Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        The inquiry lapsed with the dissolution of the 44th Parliament and was readopted in the 45th Parliament. See Senate Standing References Committee on Community Affairs, Medical complaints in Australia, November 2016, p. 11, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/MedicalComplaints45 (accessed 24 January 2017).

[2]        Senate Standing References Committee on Community Affairs, Medical complaints in Australia, November 2016, pp. 23, 30.

[3]        Senate Standing References Committee on Community Affairs, Medical complaints in Australia, November 2016, p. 22.

[4]        See recommendation 6, Senate Standing References Committee on Community Affairs, Medical complaints in Australia, November 2016, p. x.

[5]        Productivity Commission, Australia's Health Workforce, Research Report, January 2006, p. xl, http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/health-workforce/report/healthworkforce.pdf (accessed 13 January 2017).

[6]        COAG, Communique, 26 March 2008, http://webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/20150301030435/http://archive.coag.gov.au/coag_meeting_outcomes/2008-03-26/index.cfm (accessed 25 January 2017).

[7]        The scheme commenced in Western Australia on 18 October 2010. Senate Standing References Committee on Community Affairs, Medical complaints in Australia, November 2016, p. 6.

[8]        Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act 2009 (Qld), sch 1 (National Law), https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/H/HealthPracRNA09.pdf (accessed 25 January 2017).

[9]        Senate Standing References Committee on Community Affairs, Medical complaints in Australia, November 2016, p. 8. 

[10]      National Law, s. 5 (definition of 'health profession').

[11]      AHPRA, 2015/16 Annual Report, November 2016, p. 1, http://www.ahpra.gov.au/annualreport/2016/downloads.html (accessed 11 January 2017).

[12]      AHPRA, 2015/16 Annual Report, November 2016, p. 1. For an explanation of health complaints entities see [1.18].

[13]      AHPRA, 2015/16 Annual Report, November 2016, p. 1.

[14]      AHMAC, Submission 75, [p. 1].

[15]      Ms Amity Durham, Acting Deputy Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Victoria, representing the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 22.

[16]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, pp. 3–9.

[17]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 13.

[18]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 14.

[19]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 25.

[20]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 18.

[21]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 30.

[22]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 21.

[23]      Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 23.

[24]      National Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act 2009 (Qld), s. 7A; National Practitioner Regulation (Adoption of National Law) Act 2009 (NSW), s. 6.

[25]      See National Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act 2009 (Qld), s. 7B; National Practitioner Regulation (Adoption of National Law) Act 2009 (NSW), ss. 6B, sch. 1, s. 41B.

[26]      National Law, s. 5 (definition of 'co-regulatory jurisdiction').

[27]      National Law, s. 148(2).

[28]      Mr Leon Atkinson-MacEwen, Health Ombudsman, Office of the Health Ombudsman, Queensland, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 2.

[29]      National Law, s. 145.

[30]      National Law, s. 5 (definition of 'health complaints entity').

[31]      National Law, s. 148(1).

[32]      National Law, s. 150.

[33]      National Law, s. 150(4).

[34]      National Law, s. 151.

[35]      National Law, pt 8 div 7.

[36]      National Law, pt 8 div 8.

[37]      National Law, pt 8 div 9.

[38]      National Law, pt 8 div 10.

[39]      National Law, pt 8 div 11.

[40]      National Law, pt 8 div 12.

[41]      A list of appellable decisions can be found in National Law, s. 199.

[42]      Senate Standing Legislation Committee on Community Affairs, National registration and accreditation scheme for doctors and other health workers, August 2009, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Completed_inquiries/2008-10/registration_accreditation_scheme/report/index (accessed 22 December 2016).; Senate Standing Legislation Committee on Community Affairs, Health Practitioner Regulation (Consequential Amendments) Bill 2010 [Provisions], 12 May 2010, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Completed_inquiries/2008-10/health_practitioner_reg/index  (accessed 13 January 2017); Senate Standing References Committee on Finance and Public Administration, The administration of health practitioner registration by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA), 3 June 2011, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Finance_and_Public_Administration/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/healthpractitionerregistration/report/index (accessed 13 January 2017).

[43]      Senate Standing References Committee on Finance and Public Administration, The administration of health practitioner registration by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA), 3 June 2011, p. 115.

[44]      Kim Snowball, Independent review of the national registration and accreditation scheme for health professions, December 2014, p. 1.

[45]      Kim Snowball, Independent review of the national registration and accreditation scheme for health professions, December 2014, pp. 5–9.

[46]      Kim Snowball, Independent review of the national registration and accreditation scheme for health professions, December 2014, p. 6.

[47]      Kim Snowball, Independent review of the national registration and accreditation scheme for health professions, December 2014, p. 6.

[48]      Health Practitioner Regulation National Law (WA) Act 2010, s. 4(7).

[49]      Kim Snowball, Independent review of the national registration and accreditation scheme for health professions, December 2014, p. 8.

[50]      Australian Government, Response to the Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee's Inquiry into the administration of health practitioner registration by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency, 7 February 2012, p. 7, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Finance_and_Public_Administration/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/healthpractitionerregistration/index (accessed 7 April 2017).

[51]      COAG Health Council, Communique – The independent review of the National Registration and Accreditation Scheme for health professionals, 7 August 2015, http://www.coaghealthcouncil.gov.au/Portals/0/The%20Independent%20Review%20of%20the%20National%20Registration%20and%20Accreditation%20Scheme%20for%20Health%20Professions.pdf (accessed 17 January 2017).

[53]      AHMAC, Submission 75—Attachment 1, pp. 25, 30.

[54]      Mr Fletcher, Dr Flynn and Dr Mulcahy, AHPRA, answer to questions on notice, 1 November 2016, [pp. 4–5, 17–18] (received 16 November 2016) http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary
_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/MedicalComplaints45/Additional_Documents
(accessed 24 April 2017).

[55]      Mr Fletcher, Dr Flynn and Dr Mulcahy, AHPRA, answer to questions on notice, 1 November 2016, [p. 6] (received 16 November 2016).

[56]      Mr Fletcher, Dr Flynn and Dr Mulcahy, AHPRA, answer to questions on notice, 1 November 2016, [pp. 6–11] (received 16 November 2016).

[57]      Journals of the Senate, No. 23, 1 December 2016, p. 755.

[58]      Available on the inquiry webpage, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/
Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/ComplaintsMechanism
(accessed 7 April 2017).

Chapter 2 - Lodgement and assessment of complaints

[1]        Carers Victoria, Submission 113, [p. 3].

[2]        Health Practitioner Regulation National Law 2009 (Qld) (National Law), sch. 1, s. 140.

[3]        National Law, s. 5 (notifier).

[4]        Submission 113, [p. 3].

[5]        National Law, s. 148(2).

[6]        National Law, s. 150(2).

[7]        National Law, s. 150(3).

[8]        Mr Steve Tully, Commissioner, Health and Community Services Complaints Commissioner (SA), Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, pp. 1, 5; Ms Karen Toohey, ACT Health Services Commissioner, ACT Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 5; Mr Leon Atkinson-MacEwen, Health Ombudsman, Office of the Health Ombudsman (Qld), Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 5.

[9]        Ms Toohey, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 5; Mr Atkinson-MacEwen, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 5; Mr Tully, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 5.

[10]      Mr Tully, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 5.

[11]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 131, p. 3; Name withheld, Submission 122, p. 1; Women's Legal Services Australia, Submission 80, pp.4–5.

[12]      Mr Tully, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 3.

[13]      Mr Martin Fletcher, Chief Executive Officer, AHPRA, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 22.

[14]      AHPRA and MBA, Submission 119, p. 25.

[15]      Submission 119, p. 25.

[16]      Submission 119, p. 26.

[17]      Submission 119, p. 27.

[18]      Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 14.

[19]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Medical complaints in Australia, November 2016, p. 40.

[20]      Mr Joel Levin, Submission 27, [p. 2]; MIGA, Submission 30, p. 9; Ms Kate Greenaway, Submission 33, p. 4; Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, Submission 41, [p. 2]; Ms Jennifer Ellis, Submission 42, [p. 2]; Avant, Submission 50, p. 2; Dr Gary Fettke, Submission  54, p. 4; Ms Jennifer Smith, Submission 57, p. 2; Dr Jeremy Rourke, Submission 61; [p. 2]; Ms Caroline Raphael, Submission 69, p. 2; Ms Elizabeth Dolan, Submission 71, p. 3; Dr Rachel Mascord, Submission 73, [p. 3]; Ms Marianna Masiorski, Submission 74, [p. 2]; Mr Harrison White, Submission 79, [p. 3]; Name withheld, Submission 85, [p. 2]; Ms Zoe Sherrin, Submission 98, [p. 2]; Ms Cristina Vitellone, Submission 99, [p. 2]; Australian Dental Association, Submission 108, [p. 1]; Dr Maxine Szramka, Submission 109, [p. 2]; Dr Vincent Papaleo, Submission 116, [pp. 2‑3]; Australian Medical Association, Submission 117, p. 5; Ms Marg Fitzpatrick, Submission 126, [pp. 4–5]; Australian Psychological Association, Submission 130, p. 6–7.

[21]      Mr Joel Levin, Submission 27, p. 2.

[22]      Ms Johanne Brown, Submission 7, p. 1.

[23]      Dr Edwin Kruys, Vice-President, Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 25.

[24]      Australian Medical Association, Submission 117, p. 5.

[25]      ADA, Submission 108, p. 2. 

[26]      For other reasons no further action may be taken see [2.33].

[27]      AFCC, Submission 38, p. 4.

[28]      NHPOPC, Submission 105, p. 11.

[29]      NHPOPC, answers to questions on notice, 1 November 2016 (received 10 November 2016).

[30]      NHPOPC, Submission 105, p. 11.

[31]      AHPRA Community Reference Group, answers to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 24 April 2017), [pp. 2–3].

[32]      Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 32.

[33]      National Law, s. 151.

[34]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 22.

[35]      National Law, s. 148(1).

[36]      See paragraph [1.22] for the list possible actions available to a national board.

[37]      National Law, s. 151(1)(a).

[38]      Australian Medical Association, Submission 117, p. 3.

[39]      Mr Fletcher, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 22.

[40]      AHPRA and MBA, Submission 119, p. 9.

[41]      Submission 119, p. 9.

[42]      Submission 119, p. 19.

[43]      NHPOPC, Submission 105, p. 12.

[44]      Australian Medical Association, Submission 117, p. 5; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 130, pp. 7–8.

[45]      Dr Jennifer Neoh, Secretary, Australian Chapter, Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 25.

[46]      Dr Marie Bismark, Associate Professor, University of Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 10; Mr Rhett Clayton, National Liability Claims Manager, Guild Insurance, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 31; Health Consumers' Council, Submission 96, p. 4; Guild Insurance, Submission 48, p. 3.

[47]      Mr Fletcher, Dr Flynn and Dr Mulcahy, answer to questions on notice, 1 November 2016 [p. 3] (received 16 November 2017) http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/
Senate/Community_Affairs/MedicalComplaints45/Additional_Documents
(accessed 24 April 2017).

[48]      Dr Joanna Flynn, Chair, Medical Board of Austraia, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 29.

[49]      Dr Flynn, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 27.

[50]      Dr Flynn, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 27.

[51]      AFCC, Submission 38, p. 9.

[52]      AHPRA and MBA, Submission 119, p. 4.

[53]      Mr Fletcher, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 27.

[54]      Avant, Submission 50, p. 3.

[55]      Mr Joel Levin, Submission 27, p. 2; AFCC, Submission 38, p. 4.

Chapter 3 - Investigations and national board decisions

[1]        Ms Marg Fitzpatrick, Submission 126, [p. 5]; Mrs Rhonda McNees, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 10; Mr Ian McNees, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, pp. 11–12.

[2]        Mr Maxwell Brown, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 12.

[3]        Mr Maxwell Brown, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 12.

[4]        Mr Brown, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 12.

[5]        Mrs Rhonda McNees, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 11.

[6]        Ms Karen Toohey, Australian Capital Territory Health Services Commissioner, Australian Capital Territory Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 2.

[7]        Mr Leon Atkinson-MacEwen, Health Ombudsman, Office of the Health Ombudsman, Queensland, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 4.

[8]       Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 2.

[9]        Mr Tully, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 2.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 2.

[11]      Kim Snowball, Independent review of the national registration and accreditation scheme for health professions, December 2014, p. 28.

[12]      National Law, s. 187.

[13]      See for example National Law, ss. 151(3), 161(3), 180, 192(2), (4).

[14]      Ms Toohey, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 4.

[15]      AHMAC, Submission 75—Attachment 1, p. 25.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 8.

[17]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 16.

[18]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 17.

[19]      Adjunct Professor Debora Picone AM, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 1.

[20]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 26.

[21]      Adjunct Professor Debora Picone AM, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 4.

[22]      Ms Kate Greenaway, Submission 33, p. 5; Ms Elizabeth Dolan, Submission 71, p. 2.

[23]      Ms Elizabeth Dolan, Submission 71, p. 2; Dr Rachel Mascord, Submission 73, [p. 2].

[24]      Dr Anne Malatt, Submission 65, p. 1.

[25]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 17.

[26]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 16.

[27]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 18.

[28]      RACGP, Submission 41, [pp. 1–2].

[29]      Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 27.

[30]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 26.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 35.

[32]      Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 35.

[33]      Ms Georgie Haysom, Head of Advocacy, Avant Mutual Limited, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 35.

[34]      Ms Amity Durham, Acting Deputy Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Victoria representing the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 17.

[35]      Ms Cynthia Hickman, Submission 29, [pp. 3–4]; Ms Elizabeth Dolan, Submission 71, p. 4; Dr Jane Barker, Submission 112, [p. 1].

[36]      Ms Cynthia Hickman, Submission 29, [pp. 3–4]; Ms Elizabeth Dolan, Submission 71, p. 4; Dr Jane Barker, Submission 112, [p. 1].

[37]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 13.

[38]      Health Consumers' Council, Submission 96, p. 4.

[39]      Associate Professor Colin Moore, Submission 55, p. 1.

[40]      Name withheld, Submission 68, [p. 4].

[41]      Name withheld, Submission 68, [p. 4].

[42]      Mr Maxwell Brown, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 12.

[43]      Mrs Rhonda McNees, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 11.

[44]      AHPRA and the MBA, Submission 119, p. 19.

[45]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 28.

[46]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 28.

[47]      Dr Rachel Mascord, Submission 73, [p. 3].

[48]      Mr Gary Clarke, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 13.

[49]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 131, p. 2.

[50]      Ms Donna McGrath, Submission 6, p. 6; Ms Jennifer Ellis, Submission 42, p. 4; Dr Anne Malatt, Submission 65, p. 4; Dr Rachel Mascord, Submission 73, [p. 3]; Dr Simon Rosenbaum, Submission 104, p. 3; Dr Maxine Szramka, Submission 109, p. 8.

[51]      RACGP, Submission 41, [p. 3].

[52]      AHPRA Community Reference Group, Submission 127, p. 4.

[53]      RACGP, Submission 41, [p. 3].

[54]      Mrs Rhonda McNees, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 12.

[55]      AHPRA and the MBA, Submission 119, p. 4.

[56]      Dr Flynn, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 26.

[57]      See for example National Law, ss. 151, 156, 160, 169.

[58]      National Law, ss. 33, 36.

[59]      RACGP, Submission 41, [p. 2]; National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Submission 94, p. 2; Name withheld, Submission 84, p. 7.

[60]      RACGP, Submission 41, [p. 2].

[61]      Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 27.

[62]      Dr Flynn, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 27.

[63]      Mr Fletcher and Dr Flynn, answers to questions on notice, 31 March 2017, p. 3 (received 24 April 2017).

[64]      Mr Fletcher and Dr Flynn, answers to questions on notice, 31 March 2017, p. 3 (received 24 April 2017).

Chapter 4 - AHPRA's administration of the complaints mechanism

[1]        Dr Jennifer Neoh, Secretary, Australian Chapter, Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (AFCC), Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 24.

[2]        AFCC, Submission 38, p. 8; Institute of Clinical Psychologists, Submission 23, pp. 4–5.

[3]        AFCC, Submission 38, pp. 3–4.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, pp. 24–25.

[5]        Dr Neoh, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 24.

[6]        Dr Neoh, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, pp. 24–25.

[7]        Submission 116, p. 3.

[8]        Dr Neoh, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 25.

[9]        AFCC, Submission 38, pp. 3–4.

[10]      Dr Neoh, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 27.

[11]      Mr Hardy, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 24.

[12]      Mr Hardy, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 25.

[13]      AHPRA and MBA, answers to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 24 April 20174) pp. 1–2.

[14]      CAA, Submission 125, pp. 7–8.

[15]      CAA, Submission 125, pp. 7–8.

[16]      Senate Standing References Committee on Finance and Public Administration, The administration of health practitioner registration by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA), 3 June 2011, p. 92, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Finance_and_Public_Administration/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/healthpractitionerregistration/report/index (accessed 19 April 2017); Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Medical complaints in Australia, pp. 24–26; Legislative Council Legal and Social Issues Legislation Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into the performance of the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency, Report No 2, March 2014, p. 90, http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/images/stories/committees/SCLSI/Leg_ctee/AHPRA/Final_version_AHPRA_report_30314.pdf (accessed 19 April 2017).

[17]      For details about the parliamentary privilege matter see Chapter 6.

[18]      Mrs Rhonda McNees, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, pp. 10–11.

[19]      Avant, Submission 50, p. 11.

[20]      RACGP, Submission 41, [p. 4]; Australian Medical Assocation, Submission 117, p. 3.

[21]      AHPRA and MBA, Submission 119, p. 9.

[22]      AHPRA and MBA, Submission 119, p. 9.

[23]      Mr Fletcher, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, pp. 22–23.

[24]      MIGA, Submission 30, p. 4; Ms Jennifer Smith, Submission 57, p. 3; Dr Simon Rosenbaum, Submission 104, p. 3.

[25]      Submission 30, p. 4.

[26]      Submission 30, p. 4.

[27]      Ms Jennifer Smith, Submission 57, p. 3; Ms Marianna Masiorski, Submission 74, [p. 3]; Dr Simon Rosenbaum, Submission 104, p. 3.

[28]      Dr Marie Bismark, Associate Professor, University of Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 17 March 2017, p. 7.

[29]      Australian Medical Association, Submission 117, p. 3.

[30]      Submission 117, p. 3.

[31]      Avant, Submission 50, p. 2; Dr Gary Fettke, Submission 54, p. 2; Name withheld, Submission 84, p. 8.

[32]      Avant, Submission 50, p. 2; Dr Gary Fettke, Submission 54, p. 2.

[33]      Avant, Submission 50, p. 5.

[34]      Mr Ian McNees, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2017, p. 12.

[35]      Name withheld, Submission 84, p. 8.

Chapter 5 - Conclusions and recommendations

[1]        Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Medical Complaints in Australia, November 2016.

[2]        Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Medical Complaints in Australia, November 2016, p. 21.

[3]        NSW Health, Complaint Management Policy, additional information provided by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 31 March 2017 (received 31 March 2017), p. 16.

Chapter 6 - Matter of parliamentary privilege: Dr Gary Fettke

[1]        Senate Privilege Resolution 1(18).

[2]        Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987 (Cth), s. 12(2).

[3]        Mr Martin Fletcher, Chief Executive Officer, AHPRA, Committee Hansard, 22 November 2016, p. 4.

[4]        Mr Fletcher, Committee Hansard, 22 November 2016, p. 6.

[5]        Committee of Privileges, Parliamentary privilege: Precedents, procedure and practice in Australian Senate 1966–2005, 125th report, December 2005, p. 47.

[6]        Harry Evans and Rosemary Laing, eds, Odgers' Australian Senate Practice, 14th edition, Department of the Senate, 2016, p. 88.