Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 107, 17 August 2015, p. 2959.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 138, 22 February 2016, p. 3749.

[3]        Journals of the Senate, No. 107, 17 August 2015, p. 2959.

[4]        Journals of the Senate, No. 107, 17 August 2015, p. 2959.

Chapter 2 - Background

[1]        Dr Diana Warren, 'Historical development and recent reforms', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, p. 26.

[2]        Department of Human Services, ' Payment rates for Age Pension', last updated 20 March 2016, https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/payment-rates-age-pension (accessed 20 April 2016).

[3]        Dr Diana Warren, 'Historical development and recent reforms', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, p. 27. The access age for the Age Pension will rise to 67 by July 2023. Department of Human Services, webpage, 'Age Pension', https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/age-pension (accessed 19 April 2016).

[4]        Dr Diana Warren, 'Historical development and recent reforms', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, p. 32.

[5]        Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015 p. 18.

[6]        Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 6.

[7]        Dr Diana Warren, 'Historical development and recent reforms', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, pp. 32–33.

[8]        Dr Diana Warren, 'Historical development and recent reforms', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, pp. 36–37. When the Superannuation Guarantee was introduced, only people aged 65 or younger were allowed to make voluntary superannuation contributions.

[9]        Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—attachment 1, p. 16.

[10]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 5.

[11]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre and Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Gender Equity Insights 2016: Inside Australia's Gender Pay Gap, 2016, p. 13.

[12]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 'What is the gender gap?', https://www.wgea.gov.au/addressing-pay-equity/what-gender-pay-gap (accessed 16 April 2016).

[13]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 4.

[14]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Submission 80, p. 20.

[15]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Submission 80, p. 20.

[16]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre and Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Gender Equity Insights 2016: Inside Australia's Gender Pay Gap, 2016, pp. 6–7.

[17]      National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, p. 11.

18      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 4.

[19]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, pp. 4–5.

[20]      Australian Institute of Family Studies, Submission 18, p. 9.

[21]      Studies of the gender wealth gap are confined to comparisons between single female and single male households, as Australian data collections do not permit an analysis of the gender wealth gap amongst partnered men and women.

[22]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Submission 80, pp. 4–5.

[23]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Submission 80, pp. 4–5; Professor Alan Duncan, Director, Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 23.

[24]      WiSER, Curtin University, Submission 6, Annexure 3—Helen Hodgson and Lisa Marriott, 'Retirement Savings and Gender: An  Australasian Comparison',  Australian Tax Forum, 2013, p.738

[25]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Submission 80, pp. 4–5; Professor Alan Duncan, Director, Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 23.

[26]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Submission 80, pp. 4–5.

[27]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, The Gender Pay Gap Over the Life Cycle, March 2016, p. 5, http://www.actu.org.au/media/886499/the-gender-pay-gap-over-the-life-cycle-h2.pdf (accessed 5 April 2016). See also ANZ Women's Report: Barriers to achieving gender equity, 2015, pp. 36–37.

[28]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, The Gender Pay Gap Over the Life Cycle, March 2016,
p. 5, http://www.actu.org.au/media/886499/the-gender-pay-gap-over-the-life-cycle-h2.pdf  (accessed 5 April 2016). See also, Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, pp.54–55.

[29]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 3.

[30]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Investing in care: Recognising and valuing those who care, Volume 1: Research Report 2013, p. 10.

[31]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 3.

[32]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Accumulating poverty? Women's experiences of inequality over the lifecycle, 2009, p. 16.

[33]      ANZ Women's Report: Barriers to achieving gender equity, 2015, p. 56.

[34]      ANZ Women's Report: Barriers to achieving gender equity, 2015, p. 56.

[35]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 10.

[36]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 6.

[37]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 7.

[38]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 1.

[39]      COTA Australia, Submission  86, p. 12.

[40]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 11.

[41]      Australian Human Rights Commission,  Accumulating poverty? Women’s experiences of inequality over the lifecycle, 2009, p. 22.

[42]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, pp. 1–2.

[43]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 5.

[44]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 4.

[45]      Women's Health Goulburn North East and Women's Health in the North, Submission 5, p. 23.

[46]      Australian Institute of Family Studies, Submission 18, p. 29.

[47]      Dr Debra Parkinson, Manager, Research, Advocacy and Policy, Women's Health in the North, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 44.

[48]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 1.

[49]      Australian Institute of Family Studies, Submission 18, p. 26.

Chapter 3 - Narrowing the gender pay gap

[1]        Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 9.

[2]        Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 'Guide to gender pay equity: Practical steps to improve pay equity between women and men in your organisation', ', p. 5. https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/Pay_Equity_Toolkit_Main.pdf (accessed 15 April 2016).

[3]        Australian Services Union, Submission 81, p. 14.

[4]        Fair Work Ombudsman, 'Gender Pay Equity', https://www.fairwork.gov.au/how-we-will-help/templates-and-guides/best-practice-guides/gender-pay-equity (accessed 14 April 2016).

[5]        Document provided by the Australian Services Union following the public hearing held in Melbourne on 18 February 2016, p. 1.

[6]        Document provided by the Australian Services Union following the public hearing held in Melbourne on 18 February 2016, p. 1.

[7]        ACOSS, 'Analysis of FWA decision on ASU’s Equal Remuneration Order application for community sector workers, 1 February 2012', p. 2, http://www.acoss.org.au/images/uploads/ACOSS_analysis_PE_decision_1_Feb_2012.pdf (accessed 14 April 2016).

[8]        ACOSS, 'Analysis of FWA decision on ASU’s Equal Remuneration Order application for community sector workers, 1 February 2012', p. 1, http://www.acoss.org.au/images/uploads/ACOSS_analysis_PE_decision_1_Feb_2012.pdf (accessed 14 April 2016).

[9]        Document provided by the Australian Services Union following the public hearing held in Melbourne on 18 February 2016, p. 1.

[10]      Document provided by the Australian Services Union following the public hearing held in Melbourne on 18 February 2016, p. 1.

[11]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment and Workplace Relations, Making it Fair, Pay equity and associated issues related to increasing female participation in the workforce, November 2009, p. 119.

[12]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment and Workplace Relations, Making it Fair, Pay equity and associated issues related to increasing female participation in the workforce, November 2009, p. xv. See Document provided by the Australian Services Union following the public hearing held in Melbourne on 18 February 2016, p. 2.

[13]      Ms Linda White, Assistant National Secretary, Australian Services Union, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 37.

[14]      Document provided by the Australian Services Union following the public hearing held in Melbourne on 18 February 2016, p. 2.

[15]      Fair Work Commission, 'The Pay Equity Unit', https://www.fwc.gov.au/creating-fair-workplaces/research/pay-equity-research (accessed 14 April 2016).

[16]      Summary of the consultation meeting of the Association of Industrial Relations Academics of Australia and New Zealand (AIRAANZ) received on 8 March 2016, p. 1.

[17]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Investing in care: Recognising and valuing those who care, Volume 1: Research Report 2013, p. 38.

[18]      Ms Yolanda Beattie, Principle and Practice Leader, Diversity and Inclusion, Mercer, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 30.

[19]      Dr Gemma Munroe, Chief Executive Officer, Inkling Women, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 24.

[20]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 17; National Australia Bank, Submission 63, p. 11; Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 5.

[21]      Finance Sector Union, Submission 29, p. 4; Women's Health Goulburn North East and Women's Health in the North, Submission 5, p. xii.

[22]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 17.

[23]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 1.

[24]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 'New data to explore promotion rates of women and men', 31 March 2016, https://www.wgea.gov.au/media-releases/new-data-explore-promotion-rates-women-and-men (accessed 4 April 2016).

[25]      Ms Yolanda Beattie, Principle and Practice Leader, Diversity and Inclusion, Mercer, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 31.

[26]      Unions NSW, Submission 67, p. 16.

[27]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 'Men out-earn women by $27,000 a year: new data', 25 November 2015, https://www.wgea.gov.au/media-releases/men-out-earn-women-27000-year-new-data (accessed 4 April 2016).

[28]      Ms Libby Lyons, Director, Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 40.

[29]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 12.

[30]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 15.

[31]      Mercer, Submission 22, p. 3.

[32]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 17.

[33]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 16.

[34]      WIRE Women's Information and Referral Exchange, Submission 48, p. 20.

[35]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, pp. 32–33.

[36]      Ms Libby Lyons, Director, Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 40.

[37]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 15.

[38]      Ms Libby Lyons, Director, Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 40.

[39]      Women's Health Goulburn North East and Women's Health in the North, Submission 5, p. 53; Ms Veronica Black, National Coordinator, Organising and Development, Finance Sector Union, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2016, p. 9.

[40]      Ms Veronica Black, National Coordinator, Organising and Development, Finance Sector Union, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2016, p. 9.

[41]      Fair Work Amendment (Gender Pay Gap) Bill 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_LEGislation/Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=s1017 (accessed 5 April 2016).

[42]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 15, Education and Employment Legislation Committee's inquiry into the Fair Work Amendment (Gender Pay Gap) Bill 2015, p. 11.

[43]      Inkling Women, Submission 38, p. 4.

[44]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre and Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Gender Equity Insights 2016: Inside Australia's Gender Pay Gap, 2016, p. 61.

[45]      National Australia Bank, Submission 63, p. 11.

[46]      Dr Gemma Munroe, Chief Executive Officer, Inkling Women, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 24.

[47]      Inkling Women, Submission 38, p. 6.

[48]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, How to set gender diversity targets, Guidelines for setting and meeting targets to increase gender diversity in the workplace, 2013, p. 2, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/SETTING-GENDER-TARGETS-Online-accessible.pdf (accessed 18 April 2016).

[49]      Ms Melissa Donnelly, Deputy Secretary, Community and Public Sector Union, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 13.

[50]      Australian Public Service Commission, 'APSC News: fostering a flexible, efficient high performing APS', March 2016, http://www.apsc.gov.au/publications-and-media/current-publications/apsc-news/apsc-news-march-2016-fostering-a-flexible,-efficient,-high-performing-aps (accessed 1 April 2016).

Chapter 4 - Women's working experience

[1]        Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 3.

[2]        Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 4.

[3]        Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 3.

[4]        Australian Services Union, Submission 81, p. 12.

[5]        Professor Patricia Apps, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 28.

[6]        Dr Brendon Radford, Senior Policy Advisor, National Seniors, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 6.

[7]        Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 15.

[8]        Australian Human Right Commission, Supporting Working Parents: Pregnancy and Return to Work National Review—Report, 2014, p. 8.

[9]        Finance Sector Union, Submission 29, p. 4.

[10]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 4.

[11]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 17; Australian Human Right Commission, Supporting Working Parents: Pregnancy and Return to Work National Review—Report, 2014, p. 12.

[12]      Australian Human Right Commission, Submission 36, p. 2.

[13]      Australian Human Right Commission, Issues Willing to Work: Employment Discrimination against Older Australians and Australians with Disability—Issues Paper: Employment discrimination against older Australians, 2015, p.8,https://www.humanrights.gov.au/sites/default/files/document/publication/discussion-paper-age.pdf (accessed 30 March 2016)

[14]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 2.

[15]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 23.

[16]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 7.

[17]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 13.

[18]      Fair Work Ombudsman, 'Use of individual flexibility arrangements', https://www.fairwork.gov.au/how-we-will-help/templates-and-guides/best-practice-guides/use-of-individual-flexibility-arrangements (accessed 12 April 2016).

[19]      Fair Work Ombudsman, 'The right to request flexible working arrangements', https://www.fairwork.gov.au/how-we-will-help/templates-and-guides/best-practice-guides/the-right-to-request-flexible-working-arrangements (accessed 12 April 2016).

[20]      See for example, ACTU, Submission 69, pp. 13–14; Carers Australia, Submission 39, p. 18.

[21]      Ms Veronica Black, National Coordinator, Organising and Development, Finance Sector Union, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 11.

[22]      Ms Katie Biddlestone, National Women's Officer, Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees Association, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 31.

[23]      Ms Anna Morison, Senior Policy Officer, Carers Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 16.

[24]      Ms Kathryn Squires, Carer, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 15–16.

[25]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 6.

[26]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 6.

[27]      Ms Morison, Carers Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 16.

[28]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 11.

[29]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 4.

[30]      Mrs Andrea Slattery, Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer, SMSF Association, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 11.

[31]      Ms Yolanda Beattie, Principle and Practice Leader, Diversity and Inclusion, Mercer, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 32.

[32]      Mrs Andrea Slattery, Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer, SMSF Association, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 11.

[33]      OECD, Taxing Wages 2016—Special feature: Measuring the tax wedge on second earners, 12 April 2016, p. 32, http://www.oecd.org/ctp/tax-policy/taxing-wages-20725124.htm (accessed 13 April 2016).

[34]      Professor Miranda Stewart, Tax and Transfer Policy Institute, Australian National University, Submission 78, p. 6.

[35]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 6. See also BPW Coffs Harbour, Submission 34, p. 2.

[36]      Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 14.

[37]      WiSER, Curtin University, Submission 6, p. 8.

[38]      Dr Helen Hodgson, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 40.

[39]       Productivity Commission, Childcare and Early Childhood Learning: Inquiry Report Overview and Recommendations, No. 73, 31 October 2014, p. 53.

[40]      Ms Karen Volpato, Senior Policy Advisor, Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2016, p. 46.

[41]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 13.

[42]      National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, p. 20.

[43]      Mercer, Submission 22, p. 5.

[44]      Women's Health Goulburn North East and Women's Health in the North, Submission 5, p. xii.

[45]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women In Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 21.

[46]      Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Family Assistance Legislation Amendment (Jobs for Families Child Care Package) Bill 2015, 4 April 2016, p. 3.

[47]      St Vincent de Paul Society, Submission 17, p. 5.

[48]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 13.

[49]      Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 6.

[50]      Dr Brendon Radford, Senior Policy Advisor, National Seniors Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 9.

[51]      National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, p. 24.

[52]      See for example, Professor Miranda Stewart, Tax and Transfer Policy Institute, Australian National University, Submission 78, p. 6; Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76,
p. 7.

[53]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 31.

[54]      Explanatory Memorandum, Fairer Paid Parental Leave Bill 2015, p. 1.

[55]      See for example: Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 7; Finance Sector Union, Submission 29, p. 5; Unions NSW, Submission 67, p. 8.

[56]      Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 7. See also Finance Sector Union, Submission 29, p. 5.

[57]      Police Federation of Australia, Submission 52, p. 3.

[58]      Financial Services Council, Submission 57, p. 3.

[59]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, pp. 14–15.

[60]      Unions NSW, Submission 67, p. 5.

[61]      Australian Parliamentary Library, Bill Digest No. 12, 2015–16: Fairer Paid Parental Leave Bill 2015, 19 August 2015, p. 8, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/bd/bd1516a/16bd012 (accessed 15 April 2016).

[62]      Judith Ireland, 'Expectant mothers given short-term reprieve', Sydney Morning Herald, 6 April 2016.

[63]      Inkling Women, Submission 38, p. 6.

[64]      Dad and Partner Pay is available to working fathers and partners. On eligibility, see Department of Human Services, 'Eligibility for Dad and Partner Pay', https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/eligibility-dad-and-partner-pay (accessed 27 April 2016).

[65]      National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, pp. 18–19. See also, The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 5.

[66]      Dr Helen Hodgson, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 41.

[67]      Australian Human Right Commission, Supporting Working Parents: Pregnancy and Return to Work National Review—Report, 2014, p. 8.

[68]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 6.

[69]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 22.

[70]      NSW Council of Social Service (NCOSS), Submission 68, p. 13.

[71]      Dr Brendon Radford, Senior Policy Advisor, National Seniors, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 4.

[72]      National Australia Bank, Submission 63, p. 3.

[73]      Department of Employment, 'Restart—help to employer mature age workers', https://www.employment.gov.au/restart-help-employ-mature-workers-0 (accessed  4 April 2016)

[74]      Ms Susan McGrath, National Policy Manager, COTA Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 4.

[75]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, COTA Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 5.

[76]      Professor Miranda Stewart, Tax and Transfer Policy Institute, Australian National University, Submission 78, p. 7.

[77]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, COTA Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 7.

[78]      Professor Miranda Stewart, Tax and Transfer Policy Institute, Australian National University, Submission 78—Attachment 1, p. 12.

[79]      Professor Miranda Stewart, Tax and Transfer Policy Institute, Australian National University, Submission 78—Attachment 1, p. 11.

[80]      Professor Miranda Stewart, Tax and Transfer Policy Institute, Australian National University, Submission 78—Attachment 1, pp. 11–12.

[81]      Carers Australia, Submission 39, p. 6.

[82]      Department of Social Security, '3.6.4.70 Changes to Carer Situation—Effect on CP Qualification Guide to Social Security Law Version 1.220', http://guides.dss.gov.au/guide-social-security-law/3/6/4/70 (accessed 4 April 2016).

[83]      Ms Anna Morison, Senior Policy Officer, Carers Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 17.

Chapter 5 - Australia's retirement income system

[1]        See for example, National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, p. 2; COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 4; Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 4.

[2]        COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 4.

[3]        Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, pp. 4–5, 6.

[4]        Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 16.

[5]        National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, p. 2.

[6]        Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 44.

[7]        COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 4.

[8]        COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 4.

[9]        Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 4.

[10]      National Foundation for Australian Women, Submission 14, p. 2.

[11]      Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 2.

[12]      Professor Siobhan Austen, WiSER, Curtin University, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 29.

[13]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, COTA Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 5.

[14]      Professor Siobhan Austen, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 29.

[15]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 4.

[16]      Ms Mary Delahunty, HESTA, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 9.

[17]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 8.

[18]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 8.

[19]      Emily Millane, Getting the Measure of the Problem: Retirement income standards and real adequacy, CAPPA Centre for Applied Policy in Positive Ageing, November 2015, p. 5.

[20]      Emily Millane, Getting the Measure of the Problem: Retirement income standards and real adequacy, CAPPA Centre for Applied Policy in Positive Ageing, November 2015, p. 9.

[21]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 18.

[22]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 18.

[23]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 19.

[24]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, 'ASFA Retirement Standard', 2015, p. 3, available at http://www.superannuation.asn.au/resources/retirement-standard (accessed 18 April 2016).

[25]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, 'ASFA Retirement Standard', 2015, p. 3, available at http://www.superannuation.asn.au/resources/retirement-standard (accessed 18 April 2016).

[26]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, 'ASFA Retirement Standard', 2015, p. 4, available at http://www.superannuation.asn.au/resources/retirement-standard (accessed 18 April 2016).

[27]      Dr Diana Warren, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 4.

[28]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 4.

[29]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—Attachment 1, p. 20.

[30]      Emily Millane, Getting the Measure of the Problem: Retirement income standards and real adequacy, CAPPA Centre for Applied Policy in Positive Ageing, November 2015, p. 18.

[31]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 21.

[32]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 21.

[33]      Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 16.

[34]      Ms Sarah Saunders, Deputy Chief Executive, National Seniors Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 3.

[35]      Dr Diana Warren, 'Historical development and recent reforms', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, p. 33.

[36]      Ms Sarah Saunders, Deputy Chief Executive, National Seniors Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 3.

[37]      Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PwC Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 16.

[38]      Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PwC Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 16.

[39]      New Zealand Commission for Financial Capability, 'Retirement Income Policy', http://www.cffc.org.nz/retirement/retirement-policy/ (accessed 4 April 2016).

[40]      Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PwC Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 16.

[41]      The Australian Government the Treasury, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. 99.

[42]      Ms Mary Delahunty, HESTA, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 9.

[43]      Victorian Women's Trust, Submission 33, p. 3.

[44]      Carers Australia, Submission 39, p. 15.

[45]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 4.

[46]      See for example, WiSER - Curtin University, Submission 6, p. 14; HESTA, Submission 59, p. 13; The McKell Institute, Submission 53, p. 8.

[47]      The Queensland Nurses’ Union, Submission 42, p. 5.

[48]      HESTA, Submission 59, pp. 11–12.

[49]      HESTA, Submission 59, pp. 11–12.

[50]      Carers Australia, Submission 39, p. 15.

[51]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, pp. 5–6.

[52]      See for example, Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 7; Financial Planning Association of Australia, Submission 49, p. 3; Carers Australia, Submission 39, p. 15.

[53]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 2.

[54]      Mr Daley, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Capital Stewardship Officer, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2016, p. 20.

[55]      See for example, Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 6; Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 6; COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 11.

[56]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 11.

[57]      Financial Services Council, Submission 57, p. 3.

[58]      The McKell Institute, Submission 53, p. 14.

[59]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 10.

[60]      Community and Public Sector Union, Submission 55, p. 17.

[61]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 42.

Chapter 6 - Superannuation

[1]        Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 4.

[2]        Australian Institute of Family Studies, Submission 18, p. 13. A similar point was made by Mercer. See Ms Yolanda Beattie, Principle and Practice Leader, Diversity and Inclusion, Mercer Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 28.

[3]        Treasury, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. 95.

[4]        Treasury, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. 12.

[5]        Treasury, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. 6.

[6]        Treasury, webpage, 'Objective of Superannuation', 9 March 2016, http://www.treasury.gov.au/ConsultationsandReviews/Consultations/2016/Objective-of-superannuation, accessed 13 April 2016. 

[7]        Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 5.

[8]        Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 20.

[9]        In a broad sense, the evidence received by the committee in this regard echoed the finding of the Financial Systems Inquiry Final Report (November 2014) that tax concessions in the superannuation system 'are not well targeted at improving retirement incomes'. Treasury, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. 90.

[10]      Dr Helen Hodgson, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 36.

[11]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia,  Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 10.

[12]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 23.

[13]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 35.

[14]      ACTU, Submission 69, p. 7.  See also Ms Gerardine Kearney, President, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 17.

[15]      Mr Michael John Rice, CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 43.

[16]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 2.

[17]      For example, Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61 (Attachment 1), pp. 46–47; Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 8; Darebin City Council, Submission 19, p. 3; AI Group, Submission 47, pp. 6–7; Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 33; Dr Cassandra Goldie, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Council of Social Service, Proof Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 33; Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 16; Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, COTA Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 6–7; Mr David Robert Richardson, Senior Research Fellow, The Australia Institute, Proof Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 13.

[18]      ATO, webpage, 'Low income super contribution', https://www.ato.gov.au/Individuals/Super/In-detail/Growing/Low-income-super-contribution/, accessed 8 April 2016.

[19]      Financial Services Council, Submission 57, p. 5.

[20]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Submission 84, p. 5.

[21]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 10.

[22]      The Australia Institute, Submission 8, p. 9.

[23]      Mercer, Submission 22, p. 8.

[24]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, pp. 10–11.

[25]      For example, in addition to the sources cited below, also see Australian Education Union, Submission 26, p. 9; National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, p. 27; National Australia Bank, Submission 63, p. 5; Association of Financial Advisors, Submission 77, p. 8; COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 10; Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 4; Ms Annie Butler, Assistant Federal Secretary, Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 3; Mrs Andrea Slattery, Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer, SMSF Association, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 7; Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 15.

[26]      BT Financial Group, Submission 60, p. 3.

[27]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, pp. 10–11, 13.

[28]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 23.

[29]      Ms Mary Delahunty, General Manager, Business Development, HESTA, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 9.

[30]      Mr Damian Hill, Chief Executive Officer, REST Industry Super, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 20.

[31]      Ms Louise du Pre-Alba, Head of Policy, AustralianSuper, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 38.

[32]      Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 29.

[33]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 5.

[34]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, pp. 2–3.

[35]      Mr Blake Briggs, Senior Policy Manager, Superannuation, Financial Services Council, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 25.

[36]      Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 30.

[37]      BT Financial Group, Submission 60, p. 4.

[38]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 26.

[39]      Ms Jane Hume, Senior Policy Adviser, AustralianSuper, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 38.

[40]      Ms Jane Hume, Senior Policy Adviser, AustralianSuper, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 38.

[41]      Ms Sally Loane, Chief Executive Officer, Financial Services Council, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 22–23.

[42]      Ms Sally Loane, Chief Executive Officer, Financial Services Council, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 23.

[43]      See, for example, Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 11; SMSF Association, Submission 83, p. 3; UnitingCare Australia, Submission 9, p. 4; Australian Education Union, Submission 26, p. 14; Mrs Andrea Slattery, Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer, SMSF Association, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 7.

[44]      REST Industry Super, Submission 40, p. 6; COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 11. 

[45]      AI Group, Submission 47, p. 7.

[46]      AI Group, Submission 47, p. 7.

[47]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 2.

[48]      Dr Helen Hodgson, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 40.

[49]      Both sides in this debate made a distinction between a mandatory SG premium for female employees and the arrangements some employers have voluntarily put in place to make higher superannuation contributions to their female employees. The voluntary employer schemes in question are discussed separately in the next chapter.

[50]      Mr Brian Daley, Capital Stewardship Officer, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 19.

[51]      Ms Gerardine Kearney, President, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 19. A number of other unions and union representatives also argued that the SG rate should be 2 per cent higher for women. See, for example, National Tertiary Education Union, Submission 20, p. 9; Australian Education Union, Submission 26, p. 14; Dr Kristin Van Barneveld, Director of Research, Community and Public Sector Union, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 14.

[52]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 19.

[53]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 23.

[54]      Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 16.

[55]      Mr Marco Feltrin, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 17.

[56]      Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 15.

[57]      Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 34.

[58]      Ms Fiona Galbraith, Director of Policy, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 36.

[59]      Ms Gerardine Kearney, President, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 19.

[60]      Australian Taxation Office, 'Working out if you have to pay super', 1 June 2015, https://www.ato.gov.au/Business/Super-for-employers/Working-out-if-you-have-to-pay-super/  (accessed 9 February 2016).

[61]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 16.

[62]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 20.

[63]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA), Submission 84, p. 7; Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 28.

[64]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA), Submission 84, p. 8.

[65]      Ms Louise de Pre-Alba, Head of Policy, AustralianSuper, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 39.

[66]      Ms Annie Butler, Assistant Federal Secretary, Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 7

[67]      Mr Nick Blake, Senior Federal Industrial Officer, Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation, Proof Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 7. HESTA made a similar point about the effect of the $450 threshold on workers in the health and community services sector. Ms Mary Delahunty, General Manager, Business Development, HESTA, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 9–10.

[68]      See, for example, Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 36, p. 6; Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, p. 6; Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 31; and COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 6; Ms Gerardine Kearney, President, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 17; Ms Kasy Chambers, Executive Director, Anglicare Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 26; Mr Gerald Dwyer, National Secretary-Treasurer, Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees Association, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 29.

[69]      ACTU, Submission 69, p. 8; Mercer, Submission 22, p. 8.

[70]      Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 47.

[71]      ATO, webpage, 'The self-employed', https://www.ato.gov.au/Business/Super-for-employers/Working-out-if-you-have-to-pay-super/The-self-employed/, accessed 11 April 2016.

[72]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, pp. 21–22

[73]      See, for example, Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 20.

[74]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 22.

[75]      Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 28.

[76]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA), Submission 84, p. 9.

[77]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA), Submission 84, p. 10.

[78]      Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA), Submission 84, p. 10.

[79]      Mrs Andrea Slattery, Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer, SMSF Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, pp. 8–9.

[80]      ATO, webpage, Super related tax offsets, accessed 6 April 2016, https://www.ato.gov.au/individuals/income-and-deductions/offsets-and-rebates/super-related-tax-offsets/.

[81]      AustralianSuper, 'Split your super contributions with your spouse', https://www.australiansuper.com/~/media/Files/Forms/Split%20your%20super%20contributions%20with%20your%20spouse.ashx, accessed 6 April 2016.

[82]      PwC Australia, Submission 23, p. 3.

[83]      Women Lawyers' Association SA, Submission 31, p. [4].

[84]      National Seniors, Submission 62, p. 3; The McKell Institute, Submission 53, p. 6.

[85]      Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 31; Mr Michael John Rice, CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 45.

[86]      Ms Joyce Phillips, Chief Executive Officer, ANZ Global Wealth, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 7.

[87]      Mrs Pauline Taylor, Submission 37, p. [4].

[88]      Mercer, Submission 22, p. 14; Women in Super, Submission 50, pp. 21–22; Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 47.

[89]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 15.

[90]      Ms Ailsa Goodwin, Senior Manager, Regulatory Policy, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 15.

[91]      Dr Helen Hodgson, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 37–38.

[92]      Dr Cassandra Goldie, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Council of Social Service, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 33.

[93]      UnitingCare Australia, Submission 9, p. 4.

[94]      Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Submission 64, p. 3.

[95]      Productivity Commission, Superannuation Policy for Post-Retirement, Research Paper Volume 1: Chapters, July 2015, p. 76.

[96]      Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 31.

[97]      Productivity Commission, Superannuation Policy for Post-Retirement, Research Paper Volume 1: Chapters, July 2015, p. 75.

[98]      The Treasury, 'Review of Retirement Income Stream Regulation', 21 July 2014,   http://www.treasury.gov.au/ConsultationsandReviews/Consultations/2014/Review-of-retirement-income-stream-regulation (accessed 9 February 2016).

Chapter 7 - Voluntary superannuation contributions, co-contribution schemes and employer schemes

[1]        ATO, webpage, 'Contributions cap', https://www.ato.gov.au/Rates/key-superannuation-rates-and-thresholds/?page=2, accessed 11 April 2016. Concessional contributions include employer SG contributions, employer contributions made through a salary sacrifice arrangement, and personal contributions claimed as a tax deduction by a self-employed person.

[2]        BT Financial Group, Submission 60, p. 4.

[3]        Association of Financial Advisors, Submission 77, p. 7.

[4]        Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Submission 64, p. 8.

[5]        PwC Australia, Submission 23, p. 2.

[6]        Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA), Submission 84, p. 4.

[7]        Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA), Submission 84, p. 4.

[8]        Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 28.

[9]        Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 35.

[10]      Dr Helen Hodgson, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, pp. 36–37.

[11]      Mrs Andrea Slattery, Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer, SMSF Association, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 7; Mr Jordan George, Head of Policy, SMSF Association Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, pp. 10–11.

[12]      Dr David Knox, Senior Partner and Senior Actuary, Mercer Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 29.

[13]      Simon Benson, 'Superannuation special, Treasurer Scott Morrison moves to plug savings gender gap', Daily Telegraph, 26 October 2015, http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/superannuation-special-treasurer-scott-morrison-moves-to-plug-savings-gender-gap/news-story/c5dc0f2d5a3b2eedbd129e2dc7ae0ae8?= (accessed 9 February 2016).

[14]      Ms Louise du Pre-Alba, Head of Policy, AustralianSuper, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 42.

[15]      Mrs Louise Arnfield, National President, Finance Sector Union of Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, pp. 14–15. A similar point was made by Women in Super. Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 24. Also see Professor Miranda Stewart, Submission 78, p. 5.

[16]      Ms Lisa Samuels, Executive, Marketing Strategy, HESTA, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 14.

[17]      Ms Katie Biddlestone, National Women's Officer, Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees Association, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, pp. 34–35; Dr Kristin Van Barneveld, Director of Research, Community and Public Sector Union, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 14; Ms Linda White, Assistant National Secretary, Australian Services Union Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 38.

[18]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, pp. 47–48.

[19]      Dr Cassandra Goldie, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Council of Social Service, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 33.

[20]      Financial Services Council, Submission 57, p. 3.

[21]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 3.

[22]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 6.

[23]      Mr James O'Halloran, Deputy Commissioner Superannuation, Australian Taxation Office, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 45.

[24]      Australian Taxation Office, 'Super co-contribution', 26 November 2015, https://www.ato.gov.au/individuals/super/in-detail/growing/super-co-contribution/ (accessed 9 February 2016).

[25]      Ms Jane Hume, Senior Policy Adviser, AustralianSuper, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 39.

[26]      Ms Jane Hume, Senior Policy Adviser, AustralianSuper, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, pp. 39.

[27]      Mrs Pauline Taylor, Submission 37, p. [2]. The Tasmanian Women's Council also recommended increasing the maximum government contribution back to $1500. Tasmanian Women's Council, Submission 28, pp. 5–6.

[28]      Australian Institute of Family Studies, Submission 18, p. 17.

[29]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 4.

[30]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 4n14.

[31]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 39.

[32]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 5.

[33]      Industry Super Australia, Submission 74, p. 39. This proposal was supported by ACTU, Submission 69, p. 10; National Education Union, Submission 26, p. 14; and Unions NSW, Submission 67, pp. 11–12.

[34]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, pp. 15–16.

[35]      ANZ Wealth, Submission 89, p. 3; Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 41.

[36]      Ms Joyce Phillips, Chief Executive Officer, ANZ Global Wealth, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 2.

[37]      Ms Joyce Phillips, Chief Executive Officer, ANZ Global Wealth, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 4.

[38]      Ms Melissa Fuller, Deputy CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 45.

[39]      Ms Melissa Fuller, Deputy CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, pp. 43–44.

[40]      Mr Michael John Rice, CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 47.

[41]      Ms Melissa Fuller, Deputy CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 44

[42]      Mr Michael John Rice, CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 46.

[43]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 11.

[44]      Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 36.

[45]      Ms Melissa Fuller, Deputy CEO, Rice Warner, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 44. Also see Rice Warner, Submission 82, pp. 36–37.

[46]      Ms Sally Loane, Chief Executive Officer, Financial Services Council, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 24.

[47]      Mr Blake Briggs, Senior Policy Manager, Superannuation, Financial Services Council, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 24. Also see Financial Services Council, Submission 57, pp. 4–5.

[48]      Ms Veronica Black, National Coordinator, Organising and Development, Finance Sector Union of Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 15.

[49]      See for example, The McKell Institute, Submission 53, p. 8; Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Submission 84, pp. 8–9; Ms Katie Biddlestone, National Women's Officer, Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees Association, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 35.

Chapter 8 - The Age Pension

[1]        Treasury, 2015 Intergenerational Report: Australia in 2055, March 2015, p. 65. Housing is sometimes considered the 'fourth pillar' in the system. Se, for example, Ms Catherine Nance, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 18.

[2]        Treasury, 2015 Intergenerational Report: Australia in 2055, March 2015, p. 65.

[3]        COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 11.

[4]        Ms Susan McGrath, National Policy Manager, COTA Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 1

[5]        Ms Joyce Phillips, Chief Executive Officer, ANZ Global Wealth, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 1.

[6]        Treasury, 2015 Intergenerational Report: Australia in 2055, March 2015, pp. 66–67. 

[7]        Australian Education Union, Submission 26, p. 7.

[8]        Australian Education Union, Submission 26, p. 7.

[9]        Ms Kate Minter, Research Officer, Unions NSW, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 32.

[10]      Dr Diana Warren, Research Fellow, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 2.

[11]      Ms Kasy Chambers, Executive Director, Anglicare Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 24.

[12]      Associate Professor Siobhan Austen, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 27.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 29.

[14]      WiSER - Curtin University, Submission 6, p. 17.

[15]      Associate Professor Siobhan Austen, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 28.

[16]      The Australia Institute, Submission 8, p. 8.

[17]      The Hon Scott Morrison MP, media release, 'Fairer access to a more sustainable pension', 7 May 2015, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15866/fairer-access-to-a-more-sustainable-pension/.

[18]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 15. The ACTU made a similar point. Mr Brian Daley, Capital Stewardship Officer, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 18.

[19]      Ms Robbie Campo, Deputy Chief Executive, Industry Super Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 17.

[20]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, pp. 19–20.

[21]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, pp. 19–20.

[22]      Dr David Knox, Senior Partner and Senior Actuary, Mercer Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 27, 33.

[23]      Department of Human Services, 'Age Pension', Department of Human Services, webpage, 'Increase the Age Pension qualifying age to 70 years', https://www.humanservices.gov.au/corporate/budget/budget-2014-15/budget-measures/older-australians/increase-age-pension-qualifying-age-70-years, accessed 12 April 2016.

[24]      Dr Debra Frances Parkinson, Manager, Research, Advocacy and Policy, Women’s Health in the North, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 44.

[25]      Ms Gerardine Kearney, President, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, pp. 18–19.

[26]      Department of Human Services, 'Newstart Allowance', last updated 18 March 2016, https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/newstart-allowance (accessed 20 April 2016).

[27]      Department of Human Services, ' Payment rates for Age Pension', last updated 20 March 2016, https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/payment-rates-age-pension (accessed 20 April 2016).

[28]      Ms Kasy Chambers, Executive Director, Anglicare Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 25.

[29]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 13.

[30]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, pp. 13–14.

[31]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 12.

[32]      Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 12; Mr Michael John Rice, CEO, Rice Warner,
Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 43.

[33]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p. 5. Also see, for example, Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 30.

[34]      Department of Social Security, 'Pension Rates', https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/seniors/benefits-payments/pension-rates, accessed 7 April 2016.

[35]      The Hon Scott Morrison MP, media release, 'Fairer access to a more sustainable pension', 7 May 2015, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15866/fairer-access-to-a-more-sustainable-pension/.

[36]      Australian Education Union, Submission 26, p. 7.

[37]      Dr Cassandra Goldie, Chief Executive Officer, Australian Council of Social Service, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 32.

[38]      Ms Linda White, Assistant National Secretary, Australian Services Union Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 38.

[39]      National Seniors Australia, Submission 62, p. 15.

[40]      Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 69, p. 12.

Chapter 9 - Housing and economic security in retirement

[1]        Sarah-Jane Derby, 'CEDA overview', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, p. 20.

[2]        Australian Institute of Family Studies, Submission 18, p. 23.

[3]        Australian Institute of Family Studies, Submission 18, p. 23.

[4]        A recent Productivity Commission report suggested that about 15 per cent of older Australians are renters rather than homeowners. Productivity Commission, Housing Decisions of Older Australians: Research Paper, December 2015, pp. 8–9.

[5]        Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61—attachment 1, p. 13.

[6]        Quoted in National Foundation for Australian Women, Submission 14, pp. 9–10.

[7]        National Foundation for Australian Women, Submission 14, p. 3.

[8]        Senate Economics References Committee, Out of Reach?: The Australian housing affordability challenge, May 2015, p. 274.

[9]        Ms Kasy Chambers, Executive Director, Anglicare Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 25.

[10]      UnitingCare, Submission 9, p. 10.

[11]      Mercy Foundation, Submission 24, p. 3.

[12]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive Officer, COTA Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 2.

[13]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 14.

[14]      Ms Kasy Chambers, Executive Director, Anglicare Australia, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 25.

[15]      Other recommendations included a recommendation from Women's Health Goulburn North East and Women's Health in the North that the government research and subsidise cooperative living arrangements. Women's Health Goulburn North East and Women's Health in the North, Submission 5, p. xii.

[16]      Senate Economics References Committee, Out of Reach?: The Australian housing affordability challenge, May 2015, pp. 275–277.

[17]      Senate Economics References Committee, Out of Reach?: The Australian housing affordability challenge, May 2015, p. 291.

[18]      Senate Economics References Committee, Out of Reach?: The Australian housing affordability challenge, May 2015, p. 7.

[19]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 16.

[20]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 16.

[21]      Dr Helen Hodgson, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Committee Hansard, 19 November 2015, p. 40.

[22]      Senate Economics References Committee, Out of Reach?: The Australian housing affordability challenge, May 2015, p. 375.

[23]      Mercy Foundation, Submission 24, p. 4; Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 61; NSW Council of Social Service, Submission 68; COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 12; Grattan Institute, Submission 87.

[24]      ACOSS, Submission 61–Attachment 1, p. 5.

[25]      For further information see chapter 16, Senate Economics References Committee, Out of Reach?: The Australian housing affordability challenge, May 2015.

[26]      COTA Australia, Submission 86, p. 12.

[27]      Grattan Institute, Submission 87, p.7.

[28]      Senate Economics References Committee, Out of Reach?: The Australian housing affordability challenge, May 2015, p. 394.

[29]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 16.

[30]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 16.

[31]      Productivity Commission, Housing Decisions of Older Australians: Research Paper, December 2015, p. 24. The Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia publishes the income levels necessary to meet particular living standards in retirement, available at http://www.superannuation.asn.au/resources/retirement-standard

[32]      Productivity Commission, Housing Decisions of Older Australians: Research Paper, December 2015, p. 24.

[33]      Productivity Commission, Housing Decisions of Older Australians: Research Paper, December 2015, p. 170.

[34]      UnitingCare Australia, Submission 9, p. 6.

[35]      Productivity Commission, Housing Decisions of Older Australians: Research Paper, December 2015, p. 170.

[36]      Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Submission 80, p. 29.

[37]      Professor Miranda Stewart, Tax and Transfer Policy Institute, Australian National University, Submission 78, p. 4.

[38]      Professor Alan Duncan, Director, Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, p. 24.

[39]      The Australia Institute, Submission 8, p. 10.

[40]      Productivity Commission, Housing Decisions of Older Australians: Research Paper, December 2015, p. 168.

Chapter 10 - Financial literacy

[1]        Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 6.

[2]        Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, Women in Super, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 24.

[3]        Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 19.

[4]        Victorian Women's Trust, Submission 33, p. 6.

[5]        Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees, Submission 45, pp. 24–25.

[6]        Victorian Women's Trust, Submission 33, p. 7.

[7]        See for example, Premier's Council for Women, Government of South Australia, Submission 10, p. 2; Mercer, Submission 22, p. 6; Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 18.

[8]        Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 8.

[9]        Mr Marco Feltrin, Partner, PwC Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 16–17.

[10]      The Hon Susan Ryan AO, Age and Disability Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 12 February 2016, pp. 6.

[11]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 3, p. 3.

[12]      McKell Institute, Submission 53, p. 19.

[13]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 19.

[14]      Australian Taxation Office, 'Women and Super', https://www.ato.gov.au/About-ATO/Access,-accountability-and-reporting/Informing-the-community/Our-effectiveness/Fostering-willing-participation/Women-and-super/ (accessed 15 April 2016)

[15]      Australian Taxation Office, 'The 5-step check', https://www.ato.gov.au/individuals/super/in-detail/keeping-track/your-5-step-super-check/?anchor=Step_check#Step_check (accessed 15 April 2016)

[16]      ASIC, 'Superannuation & Women', https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/life-events-and-you/women/superannuation-and-women, (accessed 15 April 2016).

[17]      Ms Pauline Vamos, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 October 2015, p. 32.

[18]      Women in Super, Submission 50, p. 18.

[19]      Association of Financial Advisors, Submission 77, p. 13.

[20]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 13.

[21]      National Australia Bank, Submission 63, p. 10; Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Submission 64, p. 11.

[22]      Rice Warner, Submission 82, p. 31.

[23]      Australian Service Union, Submission 81, p. 7.

[24]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 70, p. 3.

Chapter 11 - Achieving dignity and economic security in retirement

[1]        Dr Diana Warren, 'Historical development and recent reforms', in Committee for Economic Development of Australia, The Super Challenge of retirement income policy, September 2015, p. 26.

[2]        Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Submission 79, p. 5.

[3]        Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre and Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Gender Equity Insights 2016: Inside Australia's Gender Pay Gap, 2016, p. 13.

[4]        Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 3.

[5]        Women and Work Research Group, Submission 76, p. 4.

[6]        Department of Employment, 'Restart—help to employer mature age workers', https://www.employment.gov.au/restart-help-employ-mature-workers-0 (accessed  4 April 2016)

[7]        Ms Mary Delahunty, HESTA, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 9.

[8]        Ms Mary Delahunty, HESTA, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 9.

[9]        The Treasury, 'Review of Retirement Income Stream Regulation', 21 July 2014,   http://www.treasury.gov.au/ConsultationsandReviews/Consultations/2014/Review-of-retirement-income-stream-regulation (accessed 9 February 2016).

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