Shark mitigation and deterrent measures

12 December 2017

© Commonwealth of Australia 2017
ISBN 978-1-76010-681-2

View the report as a single document - (PDF 2106KB)

View the report as separate downloadable parts:

Committee membership (PDF 22KB)
Abbreviations (PDF 10KB)
List of recommendations (PDF 43KB)
Chapter 1 - Introduction (PDF 121KB)

Conduct of the inquiry
Structure of the report
Shark numbers, species, behaviour and habitat

Chapter 2 - Human–shark interactions (PDF 210KB)

Data on the incidence and frequency of shark encounters
Public awareness and fear of sharks
Impacts of incidents and fatalities on tourism and related industries
Anecdotal evidence regarding activities that may increase the risk of dangerous human–shark interactions

Chapter 3 - Responses to shark bite incidents (PDF 980KB)

Non-lethal responses
Lethal measures

Chapter 4 - Evidence received about the need for, and effectiveness of, lethal shark control programs (PDF 184KB)

Role of government
Arguments for maintaining lethal programs
Arguments questioning the effectiveness of, or in opposition to, lethal programs

Chapter 5 - Regulation of mitigation and deterrent measures under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (PDF 156KB)

Relevance of the EPBC Act in relation to sharks in Australian waters
Overview of the EPBC Act referral, assessment and approval process
Interaction between the EPBC Act and existing shark control programs
Exemptions in the national interest

Chapter 6 - New and emerging mitigation and deterrent measures (PDF 194KB)

Overview of new and emerging technologies
SMART drum lines
Advances in aerial surveillance
Information collected from tagging programs and sightings
Sonar technology
Beach enclosures and eco-barriers
Personal and 'whole of beach' deterrent and protection products

Chapter 7 - Other approaches (PDF 94KB)

Shark spotting programs
Medical kits
Are new technologies and other approaches ready to replace lethal measures?

Chapter 8 - Committee view and recommendations (PDF 91KB)

Future of lethal shark control measures
Building knowledge about sharks and shark management strategies
Supporting the transition to non-lethal mitigation and deterrent measures
National cooperation and coordination
Other practical actions
Application of the EPBC Act
Role of the media

Australian Greens' additional comments - Shark mitigation and deterrent measures: Fear and facts (PDF 13KB)
Coalition Senators' additional comments (PDF 22KB)

The Western Australia Case

Labor Senators' dissenting report (PDF 20KB)
Additional comments from Senator Williams (PDF 14KB)
Appendix 1 - Submissions, tabled documents, answers to questions on notice and additional information (PDF 21KB)
Appendix 2 - Public hearings (PDF 18KB)
Appendix 3 - Popular shark myths, misconceptions and factoids (PDF 71KB)

Committee Secretariat contact:

Committee Secretary
Senate Standing Committees on Environment and Communications
PO Box 6100
Parliament House
Canberra ACT 2600

Phone: +61 2 6277 3526