Footnotes

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Department of Health (Department), Submission 18, p. 5.

[2]        Department, Submission 18, p. 5.

[3]        Department, Submission 18, p. 33.

[4]        Department, Submission 18, p. 9.

[5]        Department, Submission 18, p. 5.

[6]        Department, Submission 18, p. 17.

[7]        Department, Submission 18, p. 33.

[8]        However, the Commonwealth continues to provide block funding to some smaller hospitals. Department, Submission 18, p. 33.

[9]        Department, Submission 18, p. 33.

[10]      Department, Submission 18, p. 33.

[11]      Department, Submission 18, p. 30.

[12]      Department, Submission 18, p. 30.

[13]      Department, The Diagnostic Imaging Accreditation Scheme (DIAS), 2 February 2016, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/di-quality (accessed 5 February 2018).

[14]      Department, The Diagnostic Imaging Accreditation Scheme (DIAS), 2 February 2016, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/di-quality (accessed 5 February 2018).

[15]      Department, Submission 18, p. 30.

[16]      Department, Medicare Benefits Schedule Review, 19 October 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/mbsreviewtaskforce (accessed 31 January 2018).

[17]      Department, Medicare Benefits Schedule Review, 19 October 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/mbsreviewtaskforce (accessed 31 January 2018).

[18]      Department, Submission 18, p. 24.

[19]      Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce, Interim Report to the Minister for Health, 2016, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/26CEC8388EE86854CA2580210016EF82/$File/MBS-Review-Interim-report-Final-%204%20Oct.pdf (accessed 31 January 2018), p. 6.

[20]      Department, Submission 18, p. 24.

[21]      Department, Recommendations to government from the Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce, 25 October 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/MBSR-recommendations-to-government (accessed 31 January 2018).

[22]      The MBS review found that the use of imaging of the lower back (three and four regions) by whole spine x-rays was not associated with clinical benefit and exposed patients to unnecessary doses of radiation. The majority of the 130 000 three region x-rays were requested by chiropractors. Subsequently, the government 'decided to remove the ability of chiropractors to request these [x]-rays'. See, Department, Reducing unnecessary spinal x-rays, 22 August 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/MBSR-reducing-unnecessary-spinal-x-rays (accessed 31 January 2018).

[23]      Department, Submission 18, p. 24.

[24]      Department, Recommendations to government from the Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce, 25 October 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/MBSR-recommendations-to-government (accessed 31 January 2018).

[25]      For full membership of the Diagnostic Imaging Advisory Committee and Diagnostic Imaging Accreditation Scheme Advisory Committee, see Department, Submission 18, pp. 43–44.

[26]      Department, Submission 18, p. 32.

[27]      Department, Submission 18, p. 32.

[28]      Department, Submission 18, p. 25.

[29]      Department, Submission 18, p. 7.

[30]      Australian Diagnostic Imaging Association (ADIA), Quality Framework, http://www.adia.asn.au/policy-priorities/quality-framework/ (accessed 1 February 2018).

[31]      ADIA, Quality Framework, http://www.adia.asn.au/policy-priorities/quality-framework/ (accessed 1 February 2018).

[32]      Journals of the Senate, No. 55, 17 August 2017, p. 1760.

[33]      Journals of the Senate, No. 71, 16 November 2017, p. 2252; Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Progress Report, 7 March 2018.

[34]      The committee's inquiry website can be located at: https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Diagnosticimaging (accessed 1 February 2018).

Chapter 2 - Availability and accessibility of diagnostic imaging

[1]        Department of Health (Department), Submission 18, p. 6.

[2]        Department, Submission 18, p. 35.

[3]        Department, Submission 18, p. 12.

[4]        Department, Submission 18, p. 12.

[5]        Department, Submission 18, p. 14.

[6]        Professor John Magnussen, Professor of Radiology, Head of Neuroradiology and Cardiac Imaging, Macquarie University; Director of Research, Macquarie Medical Imaging, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 27.

[7]        Mr Dean Lewsam, Chief Executive, Healthcare Imaging Services, Primary Health Care Limited, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 28.

[8]        Mr Patrick Eastgate, President, Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT), Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 41.

[9]        Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Submission 21, p. 1; Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Submission 23, [p. 1]; West Moreton Health and Hospital Service, Submission 25, p. 1; Wide Bay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 30, [p. 1].

[10]      Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Submission 21, p. 2; West Moreton Hospital and Health Service, Submission 25, p. 2.

[11]      An expansion of Maryborough's emergency department may include on-site CT services. Wide Bay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 30, [p. 2].

[12]      Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Submission 21, pp. 1–2.

[13]      Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Submission 23, [p. 1]; West Moreton Hospital and Health Service, Submission 25, p. 2; Wide Bay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 30, [p.  2].

[14]      Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Submission 23, [p. 1]; Wide Bay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 30, [p. 2].

[15]      Children's Healthcare Australasia (CHA) and Women's Healthcare Australasia (WHA), Submission 26, p. 1.

[16]      Associate Professor Anthony Lowe, Chief Executive Officer, Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 18.

[17]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 19.

[18]      Department, Submission 18, p. 29.

[19]      Department, Submission 18, p. 29. The Department advised that the requirement for PET services to be located in a comprehensive facility has not been reviewed since 2010.

[20]      Department, Submission 18, pp. 29–30.

[21]      Cancer Voices Australia, Submission 1, p. 1.

[22]      See for example: Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM), Submission 4, p. 4; Cancer Council Northern Territory, Submission 6, p. 3; Queensland Nurses and Midwives' Union (QNMU), Submission 13, p. 3; Ms Kate Reynolds, Submission 34, [p. 1].

[23]      Private Health Care Limited, Submission 8, p. 5; QNMU, Submission 13, p. 2; ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 5.

[24]      ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 5.

[25]      ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 5.

[26]      ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 5.

[27]      Mr Aiden Cook, Director of Medical Imaging, Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 14.

[28]      Primary Health Care Limited, Submission 8, p. 7.

[29]      Australian Medical Association (AMA), Submission 7, p. 5. See also Mr Delan Adikari, Submission 20, [p. 2].

[30]      QNMU, Submission 13, p. 2.

[31]      AMA, Submission 7, p. 5.

[32]      See, Mr Cameron Robertson, Acting Director, Medical Imaging Services, Sunshine Coast Hospital and Health Service, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, pp. 11, 16; Mr Cook, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 14; Mrs Marie Baxter, Executive Director of Nursing and Midwifery, WA Country Health Service, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 29.

[33]      AMA, Submission 7, p. 5.

[34]      Rare Cancers Australia, Submission 31, [p. 2].

[35]      AMA, Submission 7, p. 5.

[36]      Mr Cook, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 10.

[37]      Cancer Council Northern Territory, Submission 6, p. 2.

[38]      QNMU, Submission 13, p. 3.

[39]      Mrs Baxter, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 30; Professor Mark Khangure, Councillor, AMA, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 2.

[40]      Ms Danielle Spence, Director of Policy and Advocacy, Breast Cancer Network Australia (BCNA), Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 18.

[41]      Australasian Society for Ultrasound in Medicine, Submission 11, p. 4.

[42]      Department, answers to questions on notice, 13 December 2017 [p. 10] (received 5 February 2018).

[43]      Department, answers to questions on notice, 13 December 2017 [p. 10] (received 5 February 2018).

[44]      AMA, Submission 7, p. 5.

[45]      ACRRM, Submission 4, p. 4.

[46]      ACRRM define teleradiology as the transmission of diagnostic radiological images in digital form from the acquisition site to the reporting site for diagnosis and reporting by a clinical radiologist. See, ACRRM, Submission 4, p. 4.

[47]      Associate Professor Thomas Doolan, Chairman, Education and Training Committee, ACRRM, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 51; Mr Jim Aspinwall, Director, X-Ray and Imaging, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 43; Dr Gary Cohen, Radiologist, Primary Health Care Limited, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 32, p. 34; Dr Peter Heathcote, President, Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 23; Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 24; and A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 24.

[48]      ACRRM, Submission 4, p. 4.

[49]      A/Prof Doolan, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 52.

[50]      ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 5.

[51]      ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 6.

[52]      Cancer Council Northern Territory, Submission 6, p. 2.

[53]      Spinal Cord Injury Australia (SCIA), Submission 37, p. 3.

[54]      SCIA noted that this service is expensive even if the patient is eligible for government funded taxi transport subsidy scheme. See, SCIA, Submission 37, p. 3.

[55]      SCIA, Submission 37, p. 3.

[56]      SCIA, Submission 37, p. 3.

[57]      SCIA, Submission 37, p. 3.

[58]      SCIA, Submission 37, p. 3.

[59]      SCIA, Submission 37, p. 4.

[60]      Mr Troy Williams, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Dental Industry Association, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[61]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[62]      Australian Dental Industry Association, Submission 12, p. 3.

[63]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[64]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[65]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[66]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[67]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 13.

[68]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[69]      Mr Williams, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 12.

[70]      Committee, Delivery of outcomes under the National Disability Strategy 2010–2020 to build inclusive and accessible communities, November 2017, pp. 71–72.

Chapter 3 - Use of MRI in Australia

[1]        Department of Health (Department), Submission 18, p. 11.

[2]        Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR), Submission 14, p. 2.

[3]        Department, Submission 18, pp. 27–28.

[4]        Dr Greg Slater, President, RANZCR, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 2.

[5]        Department, Submission 18, p. 27.

[6]        Department, Submission 18, p. 27; Australian National Audit Office, Diagnostic Imaging Reforms, Performance Audit No. 12, 2014–15, pp. 19, 26.

[7]        Department, Submission 18, pp. 27–28.

[8]        Department, Submission 18, p. 16.

[9]        Department, Submission 18, pp. 16, 27.

[10]      Department, Submission 18, p. 29.

[11]      Department, Submission 18, p. 41.

[12]      Department, Submission 18, p. 41; Department, answers to questions on notice, 13 December 2017 [p. 6] (received 5 February 2018).

[13]      Department, Submission 18, p. 11.

[14]      Department, Submission 18, p. 11.

[15]      Department, Submission 18, p. 28.

[16]      Department, Submission 18, p. 16.

[17]      Department, Submission 18, pp. 13, 35, 36.

[18]      RANZCR, Submission 14, pp. 4, 11.

[19]      Professor Mark Khangure, Councillor, Australian Medical Association (AMA), Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 2.

[20]      Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 3.

[21]      Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 2.

[22]      Mr Mark Nevin, Senior Executive Officer, Faculty of Clinical Radiology, RANZCR, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 5.

[23]      Ms Natalia Vukolova, Chief Executive Officer, RANZCR, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 5.

[24]      Mr David Weiss, First Assistant Secretary, Department, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 58.

[25]      Mr Weiss, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 59.

[26]      Mr Nevin, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 3.

[27]      Department, Submission 18, p. 16.

[28]      Mr Nevin, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 3.

[29]      Dr Slater, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 3; Mr Nevin, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 3.

[30]      Dr Lincoln Gillam, Chair, Diagnostic Economics Committee, RANZCR, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 8.

[31]      Envision Medical Imaging, Submission 39, p. 1.

[32]      Envision Medical Imaging, Submission 39, p. 2.

[33]      Department, Submission 18, p. 11.

[34]      See, for example: AMA, Submission 7; RANZCR, Submission 14; Australian Diagnostic Imaging Association (ADIA), Submission 17; UnitingCare Queensland, Submission 36, Envision Medical Imaging, Submission 39.

[35]      Synergy Medical Imaging Pty Ltd, Submission 10, pp. 4–5.

[36]      Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 1.

[37]      Envision Medical Imaging, Submission 39, p. 2.

[38]      Dr Slater, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 4.

[39]      Dr Slater, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 4.

[40]      Professor John Magnussen, Professor of Radiology, Head of Neuroradiology and Cardiac Imaging, Macquarie University; Director of Research, Macquarie Medical Imaging, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 27.

[41]      Envision Medical Imaging, Submission 39, p. 1.

[42]      Envision Medical Imaging, Submission 39, p. 2.

[43]      Perth Radiological Clinic, Submission 29, p. 1.

[44]      Mrs Lenka Psar-McCabe, Chief Executive Officer, Perth Radiological Clinic, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 25.

[45]      Mrs Psar-McCabe, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, pp. 24–25.

[46]      Mr Jim Aspinwall, Director, X-Ray and Imaging, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 43.

[47]      Mr Aspinwall, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 44.

[48]      Mr Aspinwall, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 43.

[49]      Mr Nevin, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 5.

[50]      Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM), Submission 4.1, p. 3.

[51]      ACRRM, Submission 4.1, p. 3.

[52]      Women's Healthcare Australasia (WHA) and Children's Healthcare Australasia (CHA), Submission 26, p. 2.

[53]      Ms Julie Hale, Deputy Chief Executive Officer, CHA, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 10.

[54]      Mr Aspinwall, MRI Licence Requirement Morayfield Health Hub, p. 1 (tabled 13 December 2017).

[55]      Ms Noelle Cridland, Executive Director, Metro North Medical Imaging and Acting Executive Director, Clinical Governance, Safety, Quality and Risk, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 13.

[56]      Mr Aiden Cook, Director, Medical Imaging, Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 15.

[57]      Wide Bay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 30, p. 2.

[58]      Dr Shivash Es'hagi, President, Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT), Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 6.

[59]      Ms Hale, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 10.

[60]      Mr Dean Lewsam, Chief Executive, Healthcare Imaging Services, Primary Healthcare Limited, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 31.

[61]      Ms Hale, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 10.

[62]      Associate Professor Susan Moloney, Member, CHA, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 10.

[63]      Synergy Medical Imaging Pty Ltd, Submission 10, p. 3.

[64]      Ms Hale, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 10.

[65]      Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 2; Mrs Marie Baxter, Executive Director, Nursing and Midwifery, WA Country Health Service, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 32.

[66]      Mr Kevin Michel MLA, Member for Pilbara, Submission 9, pp. 1, 3.

[67]      Synergy Medical Imaging Pty Ltd, Submission 10, p. 3.

[68]      Synergy Medical Imaging Pty Ltd, Submission 10, p. 4.

[69]      Mr Aspinwall, MRI Licence Requirement Morayfield Health Hub, p. 1 (tabled 13 December 2017).

[70]      Mr Aspinwall, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 46.

[71]      Mr Aspinwall, MRI Licence Requirement Morayfield Health Hub, p. 1 (tabled 13 December 2017).

[72]      Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 2.

[73]      Mrs Baxter, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 30.

[74]      See, for example: Macquarie Medical Imaging, Submission 5; Synergy Medical Imaging Pty Ltd, Submission 10; Queensland Nurses and Midwives' Union (QNMU), Submission 13; RANZCR, Submission 14; Sunshine Coast Hospital and Health Service, Submission 22, [p. 1]; ASMIRT, Submission 24; New South Wales Health, Submission 33, p. 4.

[75]      New South Wales Health, Submission 33, p. 5.

[76]      ADIA, Submission 17, p. 7.

[77]      Department, Submission 18, p. 23.

[78]      Breast Cancer Network Australia (BCNA), Submission 32, p. 3.

[79]      BCNA, Submission 32, p. 3.

[80]      BCNA, Submission 32, p. 4.

[81]      Ms Danielle Spence, Director of Policy and Advocacy, BCNA, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 20.

[82]      Associate Professor Anthony Lowe, Chief Executive Officer, Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 19.

[83]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 20.

[84]      Rare Cancers Australia, Submission 31, p. 2.

[85]      Dr Evan Jones, Director, Morayfield Family Doctors, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 45.

[86]      UnitingCare Queensland, Submission 36, p. 3. See also: Macquarie Medical Imaging, Submission 5, p. 4.

[87]      UnitingCare Queensland, Submission 36, p. 3.

[88]      See, for example: ACRRM, Submission 4, p. 3; Australasian Society for Ultrasound in Medicine, Submission 11, pp. 3–4; RANZCR, Submission 14, p. 8.

[89]      Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 2.

[90]      Mrs Geraldine Ormonde, Senior Marketing Manager, Perth Radiological Clinic, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 26.

[91]      Cancer Council Northern Territory, Submission 6, p. 2.

[92]      Dr Slater, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 4.

[93]      Dr Jones, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 45.

[94]      Multiple Sclerosis Australia (MSA), Submission 27, p. 1.

[95]      MSRA, Submission 27, p. 2.

[96]      AMA, Submission 7, p. 5.

[97]      Dr Slater, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 4. See also Childrens Health Queensland, Submission 19, [p. 1].

[98]      WHA and CHA, Submission 26, p. 3.

[99]      A/Prof Moloney, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 6. See, also: RANZCR, Submission 14, p. 6.

[100]    Dr Richard Zwar, Director of Radiology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 15. See also Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Submission 16, p. 2.

[101]    A/Prof Moloney, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 6.

[102]    Ms Hale, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 8; WHA and CHA, Submission 26, p. 3.

[103]    A/Prof Moloney, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 6.

[104]    Ms Hale, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 8.

[105]    See, for example: Dr Slater,Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 2; Cancer Voices Australia, Submission 1, p. 2; AMA, Submission 7, pp. 3–4; Synergy Medical Imaging Pty Ltd, Submission 10, p. 5; ADIA, Submission 17, p. 2; Perth Radiological Clinic, Submission 29, [pp. 1–3].

[106]    RANZCR, Submission 14, p. 4.

[107]    Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 2.

[108]    Mr Lewsam, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 31.

[109]    Perth Radiological Clinic, Submission 29, p. 2.

[110]    New South Wales Health, Submission 33, pp. 3-4.

[111]    Cancer Voices Australia, Submission 1, p. 2. See also Cairns Radiology, Submission 38, [p. 1].

[112]    See, for example: Dr Zwar, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 16.

[113]    Prof Magnussen, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 32.

[114]    Department, Submission 18, p. 11.

[115]    Department, Submission 18, p. 28.

[116]    Department, Submission 18, p. 29.

[117]    AMA, Submission 7, p. 2.

[118]    Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 1.

[119]    Prof Khangure, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 3.

[120]    Mr Aspinwall, MRI Licence Requirement Morayfield Health Hub, p. 1 (tabled 13 December 2017).

Chapter 4 - Diagnostic imaging workforce

[1]        Dr Richard Zwar, Director of Radiology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 16; Australian Medical Association (AMA), Submission 7, pp. 2–3; Medical Oncology Group of Australia, Submission 28, p. 1.

[2]        Dr Audrey Koay, Executive Director, Patient Safety and Clinical Quality, Department of Health, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 29.

[3]        Australian Sonographers Association (ASA), Submission 40, p. 3.

[4]        ASA, Submission 40, p. 3.

[5]        Mrs Marie Baxter, Executive Director of Nursing and Midwifery, WA Country Health Service, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 33.

[6]        Australasian Society for Ultrasound in Medicine (ASUM), Submission 11, p. 2.

[7]        ASA, Submission 40, p. 3.

[8]        ASA, Submission 40, p. 3.

[9]        ASUM, Submission 11, p. 2; ASA, Submission 40, p. 3.

[10]      ASA, Submission 40, p. 3.

[11]      ASUM, Submission 11, p. 3.

[12]      ASUM, Submission 11, p. 3; ASA, Submission 40, p. 3.

[13]      ASUM, Submission 11, p. 2.

[14]      Professor George Condous, President, ASUM, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 36.

[15]      Prof Condous, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 36.

[16]      Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM), Submission 4, pp. 2–3.

[17]      ACRRM, Submission 4.1, p. 4.

[18]      ACRRM, Submission 4.1, p. 5.

[19]      ACRRM, Submission 4.1, p. 5.

[20]      ACRRM, Submission 4.1, p. 5.

[21]      Associate Professor Thomas Doolan, Chairman, Education and Training Committee, ACCRM, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 52.

[22]      ACRRM, Submission 4.1, p. 5.

[23]      Mr Jamie Shepherd, Professional Officer, Queensland Nurses and Midwives' Union (QNMU), Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 51.

[24]      QNMU, Submission 13, p. 4.

[25]      QNMU, Submission 13, p. 

[26]      A/Prof Doolan, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 54.

[27]      Dr Zwar, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 16.

[28]      Mr Aiden Cook, Director of Medical Imaging, Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 11. See also Mackay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 43, [pp. 1–2].

[29]      Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Submission 23, [p. 1]; West Moreton Hospital and Health Service, Submission 25, p. 2; Wide Bay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 30, [p. 2].

[30]      West Moreton Hospital and Health Service, Submission 25, p. 2; Wide Bay Hospital and Health Service, Submission 30, p. 2.

[31]      Mr Cook, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 11. See also: Darling Downs Health and Hospital Service, Submission 21, p. 2.

[32]      See for example AMA, Submission 7, p. 1; Australian Diagnostic Imaging Association (ADIA), Submission 17, p. 5.

[33]      Dr Greg Slater, President, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR), Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 2; RANZCR, Submission 14, p. 1.

[34]      RANZCR, Submission 14, p. 3. See also ADIA, Submission 17, p. 5; Department of Health (Department), Submission 18, pp. 31–32.

[35]      Dr Sivash Es'haghi, President, ADIA, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 4.

[36]      Dr Slater, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 4.

[37]      Dr Gary Cohen, Radiologist, Private Health Care Limited, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 32.

[38]      Primary Health Care Limited, Submission 8, p. 9.

[39]      Primary Health Care Limited, Submission 8, pp. 9–10.

[40]      Primary Health Care Limited, Submission 8, p. 10.

[41]      Primary Health Care Limited, Submission 8, p. 9.

[42]      ADIA, Statement to Senate Standing Committee of Community Affairs References Committee, 13 December 2017, [p. 1] (tabled 13 December 2017).

[43]      ADIA, Statement to Senate Standing Committee of Community Affairs References Committee, 13 December 2017, [p. 1] (tabled 13 December 2017).

[44]      Department, Submission 18, p. 32; Mr David Weiss, First Assistant Secretary, Department, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 63.

[45]      Primary Health Care Limited, Submission 8, p. 10.

[46]      Primary Health Care Limited, Submission 8, p. 9.

[47]      ADIA, Statement to Senate Standing Committee of Community Affairs References Committee, 13 December 2017, [p. 1] (tabled 13 December 2017).

[48]      Mr Jim Aspinwall, Director, X-ray and Imaging, Radiology shortage, December 2017, [p. 1] (tabled 13 December 2017).

[49]      Mr Aspinwall, Radiology shortage, December 2017, [p. 1] (tabled 13 December 2017).

[50]      Department, Review of the Specialist Training Program and the Emergency Medicine Program, March 2017, p. 40.

[51]      Department, Review of the Specialist Training Program and the Emergency Medicine Program, March 2017, p. 40.

[52]      Dr Evan Jones, Director, Morayfield Family Doctors, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 44.

[53]      Dr Jones, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 44.

[54]      Department, Review of Specialist Training Program and Emergency Medicine Program, Final Report, March 2017, p. 81.

Chapter 5 - Funding and the Medicare Benefits Schedule

[1]        Department of Health (Department), Submission 18, p. 5.

[2]        Department, MBSOnline, http://www.mbsonline.gov.au/internet/mbsonline/publishing.nsf/Content/Home (accessed 22 February 2018).

[3]        Administrator of the National Health Funding Pool, National Health Reform Agreement summary, https://www.publichospitalfunding.gov.au/national-health-reform/agreement (accessed 22 February 2018).

[4]        Administrator of the National Health Funding Pool, National Health Reform Agreement, http://www.federalfinancialrelations.gov.au/content/npa/health/_archive/national-agreement.pdf (accessed 22 February 2018).

[5]        Department, Submission 18, p. 17.

[6]        Department, Submission 18, p. 17.

[7]        Each Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) service is allocated a schedule fee. Generally, this fee takes into account the expense incurred by a service provider to deliver a service, including capital costs of the equipment used. See, Department, Submission 18, p. 17.

[8]        Department, Submission 18, pp. 16–17.

[9]        Department, Submission 18, p. 20.

[10]      Department, Submission 18, p. 20.

[11]      Department, Submission 18, p. 21.

[12]      Department, Submission 18, p. 19.

[13]      Professor Mark Khangure, Councillor, Australian Medical Association, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, pp. 3–4.

[14]      Mrs Marie Baxter, Executive Director of Nursing and Midwifery, WA Country Health Service, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 30.

[15]      Commonwealth of Australia, Budget Measures: Budget Paper No. 2 2017–18, p. 108.

[16]      Department, Submission 18, p. 21.

[17]      Australian Diagnostic Imaging Association (ADIA), Submission 17, p. 5.

[18]      Department, Submission 18, p. 5.

[19]      Department, Submission 18, p. 5.

[20]      Department, Submission 18, p. 18.

[21]      Department, Submission 18, p. 18.

[22]      Department, Submission 18, p. 21.

[23]      Department, Submission 18, p. 21.

[24]      Department, Submission 18, p. 21.

[25]      Department, Submission 18, p. 7.

[26]      Department, Submission 18, p. 7.

[27]      Department, Submission 18, p. 7.

[28]      Other practices include cardiology practices, GP clinics, vascular laboratories, obstetrics and gynaecological practices. See, Department, Submission 18, p. 7.

[29]      Cancer Voices Australia, Submission 1, p. 2; Prostate Cancer Foundation Australia, Submission 15, pp. 2–3; Rare Cancers Australia, Submission 31, [pp. 2–3]; Breast Cancer Network Australia (BCNA), Submission 32, p. 2.

[30]      Department, Frequently asked questions: What is MSAC?, 20 July 2016, http://www.msac.gov.au/internet/msac/publishing.nsf/Content/factsheet-04 (accessed 22 February 2018).

[31]      Department, Submission 18, p. 7; Department, About MSAC, 29 June 2016, http://www.msac.gov.au/internet/msac/publishing.nsf/Content/about-msac (accessed 22 February 2018).

[32]      Ms Danielle Spence, Director of Policy and Advocacy, BCNA, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 18.

[33]      Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2018, p. 18.

[34]      Associate Professor Anthony Lowe, Chief Executive Officer, Prostate Cancer Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 18. See also Ms Emma Hornsey, Submission 41, [p. 1].

[35]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 19.

[36]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 19.

[37]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 19.

[38]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 20; Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2018, p. 18.

[39]      Rare Cancers Australia, Submission 31, [p. 3].

[40]      Rare Cancers Australia, Submission 31, [p. 2].

[41]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 19.

[42]      Dr Peter Heathcote, President, Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 20.

[43]      Dr Heathcote, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 20.

[44]      Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, pp. 20–21.

[45]      Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, pp. 20–21.

[46]      Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 21.

[47]      Cancer Voices Australia, Submission 1, p. 2.

[48]      Mr Mark Nevin, Senior Executive Officer, Faculty of Clinical Radiology, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR), Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 5.

[49]      Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 21; Dr Heathcote, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 21.

[50]      A/Prof Lowe, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, pp. 21–22; Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 22.

[51]      Ms Spence, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 22.

[52]      Department, Submission 18, p. 25.

[53]      Department, Submission 18, p. 23.

[54]      Department, About the Medicare Benefits Schedule Review, 14 February 2018, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/MBSR-about (accessed 22 February 2018).

[55]      Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce, Obsolete MBS Items Report 2016, pp. 1–3, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/6FB549C45F86EF9FCA257F5E001937B5/$File/Taskforce%20Summary%20-%20Obsolete.pdf (accessed 22 February 2018).

[56]      Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce—Diagnostic Imaging Clinical Committee, Bone Densitometry Report: Taskforce Findings, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/
publishing.nsf/Content/3E9F15BC250DDB89CA2580180018BD22/$File/Taskforce%20Summary%20-%20DI%20bone%20densitometry.pdf
(access 22 February 2018); Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce—Diagnostic Imaging Clinical Committee, Low Back Pain Report: Taskforce Findings, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/E1FEC9FFE18698C0CA25801800184170/$File/MBS-Review-Taskforce-Recommendations-DI-Low-Back-Pain-Report.pdf (accessed 22 February 2018).

[57]      Medicare Benefits Schedule Review Taskforce, Public Consultation Timeline 2017/18, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/AEABC7BCD0C0A321CA257F5D00715DE1/$File/MBS%20Review%20Consultation%20Timeline%202017-18.pdf (accessed 22 February 2018).

[58]      Department, Submission 18¸ p. 26.

[59]      Department, Submission 18¸ p. 26.

[60]      Department, Submission 18¸ p. 26.

[61]      Department, Submission 18¸ p. 39.

[62]      Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT), Submission 24, p. 7.

[63]      ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 7.

[64]      ASMIRT, Submission 24, p. 7.

[65]      Dr Greg Slater, President, RANZCR, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 7. See also ACT Health, Submission 35, p. 4.

[66]      Department, Submission 18¸ p. 27.

[67]      Dr Slater, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 8.

[68]      Dr Audrey Koay, Executive Director, Patient Safety and Clinical Quality, Department of Health, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 29.

[69]      Mrs Baxter, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 30.

[70]      Mrs Baxter, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 30.

[71]      Ms Pattie Beerens, Chief Executive Officer, ADIA, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 8.

[72]      Mr Aiden Cook, Director Medical Imaging, Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 16.

[73]      Ms Beerens, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 8.

[74]      Department, Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Improving Access to Primary Care in Rural and Remote Areas – COAG s19(2) Exemptions Initiative, 18 July 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/COAG+s19%282%29+Exemptions+Initiative (accessed 7 February 2018).

[75]      Mrs Baxter, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 30.

[76]      Mr Cook, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 16.

[77]      The Modified Monash Model uses population size and distance to determine whether a particular location should be considered urban, inner or outer regional, rural or remote. Queensland Nurses and Midwives' Union (QNMU), Submission 13, p. 5.

[78]      QNMU, Submission 13, p. 5.

[79]      QNMU, Submission 13, p. 5; Mr Jamie Shepherd, Professional Officer, QNMU, answers to questions on notice, 13 December 2017 (received 18 January 2018).

[80]      QNMU, Submission 13, p. 5; Mr Shepherd, answers to questions on notice, 13 December 2017 (received 18 January 2018).

Chapter 6 - Recommendations and conclusions

[1]        Mrs Lenka Psar-McCabe, Chief Executive Officer, Perth Radiological Clinic, Committee Hansard, 9 November 2017, p. 26; Mr Dean Lewsam, Chief Executive, Healthcare Imaging Services, Primary Health Care Limited, Committee Hansard, 13 December 2017, p. 31.

[2]        Australian Construction Codes Board, National Construction Code 2016—Volume One Amendment 1, February 2016, pp. 219–222.

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