australian shark attack file annual report summary', 2014, 2015 and 2016, http://taronga.org.au/conservation/conservation-science-research/australian-shark-attack-file (accessed 31 October 2017).

[14]      Florida Museum of Natural History, 'World locations with the highest shark attack activity', www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/isaf/shark-attacks-maps-data/trends/world-highest-attacks/, 11 February 2015 (accessed 5 December 2016).

[15]      Cr David Wright OAM, Mayor, Ballina Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 19.

[16]      J West, 'Changing patterns of shark attacks in Australian waters', Marine and Freshwater Research, 2011, vol. 62, p. 745.

[17]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 10 (citations omitted). See also Professor Nic Bax, Senior Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 8.

[18]      FRDC, Submission 34, p. 3.

[19]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 10.

[20]      Dr Leah Gibbs, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 2.

[21]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, p. 10.

[22]      TCSA, 'Australian shark attack file', http://taronga.org.au/‌conservation/conservation-science-research/australian-shark-attack-file (accessed 2 December 2016).

[23]      Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE), 'Sharks in Australian waters', www.environment.gov.au/marine/marine-species/sharks (accessed 2 December 2016).

[24]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 30–31.

[25]      Mr Shane Daw, National Coastal Risk and Safety Manager, Surf Life Saving Australia, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 9.

[26]      Ms Natalie Banks, Chief Advisor, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 13.

[27]      Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics, Road deaths Australia, December 2016, https://bitre.gov.au/publications/ongoing/rda/files/RDA_Dec_2016.pdf (accessed 15 June 2017).

[28]      Ms Natalie Banks, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 13.

[29]      Mr Shane Daw, Surf Life Saving Australia, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 11.

[30]      Mr Dale Carr, Member, Bite Club; Beyond the Bite, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 16.

[31]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 2.

[32]      Mr Shane Daw, Surf Life Saving Australia, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 12.

[33]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 36.

[34]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 36.

[35]      Mr John Heaton, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 2.

[36]      Mr Kim Allen, Submission 47, p. 7.

[37]      D McPhee, 'Unprovoked shark bites: are they becoming more prevalent?', Coastal Management, vol. 42, no. 5, 2014, p. 479; provided as Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, Attachment 1, p. [4].

[38]      Mr Kim Allen, Submission 47, p. 7.

[39]      See, for example, Ms Belinda Atkins, Manager, Projects and Programs, Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 3; Mr Brendan Donohoe, Northern Beaches Branch President, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 24; Cr Simon Richardson, Mayor, Byron Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 27; Mr Chad Buxton, Marine Scientist and Volunteer, Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 72; and Ms Amanda Elizabeth Morgan, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 5.

[40]      Humane Society International (HSI), Submission 43, pp. 24–25

[41]      Mr Chad Buxton, Admin Officer/Volunteer, Coolum and North Shore Coast Care, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 18.

[42]      Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, pp. 3–4.

[43]      Ms Amanda Elizabeth Morgan, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 5.

[44]      Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 12.

[45]      Dr Sharon Burden, Submission 73, p. 4.

[46]      Mr Bradley Woods, Chief Executive Officer/Executive Director, Australian Hotels Association (WA), Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 9.

[47]      Mr Andrew Stark, Chief Executive Officer, Surfing Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 34.

[48]      Mr Donald Munro, President, Le-Ba Boardriders; and Spokesperson, Lennox Head National Surfing Reserve, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 6.

[49]      Mr Dale Carr, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, pp. 15–16.

[50]      Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 18.

[51]      Mr Dale Carr, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 16.

[52]      Mrs Rebecca Clough, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 35.

[53]      Mr Fred Pawle, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 25.

[54]      Mr Fred Pawle, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 26.

[55]      'It was just like Jaws', The Advertiser, 23 October 2017, p. 1; L Walsh and J Pengelley, 'Dad saves teen as 4m shark moves in for kill', The Advertiser, 23 October 2017, p. 7. The initial reporting was followed the next day with B Harvey, 'Destroy the rogue shark before it takes a life, says dad who saved daughter', p. 7. An article published the following day also gave prominence to the 'rogue shark theory', which is not supported by scientific evidence (that theory and other myths and misconceptions about sharks are discussed in Appendix 3). However, it is noteworthy that an editorial published in The Advertiser observed that it 'is important to remember...that we are living among predators when we enter the sea'. The editorial concluded that white sharks 'deserve our wary respect as we seek to enjoy the water safely'. 'The call to cull', Editorial, The Advertiser, 24 October 2017, p. 16.

[56]      See, for example, J Houghton, 'Punch in the jaws saves doc', Daily Telegraph, 14 November 2017, p. 2.

[57]      Cr David Wright OAM, Mayor, Ballina Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 27

[58]      See, for example, R Ardon and D Mercer, 'Laeticia's family in plea to save lives of surfers', West Australian, 7 November 2017, pp. 4–5.

[59]      CSIRO, Answers to questions on notice, 20 October 2017 (received 24 November 2017), p. 2.

[60]      Ms Belinda Atkins, Manager, Projects and Programs, Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 3.

[61]      Ms Belinda Atkins, Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 6.

[62]      Surf Life Saving SA, Submission 10, p. 2. See also Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 12.

[63]      Mr Andy Kent, Lifesaving Manager, Surf Life Saving NSW; Mr Brent Manieri, Australian Lifeguard Service Manager, Australian Lifeguard Service; Mr Shane Daw, National Coastal Risk and Safety Manager, Surf Life Saving Australia, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 13.

[64]      Surf Life Saving Australia, Submission 16, p. 1.

[65]      Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 4.

[66]      Surf Life Saving Australia, Submission 16, p. 1.

[67]      Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 12.

[68]      Dr Neff added that these suggested terms were 'adopted by the American Elasmobranch Society, the largest group of shark scientists in the world' and Surf Life Saving Australia. Dr Neff also expects that the terms are being considered by the people responsible for the Australian Shark Attack File. Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 4.

[69]      Correspondence from Mr Scott Hansen, Director General, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (DPI), to Mr Matt Cahill, DoEE, dated 14 October 2016, tabled by the DoEE, Supplementary Budget Estimates 2016–17, 21 October 2016.

[70]      Correspondence from Mr Scott Hansen, DPI, to Mr Matt Cahill, DoEE, dated 14 October 2016.

[71]      Surfing Australia, Submission 20, p. 1. For details of downturns in particular locations, see Mr Andrew Stark, Surfing Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, pp. 30, 33–34.

[72]      Ballina Chamber of Commerce, Submission 45, p. 3.

[73]      Cr David Wright OAM, Mayor, Ballina Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 19.

[74]      Mr Don Munro, Submission 39, p. 1.

[75]      Mr Fred Pawle, Submission 56, p. 1. This evidence about changes to surf-related businesses shares some similarities with comments made by another witness on job losses in local surfboard manufacturers—see Mr John Heaton, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 7.

[76]      Global Marine Enclosures, Submission 31, p. 4.

[77]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 6.

[78]      Mr Bradley Woods, Chief Executive Officer/Executive Director, Australian Hotels Association (WA), Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 13.

[79]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 6.

[80]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 6.

[81]      HSI, Submission 43, pp. 24–25

[82]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 19.

[83]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, pp. 10–11.

[84]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, pp. 10–11. See also Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 23.

[85]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, pp. 10–11.

[86]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 25 (emphasis omitted).

[87]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 23–24.

[88]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 23.

[89]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 23–24.

[90]      Mr Brent Manieri, Australian Lifeguard Service, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 12

[91]      Mr Andy Kent, Lifesaving Manager, Surf Life Saving NSW; Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 12

[92]      Mr Manieri referred to individuals living in the north coast of New South Wales who he knows now surf at netted areas. In addition, he noted that surf cameras at Lighthouse Beach, Ballina, indicate that surfers have moved to the netted, northern end of the beach. See Mr Brent Manieri, Australian Lifeguard Service, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 16.

[93]      Legislative Assembly Committee on Investment, Industry and Regional Development, Parliament of NSW, Management of sharks in New South Wales waters, report 1/56, June 2016, p. 15.

[94]      Legislative Assembly Committee on Investment, Industry and Regional Development, Management of sharks in New South Wales waters, p. 22.

[95]      Australian Marine Conservation Society, Submission 38, p. 10.

[96]      See Mr Tony Isaacson, DiveCareDare, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 47.

[97]      Sea Shepherd Australia, 'Alternatives to drum lines and shark nets', www.seashepherd.org.au/‌apex-harmony/overview/alternatives.html (accessed 7 December 2016).

[98]      Migaloo 2 Foundation, Submission 28, p. 2.

[99]      HSI, Submission 43, p. 24.

[100]    Mr Bradley Woods, Chief Executive Officer/Executive Director, Australian Hotels Association (WA), Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 7.

[101]    Surf Life Saving SA, Submission 10, p. 2.

[102]    Government of South Australia, Submission 65, p. 7.

[103]    Abalone Industry Association of South Australia, Submission 70, p. 2.

[104]    Government of South Australia, Submission 65, p. 5; Abalone Industry Association of South Australia, Submission 70, p. 1.

[105]    Abalone Industry Association of South Australia, Submission 70, p. 1.

[106]    Mr Russell Morey, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 51.

[107]    Mr Ranford added that one of the locations used for cage diving is at a seal colony so 'the sharks are already there'. Mr Ranford stated the sharks are 'not meant to be fed baits, so if it's done well it's actually meant to be safe'. Mr Blair Ranford, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, pp. 64–65.

[108]    Mr Tony Isaacson, DiveCareDare, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 50.

[109]    Russell Bradford, Senior Experimental Scientist, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 13.

[110]    CSIRO, Answers to questions on notice, 20 October 2017 (received 23 November 2017), p. 3. The research referred to by CSIRO is BD Bruce, A review of cage diving impacts on white shark behaviour and recommendations for research and the industry's management in New Zealand, Report for the Department of Conservation, New Zealand, 2015.

[111]    Government of South Australia, Submission 65, p. 7.

[112]    Russell Bradford, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 14.

[113]    Government of South Australia, Submission 65, p. 7.

[114]    Mr Leon Deschamps, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 29.

[115]    Mr Blair Ranford, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 64.

[116]    Mr Russell Morey, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 51.

[117]    Mr Ian Wiese, Submission 72, pp. 1–2, 18.

[118]    Sharks are not covered by Western Australian animal cruelty legislation as they are categorised as fish rather than animals (see Animal Welfare Act 2002 (WA), s. 5(1)). The taking or unlawful possession of threatened species is protected by Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (WA) and, in Commonwealth areas, the EPBC Act.

[119]    Mr Leon Deschamps, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 29.

[120]    Mr Leon Deschamps, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 29.

Chapter 3 - Responses to shark bite incidents

[1]        See, for example, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (DPI), 'Shark management', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/management (accessed 5 December 2016); DPI, Report into the NSW Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program: Incorporating a review of the existing program and environmental assessment, March 2009, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/‌623400/Report-into-the-NSW-Shark-Meshing-Program.pdf (accessed 5 December 2016); Correspondence from the Hon Colin Barnett MLA, Premier of Western Australia, dated 14 December 2016; Government of South Australia, Submission 65.

[2]        Surf Life Saving NSW and Australian Lifeguard Service NSW, Submission 15, pp. 3–4.

[3]        Mr Chris Peck, General Manager, Lifesaving and Training, Surf Life Saving Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 2, 3.

[4]        Surf Life Saving Australia, Submission 16, p. 6.

[5]        Surf Life Saving Queensland, Submission 2, p. 1.

[6]        It was noted that 'public misinformation that is coming through can sometimes be a hurdle for our organisation'. Mr Andy Kent, Lifesaving Manager, Surf Life Saving NSW, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 13.

[7]        Surf Life Saving NSW and Australian Lifeguard Service NSW, Submission 15, pp. 3–4.

[8]        Surf Life Saving NSW and Australian Lifeguard Service NSW, Submission 15, pp. 3–4.

[9]        Mr Chris Peck, Surf Life Saving Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 6.

[10]      Ballina Lighthouse & Lismore SLSC, Submission 52, p. 3.

[11]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 6.

[12]      Mr Andy Kent, Lifesaving Manager, Surf Life Saving NSW, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, pp. 15–16.

[13]      The Clever Buoy technology and trial is discussed in Chapter 6.

[14]      Mr Chris Peck, Surf Life Saving Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 4.

[15]      Mr Dale Carr, Member, Bite Club; Beyond the Bite, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 17.

[16]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 9.

[17]      Government of South Australia, Submission 65, p. 4.

[18]      Government of South Australia, Submission 65, p. 4.

[19]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 3.

[20]      Mr Leadbitter explained that orbits involve 'flying at 150 metres off the ground or off the water and we will keep circling until we are confident that either the shark is spooked and has swum away, which they do, often if the shadow of the aircraft goes over them, or we are confident that people are out of the water'. Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Director, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 19. See also Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 8.

[21]      Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 19.

[22]      Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 18.

[23]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 3.

[24]      Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 21.

[25]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 5. The research cited is W Robbins, V Peddemors and S Kennelly, Assessment of shark sighting rates by aerial beach patrols, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, 2012.

[26]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 5.

[27]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 2.

[28]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, pp. 5–6.

[29]      Surf Life Saving NSW and Australian Lifeguard Service NSW, Submission 15, p. 5.

[30]      Surf Life Saving NSW and Australian Lifeguard Service NSW, Submission 15, p. 5.

[31]      Surf Life Saving NSW and Australian Lifeguard Service NSW, Submission 15, p. 5.

[32]      The Hon Niall Blair MLC, 'Shark smart app upgrade tracks sharks in real-time', Media release, 18 March 2016.

[33]      Mr Andy Kent, Surf Life Saving NSW, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 13.

[34]      Mr Chris Peck, Surf Life Saving Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 2.

[35]      In addition to the measures in Australia, at least three other parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species utilise shark control programs. Countries known to utilise these measures include South Africa, New Zealand (at Dunedin) and Brazil (Recife), although under the Recife program sharks are not intentionally killed; rather, the sharks are tagged and released away from shore. See Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE), Answers to questions on notice, Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates 2017–18, No. 75.

[36]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Shark control equipment and locations' www.daf.qld.gov.au/fisheries/services/shark-control-program/shark-control-equipment-and-locations (accessed 6 December 2016).

[37]      DPI, 'Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/‌management/shark-meshing-bather-protection-program (accessed 6 December 2016); Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Impact on other marine animals', www.daf.qld.gov.au/fisheries/services/shark-control-program/impact-on-other-marine-animals (accessed 6 December 2016).

[38]      DPI, 'Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program'.

[39]      DPI, Report into the NSW Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program, March 2009, p. 9.

[40]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 2.

[41]      DPI, Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program 2015–16 Annual Performance Report, January 2017, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/‌693028/2015-16-SMP-Annual-Performance-Report.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017), pp. 4–5.

[42]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Shark control equipment and locations' www.daf.qld.gov.au/fisheries/services/shark-control-program/shark-control-equipment-and-locations (accessed 6 December 2016).

[43]      Western Australian Department of Fisheries, 'Ecological Risk Assessment for the Proposed Western Australian Shark Hazard Mitigation Drum Line Program (2014–2017)', p. 7, in Western Australian Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Western Australian Shark Hazard Mitigation Drum Line Program 2014–17 Public Environmental Review, June 2014, Appendix, www.dpc.wa.gov.au/Consultation/Pages/PublicEnvironmentalReview.aspx (accessed 6 December 2016).

[44]      DPI, 'Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/‌management/shark-meshing-bather-protection-program (accessed 5 December 2016).

[45]      The Hon Niall Blair MLC, Correspondence to the Minister for the Environment and Energy, dated 10 November 2016, pp. 1–2; provided as DoEE, Submission 55, Attachment 6, pp. 3–4.

[46]      DPI, 'Shark management', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/‌sharks/management (accessed 5 December 2016).

[47]      The Hon Niall Blair MLC, 'NSW unveils $16 million world-first shark strategy', Media release, 25 October 2015.

[48]      The New South Wales Government advised that it intended to seek an exemption in a letter to the DoEE dated 1 October 2016. This correspondence was tabled in October 2016 during supplementary budget estimates.

[49]      Minister for the Environment and Energy, North Coast Shark Meshing Trial, New South Wales: Statement of reasons for granting an exemption under section 158 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth), 16 November 2016, http://epbcnotices.environment.gov.au/exemptionnotices/‌exemptionnotice/?id=80454991-88b6-e611-a2f2-005056ba00a8 (accessed 5 December 2016).

[50]      The Hon Niall Blair MLC, 'Second shark net trial for the north coast', Media release, 1 September 2017.

[51]      Minister for the Environment and Energy, North Coast Shark Meshing Trial, New South Wales: Statement of reasons for granting an exemption under section 158 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth), 26 October 2017, http://epbcnotices.environment.gov.au/exemptionnotices/exemptionnotice/?id=a99fcc21-38c0-e711-b175-005056ba00a8 (accessed 9 November 2017).

[52]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 1.

[53]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Queensland shark control program catch statistics 2001–December 2016', https://data.qld.gov.au/dataset/shark-control-program-shark-catch-statistics/‌resource/5c6be990-3938-4125-8cca-dac0cd734263 (accessed 30 January 2017).

[54]      Government of Western Australia, 'Western Australian Shark Hazard Mitigation', July 2016, www.dpc.wa.gov.au/Publications/Pages/WesternAustraliaSharkHazardMitigation.aspx (accessed 5 December 2016).

[55]      The Hon Colin Barnett MLA and the Hon Troy Buswell MLA, 'New measures to combat WA shark risks', Joint media release, 10 December 2013; The Hon Colin Barnett MLA and the Hon Ken Baston MLC, 'Improving shark safety at popular WA beaches', Joint media release, 27 December 2013.

[56]      See DoEE, 'EPBC Act public notices: The setting of up to seventy two (72) baited drum lines each with a single approximately size 25/0 hook, in Western Australian state waters, and management of those lines', http://epbcnotices.environment.gov.au/exemptionnotices/‌exemptionnotice/?id=47089832-6c62-e511-b4b8-005056ba00ab (accessed 5 December 2016).

[57]      Western Australian Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Review: Western Australia Shark Hazard Mitigation Drum Line Program 2013–14, June 2014, p. 7.

[58]      Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority, 'EPA recommends Shark Hazard Mitigation Drum Line proposal should not be implemented', Media release, 11 September 2014, www.epa.wa.gov.au/News/mediaStmnts/Pages/EPArecommendsSharkHazardMitigation‌DrumLineproposalshouldnotbeimplemented.aspx (accessed 5 December 2016).

[59]      Government of Western Australia, 'Western Australian Shark Hazard Mitigation', July 2016, www.dpc.wa.gov.au/Publications/Pages/WesternAustraliaSharkHazardMitigation.aspx (accessed 5 December 2016).

[60]      Government of Western Australia, 'Western Australian Shark Hazard Mitigation', July 2016.

[61]      See Government of Western Australia, Guidelines for taking sharks posing a serious threat to public safety, www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/shark_hazard/guidelines_for_taking_sharks_‌posing_a_serious_threat_to_public_safety.pdf (accessed 7 December 2016).

[62]      The Hon Dave Kelly MLA, Western Australian Minister for Fisheries, 'A smarter approach to shark mitigation in WA waters', Media release, 13 May 2017.

[63]      DoEE, 'Death or injury to marine species following capture in beach meshing (nets) and drum lines used in Shark Control Programs: Advice to the Minister for the Environment and Heritage from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) on Amendments to the List of Key Threatening Processes under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act)', 21 March 2015, www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/‌nominations/ineligible-ktp/death-or-injury-to-marine-species (accessed 21 December 2016).

[64]      Ms Jessica Morris, Marine Scientist, Humane Society International, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 33.

[65]      Western Australian Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Western Australian Shark Hazard Mitigation Drum Line Program 2014–17 Public Environmental Review, June 2014, pp. v,
34–35.

[66]      DPI, Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program 2015–16 Annual Performance Report, January 2017, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/‌693028/2015-16-SMP-Annual-Performance-Report.pdf (accessed 2 February 2017), p. iii.

[67]      DPI, Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program 2014–15 Annual Performance Report, July 2015, p. iii.

[68]      DPI, NSW north coast shark-meshing trial final report, August 2017, p. 30.

[69]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Shark catch numbers', www.daf.qld.gov.au/fisheries/services/shark-control-program/catch-numbers (accessed 2 February 2017).

[70]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Shark control program', www.daf.qld.gov.au/fisheries/services/shark-control-program (accessed 2 February 2017).

[71]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Shark control program'.

[72]      The Queensland department explained that this followed analysis undertaken in 2013 indicating that there were no significant differences in the shark catch between the two types of nets, however, bottom set nets resulted in more bycatch than top set nets. Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, pp. 2, 7.

[73]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 5.

[74]      DPI, NSW north coast shark-meshing trial final report, August 2017, p. 43.

[75]      Minister for the Environment and Energy, North Coast Shark Meshing Trial, New South Wales: Statement of reasons for granting an exemption under section 158 of the EPBC Act, 26 October 2017, p. 15 [paragraph 75]

[76]      Dr Jan-Olaf Meynecke, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 10.

Chapter 4 - Evidence received about the need for, and effectiveness of, lethal shark control programs

[1]        See Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE), Answers to questions on notice, Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates 2017–18, No. 75.

[2]        Professor Colin Simpfendorfer, Committee Hansard, 30 August 2017, p. 8.

[3]        Correspondence from the Hon Colin Barnett MLA, Premier of Western Australia, dated 14 December 2016 (published as Additional Information 1), p. 2.

[4]        The Hon Niall Blair MLC, Minister for Primary Industries, and Minister for Lands and Water, Hansard, Parliament of New South Wales, Legislative Council, 9 November 2016, pp. 53, 55.

[5]        Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 1.

[6]        DoEE, Submission 55, p. 3.

[7]        The Hon Niall Blair MLC, News South Wales Minister for Primary Industries; Minister for Lands and Water, correspondence to the Minister for the Environment and Energy, dated 10 November 2016; provided in DoEE, Submission 55, Attachment 6, p. 4.

[8]        Mr Daniel Webber, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 29. Mr Webber referred to private correspondence with the curator of the Australian Shark Attack File and an academic research paper to support his evidence regarding sharks being more interested in smaller objects.

[9]        Ballina Lighthouse & Lismore SLSC, Submission 52, p. 3.

[10]      Mr Andrew Stark, Chief Executive Officer, Surfing Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 34.

[11]      Ms Claudette Rechtorik, Manager, SEA LIFE Trust Australia/New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 7.

[12]      Ms Jessica Morris, Marine Scientist, Humane Society International (HSI), Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 33.

[13]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 5. See also Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Submission 50, p. 4.

[14]      Australian Marine Conservation Society, Submission 38, p. 3.

[15]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 2 (emphasis omitted).

[16]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 3.

[17]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 39.

[18]      Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, pp. 19.

[19]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 14–15.

[20]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 15.

[21]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 18.

[22]      Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Director, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 19.

[23]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 1. Surf Life Saving Queensland made a similar point: see Submission 2, p. 1.

[24]      DPI, 'Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/‌management/shark-meshing-bather-protection-program (accessed 5 December 2016).

[25]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 1.

[26]      Surf Life Saving Queensland, Submission 2, p. 1.

[27]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 3. Mr Heaton noted that other measures used in the SMP areas would also assist to minimise the risk of incidents, including the greater resources available for surf lifesaving clubs due to the higher population in the SMP area.

[28]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 1.

[29]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 3.

[30]      Mr Donald Munro, President, Le-Ba Boardriders; and Spokesperson, Lennox Head National Surfing Reserve, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 9.

[31]      Mr Baldock is referring to the traditional lethal drum lines, not the SMART drum lines discussed in Chapter 6.

[32]      Mr Alan Baldock, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, pp. 10–11. As noted in Chapter 1, however, Professor Shaun Collin advised the committee that 'not all sharks are the same with respect to how they react to environmental cues'; although tiger sharks base 'most of their behaviour on smell', white sharks and bull sharks rely on vision and electro reception respectively. Professor Shaun Collin, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 37, 38.

[33]      Mr Fred Pawle, Submission 56, p. 4.

[34]      Mr Fred Pawle, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 35.

[35]      Mr Fred Pawle, Submission 56, p. 5.

[36]      Mr Donald Munro, President, Le-Ba Boardriders; and Spokesperson, Lennox Head National Surfing Reserve, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 3.

[37]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 1.

[38]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 4.

[39]      Professor Colin Simpfendorfer, Committee Hansard, 30 August 2017, p. 6.

[40]      Ballina Environment Society, Submission 54, p. 1.

[41]      Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 5.

[42]      Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 6 (emphasis omitted).

[43]      Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 37, p. 5.

[44]      Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 37, p. 5.

[45]      New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Report into the NSW Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program: Incorporating a review of the existing program and environmental assessment, March 2009, p. 27.

[46]      See Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 4 and Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 5. Professor Daniel Bucher explained that he understands that this figure is based on a South African study and that DPI has advised him there are no similar data for the New South Wales program. Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 46.

[47]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 8.

[48]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 38.

[49]      Mr Tony Isaacson, DiveCareDare, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 50.

[50]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 9. A similar point was made by Associate Professor Laurie Laurenson—see Submission 9, p. 1.

[51]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 9. See also Professor Nic Bax, Senior Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 6.

[52]      The Hon David Kelly MLA, Western Australian Minister for Water, Minister for Fisheries and Minister for Forestry, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 60.

[53]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Northern Beaches Branch President, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 24.

[54]      Dr Leah Gibbs, Mr Lachlan Fetterplace, Associate Professor Quentin Hanich and Mr Matthew Rees, Submission 21, p. 2.

[55]      Ms Jessica Morris, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 35.

[56]      Ms Natalie Banks, Chief Advisor, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 11; Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 41.

[57]      Minister for the Environment and Energy, North Coast Shark Meshing Trial, New South Wales: Statement of reasons for granting an exemption under section 158 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth), 26 October 2017, http://epbcnotices.environment.gov.au/exemptionnotices/exemptionnotice/?id=a99fcc21-38c0-e711-b175-005056ba00a8 (accessed 9 November 2017), p. 6 [paragraph 26].

[58]      Migaloo 2 Foundation, Submission 28, p. 2.

[59]      Associate Professor Laurie Laurenson, Submission 9, p. 3.

[60]      For an example of this argument, see paragraph 4.29.

[61]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 3.

[62]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 12–13.

[63]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 3, 6.

[64]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 6 (emphasis omitted).

[65]      Ms Natalie Banks, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 12–13.

[66]      For examples of these arguments, see Mr Brendan Donohoe, Northern Beaches Branch President, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 24; Associate Professor Laurie Laurenson, Submission 9, pp. 1–2; and Dr Leah Gibbs, Mr Lachlan Fetterplace, Associate Professor Quentin Hanich and Mr Matthew Rees, Submission 21, p. 2;

[67]      HSI, Submission 43, p. 20.

[68]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 4.

[69]      Mr Blair Ranford, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 64. See also Mr Chad Buxton, Admin Officer/Volunteer, Coolum and North Shore Coast Care, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 19.

[70]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 36.

[71]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 38.

[72]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 40.

[73]      Dr Leah Gibbs, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, pp. 3–4.

[74]      CSIRO, Opening statement, tabled 20 October 2017, p. 1. See also CSIRO, Submission 33, pp. 4, 9.

[75]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, pp. 6–7.

[76]      CSIRO, Opening statement, tabled 20 October 2017, p. 1. See also CSIRO, Submission 33, pp. 4, 9.

[77]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, pp. 18–19.

[78]      Professor Meeuwig noted that the tiger shark is 'a species that had not been implicated in any lethal attacks in the region since 1923'.

[79]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 36. Similar evidence was provided by Ms Amanda Elizabeth Morgan (see Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 1).

[80]      The Hon David Kelly MLA, Western Australian Minister for Water, Minister for Fisheries and Minister for Forestry, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 55.

[81]      Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, pp. 18–19.

[82]      Ms Jessica Morris, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 33.

[83]      Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Submission 50, p. 18.

[84]      Ms Jessica Morris, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 33.

[85]      Australian Marine Conservation Society, Submission 38, p. 8.

[86]      Mr Jeff Hansen, Managing Director, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 17. Other evidence on the role of sharks in the marine environment was also received. For example, Professor Meeuwig noted that healthy shark populations can help resist crown-of-thorns outbreaks in coral reefs. Professor Meeuwig also referred to recent research that suggests shark populations can help mitigate climate change by keeping populations of animals such as sea turtles in check so they do not overgraze seagrass beds. Professor Meeuwig noted that 'Seagrass beds are one of the highest sequesters of carbon on the planet. If you remove your tiger sharks or reduce their numbers, turtles and dugongs go nuts. They graze on the seagrass, and you lose your blue carbon store'. Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44. The role sharks play in shaping marine ecosystems is also discussed in Chapter 1.

[87]      HSI, Submission 43, p. 3.

[88]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 2.

[89]      Australian Marine Conservation Society, Submission 38, p. 9.

[90]      Australian Marine Conservation Society, Submission 38, p. 9. Further evidence about the impact on sea turtles was given by representatives of Australian Seabird Rescue: see Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, pp. 65–70.

[91]      Migaloo 2 Foundation, Submission 28, pp. 1–2.

[92]      Migaloo 2 Foundation, Submission 28, pp. 1–2.

[93]      See Dr Jan-Olaf Meynecke, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, pp. 9–10.

[94]      International Fund for Animal Welfare, Submission 40, p. 3.

[95]      Ms Jessica Morris, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 38.

[96]      HSI, Submission 43, p. 3.

[97]      Professor Daniel Bucher, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 46.

[98]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 36.

[99]      Ms Jann Gilbert, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 59.

[100]    HSI, Submission 43, p. 17.

[101]    Australian Marine Conservation Society, Submission 38, pp. 10–11.

[102]    DPI, NSW north coast shark-meshing trial final report, August 2017, p. 42.

[103]    DPI, NSW north coast shark-meshing trial final report, August 2017, p. 26.

[104]    DPI, NSW north coast shark-meshing trial final report, August 2017, p. 42.

[105]    Mr Leon Deschamps, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 27.

[106]    Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 1.

[107]    Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 2.

Chapter 5 - Regulation of mitigation and deterrent measures under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

[1]        See EDOs of Australia, Submission 42, p. 5.

[2]        Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), ss. 3(1)(a), (c) and (e).

[3]        These species are as follows: White shark (Carcharodon carcharias); basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus); narrow sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata); dwarf sawfish (Pristis clavata); green sawfish (Pristis zijsron); largetooth sawfish (Pristis pristis); reef manta ray (Manta alfredi); giant manta ray (Manta birostris); pygmy devilray (Mobula ereegoodootenkee); Japanese devilray (Mobula japonica); and bentfin devilray (Mobula thurstoni). Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE), Answers to questions on notice, 16 March 2017 (received 19 April 2017), p. 7.

[4]        For further detail, refer to the DoEE's submission (Submission 55). In particular, Attachment 1 to the submission comprises flow charts that provide a detailed summary of the referral, assessment and decision‑making processes.

[5]        DoEE, Submission 55, pp. 4–5.

[6]        DoEE, Submission 55, pp. 4, 9; and 'Environment assessment and approval process', www.environment.gov.au/protection/environment-assessments/assessment-and-approval-process (accessed 2 December 2016).

[7]        EPBC Act, s. 136(1).

[8]        The minister may also take into account the environmental history of the individual or company proposing to take the action, including in the case of companies the environmental histories of their executive officers, their parent companies and the executive officers of their parent companies. The minister must not consider any matters that they are not required or permitted to consider under Division 1 of Part 9. See EPBC Act, Part 9, Division 1, Subdivision B; DoEE, 'Environment assessment and approval process', www.environment.gov.au/protection/‌environment-assessments/assessment-and-approval-process (accessed 2 December 2016); and Submission 55, p. 5.

[9]        DoEE, Submission 55, p. 5.

[10]      DoEE, Submission 55, p. 6.

[11]      See DoEE, Submission 55, p. 7; Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 4.

[12]      EDOs of Australia, Submission 42, p. 3 (emphasis omitted).

[13]      See Mr Matthew Cahill, First Assistant Secretary; and Mr Dane Roberts, Director, Northern NSW Assessments, Assessments (NSW/ACT) and Fuels, DoEE, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 23.

[14]      DoEE, Matters of National Environmental Significance: Significant impact guidelines 1.1, 2013, www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/42f84df4-720b-4dcf-b262-48679a3aba58/files/nes-guidelines_1.pdf (accessed 28 April 2017), p. 2.

[15]      DoEE, Matters of National Environmental Significance: Significant impact guidelines 1.1, p. 3.

[16]      DoEE, Matters of National Environmental Significance: Significant impact guidelines 1.1, p. 8.

[17]      DoEE, Matters of National Environmental Significance: Significant impact guidelines 1.1, p. 10.

[18]      Correspondence between the DoEE and the New South Wales Government regarding the trial use of shark mesh nets, tabled 21 October 2016, Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Supplementary Budget Estimates 2016–17, p. [6].

[19]      Correspondence between the DoEE and the New South Wales Government regarding the trial use of shark mesh nets, tabled 21 October 2016, Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Supplementary Budget Estimates 2016–17, p. [6].

[20]      Correspondence between the DoEE and the New South Wales Government regarding the trial use of shark mesh nets, p. [3].

[21]      Mr Matthew Cahill and Mr Dane Roberts, DoEE, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 23.

[22]      DoEE, Submission 55, p. 5.

[23]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, p. 4.

[24]      DoEE, Submission 55, p. 5.

[25]      DoEE, Submission 55, p. 5.

[26]      See Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Submission 3, p. 2; NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, p. 4; Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Submission 7, pp. 6–7.

[27]      For example, see Humane Society International (HSI), Submission 43, pp. 14–15; and Project AWARE, Submission 46, Attachment 1, p. 2.

[28]      DoEE, Submission 55, p. 5.

[29]      Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority, Report and recommendations of the Environmental Protection Authority: Western Australian Shark Hazard Mitigation Drum Line Program 2014–2017 ­– Director General, Department of the Premier and Cabinet on behalf of the State of Western Australia, Report No. 1527, September 2014, p. 10.

[30]      Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority, Report No. 1527, pp. ii­­–iii.

[31]      DoEE, 'Key threatening processes under the EPBC Act', www.environment.gov.au/‌biodiversity/threatened/key-threatening-processes (accessed 27 April 2017).

[32]      DoEE, Answers to questions on notice, 16 March 2017 (received 19 April 2017), pp. 2–3.

[33]      If the Minister thinks that a threat abatement plan is a feasible, effective and efficient way of abating the process, he must ensure a threat abatement plan is in force. See DoEE, 'Frequently asked questions – key threatening processes', www.environment.gov.au/system/files/pages/‌10a10e3d-e677-4c5a-ba9a-00bfd70d8db2/files/faq-ktp-tap.pdf (accessed 27 April 2017), p. 2.

[34]      DoEE, 'Frequently asked questions – key threatening processes', p. 2.

[35]      DoEE, 'Frequently asked questions – key threatening processes', p. 2.

[36]      DoEE, Answers to questions on notice, 16 March 2017 (received 19 April 2017), p. 2.

[37]      DoEE, Answers to questions on notice, 16 March 2017 (received 19 April 2017), p. 2.

[38]      Ms Jessica Morris, Marine Scientist, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 36.

[39]      Ms Nicola Beynon, Head of Campaigns, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 36.

[40]      Correspondence between the DoEE and the New South Wales Government regarding the trial use of shark mesh nets, tabled 21 October 2016, Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Supplementary Budget Estimates 2016–17, p. [2].

[41]      DoEE, Submission 55, pp. 4, 9.

[42]      DoEE, Submission 55, p. 4.

[43]      Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority, Report No. 1527, p. 19.

[44]      Mr Matthew Cahill, DoEE, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 22.

[45]      The EPBC Act provides the following guidance on the scope of national interest: 'In determining the national interest, the Minister may consider Australia's defence or security or a national emergency. This does not limit the matters the Minister may consider'. EPBC Act, s. 158(5).

[46]      DoEE, Submission 55, pp. 7­–8.

[47]      Mr James Tregurtha, Acting First Assistant Secretary, Environment Standards Division, DoEE, Proof Committee Hansard, 14 November 2017, p. 10.

[48]      Specifically, the minister must decide within 20 business days of receiving an application whether or not to grant the exemption and that, within ten business days of making a written notice exempting an action under section 158, a copy of the notice and the minister's reasons for granting the exemption must be published. EPBC Act, ss. 158(2) and (7).

[49]      EPBC Act, ss. 34E, 37H, 54, 140 and 146L.

[50]      Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, opened for signature 23 June 1979, 1651 UNTS 356 (entered into force 1 November 1983).

[51]      DoEE, Submission 55, Attachment 4, p. 6.

[52]      DoEE, Submission 55, Attachment 4, pp. 6, 9.

[53]      Minister for the Environment and Energy, North Coast Shark Meshing Trial, New South Wales: Statement of reasons for granting an exemption under section 158 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth), 26 October 2017, http://epbcnotices.environment.gov.au/exemptionnotices/exemptionnotice/?id=a99fcc21-38c0-e711-b175-005056ba00a8 (accessed 9 November 2017), p. 6 [paragraph 30].

[54]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 3.

[55]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, p. 7.

[56]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, pp. 8–9.

[57]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, p. 7.

[58]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, p. 7.

[59]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 3.

[60]      Australian Marine Conservation Society, Submission 38, p. 4.

[61]      Ms Claudette Rechtorik, Manager, SEA LIFE Trust Australia/New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 7.

[62]      Ms Nicola Beynon, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 34.

[63]      Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 51, pp. 1–2.

[64]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 3.

[65]      EDOs of Australia, Submission 42, p. 6.

[66]      EDOs of Australia, Submission 42, p. 6.

[67]      Professor Daniel Bucher, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 45.

[68]      Professor Daniel Bucher, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 45.

[69]      EDOs of Australia, Submission 42, p. 4.

[70]      EDOs of Australia, Submission 42, p. 4 (emphasis omitted).

[71]      Ms Kim Farrant, Assistant Secretary, Assessments (NSW & ACT) and Fuel, DoEE, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 20.

[72]      HSI, Submission 43, p. 13.

[73]      Ms Nicola Beynon, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 35.

[74]      Ms Nicola Beynon, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 35.

[75]      HSI, Submission 43, p. 14.

[76]      NSW Young Lawyers Animal Law Committee, Submission 61, pp. 13–14.

[77]      DoEE, Answers to questions on notice, 16 March 2017 (received 19 April 2017), pp. 4–5.

Chapter 6 - New and emerging mitigation and deterrent measures

[1]        Cardno, Shark deterrents and detectors: review of bather protection technologies: Report prepared for the NSW Department of Primary Industries, October 2015, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/‌__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/621407/cardno-review-of-bather-protection-technologies.pdf, pp. 3–4, 17. Pages 4–17 of the report provide an overview of each technology and discusses available evidence about their effectiveness.

[2]        Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 49, p. 6.

[3]        New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (DPI), 'Shark management', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/‌sharks/management (accessed 5 December 2016).

[4]        Ms Natalie Banks, Chief Advisor, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 16.

[5]        DPI, 'Shark management'.

[6]        Correspondence from Dr Geoff Allan, Deputy Director General, DPI, to Ms Kim Farrant, Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE), dated 6 October 2016, pp. 1–2, tabled by the DoEE, Supplementary Budget Estimates 2016–17, 21 October 2016.

[7]        Correspondence from Dr Geoff Allan, DPI, to Ms Kim Farrant, DoEE, dated 6 October 2016, p. 2, tabled by the DoEE, Supplementary Budget Estimates 2016–17, 21 October 2016.

[8]        The Hon Niall Blair MLC, 'NSW gets SMART on sharks', Media release, 3 July 2017.

[9]        Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, pp. 5–6.

[10]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, pp. 5–6. A similar conclusion was reached by Ms Kathrina Southwell, General Manager, Australian Seabird Rescue. See Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 67.

[11]      Ms Nicola Beynon, Head of Campaigns, Humane Society International (HSI), Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 40.

[12]      Ms Nicola Beynon, Head of Campaigns; Ms Jessica Morris, Marine Scientist, HSI, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 40.

[13]      Ms Natalie Banks, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 16.

[14]      Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 7.

[15]      Mr Donald Munro, President, Le-Ba Boardriders; and Spokesperson, Lennox Head National Surfing Reserve, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 2.

[16]      Mr Alan Baldock, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 12.

[17]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 9.

[18]      Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Director, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 21.

[19]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, pp. 5–6.

[20]      Dr Craig Blount, Senior Environmental Scientist, Cardno (New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory) Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 14.

[21]      Mr Chris Gurtler, Managing Director, Shark Alert, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 51.

[22]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 14.

[23]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 3.

[24]      Surf Life Saving NSW and Australian Lifeguard Service NSW, Submission 15, p. 7.

[25]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, pp. 5–6.

[26]      Cr David Wright OAM, Mayor, Ballina Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 21.

[27]      Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Submission 50, p. 17.

[28]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 5.

[29]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 10.

[30]      Dr Jan-Olaf Meynecke, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 12.

[31]      See Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 44. The article cited is B Kelaher, A Colefax, B Creese, P Butcher and V Peddemors, 'How drones can help fight the war on shark attacks', The Conversation, 3 February 2017.

[32]      Mr Kent observed 'If it is the council paying for the lifeguard services, that is at less cost to council; if it is us providing volunteers, it is less volunteer time'. Mr Andy Kent, Lifesaving Manager, Surf Life Saving NSW, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, pp. 15–16.

[33]      Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 21.

[34]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 3; DPI, 'Shark tagging', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/management/shark-tagging-project (accessed 1 June 2017).

[35]      DPI, 'Shark tagging', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/management/shark-tagging-project (accessed 1 June 2017). For a description of how the tagging system works and the information collected, see Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 42.

[36]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 5. The committee was also advised that the tagging programs allow for genetic samples to be taken for analysis, which provides information useful for estimating population trends and the trend over time. Professor Nic Bax, Senior Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 7.

[37]      Mr Troy Pickard, Mayor, City of Joondalup, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 31–32.

[38]      During the committee's Brisbane hearing, Dorsal provided detailed evidence about the sources of the information relied on for the Dorsal app, including how public reports are filtered to ensure the reports are relevant, timely and sufficiently detailed. See Mr Allan Bennetto, Dorsal, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, pp. 42–43.

[39]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 5.

[40]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 3.

[41]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 3. See also page 22 of the submission.

[42]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 13.

[43]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 12. 

[44]      Mr Duncan Leadbitter, Australian Aerial Patrol, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 20.

[45]      Mr John Heaton, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 9.

[46]      Mr Allan Bennetto, Dorsal, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, pp. 44, 57.

[47]      Mr Daniel Webber, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 29. Mr Dale Carr also described individuals using apps for a period that, after time, tired of reviewing the information and decided to use them no longer. See Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 16.

[48]      Mr Allan Bennetto, Dorsal, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 42.

[49]      Mr Fred Pawle, Submission 56, p. 2.

[50]      Dr Peter Kerkenezov, Submission 8, pp. 4–5. See also Mr Kim Allen, Submission 47.

[51]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 3.

[52]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 43.

[53]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 8.

[54]      Mr Richard Talmage, General Manager, Shark Mitigation Systems, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 44.

[55]      DPI, 'Shark management', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/management (accessed 5 December 2016).

[56]      DPI, 'Shark management'; The Hon Joe Francis MLA, Western Australian Minister for Fisheries, and the Hon Bill Marmion MLA, Minister for Innovation, 'Trial of new shark detection technology', Media release, 26 November 2016, www.mediastatements.wa.gov.au/‌Pages/‌Barnett/2016/11/Trial-of-new-shark-detection-technology.aspx (accessed 5 December 2016).

[57]      Mr Richard Talmage, Shark Mitigation Systems, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 41.

[58]      Mr Richard Talmage, Shark Mitigation Systems, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 41.

[59]      Mr Richard Talmage, Shark Mitigation Systems, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 43.

[60]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 5.

[61]      Mr Richard Talmage, Shark Mitigation Systems, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, pp. 41–42.

[62]      Australian Marine Conservation Society (AMCS), Submission 38, p. 6.

[63]      Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 49, p. 5.

[64]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 14.

[65]      Mr Richard Talmage, Shark Mitigation Systems, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, pp. 42–43.

[66]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 4. See also Global Marine Enclosures, Submission 31, p. 3.

[67]      Global Marine Enclosures, Submission 31, pp. 3, 4. For further details about the design and deployment of eco barriers, see Mr Troy Pickard, Mayor, City of Joondalup, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 31.

[68]      Sharksafe Barrier explained that mimicking the kelp forest exploits the 'natural instinct of sharks of avoiding to enter thick kelp forests'. It also argued that the 'addition of the magnetic fields adds an extra safety measure, since large magnets proved to be a strong deterrent for shark species...' Sharksafe Barrier, Submission 29, pp. 3–4.

[69]      Professor Shaun Collin, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 39.

[70]      Global Marine Enclosures, Submission 31, p. 3.

[71]      Global Marine Enclosures, Submission 31, p. 5.

[72]      AMCS, Submission 38, p. 6; HSI, Submission 43, p. 22; Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Submission 50, p. 16.

[73]      Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 4.

[74]      Mr Troy Pickard, Mayor, City of Joondalup, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 31.

[75]      Ballina Lighthouse & Lismore SLSC, Submission 52, p. 2.

[76]      DPI, 'Shark management', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/‌sharks/management (accessed 5 December 2016).

[77]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 11.

[78]      Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 37, p. 3. Mr Fred Pawle also commented on the hazards created by the failed trial: see Submission 56, p. 4.

[79]      Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 37, p. 3.

[80]      Global Marine Enclosures, Submission 31, pp. 3–4.

[81]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 16. Dr Christopher Neff also recommended that eco barriers be used in low-energy areas, such as the beaches in Sydney Harbour. See Submission 48, p. 5.

[82]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, pp. 38–39.

[83]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Submission 32, p. 6.

[84]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 11.

[85]      HSI, Submission 43, p. 23.

[86]      Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 23.

[87]      See Cardno, Shark deterrents and detectors: review of bather protection technologies: Report prepared for the NSW Department of Primary Industries, October 2015, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/‌__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/621407/cardno-review-of-bather-protection-technologies.pdf (accessed 5 December 2017), pp. 3–4, 17; Cr David Wright OAM, Mayor, Ballina Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 20.

[88]      For example, see Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, pp. 3–4.

[89]      Shark Shield, 'Shark Shield Ocean Guardian', tabled 20 April 2017, p. 6.

[90]      Mr Lindsay Lyon, Managing Director, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 19. See also Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 57.

[91]      Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 19.

[92]      Mr David Smith, Chief Executive Officer, Surfsafe, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 25.

[93]      Mr David Smith, Surf Safe, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 66.

[94]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, pp. 3–4.

[95]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 36. For more details about the experiments, see Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 18; and Professor Shaun Collin, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 37–38. Professor Collin noted that his testing relates to the product used by divers (with a two metre antenna), not the product used with surfboards. The research which concluded that the probability of a shark bite was 90 per cent when the device was in power-off mode and 16 per cent when in power-on mode involved a test where sharks were allowed access to bait for a 10-minute period and the first version of the Shark Shield devices (knowns as SharkPOD). See Shark Shield, Submission 1, p. 7.

[96]      Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, pp. 3–4.

[97]      Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 12.

[98]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 5.

[99]      Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 21.

[100]    See Mr David Smith, Surfsafe, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 25, 27.

[101]    Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 12.

[102]    Shark Shield, 'Shark Shield announces breakthrough long range shark deterrent & capital raising', Media release, 1 May 2017. See also Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 21–22; Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 57.

[103]    KwaZulu Natal Sharks Board, 'Shark repellent cable', www.shark.co.za/Pages/SharkRepellent‌Technology (accessed 9 November 2017).

[104]    R Ardon, 'Cottesloe set to get world-first electromagnetic shark cable', The West Australian, 18 August 2017, https://thewest.com.au/news/sharks/cottesloe-set-to-get-world-first-electromagnetic-shark-cable-ng-b88571488z (accessed 9 November 2017).

[105]    DPI, 'Shark management', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/‌sharks/management (accessed 5 December 2016).

[106]    The Hon Dave Kelly MLA, Western Australian Minister for Fisheries, 'Shark deterrents prove popular with community', Media release, 21 September 2017.

[107]    Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 4.

[108]    Ms Claudette Rechtorik, Manager, SEA LIFE Trust Australia/New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 10.

[109]    Ms Belinda Atkins, Manager, Projects and Programs, Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Committee Hansard, 16 March 2017, p. 4.

[110]    Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 6.

[111]    HSI, Submission 43, p. 23.

[112]    Dr Craig Blount, Cardno, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 13.

[113]    Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 4.

[114]    Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Submission 58, p. 4.

[115]    Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 22.

[116]    The makers of RPELA and Mr Rick Gerring, whose brother Ben was killed in a shark attack, supported this position. See Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 29, 46.

[117]    Shark Shield, Submission 1, p. 4.

[118]    Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 22.

[119]    Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 58.

[120]    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 49, p. 5.

[121]    Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 39.

[122]    Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 2.

[123]    Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 2.

[124]    Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 2.

[125]    Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 19.

[126]    Mr Tony Isaacson, DiveCareDare, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 49.

[127]    Mr Daniel Webber, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 31.

[128]    Mr Daniel Webber, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 32.

[129]    Dr Jan-Olaf Meynecke, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 9.

Chapter 7 - Other approaches

[1]        SEA LIFE Trust, Submission 25, p. 6.

[2]        R Tetlow, 'Sharks put on the sport', Sunday Times, 22 October 2017, p. 22.

[3]        SEA LIFE Trust, Submission 25, p. 6.

[4]        Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 41.

[5]        See Australia for Dolphins, Submission 4, p. 3; Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 8; Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Submission 50, p. 16; Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 37, p. 3; Australian Marine Conservation Society (AMCS), Submission 38, pp. 5, 6; International Fund for Animal Welfare, Submission 40, p. 3; Humane Society International (HSI), Submission 43, p. 22; Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 11;

[6]        Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 41.

[7]        Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 9.

[8]        Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 9.

[9]        Dr Craig Blount, Senior Environmental Scientist, Cardno (New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory) Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 12.

[10]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 4.

[11]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 5.

[12]      Mr Andrew Stark, Chief Executive Officer, Surfing Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 31.

[13]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, p. 12.

[14]      Mr Jeff Hansen, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 16.

[15]      Cr Simon Richardson, Mayor, Byron Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 23.

[16]      Ms Natalie Banks, Chief Advisor, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 14.

[17]      Mr Jeff Hansen, Managing Director; Ms Natalie Banks, Chief Advisor, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 13.

[18]      Mr Jeff Hansen, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 13.

[19]      Cr Simon Richardson, Mayor, Byron Shire Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 23.

[20]      Mr Dale Carr, Member, Bite Club; Beyond the Bite, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 16.

[21]      Mr Jeff Hansen, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 13.

[22]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p .5.

[23]      Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 3.

[24]      AMCS, Submission 38, p. 10. Education in this area could potentially be achieved by other means; for example, it has been suggested that eco-tourism would 'alter the way sharks are perceived'. See Sea Shepherd Australia, 'Alternatives to drum lines and shark nets', www.seashepherd.org.au/‌apex-harmony/overview/alternatives.html (accessed 7 December 2016).

[25]      A list of safety measures is at Taronga Conservation Society Australia, 'Prevention of shark attacks', https://taronga.org.au/animals-conservation/conservation-science/australian-shark-attack-file/prevention-shark-attacks (accessed 20 December 2016).

[26]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Northern Beaches Branch President, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 24; Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 37, p. 4; HSI, Submission 43, pp. 25–26; Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 12. The Sunshine Coast Environment Council added that this education should also emphasise the role sharks perform in the marine environment.

[27]      Mr Chris Peck, General Manager, Lifesaving and Training, Surf Life Saving Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 4.

[28]      Professor Shaun Collin, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, pp. 42–43.

[29]      Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, pp. 3–4 (emphasis omitted).

[30]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Northern Beaches Branch President, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 24.

[31]      Mr Donald Munro, President, Le-Ba Boardriders; and Spokesperson, Lennox Head National Surfing Reserve, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 5.

[32]      Mr Donald Munro, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 5.

[33]      Dr Leah Gibbs, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 6; Dr Jan-Olaf Meynecke, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 14.

[34]      Mr Andrew Stark, Chief Executive Officer, Surfing Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 31.

[35]      Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, pp. 18–19.

[36]      Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, pp. 21–22.

[37]      Dr Sharon Burden, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 22.

[38]      Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Submission 35, p. 11.

[39]      Mr Ian Wiese, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 42.

[40]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 2. Mr Andrew Stark, Chief Executive Officer, Surfing Australia, made a similar point: he noted that according to Surfing WA, the average time of shark attacks in WA in the last few years was 11 am. See Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, pp. 34–35.

[41]      The Hon Dave Kelly MLA, Western Australian Minister for Fisheries, 'A smarter approach to shark mitigation in WA waters', Media release, 13 May 2017.

[42]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, pp. 5–6.

[43]      AMCS, Submission 38, p. 11.

[44]      Mr John Heaton, Submission 11, p. 6 (emphasis omitted).

[45]      Mr Donald Munro, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 1. See also Submission 39, p. 1.

[46]      Australian Aerial Patrol, Submission 6, p. 25.

[47]      Mr Andrew Stark, Surfing Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 32.

[48]      Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 49, p. 5.

[49]      Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 49, p. 5.

[50]      Mr Richard Talmage, Correspondence dated 4 August 2017 (published as Additional Information 11), p. 1.

[51]      Mr Richard Talmage, Additional Information 11, p. 2. See also Mr Tony Isaacson, DiveCareDare, Committee Hansard, 31 July 2017, p. 46.

[52]      Mr Lindsay Lyon, Managing Director, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 56.

[53]      Mr Lindsay Lyon, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 57.

Chapter 8 - Committee view and recommendations

[1]        New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Report into the NSW Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program: Incorporating a review of the existing program and environmental assessment, March 2009, p. 27.

[2]        As noted in Chapter 4, during the first trial the nets caught nine target sharks, representing just three per cent of the total catch. On the other hand, SMART drum lines caught more target sharks and had significantly lower levels of bycatch (36 target sharks were caught, which represented 92 per cent of the total catch of SMART drum lines). In addition, only 47 per cent of the animals caught by the nets survived, whereas the survival rate associated with SMART drum lines is 97 per cent. See Minister for the Environment and Energy, North Coast Shark Meshing Trial, New South Wales: Statement of reasons for granting an exemption under section 158 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth), 26 October 2017, http://epbcnotices.environment.gov.au/exemptionnotices/exemptionnotice/‌?id=a99fcc21-38c0-e711-b175-005056ba00a8 (accessed 9 November 2017).

Coalition Senators' additional comments

[1]        Senator Whish-Wilson, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 12.

[2]        Mr Russell Morey, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 50.

[3]        Mr Russell Morey, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 50.

[4]        Mr Blair Ranford, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 62.

Additional comments from Senator Williams

[1]        Mr Dean Jeffreys, Founder, Migaloo 2, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 42

[2]        Miss Leah Hays, Coordinator, Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p.74

Appendix 3 - Popular shark myths, misconceptions and factoids

[1]        In compiling a selection of myths in one place, this appendix repeats some of the evidence referred to elsewhere in the report.

[2]        Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE), 'Sharks in Australian waters', www.environment.gov.au/marine/marine-species/sharks (accessed 2 December 2016).

[3]        Taronga Conservation Society Australia (TCSA), 'Australian shark attack file: FAQs', https://taronga.org.au/conservation/conservation-science-research/australian-shark-attack-file/faqs (accessed 5 December 2016). See also New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (DPI), 'Identifying sharks', www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/sharks/identifying-sharks (accessed 5 December 2016).

[4]        Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44.

[5]        Professor Nic Bax, Senior Principal Research Scientist, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 4.

[6]        Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44.

[7]        Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44.

[8]        DoEE, 'Sharks in Australian waters', www.environment.gov.au/marine/marine-species/sharks (accessed 2 December 2016).

[9]        Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 3 (citation omitted).

[10]      Professor Daniel Bucher, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 48.

[11]      V Coppleson, Shark attack, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1958, p. 45; cited in C Neff, 'The Jaws Effect: How movie narratives are used to influence policy responses to shark bites in Western Australia', Australian Journal of Political Science, vol. 50, no. 1, 2015, p. 118.

[12]      Dr Christopher Neff, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 3.

[13]      CSIRO, Submission 33, p. 7.

[14]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 36.

[15]      Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 44.

[16]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 12.

[17]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 10.

[18]      Dr Daniel Bucher and Professor Peter Harrison, Submission 23, p. 3 (citation omitted).

[19]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Northern Beaches Branch President, Surfrider Foundation Australia, stated: 'In Sydney there has not been a serious ocean beach attack for a number of years, so people feel safe—and they should. We know that bull sharks track straight in through Bondi pretty much daily, and there are thousands of people there all the time and no-one is attacked'. Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 27. The committee was also referred to a study of bull shark movements in Sydney Harbour on Australia Day 2016 where over 20 bull sharks were tracked and travelled through areas where people were swimming at popular beaches. See Mr Chad Buxton, Marine Scientist and Volunteer, Sunshine Coast Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 74.

[20]      Ms Natalie Banks, Chief Advisor, Sea Shepherd Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 11; Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 41.

[21]      See Professor Jessica Meeuwig, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 36.

[22]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 6, 8; Associate Professor Daryl McPhee, Committee Hansard, 2 May 2017, p. 38.

[23]      Dr Christopher Neff, Submission 48, p. 3; Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 3, 6.

[24]      Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 'Shark control equipment and locations' www.daf.qld.gov.au/fisheries/services/shark-control-program/shark-control-equipment-and-locations (accessed 6 December 2016).

[25]      Professor Shaun Collin, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 38.

[26]      Mr Blair Ranford, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2017, p. 64.

[27]      The Hon David Kelly MLA, Western Australian Minister for Water; Minister for Fisheries and Minister for Forestry, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 57

[28]      CSIRO, Answers to questions on notice, 20 October 2017 (received 23 November 2017),
pp .6–7. The research referred to by CSIRO is RB McAuley, BD Bruce, IS Keay, S Mountford, T Pinnell and FG Whoriskey, 'Broad-scale coastal movements of white sharks off Western Australia described by passive acoustic telemetry data', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 68, 2017, 1518-1531.

[29]      Professor Nic Bax, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 20 October 2017, p. 5.

[30]      Mr Lindsay Lyon, Managing Director, Shark Shield, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2017, p. 18.

[31]      TCSA, 'Australian shark attack file', http://taronga.org.au/‌conservation/conservation-science-research/australian-shark-attack-file (accessed 2 December 2016).

[32]      Sea Shepherd Australia, Submission 57, pp. 30–31.

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