Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]           Mr Mark Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, pp. 516-7.

[2]           Toni Pfanner, head of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Jakarta, 19 September 1999.

[3]           Mark Riley, Mark Dodd and agencies, ‘They’re free to go home, Alatas vows’ The Sydney Morning Herald, 29 September 1999.

[4]           Budget forecasts of the net cost of sending Australian troops to East Timor were: 1999-00 - $897 million; 2000-01 - $898 million; 2001-02 - $721 million; 2002-03 - $679 million; 2003-04 - $686 million; United Nations total reimbursement - $372 million.  Total net cost to Australia $2,984 million.  Budget papers, 9 May 2000, reported by AAP.

[5]           Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 991.

[6]           Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 991.

[7]           UNTAET briefing, 11 April 2000.

[8]           Barry Wain, ‘Will Justice be served in East Timor?’, The Asian Wall Street Journal, 17 April 2000.

[9]           Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 992.

Chapter 2 - Economic and social development

[1]           This section, unless otherwise indicated, is drawn from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and AusAID submission, no. 52, pp. 25-31. A similar presentation on the economy of East Timor was made by João Mariano Saldanha, Executive Director, and Helder da Costa, Director, Economy and Technology, East Timor Study Group, submission no. 70.

[2]           DFAT, submission no. 52, p. 25.

[3]           DFAT, submission no. 52, p. 26.

[4]           Jill Joliffe and Louise Williams, ‘Old colonist Portugal throws financial lifeline to E Timor’, Sydney Morning Herald, http://www.smh.com.au/news9902/25/text/pageone12.html (18 June 1999)

[5]           DFAT, submission no. 52, p. 26.

[6]           DFAT, submission no. 52, p. 27.

[7]           Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 62.

[8]           DFAT, submission no. 52, p. 27.

[9]           Shawn Donnan, ‘Coffee is the key’, The Financial Times, 5 April 2000.

[10]         Wilson da Silva, ‘Timor Ire at Coffee Tax’, Australian Financial Review, 29 February 2000.

[11]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 997.

[12]         Mark Dodd, ‘Fine coffee offers sweet smell of trading success’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 28 February 2000.

[13]         UNTAET press briefing, ‘UN establishes East Timor’s first tax system’, 14 March 2000; Eduardo Lachica, ‘East Timor creates a financial system’, The Wall Street Journal, 16 March 2000.

[14]         Wilson da Silva, ‘Timor Ire at Coffee Tax’, Australian Financial Review, 29 February 2000; Shawn Donnan, ‘Coffee is the key’, The Financial Times, 5 April 2000.

[15]         DFAT, submission no. 52, p. 29.

[16]         UNTAET Daily Briefing, 14 August 2000.

[17]         Ian Timberlake, ‘Portuguese bank opens first operations in ruined East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 29 November 1999.

[18]         UNTAET Publication Information Office press briefing, 24 January 2000.

[19]         ‘Australian company starts Darwin-Dili commercial air service’, Dow Jones Newswires, 19 January 2000.

[20]         ‘Qantas to fly to Timor four times a week’, AAP, 14 April 2000; ‘Qantas flies into East Timor’, Associated Press, 4 May 2000.

[21]         UNTAET Daily Briefing, 1 May 2000; Mark Dodd, ‘Post office’s stamp of success’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 May 2000.

[22]         Arnold Zeitlin, ‘East Timor Press Struggles to Emerge’, The Freedom Forum Online, 21 February 2000.

[23]         UNTAET Daily Briefing, 14 August 2000.

[24]         Dr Murfet, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 524.

[25]         ‘UNTAET wants to restore Timor land records’, Malaysian National News Agency, 28 April 2000.

[26]         David Nason, ‘Barrister to rule on who owns Timor’s land’, The Australian, 23 May 2000.

[27]         Mr Guterres, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 936.

[28]         Lindsay Murdoch, ‘Soeharto family to Timor lands’, The Age, 30 March 1999.

[29]         ‘Gusmao Calls on Indonesians to Invest in East Timor’, Asia Pulse, 1 May 2000.

[30]         Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 55.

[31]         Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 56.

[32]         Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 60.

[33]         AusAid, submission no. 52, p. 17.

[34]         Mercy Hospital for Women, submission no. 65, p. 5.

[35]         Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 23.

[36]         Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 23.

[37]         AusAid, submission no. 52, p. 17.

[38]         UNTAET Daily Briefing, 24 March 2000

[39]         Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 59.

[40]         Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 60.

[41]         Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 61.

[42]         Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 21.

[43]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 635.

[44]         AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 18.

[45]         AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 18.

[46]         AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 18.

[47]         AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 18.

[48]         AusAID, submission no. 52, p.18.

[49]         APHEDA, submission no. 67, p. 1.

[50]         Mary MacKillop Institute for East Timorese Studies, submission no. 59, p. 12.

[51]         Sister Connelly, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 686.

[52]         Sister Connelly, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 686.

[53]         Sister Connelly, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 686.

[54]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 634.

[55]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 647.

[56]         UNTAET Daily Briefing, 23 March 2000.

[57]         Mark Dodd, ‘Rebuilding Timor’s education system’, The Age, 27 April 2000.

[58]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 634.

[59]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 644.

[60]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 635.

[61]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 639; East Timor Strategic Development Planning Conference Results, Melbourne, April 1999, pp. 38-9.

[62]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 639.

[63]         Ms Tate, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 647.

[64]         Emma Macdonald, ‘Australian pledge to repair schools’, The Canberra Times, 4 April 2000

[65]         ‘Victorian Government helps to kickstart education in East Timor’, Government of Victoria Media Release, 11 August 2000.

[66]         Mark Dodd, ‘Australian teachers may help in Timor’, The Age, 15 August 2000.

[67]         Dr Shoesmith, Committee Hansard, 9 September 1999, p. 442.

[68]         Dr Shoesmith, Committee Hansard, 9 September 1999, p. 441.

[69]         Dr Shoesmith, Committee Hansard, 9 September 1999, p. 442.

[70]         Lt. Gen. Sanderson, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 520.

[71]         Lt. Gen Sanderson, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 532.

[72]         Mr Plunkett, submission no. 92; Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 515.

[73]         Ms Downie, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 959.

[74]         Ms Downie, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 960.

[75]         Jeff Shaw, ‘Establishing rule of law in Dili’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 April 2000. UNTAET Regulation No. 1999/1 ‘On the Authority of the Transitional Administration in East Timor’, 27 November 1999.

[76]         Ambassador Justo da Silva, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 269.

[77]         ‘East Timor chooses Portuguese as official language’, Associated Press, 14 February 2000. On 12 April 2000, in Dili, a contribution agreement for $US 50 million over four years to the Trust Fund for East Timor  (TFET) was signed by Luis Amado, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of the Republic of Portugal, and Jemal-ud-din Kassum, World Bank Vice President for East Asia and the Pacific Region (‘Portugal gives $50 million’, World Bank, 12 April 2000).

[78]         ‘Portugal to Spend Euros 225 Million over next 3 Years, says FM Gama’, Lusa, 13 December 1999.

[79]         ‘Portugal to double East Timor aid’, ABC News Online, 14 June 2000.

[80]         Xanana Gusmão and José Ramos Horta, ‘New nation has passed the test’, The Australian, 30 August 2000.

[81]         Ian Timberlake, ‘Portuguese bank opens first operations in ruined East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 29 November 1999; Hubert Laverne, ‘Portugal moves back into East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 3 December 1999; ‘Escudo shunned as East Timor demands US dollars’, The News Weekly (Lisbon), 29 January 2000.

[82]         Heather Paterson, ‘Portuguese premier pledges continued support for E Timor’, AP, 26 April 2000; ‘Portuguese PM concerned over future of East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 26 April 2000.

[83]         ‘Guterres pledges aid to guerillas’, The News Weekly (Lisbon), 29 April 2000.

[84]         ‘Timor gets 10 million euros and Portuguese training’, The News Weekly (Lisbon), 17 June 2000.

[85]         ‘East Timor: Gusmao presents CNRT Accounts for First Time’, Lusa, 21 August 2000.

[86]         ‘CNRT de Lisboa recebeu mais de 300 contos este ano’, Lusa, 22 Agosto 2000.

[87]         ‘Portuguese to be East Timor’s official language: Gusmao’, Agence France-Presse, 11 February 2000; ‘East Timor chooses Portuguese as official language’, Associated Press, 14 February 2000. Mr Whitlam made a similar point, referring to the Papal Bulls Inter caetera and the Treaty of Tordesillas: ‘There is no question that, but for the arrangement made by Alexander VI and approved by Julius II, each side of 1500, that the island would have been united. It is a pure accident of history that it was separated’ (Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 986).

[88]         UNTAET briefing, 16 February 2000.

[89]         Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and AusAID, submission no. 52, p. 21.

[90]         Arnold Zeitlin, ‘East Timor Press Struggles to Emerge’, The Freedom Forum Online, 21 February 2000.

[91]         ‘Geoffrey Hull on why Portuguese is the right choice as the official language in East Timor’, Lingua Franca, 24 March 2000.

[92]         UNTAET briefing, 13 February 2000.

[93]         ‘Brazil Bishops offer aid’, Folha de São Paulo, 7 April 2000.

[94]         ‘Português será lingua oficial, confirma Xanana Gusmão’, Lusa, 18 Julho 2000; ‘East Timor to join the community of the Portuguese speaking countries’, Xinhua, 19 July 2000;’Cimeira CPLP: Declaração sobre Timor-Leste apoia independência’, Lusa, 18 Julho 2000.

[95]         Bishop Manning, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 697.

[96]         Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November , p. 708.

[97]         Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 714.

[98]         Bishop Deakin, Committee Hansard, 27 August 1999, p. 348.

[99]         Bishop Manning, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 699; Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, pp.704-5.  ‘AIDAB’ is the former name of ‘AusAID’.

[100]       Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, pp. 704-5.

[101]       Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, pp. 704-5.

[102]       Bishop Deakin, Committee Hansard, 27 August 1999, p. 348.

[103]       Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November , pp. 704-5.

[104]       Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November , pp. 704-5.

[105]       In camera evidence.

[106]       Mr Scott-Murphy, Committee Hansard, 10 September 1999, p. 495.

[107]       Bishop Manning, Committee Hansard, 3 November , p. 699.

[108]       ‘Timor government to be secular, speak Portuguese’, Agence France-Presse, 2 April 2000.

Chapter 3 - Humanitarian assistance and security matters

[1]           Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 993.

[2]           Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 993.

[3]           Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, pp. 993-4.

[4]           Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 994.

[5]           Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 994.

[6]           Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 994.

[7]           ‘Australia peldges $25m to huge reconstruction fund for East Timor’, AAP, 8 December 1999.

[8]           AusAID, East Timor Update, 11 September 2000.

[9]           Minister for Foreign Affairs, Alexander Downer and Minister for Trade, Mark Vaile, media release, 9 May 2000.

[10]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 997.

[11]         World Bank Multilateral Trust Fund for East Timor, fact sheet, 23 February 2000.

[12]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 995.

[13]         Bishop Manning, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, pp. 699-700.

[14]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 994.

[15]         Shingo Ito, ‘Donors pledge $A800 million for East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 17 December 1999; Suvendrini Kakuchi, ‘East Timor gets 522 million dollars in aid pledges’, IPS, 20 December 1999.

[16]         ‘ADB to start releasing funds for E. Timor’, Reuters, 6 February 2000.

[17]         ‘World Bank President arrives in East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 21 February 2000; ‘World Bank inks development grants for East Timor’; Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 21 February 2000; Mark Dodd, ‘UN and World Bank row over aid deal’, ‘UN staff battle over independence policy’; The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 February, 13 March 2000.

[18]         Asia Pulse, 20 December 1999.

[19]         UNTAET Daily Briefing, 29 March 2000.

[20]         Shingo Ito, ‘Donors pledge $A800 million for East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 17 December 1999.

[21]         Jim Abrams, ‘Nation-building to be formidable task, State Department says’, AP, 11 February 2000.

[22]         ‘Clinton advisor praises Australian leadership on East Timor’, 7.30 Report, 13 January 2000; ‘US to keep observers in Timor, spend $US 70 million’, Reuters, 11 February 2000.

[23]         USIS, Washington File, EPF302, 25 October 2000.

[24]         Robert Garran, ‘World Bank rounds up cash cows’, The Australian, 2 March 2000.

[25]         ‘ADB extends US$1 million grant to East Timor’, Asia Pulse, 24 March 2000; ‘ADB approves one million dollar assistance to East Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 23 March 2000.

[26]         UNTAET Daily Briefing, 29 March 2000.

[27]         ‘Security Council worries about West Timor refugees’, Reuters, 26 May 2000.

[28]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 997.

[29]         World Bank Multilateral Trust Fund for East Timor, fact sheet, 23 February 2000.

[30]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 998.

[31]         Oecusse is also spelt Oecussi, Oe Cusse, Oekusi and Wekusi. ‘Perhaps a third of all settlement names on Timor include the word for water—Oe, Wai, We or Be—indicating a source of fresh water’ (attachment to submission no. 37, James J. Fox, ‘The Paradox of Powerlessness: Timor in Historical Perspective’, p. 7). Mr P.G. Spillett recorded the following explanation from the Raja of Ambenu, Nune Benu, whom he interviewed on 24 March 1997: ‘The name Oekusi appeared from the name Kusi (husband of Sila Benu). They lived near a spring of water (Oe), so that the place where they lived was called Oe Kusi. Sila Benu and Kusi had a son who was... afterwards given the name of Am Benu. The region is now called Ambenu Oekusi’ (attachment to submission no. 17, P.G. Spillett, The Pre-Colonial History of the Island of Timor, Darwin, Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, 1999, p. 52).

[32]         Mr Aitken, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 129. Prime Minister António Guterres included Oe Cusse in his visit to East Timor during 22-26 April 2000 (‘Guterres pledges aid to guerillas’, The News Weekly, Lisbon, 29 April 2000).

[33]         Mr Grant, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 205.

[34]         Mr Grant, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 210.

[35]         Attachment to submission no. 17, P.G. Spillett, The Pre-Colonial History of the Island of Timor, Darwin, Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, 1999, p. 138.

[36]         James J. Fox, attachments to submission no. 37, ‘The Paradox of Powerlessness: Timor in Historical Perspective’ and ‘The Great Lord rests at the centre’; see also his ‘Forgotten, neglected but not peaceful: a history of Timor’, The Canberra Times, 27 November 1975, and ‘Tracing the path, recounting the past: historical perspectives on Timor’‚ in James J. Fox and Dionisio Babo Soares (eds.), Out of Ashes: deconstruction and reconstruction of East Timor, Adelaide, Crawford House, 2000, pp. 1-29.

[37]         The similarity of this language to the dialects spoken in Solor and eastern Flores was a significant factor in the establishment of the Portuguese in this part of Timor in the 17th century (Professor James J. Fox, attachment to submission no. 37, ‘The Historical Position of Tetun among the languages of the Timor area’, p. 8).

[38]         Michael Ware, ‘Militia terror file handed over’, The Australian, 1 February 2000; Richard Lloyd Parry, ‘Militia leader’s ingeniously cruel forms of murder’, The Independent, 2 February 2000.

[39]         Mark Dodd, ‘Passabe massacre: Marked for killing frenzy’, Sydney Morning Herald, 8 February 2000; ‘Militia leader arrested for East Timor murders’, ABC News Online, 10 February 2000.

[40]         Dr Bartu, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 654.

[41]         Mr McDonald, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 813.

[42]         Mr McDonald, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 813.

[43]         Dr van Klinken, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 810.

[44]         Mr Guterres, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 933.

[45]         Prof. Sampford, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 730.

[46]         Quoted in Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, 1972-1975, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, p. 114.

[47]         Cf. Steve Farram, ‘The Two Timors: The partitioning of Timor by the Portuguese and the Dutch’, Studies in Languages and Cultures of East Timor, vol.2, 1999.

[48]         Joint communiqué signed by President Abdurrahman Wahid and UNTAET chief Sergio Viera de Mello in Dili, 29 February 2000.

[49]         ‘W Timor Governor calls for repatriation of E Timor refugees’, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 8 June 2000; Mark Dodd, ‘West Timor wants to empty camps’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 June 2000; ‘Agreement reached on border demarcation but not on Oe Cusse corridor’, Lusa, 10 July 2000.

[50]         ‘Um ano depois: “Treinador” de Oecusse quer substituto timorense’, Lusa, 10 August 2000.

[51]         (UN Newservice. 28 September 2000, ETISC, http:/www.esattimor.com/news_today/2706.htm (28 September 2000).

[52]         ‘AFP East Timor Presence Continues’, Media Release, Minister for Justice & Customs, Senator the Hon Amanda Vanstone, Senator for South Australia, 9 May 2000.

[53]         ‘State and Territory police sworn in for East Timor role’, Media Release, Minister for Justice & Customs, Senator the Hon Amanda Vanstone, Senator for South Australia, 15 February 2000.

[54]         ‘Australian announced as head of UN Civilian Police in East Timor’, Media Release, Minister for Justice & Customs, Senator the Hon Amanda Vanstone, Senator for South Australia Tuesday 15 June 1999.

[55]         ‘Federal Police members awarded for service in East Timor Timor Police’, AAP, 8 August 2000.

[56]         ‘Australian announced as head of UN Civilian Police in East Timor’, Media Release, Minister for Justice & Customs, Senator the Hon Amanda Vanstone, Tuesday, 15 June 1999.

[57]         Mr Wood, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 521.

[58]         Mr Wood, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 522.

[59]         Mr Wood, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 542.

[60]         ‘Federal Police disappointed in United Nations’, AM, 16 August 2000.

[61]         ‘Public recognition of police members serving in East Timor’, Australian Federal Police media release, April 18, 2000

[62]         ‘Cosgrove applauds AFP efforts in Timor’, Agence France-Presse, 19 May 2000.

[63]         ‘Federal Police members awarded for service in East Timor Timor Police’, AAP, 8 August 2000.

[64]          Rod McGuirk, ‘UN to award Timor medals to all Aust police Timor’, AAP, 14 October 2000.

[65]         Mr Dupont, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 626.

[66]         Professor Smith, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 599.

[67]         Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 767.

[68]         Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p, 556.

[69]         Dr Crouch, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 578.

[70]         Elizabeth Becker, ‘General speaks a language that Wiranto understands’, The New York Times, 14 September 1999. Thailand also played an important role in getting Indonesia to accept Interfet. Foreign Minister Surin Pitsuwan met General Wiranto and President Habibie in Jakarta on 14 September and, after obtaining Wiranto’s consent to an ASEAN contribution, asked all ASEAN members to support Interfet and to assist in solving the refugee crisis. Bruce Cheesman, ‘Thailand pressed to take Timor reins’, Australian Financial Review, 15 October 1999.

[71]         Lincoln Wright, ‘US spy gear used in Canberra’, The Canberra Times, 21 March 2000.

[72]         ‘US Admiral sees no quick resumption of Indonesian ties’, AP, 4 April 2000.

[73]         Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 673.

[74]         Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 373.

[75]         Michelle Gilchrist, ‘Deaf to Timor radio plea’, The Australian, 10 November 1999.

[76]         Ms Downie, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 965.

[77]         Sister Connelly, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 681

[78]         Bishop Brennan, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 703; Mr Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 552; Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 657; Mr Wesley–Smith, Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 373; Ms Hunt, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 254.

[79]         Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 605.

[80]         Lt. Gen. Sanderson, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 552.

[81]         Mr Scott-Murphy, Committee Hansard, 10 September 1999, p. 506.

[82]         ‘Radio Australia to get more funding for Asian broadcasts’, AAP, 8 August 2000.

Chapter 4 - The Timor Gap (Zone of Co-operation) Treaty

[1]           Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 873.

[2]           Attorney-General’s Department, submission no. 65, p. 3.

[3]           Attorney-General’s Department, submission no. 65, p. 2.

[4]           Opinion of the International Court of Justice, Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), 30 June 1995. General List No. 84, 30 June 1995.

[5]           Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 873.

[6]           Mr Kjar, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 878.

[7]           Mr Kjar, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 879.

[8]           UNTAET daily briefing, 24 October 2000. Due to the one-time nature of this windfall, this revenue was not expected to change the East Timorese budget in any significant way.

[9]           Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 873.

[10]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 873. At the eighth Ministerial Council meeting in Cairns in November 1997, Minister for Resources and Energy Senator Warwick Parer and his Indonesian counterpart, General Sudjana, struck an agreement on mutually acceptable principles for sharing production benefits of oil and gas deposits in the Zone of Co-operation. The Treaty signed in 1989 had not addressed what would occur if processing occurred outside the Zone of Co-operation, whether in Indonesian waters or in Australian waters. These basic principles of fiscal benefit sharing paved the way for the development of the Bayu-Undan gas discovery (Senate Hansard, 25 November 1997, p. 9347).

[11]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 869

[12]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 869.

[13]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 870.

[14]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 870.

[15]         Department of Foreign Affairs, Agreement between... Australia and... Indonesia Establishing Certain Seabed Boundaries, Treaty Series 1973, No. 31.

[16]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 870.

[17]         Mr French, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 883.

[18]         Indonesian Foreign Minister Mochtar Kusumaatmadja, who in 1971-72 was a principal member of the Indonesian negotiating team on the seabed boundary, complained in December 1978 that Australia had ‘taken Indonesia to the cleaners’ in 1972 (‘Boundary threat to seabed leases’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 December 1978). He did not specify how Australia had taken unfair advantage.

[19]         J.R.V. Prescott, ‘The Australian-Indonesian Continental Shelf Agreements’, Australia’s Neighbours, vol. 82, September-October 1972, pp. 1-2. Brian Toohey, ‘Oil: Portuguese tail-twisting could backfire’, The Australian Financial Review, 26 March 1974; ‘Canberra, Lisbon head for row’, The Age, 26 March 1974; ‘Australia calls for report on oil leases’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 December 1974. Portuguese Ambassador Carlos Empis Wemans to Lisbon, 25 March 1974, Cour internationale de justice, Affaire relative au Timor oriental (Portugal c. Australie): mémoire du gouvernement de la république Portugaise, La Haye, 1991, Annexe IV.9, pp. 321-3.

[20]         Michael Richardson, ‘Oil Reserves are Sensitive Independence Issue’, International Herald Tribune, 15 December 1999.

[21]         Wendy Pugh, ‘Australia seeks to avoid East Timor border dispute’, Reuters, 6 October 2000.

[22]         Cmdr. Robin Warner, RAN, ‘Law of the Sea Issues for the Timor Sea: A Defence perspective’, East Timor and its Maritime Dimensions: Law and Policy Implications for Australia, Canberra, Australian Institute of International Affairs, 14 June 2000.

[23]         Hamish McDonald, ‘Sounding the gap’‚ The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 October 2000.

[24]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 871.

[25]         ‘Australia’s sea boundary challenged’, ABC News, 2 September 1997.

[26]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 874.

[27]         Mr Michael Potts, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, pp. 871-2.

[28]         Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 417.

[29]         Mr J. Godlove, Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 418.

[30]         Australian Institute of International Affairs, Centre for Maritime Policy at the University of Wollongong, and the International Law Association, East Timor and its Maritime Dimensions: Legal and Policy Implications for Australia, Canberra, 14 June 2000. Cf. Trevor Sykes, ‘The looming oil war with Indonesia’, The Australian Financial Review, 15 October 1997: ‘The various compromises reached by the diplomats have produced a rat’s nest of ownership and royalty regimes’. Sykes pointed out that the Treaty when signed in 1989 did not anticipate that an unfinished product might be exported across one of the boundaries. Phillips wished to pipe gas from Bayu-Undan to Darwin for conversion to LNG, which raised the question of whether the royalty to be paid to Indonesia would be on the value of the gas or the LNG.

[31]         Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 112.

[32]         Mr John Akehurst, Managing Director, Woodside Petroleum Ltd, quoted in ‘Australia’s Woodside Sees No Threat from Timor Gas Rivalry’, Asia Pulse, 6 December 1999.

[33]         Mr Godlove, Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 421; Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 873.

[34]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 885.

[35]         Paul Tait, ‘East Timor backs gas project but warns on treaty’, Reuters, 10 November 1999.

[36]         Mr Ross Adler, Managing Director, Santos Ltd, Asia Pulse, 18 November 1999.

[37]         The partners are: Phillips Petroleum Company, 50.29%, Santos Ltd, 11.83%, Inpex, 11.71%, Kerr McGee Corporation, 11.2%, Petroz NL, 8.26%, British Borneo, 6.72%.

[38]         Asia Pulse, 18 November 1999.

[39]         Senator Nick Minchin, ‘World Scale Petroleum Project for Timor Sea’, Media Release 00/49.

[40]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, pp. 873-4.

[41]         Mr Michael Potts, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 871.

[42]         Mr Michael Potts, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, pp. 871-2.

[43]         McNair, Arnold Duncan, Baron The Law of Treaties, 1961 edition, p. 601; quoted in Attorney-General’s Department, submission no. 65, p. 4.

[44]         The 1978 Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties, and the 1983 Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debts; quoted in Attorney-General’s Department, submission no. 65, p. 4.

[45]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 879.

[46]         Mr Michael Potts, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 872.

[47]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 881.

[48]         Mr Michael Potts, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 872.

[49]         ‘Support for Timor Gap Treaty at Dili workshop’, Australian Associated Press, 20 January 2000.

[50]         Mr Michael Potts, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 872.

[51]         Mr Michael Potts, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 872.

[52]         Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for Industry, Science and Resources Joint Media Release, 10 February 2000.

[53]         Senate Hansard, 13 March 2000.

[54]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 877.

[55]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 877.

[56]         Mr Kjar, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 878.

[57]         Mr Kjar, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 878.

[58]         Mr Kjar, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 878.

[59]         Senate Hansard, 4 October 2000, p. 17785.

[60]         Mr Michael Potts and Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 876.

[61]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, pp. 876-7.

[62]         Mr Guterres, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, pp. 927, 937.

[63]         Mr Campbell, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 883.

[64]         Paul Tait, ‘East Timor backs gas project but warns on treaty’, Reuters, 10 November 1999.

[65]         Karen Polglaze, ‘Future of Timor Gap Treaty thrown into doubt’, Australian Associated Press, 29 November, The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 November 1999.

[66]         Andrew McNaughtan, ‘New nation has opportunity for gains in the Gap’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 April 2000.

[67]         ‘Ramos-Horta calls on Australia to renounce Timor Gap oil treaty’, Agence-France Presse, 8 May 2000.

[68]         Mr Payne, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, pp. 876-7; ‘Bayu-Undan Project Good for East Timor–Phillips Petroleum CEO’, Dow Jones, 27 June 2000.

[69]         Peter Alford and Robert Garran, ‘East Timor wants new gap treaty’, The Australian, 15 June 2000; Rod McGuirk, ‘Downer stresses need for stability in Timor Gap’, AAP, 15 June 2000.

[70]         Mark Dodd, ‘Timor Gap deal set to deliver windfall for Dili’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 June 2000.

[71]         Ray Brindal, ‘Australia says revenue, not border, focus of Timor talks’, Dow Jones Newswires, 14 July 2000.

[72]         ‘Dili & Canberra to begin sea boundary talks in October’, Kyodo, 28 August 2000; ‘East Timor: Oil Negotiations with Australia to begin in October’, Lusa, 28 August 2000.

[73]         Asia Pacific, 10 October 2000.

[74]         Minister for Foreign Affairs, ‘Timor Gap Treaty Negotiations to Begin’, media release, 18 September 2000; ‘Renegotiation of Timor Gap treaty to begin’, AAP, 18 September 2000.

[75]         Article 83 (1) in the Informal composite negotiating text, Document A/CONF.62/WP.10 of 15 July 1977 of the Law of the Sea Conference read: ‘The delimitation of the continental shelf between adjacent or opposite States, shall be effected by agreement in accordance with equitable principles, employing where appropriate, the median or equidistant line, and taking account all the relevant circumstances’. The reference to the ‘median or equidistant line’ was omitted in the final version of the Convention. The 1977 draft was included as Appendix II in the report of the Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence, Australia, Antarctica and the Law of the Sea, Interim Report, 1978.

Chapter 5 - Human rights in East Timor

[1]           Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 232.

[2]           Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 232.

[3]           Professor Hugo, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 55.

[4]           Mr Soares, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 194.

[5]           Professor Cotton, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 281. Professor Cotton subsequently wrote that ‘the total number of fatalities during the period of Indonesian numbered at least 120,000 and could have been as high as 200,000’ (‘The Emergence of an Independent East Timor: National and Regional Challenges’, Contemporary Southeast Asia, vol. 22, No. 1, April 2000, p. 3).

[6]           Dr William Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 862.

[7]           Mr Wesley-Smith, Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 369. The passage quoted is on page 96 of the Committee’s report.

[8]           Mr Aubrey, Committee Hansard, 27 August 1999, p. 314.

[9]           James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1996, p. 284. In evidence to the Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence’s inquiry into human rights in East Timor, Mr Dunn said the ‘actual loss of life could be up around 200,000 people’ (Committee Hansard, 9 June 1982, p. 401). Xanana Gusmão said in an interview in 1990 that he believed that ‘more than 200,000’ people had died over the previous 15 years from fighting, famine and disease (Background Briefing, 28 October 1990).

[10]         Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 612. During its 1982-83 inquiry into the human rights and conditions of the people of East Timor, the Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence received evidence from eyewitnesses to massacres and other flagrant abuses of human rights. This evidence was kept in camera to protect witnesses in East Timor.

[11]         Mark Dodd, ‘War crimes lawyer to study 1975 invasion’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 August 2000; Ian Timberlake, ‘East Timor militia accused to be charged’, Agence France-Presse, 29 August 2000.

[12]         Daily News (Dili), 5 October 2000; ‘Tanzanian appointed U.N. prosecutor general for East Timor,’ Xinhua, 9 October 2000.

[13]         ‘Arrest Warrant For Eurico Guterres’, UNTAET News, 11 October 2000; Mark Dodd, ‘Hand over militia head, says UN’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 October 2000.

[14]         Resolution adopted by the 108th Annual Convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis in June 1997.

[15]         Visit of the Special Rapporteur to Indonesia and East Timor, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1992/17/Add.1, paras. 73, 74.

[16]         Canada. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, For the Record 1998: the UN Human Rights System, vol. 3, ‘Asia: Indonesia’.

[17]         Report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr Nigel S. Rodley: Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received, E/CN.4/1998/38/Add.1

[18]         Mr Paris Aristotle, Director, Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture, Committee Hansard, 27 August 1999, p. 304.

[19]         United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Situation in East Timor, Report of the Secretary-General, 25 February 1998, E/CN.4/1998/58, pp. 15-7.

[20]         E/CN.4/1998/54, paras. 26-27.

[21]         Miranda S. Sissons, From One Day to Another: Violations of Women’s Reproductive and Sexual Rights in East Timor, Melbourne, East Timor Human Rights Centre, 1997.

[22]         John G. Taylor, East Timor, the Price of Freedom, London, Zed Books, 1999, pp. 101-2, 111; Ross Warnke, ‘Timor: tales of torture’, The Age, 14 May 1982; Committee Hansard, in camera evidence, 14 May 1982; Peter Millership, ‘Timor Bishop accuses military of massacring 84 villagers’, Reuters, 1 March 1984.

[23]         Michele Turner, Telling East Timor: Personal Testimonies, 1942-1992, Sydney, UNSW Press, 1992, pp. 166-7.

[24]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 18.

[25]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 18.

[26]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 18.

[27]         Russell Anderson, submission no. 64, pp. 8, 12.

[28]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 19.

[29]         A Review of Australia's Efforts to Promote and Protect Human Rights, Canberra, 1992, p. 71.

[30]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 8.

[31]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 8.

[32]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 9.

[33]         Quoted in Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 9.

[34]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 4.

[35]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 4.

[36]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 5.

[37]         Amnesty International Australia, submission no. 43, p. 6.

[38]         ‘Increasing Interconnectedness: Globalisation and International Intervention’, Speech by the Hon Alexander Downer, MP, Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the Sydney Institute, Sydney, 17 July 2000; Peter Allport, ‘Irian Jaya is part of Indonesia, says Downer’, AAP, 17 July 2000.

[39]         Dr Hull, Committee Hansard, 10 September 1999, pp. 511-2.

[40]         Professor Warren, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 104.

[41]         Dr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, pp. 100-01.

[42]         Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, Committee Hansard (estimates hearings), 5 May 1999, pp. 288-89.

[43]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1023.

[44]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 230.

[45]         Quoted in John Lyons, ‘The Secret Timor Dossier’, The Bulletin, 12 October 1999, p. 29. The information in the article was based allegedly on leaked documents from the Defence Intelligence Organisation.

[46]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 9 December 1999, p. 1026.

[47]         General Sanderson, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 547.

[48]         Mr Mark Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 547.

[49]         Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 559.

[50]         Dr Crouch, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, pp. 579-80.

[51]         Dr Crouch Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 580.

[52]         Richard Lloyd Parry, ‘Conclusive proof TNI planned reign of terror’, The Independent, 7 February 2000.

[53]         ‘Wiranto responsible for Timor atrocities: Gusmao’, Agence France-Presse, 6 February 2000.

[54]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 993.

[55]         Mr G.E. Lambert, attachment to submission no. 47.

[56]         United Nations Economic and Social Council, Report of the High Commissioner for Human Rights on the human rights situation in East Timor, 17 September 1999, E/CN.4/S-4/CRP.1.

[57]         On the same date the report of the Investigative Commission on Violence in East Timor of the Indonesian National Human Rights Commission (Komnas-HAM), was made public in Jakarta. The Indonesian national inquiry had been set up after the Indonesian Government had refused to accept the international commission.

[58]         United Nations, Report of International Commission of Inquiry into human rights violations, General Assembly/Security Council, 1 February 2000.

[59]         United Nations General Assembly, Situation of human rights in East Timor, 10 December 1999, A/54/660.

[60]         United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on East Timor to the Secretary-General, January, 2000.

[61]         Indonesia. National Human Rights Commission (Komnas-HAM), Report on the Investigation of Human Rights Violations in East Timor, 31 January 2000, (English translation).

[62]         Mr O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 784.

[63]         Mr Hogan, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 789.

[64]         Mr Anthony O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 785.

[65]         Mr Anthony O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 786.

[66]         Mr Anthony O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 786.

[67]         Mr Anthony O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 787.

[68]         Mr Nicholas Cowdery, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, pp. 736-37.

[69]         Mr Nicholas Cowdery, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 737.

[70]         Mr Nicholas Cowdery, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 737.

[71]         Justice Dowd Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 741.

[72]         Justice Dowd, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 741.

[73]         Mr Michael O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 912.

[74]         Mr Michael O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 916.

[75]         Lindsay Murdoch, ‘Blanket amnesty for officers: they were only issuing orders’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 August 2000.

[76]         UNTAET briefing, 7 August 2000.

[77]         Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press writer, Indonesia Rejects E. Timor Tribunal, included in ETISC, Timor Today.

[78]         Justice Dowd, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 739.

[79]         Justice Dowd, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 735.

[80]         Justice Dowd, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 739.

[81]         Air Commodore Clarke, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 848.

[82]         Mr Scrafton, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 848.

[83]         Mr Scrafton, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 848.

[84]         Mr Scrafton, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 849.

[85]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 9 December 1999, p. 1030.

[86]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, pp. 991-2.

[87]         Tim Johnston, ‘Timor camps test for Jakarta—Holbrooke’, Reuters, 22 November 1999.

[88]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 991; and 9 December 1999, p. 1029.

[89]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, pp. 991-2.

[90]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 995. The $23 million formed part of the total increase of $60 million in the Australian aid program funding for East Timor in the financial year 1999-2000 which the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Mr Downer, announced on 22 November.

[91]         Mr Dawson, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 998.

[92]         Mr Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 549.

[93]         Mr Walsh, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 898.

[94]         ‘Annan to visit camps in West Timor, UN says’, Agence France-Presse, 4 February 2000.

[95]         ‘Governor wants rid of burdensome East Timor refugees’, Jawa Pos, 15 February 2000.

[96]         ‘W Timor Governor calls for repatriation of E Timor refugees’, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 8 June 2000; Mark Dodd, ‘West Timor wants to empty camps’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 June 2000.

[97]         Deutsche-Presse Agentur, 31 July 2000.

[98]         ‘Security Council urges Indonesia to help end cross-border attacks in East Timor’, UN News, 3 August 2000.

[99]         AAP news report, carried on NINEMSN Internet news report 12:36 AEDT, 11 November 2000.

[100]       Bronwyn Curran, Ex-Timor militias still threaten, intimidate refugees: UN official, Agence France-Presse (AFP) 13 November 2000.

[101]       AAP news report, carried on NINEMSN Internet news report 12:36 AEDT, 11 November 2000.

[102]       Mr Gray, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 91.

[103]       Mr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 891.

[104]       Mr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 892.

[105]       Mr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 894.

[106]       UNTAET briefing, 29 August 2000.

[107]       Sister Connelly, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 682. Ian McPhedran, ‘Three-way tussle over the fate of Timorese’, The Canberra Times, 28 July 1995.

[108]       Ms Biok, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 744.

[109]       Dr Chan, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 840.

[110]       Ambassador da Silva, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 274.

[111]       Embassy of Portugal, Press Communiqué, 3 June 1998.

[112]       Leigh Murray, ‘1,600 Timorese refugees may stay in Australia: govt.’, AAP, 8 October 1999.

[113]       Ms Biok, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 745.

[114]       Ms Biok, supplementary submission, 29 June 2000; Dennis Schulz, ‘Spotlight on Timorese asylum seekers in Australia’, The Age, 17 July 2000.

[115]       ‘East Timorese man gains refugee status’, AAP, 5 October 2000; Andrew Clennell, ‘Landmark ruling gives hope to 1,500 East Timor refugees’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 October 2000.

Chapter 6 - Australian policy: Indonesia’s incorporation of East Timor

[1]           Ferreira de Carvalho to Evatt, 18 December 1941, W.J. Hudson and H.J. Stokes (eds.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1982, vol. v, p. 321; quoted in Rodney Lewis, submission no. 93, ‘Timor 1941: Unwelcome Visitors’, p. 165.

[2]           Curtin to Ferreira de Carvalho, 18 December 1941, W.J. Hudson and H.J. Stokes (eds.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1982, vol. v, p. 321; quoted in Rodney Lewis, submission no. 93, ‘Timor 1941: Unwelcome Visitors’, p. 165.

[3]           Mr Carey, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 122, and submission no. 72, appendix A, ‘East Timorese Casualties, Erroneous History’, p. 1. The accuracy of Mr Carey’s account is supported by a study referred to the Committee by Mr Lewis: Henry Frei, ‘Japan’s Reluctant Decision to Occupy Portuguese Timor, 1 January 1942-20 February 1942’, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 27, no. 107, October 1996, pp. 281-302.

[4]           Cranbourne to Curtin, 10 and 11 December 1941, W.J. Hudson and H.J. Stokes (eds.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1982, vol. v, pp. 296 and 304; quoted in Rodney Lewis, submission no. 93, ‘Timor 1941: Unwelcome Visitors’, p. 162.

[5]           Curtin to Cranbourne, 26 December 1941, W.J. Hudson and H.J. Stokes (eds.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1982, vol. v, pp. 360-1; quoted in Rodney Lewis, submission no. 93, ‘Timor 1941: Unwelcome Visitors’, pp. 166-7. Also cited in Frei, p. 287.

[6]           Curtin to Cranbourne, 26 December 1941, W.J. Hudson and H.J. Stokes (eds.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1982, vol. v, pp. 360-1; quoted in Rodney Lewis, submission no. 93, ‘Timor 1941: Unwelcome Visitors’, p. 167. Also cited in Frei, p. 287.

[7]           Henry Frei, ‘Japan’s Reluctant Decision to Occupy Portuguese Timor, 1 January 1942-20 February 1942’, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 27, no. 107, October 1996, p. 298.

[8]           Mr Carey, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 122, and submission no. 72, appendix A, ‘East Timorese Casualties, Erroneous History’, p. 1. The accuracy of Mr Carey’s account is supported by a study referred to the Committee by Mr Lewis: Henry Frei, ‘Japan’s Reluctant Decision to Occupy Portuguese Timor, 1 January 1942-20 February 1942’, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 27, no. 107, October 1996, pp. 281-302.

[9]           Mr Carey, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 122.

[10]         Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 754.

[11]         Mr Lewis, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 751, quoting W.J. Hudson and H.J. Stokes (eds.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1982, vol. v, p. 373.

[12]         Mr Lewis, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 751; submission no. 93, ‘Proposals for due recognition of the people of East Timor by the Government & people of Australia - their struggle for freedom; our obligation’.

[13]         Salazar to Menzies regarding Timor, 1 March 1962, NAA A1209/80, 1974/9010, p. 4, referring to statement by Evatt, House of Representatives, Hansard, 27 November 1941, p. 977.

[14]         Salazar to Menzies regarding Timor, 1 March 1962, NAA A1209/80, 1974/9010, p. 4, see Curtin to Evatt, 3 July 1943, W.J. Hudson and H.J. Stokes (eds.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1983, vol. vi, pp. 444-6.

[15]         H.V. Evatt, House of Representatives, Hansard, 26 March 1946, pp. 625-6.

[16]         Indonesian Foreign Minister Dr Subandrio was reported as saying in a statement to the Indonesian Parliament that ‘the Portuguese should beware of their position in Timor’ (Jack Percival, ‘Timor: the new Indies sore spot’, The Sun-Herald, 13 August 1961).

[17]         Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 601.

[18]         Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 600.

[19]         Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 601. A different impression was recorded by Osmar White, who wrote of the ‘spiritual deformity’ which seemed to affect the Timorese under Portuguese rule: ‘I have travelled a great deal in parts of Asia where white men are disliked and distrusted, but I have never been so sensible of fear-paralysed hostility as I was in Timor’ (‘Timor—Island of Fear’, The Melbourne Herald, 2 April 1963).

[20]         Quoted in Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 30 November 1999, p. 4. Also referred to in Jack Percival, ‘Timor: the new Indies sore spot’, The Sun-Herald, 13 August 1961.

[21]         Bruce Juddery, ‘East Timor: which way to turn?’, The Canberra Times, 18 April 1975; Jill Jolliffe, ‘Indonesia now wants all the gory details’, The Canberra Times, 19 August 1995. The officers had come to Portuguese Timor as a result of a request by the Menzies Government to Portugal in March 1958 for co-operation in assisting a rebel movement (Permesta) in Sulawesi and Maluku which was attempting to break away from the unitary Indonesian state of President Soekarno (Geoffrey Slater and Jack Waterford, ‘Finger in the Pie’, The Canberra Times, 17 February 1991). In November 2000, a woman pro-integrationist refugee from Viqueque residing in Kupang told The Jakarta Post: ‘My father joined the 1959 rebellion. Many were killed, the river simply turned red with their blood’ (Lela E. Madjiah, ‘What could be worse than East Timorese refugee camps?’ The Jakarta Post, 23 November 2000).

[22]         George J. Aditjandro, Is Oil Thicker than Blood, New York, Nova Science, 1999, p. 10.

[23]         Published in Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 1997, pp. 290-5.

[24]         Dr Salazar to Mr Menzies regarding Timor, 5 March 1964, NAA A1209/80, 1974/9010, pp. 3-4.

[25]         Salazar to Menzies regarding Timor, 5 March 1964, NAA A1209/80, 1974/9010, pp. 5-6.

[26]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 6.

[27]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 7.

[28]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 976. In Timor, the decolonisation policy was to be implemented by a team led by Colonel Mario Lemos Pires, who took up his appointment as Governor on 18 November 1974.

[29]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 3; Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 979.

[30]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 7.

[31]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 7. Mr Whitlam had expressed his opposition to Portuguese rule in Timor in 1963, when he said in delivering the 14th Roy Milne Memorial Lecture: ‘Eastern Timor must appear as an anachronism to every country in the world except Portugal ... We would not have a worthy supporter in the world if we backed the Portuguese’. This was drawn to the attention of the press in 1973 when Portugal was showing reluctance to engage in negotiations with Australia over a seabed boundary (Paul Webster, ‘Dying empire next door’, The Australian, 13 July 1973; Michael Davenport, ‘Portuguese Timor: a colonial embarrassment at our front doorstep’, The National Times, 16 July 1973).

[32]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 984.

[33]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 984.

[34]         Referring to the Papal bulls Inter caetera of 3 May 1493 and 24 January 1506, and the Treaties of Tordesillas (1494) and Saragossa (1529). Cf. Edward G. Bourne, ‘The History and Determination of the Line of Demarcation by Pope Alexander VI, between the Spanish and Portuguese Fields of Discovery and Colonization’, Senate Miscellaneous Documents, Washington, vol 5, 1891-92, pp. 103-30; Lourdes Díaz-Trechuelo, ‘El Tratado de Tordesillas y su proyección en el Pacífico’, Revista Española del Pacífico, no. 4, Año IV, Enero-Diciembre 1994, pp. 11-21.

[35]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 986.

[36]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 14 May 1982, p. 12; Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, p. 107.

[37]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 986. José Osorio Soares, Secretary-General of Apodeti, expressed a similar view in 1975, saying that East and West Timor should be joined in one autonomous province: ‘We become a part of Indonesia, then the government in Kupang gets independence from Indonesia for a united Timor. It is only one land; how can it be divided?’ Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, p. 62.

[38]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 30 November 1999, pp. 9-10.

[39]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, pp. 976, 986

[40]         Mr Whitlam, submission no. 5, 30 November 1999, p. 3. A 4 April 1963 report of the Working Group of Departmental Officers, ‘The Future of East Timor’, suggested ‘Perhaps in theory the problem of self-determination is not insurmountable and might be overcome by a West New Guinea type of arrangement’ (Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 31).

[41]         Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 92.

[42]         Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 1997, pp. 72-74.

[43]         Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, p. 443.

[44]         Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 95.

[45]         Quoted in Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 1997, p. 295.

[46]         Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 101-02.

[47]         David Jenkins, ‘Whitlam can’t maintain outrage over East Timor’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 November 1991.

[48]         Paul Kelly, ‘Willesee: Whitlam reigned on East Timor’, The Australian, 10 March 1999.

[49]         ‘Record of Meeting between the Prime Minister and President Soeharto, State Guest House, Yogyakarta, 6 September 1975’, pp. 3, 4; published in The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 March 1999 and included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999. Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 95-8.

[50]         Associated Press, 18 October 1974; quoted in Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, p. 62.

[51]         First Assistant Secretary (South East Asia) Feakes to Cooper, 24 September 1974, NAA: A10005/2, TS202/1/1, annex; also in Deputy Secretary Woolcott to Secretary Renouf, 24 September 1974, Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 111; Hamish McDonald, ‘Politics of betrayal’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 September 2000.

[52]         Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, p. 444; Michael Richardson, ‘We’ll tell Jakarta: hands off Timor’, The Age, 30 October 1974. Cf. Magalhael Cruz to Francisco da Costa Gomes, 13 November 1974: ‘A month and a half having passed since the meeting in Jakarta and, perhaps because the government in Canberra considers itself better informed than then, the Australian delegation seems now in the recent conversations to have been authorised to take a step backward with regard to the conclusions which President Soeharto and Prime Minister Whitlam reached last September. Rather than integration being “the natural and inevitable” solution for Portuguese Timor it was the wishes of the people which received major emphasis on the part of the Australians ... As well, Whitlam himself had already warned the Indonesian side against certain practices which had been employed by the Jakarta Government in the integration of West Irian’ (Presidência do Conselho de Ministros, Relatórios da descolonização de Timor, Lisboa, 1981, ‘Relatório de Governador Mário Lemos Pires’, doc. 2.9, in Jill Joliffe (ed.), The East Timor question, Lisse, The Netherlands, MMF Publications, 1997).

[53]         Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 1997. p. 74.

[54]         Michael Richardson, ‘Timor: first sign of rift’, The Age, 6 December 1974.

[55]         Michael Richardson, ‘Canberra-Jakarta talks soon on Timor future’, The Australian Financial Review, 16 May 1974; ‘Timor in no hurry to change’, The Canberra News, 10 July 1974; José Ramos-Horta, ‘A warm welcome’, The National Times, 29 July 1974; Sinar Harapan, 27 July 1974. Mr Ali Alatas, who served as interpreter at the meeting between Malik and Ramos Horta in June 1974, commented as Foreign Minister in September 1997: ‘I was there ... clearly at that time Adam Malik said, “We have no claims on East Timor. We will accept any outcome of a good decolonisation”. This is what Ramos Horta doesn’t say. The only thing that we wanted was that all parties got the same treatment. Got the same fair chance to compete and that whoever won in a clean and just decolonisation process we would gladly accept ... But everybody knows that it didn’t happen that way’ (David Jenkins, ‘Alatas cites history in East Timor conundrum’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 September 1997).

[56]         Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, p. 444. Submission to Willesee, 13 December 1974; Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 148-53.

[57]         Submission to Willesee, 10 February 1975; and cablegram to Lisbon, 11 February 1975, Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 170-6.

[58]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 986.

[59]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 984.

[60]         Whitlam to Soeharto, 28 February 1975; included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999, and published in The Canberra Times, 6 March 1999.

[61]         Memorandum to Jakarta, 3 March 1975; Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 204-8.  Michael Richardson, ‘East Timor: the war Australia might have prevented’, The National Times, 24 July 1976, p. 11.

[62]         Woolcott to Department of Foreign Affairs, 5 January 1976, quoted in Bruce Juddery, ‘Envoy puts Jakarta’s view’, The Canberra Times, 16 January 1976. Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 652.

[63]         House of Representatives Hansard, 25 February 1975, pp. 643-4, Australian Yearbook of International Law, vol. 6, 1974-1975, p. 208; cited in The Hon. Bill Morrison, AO, to Committee Secretary, 10 December 1999.

[64]         Peter Hastings, ‘Jakarta ponders a military “solution” ’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 February 1975; Gary Scully, AM, 25 February 1975; these reports were based on Australian intelligence, which the Defence Department disclosed to the media as a warning to the Indonesians not to proceed with the military option (Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, pp. 284-6).

[65]         John G. Taylor, Indonesia’s Forgotten War, London, Zed Books, 1991, p. 40; James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1993, p. 103; Julius Pour, Benny Moerdani: Profile of a Soldier Statesman, Jakarta, Yayasan Kejuangan Panglima Besar Sudirman, 1993, p. 334.

[66]         Julius Pour, Benny Moerdani: Profile of a Soldier Statesman, Jakarta, Yayasan Kejuangan Panglima Besar Sudirman, 1993, p. 319.

[67]         James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1993, p. 99.

[68]         Hamish McDonald, Suharto’s Indonesia, Melbourne, Fontana, 1980, p. 66.

[69]         Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, p. 266.

[70]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, pp. 984-5. The meeting in London to which President Soeharto referred took place on 9 March 1975. The Indonesians were left with the impression that the Portuguese regarded eventual incorporation of the province into Indonesia as inevitable (Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, p. 297). The Portuguese did not disavow the views expressed by President Costa Gomes and Prime Minister Vasco Gonçalves to Ali Moertopo at an initial meeting in Lisbon in October 1974 that independence for Timor was ‘unrealistic’ and ‘nonsense’, and that Timor remaining part of Portugal ‘did not accord with the policy of his [President Gomes’] state’. At the 9 March 1975 meeting, the Portuguese maintained ‘an attitude of indefinition’ in the words of Lemos Pires, toward the Indonesians’ explicitly expressed intention to integrate the province. The official Portuguese record of the meeting, quoted by Lemos Pires, stated: ‘Portugal nada fará dificultar a integração de Timor na Indonésia’ [‘Portugal will make no difficulty for integration of Timor with Indonesia.’] (James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1993, pp. 75, 81; José Ramos-Horta, Funu: the Unfinished Saga of East Timor, Lawrenceville NJ, The Red Sea Press, 1987, pp. 69-70; Mário Lemos Pires, Descolonização de Timor: Missão imposível?, Lisboa, Publicações Dom Quixote, 1991, p. 125).

[71]         ‘Meeting between the Prime Minister and President Soeharto in Townsville, 3-5 April, 1975: Record of the second discussion, 4 April 1975’; published in The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 March 1999 and included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999. Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 244-8.

[72]         Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 245.

[73]         Canberra to Jakarta, 23 April 1975; Woolcott to Willesee, 2 June 1975; Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 256-7; 265-6. Michael Richardson, ‘East Timor: the war Australia might have prevented’, The National Times, 24 July 1976, p. 11.

[74]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 7; Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, p. 108.

[75]         João Carrascalão, Committee Hansard, 12 August 1982, p. 1226; James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1993, pp. 147-9.

[76]         Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, pp. 7-8.

[77]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 976.

[78]         House of Representatives Hansard, 26 August 1975, p. 493.

[79]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 978.

[80]         Fr Francisco Fernandes, a Timorese priest, who served for some months on the refugee committee set up in the border area by the Indonesians, claimed that the Indonesians falsified the number, and claimed the true figure never exceeded 20,000.  James Dunn said that some UDT leaders subsequently told him that 10,000 to 15,000 Timorese had crossed over into West Timor. (James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1996, p. 161).

[81]         Mr João Carrascalão, Committee Hansard (Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence) 12 August 1982, pp. 1244-5.

[82]         Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 601.

[83]         Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 433.

[84]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 983.

[85]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 976.

[86]         Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, p. 112. Mr Whitlam was apparently referring to Abilio and Guilhermina Araujo, Vincente Manoel Dos-Reis, Ailieu Venansio, and António Duarte Carvarino, who returned to Dili from overseas studies in September 1974: they were labelled ‘ideologically Communist [berideologi Komunis]’ by Samuel Pardede in a widely-quoted article in Sinar Harapan of 31 October 1974, ‘Fretilin: Ekstrim Dihadapi Dengan Ekstrim [Fretilin: Extreme Confronts Extreme]’. Carvarino became Vice-President of the Democratic Republic of East Timor proclaimed on 28 November 1975, and succeeded as third leader of the Republic when Nicolau Lobato, who overthrew the first President Francisco Xavier do Amaral on 7 September 1977, was killed in battle on 31 December 1978; he was captured and killed by the Indonesians on 2 February 1979.

[87]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 985.

[88]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 981.

[89]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 982.

[90]         Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 763. On a visit to Portuguese Timor in 1966, Senator John Wheeldon was told that ‘the army was running wild in Indonesian Timor and had imposed a reign of terror; that some three thousand persons had been murdered between October and June by the army in Indonesian Timor’. Wheeldon wrote: ‘One certain conclusion that I did come to was that if there is a menace to peace in [Timor] it is not coming from the Portuguese but coming from the present military rulers of Indonesia’ (John Wheeldon ‘Portuguese Timor: A Recent Visit’, Pacific, vol. 1, January/February 1967, pp. 5-6).

[91]         David Jenkins, ‘Indonesia: the silent watchers’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 July 1999.

[92]         George Munster, Secrets of State, Sydney, Walsh and Munster, 1982, p. 88.

[93]         António Guterres, Prime Minister of Portugal, ‘To set the Goal for the Future’, NATO’s Sixteen Nations, special issue, 1998, p. 6; included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 25 March 1999, pp. 7-8.

[94]         Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, pp. 245-7. The CIA’s national Intelligence Daily labelled Fretilin in its reports as ‘pro-Marxist’ and ‘leftist’ (Dale van Atta and Brian Toohey, ‘The Timor Papers’, The National Times, 30 May–5 June 1982).

[95]         House of Representatives Hansard, 28 February 1975, pp. 685 and 689.

[96]         House of Representatives Hansard, 28 August 1975, p. 689; Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 980. UDT leader João Carrascalão told the Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence in 1982 that he did not believe Fretilin was a left wing communist movement: ‘I do not think there is any difference between the supporters of Fretilin and the supporters of UDT. They have one thing in common, nationalism. They might have two or three leaders indoctrinated by the Portuguese who might be regarded as communist, but even the majority of the leaders of Fretilin cannot be considered as communists ... That was only an excuse for Indonesia to take over Timor’, Committee Hansard, 12 August 1982, p. 1226). Bishop Carlos Ximenes Belo dismissed as ‘nonsensical’ in 1985 claims that Fretilin were Marxist-Leninists, saying they were ‘pure nationalists’ (Jill Jolliffe, ‘Why Portugal is so angry over Timor’, The Age, 4 September 1985.

[97]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 981. The actual title was the Democratic Republic of East Timor (República Democrática de Timor Leste). The constitution of the Republic was suspended in 1984 when the Timorese resistance movement acknowledged the sovereignty of Portugal. The first President of the Republic, Francisco Xavier do Amaral, returned from exile in Portugal to Dili in February 2000 (Jill Jolliffe, ‘Fretilin drops demand’, The Age, 7 November 1984; Jill Jolliffe, ‘Return of East Timor’s tortured soul’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 February 2000; Mark Dodd, ‘Rocky road ahead for divided Fretilin’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 May 2000).

[98]         Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 981. Mr Whitlam had made the same point in an interview on 7 December 1975: ‘things have certainly not been made easier by reason of Mr Anthony’s question without notice a couple of months ago, followed the same day by a question from Mr Fraser - stating that Fretilin is pro-communist; their description of Fretilin would have ignited or fanned Indonesia’s attitudes towards Fretilin’ (‘Whitlam is concerned’, The Age, 8 December 1975).

[99]         Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, p. 111.

[100]       Julius Pour, Benny Moerdani: Profile of a Soldier Statesman, Jakarta, Yayasan Kejuangan Panglima Besar Sudirman, 1993, pp. 328-9.

[101]       House of Representatives Hansard, 28 August 1975, p. 688.

[102]       Hamish McDonald, ‘Australia supports Indonesia takeover of East Timor’, The National Times, 15-20 December 1975. Hamish McDonald, Suharto’s Indonesia, Melbourne, Fontana, 1980, p. 207.

[103]       Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 462; David Jenkins, ‘The Five Ghosts of Balibo rise once more to haunt Indonesia - and us’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 October 1995, p. 24. Foreign Minister Willesee expressed his concern to Graham Feakes, his First Assistant Secretary (South East Asia), that Australia’s agreement to receive this information on a confidential basis from the Indonesians compromised Australia, making Australia party to the covert invasion of Portuguese Timor (Feakes to Willesee, 27 October 1975, also Willesee to Whitlam, 20 August 1975, Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 516, 370; Hamish McDonald, ‘Revealed: how the Balibo murders were covered up’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 24 August 1998).

[104]       Desmond Ball and Hamish McDonald Death in Balibo, Lies in Canberra, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 2000, p. 30.

[105]       Commander of the Timorese volunteers, Tomas Gonçalves said in an interview on the SBS Dateline program 26 April 2000 that Captain Junus Yosfiah, who commanded the Kopassanda special forces (and who later became Information Minister in the government of President Habibie), had opened fire on the journalists while they were surrendering: ‘In the debrief, they said they had to shoot them so they wouldn't publicise what they saw to the outside world’ (Jeff Centenera, ‘Former minister started shooting at journalists’, The Canberra Times, 26 April 2000). ‘We can’t have any witnesses,’ Moerdani is alleged to have said, referring to the journalists (including a Portuguese television crew led by Adelino Gomes who were in the area) in a message from Jakarta to Colonel Dading Kalboeadi in Batugade just prior to the attack on Balibo led by Junus. This message was intercepted by the Australian Defence Signals Directorate (DSD), according to Desmond Ball and Hamish McDonald (Death in Balibo, Lies in Canberra, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 2000, pp. 115-8; quoted in Marian Wilkinson, ‘Our spies knew Balibo five at risk’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 July 2000).

[106]       Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 1997, p. 77; also his letter to The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 March 1999. Mr Laurie Oakes was quoted in an article in The Canberra Times of 9 February 1978 (‘Australia “knew Indonesia troops killed newsmen” ’) as saying that Indonesian messages reporting that the newsmen had been killed by Indonesian troops and their bodies burnt were intercepted by Australia’s Defence Signals Division within hours of the attack on Balibo.

[107]       In an article in The Sydney Morning Herald of 21 September 2000 (‘Failing memories, missing documents’) Mr Whitlam wrote: ‘Last week, Herald foreign editor Hamish McDonald, the co-author of Death in Balibo, Lies in Canberra, criticised the withholding of intelligence material. In telecasts from the National Archives his co-author, Des Ball, made the same criticisms. I agree with them. But in 1997 DFAT advised me that I should not yet reveal how I learned of the deaths of the five foolhardy journalists who were killed at Balibo’.

[108]       Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, p. 112.

[109]       Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 974.

[110]       Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, p. 112.

[111]       Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 3.

[112]       Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 976, referring to Whitlam to Soeharto, 7 November 1975.

[113]       Included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999.

[114]       Gough Whitlam, Abiding Interests, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 1997, pp. 77-8.

[115]       Whitlam to Soeharto, 7 November 19975, included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999; Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 556. Whitlam and Defence Minister Morrison accepted advice from Defence Secretary Sir Arthur Tange that knowledge of the deaths not be divulged until confirmed by ‘open’ (i.e. non-intelligence) sources, so that the Australian Government subsequently claimed that it only learned of the deaths from a report in the Jakarta daily Kompas of 20 October 1975 of an interview of UDT leader Francisco Lopes da Cruz (James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1993, p. 213).

[116]       Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 602.

[117]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no.21, p. 2. The two reports by Tom Sherman were: Report on the deaths of Australian-based journalists in East Timor in 1975, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 1996; and Second report on the deaths of Australian-based journalists in East Timor in 1975, Canberra, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 1999.

[118]       Desmond Ball & Hamish McDonald, Dealth in Balibo Lies in Canberra, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 2000.

[119]       Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 314.

[120]       Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 762. In an interview on New York radio station WNYC on 19 March 1999, Kissinger explained that the visit to Jakarta in December 1975 had been fortuitous: it only took place because a planned five-day visit to China had been cut short because of the illness of Chairman Mao Tse-tung.

[121]       Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 981, submission no 5, 30 November 1999, p. 3, quoting Dr Kissinger in Sydney on 13 November 1995. Dr Kissinger said the same thing in New York on 11 July 1995 and on WNYC, New York on 19 March 1999. Cf. Barnard to Willesee, 11 February 1975: ‘I cannot share the view reported last year from Indonesia that, like India’s seizure of Goa, Indonesian seizure of Portuguese Timor “would attract little attention, even if it did, it would not be recalled with any emotion” ’ (Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 177).

[122]       Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 3.

[123]       Michael McCgwire, ‘The geopolitical importance of strategic waterways in the Asian-Pacific region’, Orbis, vol. 19, no. 3, Fall 1975, pp. 1058-76. Michael Richardson, ‘Jakarta rules the Way: Why Indonesian good will is vital to America’s Indian Ocean submarine force’, The Age, 4 August 1976.

[124]       Mr Carrascalão, Committee Hansard, 12 August 1982, p. 1245.

[125]       Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 762.

[126]       Woolcott to Canberra, 21 July 1975, quoted in Documents on Australian Defence and Foreign Policy, 1968-1975, Sydney, J.R. Walsh and G.J. Munster, 1980, p. 193.

[127]       Neither did the New Zealand Government take any action regarding the death of New Zealander Gary Cunningham (Desmond Ball and Hamish McDonald, Death in Balibo, Lies in Canberra, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 2000, p. 128).

[128]       Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 974; submission no. 5, 30 November 1999, p. 5.

[129]       Mr Whitlam, submission no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 8; 30 November 1999, p. 3.

[130]       Quoted in José Ramos-Horta, Funu: the Unfinished Saga of East Timor, Lawrenceville NJ, The Red Sea Press, 1987, p. 58. See also James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1993, p. 74.

[131]       Gough Whitlam, The Whitlam Government, 1972-1975, Melbourne, Viking, 1985, pp. 109-10. The Portuguese warships had the weapons systems capability to track and shoot down the aircraft which transported the paratroops for the drop on Dili (Hendro Subroto, Eyewitness to integration of East Timor, Jakarta, Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1997, pp. 158-9).

[132]       Bruce Stannard, ‘Garrison on Timor ready for immediate surrender’, The Australian, 10 March 1975; Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, pp. 210-11, 216.

[133]       José Ramos-Horta, Funu: the Unfinished Saga of East Timor, Lawrenceville NJ, The Red Sea Press, 1987, p. 48.

[134]       ‘Whitlam ... teria manifestado o acordo da Austrália à eventual integração de Timor português na Indonésia, como sendo a solução natural e inevitável. Tal facto... contribuiu, sem dúvida, para reforçar em certos círculos indonésios as posições integracionistas que estavam já a ser trabalhadas por grupos de pressão internos’ Magalhães Cruz to Francisco da Costa Gomes, 13 November 1974, in Presidência do Conselho de Ministros, Relatórios da descolonização de Timor, Lisboa, 1981, ‘Relatório de Governador Mário Lemos Pires’, doc. 2.9; quoted in Jill Joliffe, ‘Whitlam named in military report’, The Canberra Times, 21 October 1981. Also in Jill Jolliffe (ed.), The East Timor question, Lisse, The Netherlands, MMF Publications, 1997.

[135]       Mr Whitlam, letter to The Canberra Times, 22 October 1981, attached to his submission of 18 February 1982, Committee Hansard, 14 May 1982, p. 20.

[136]       ‘Record of Meeting between the Prime Minister and President Soeharto, State Guest House, Yogyakarta’, 6 September 1975, p. 1; published in The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 March 1999 and included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999.

[137]       Bill Nicol, Timor: The Stillborn Nation, Melbourne, Visa, 1978, p. 245.

[138]       Quoted in Documents on Australian Defence and Foreign Policy, 1968-1975, Sydney, J.R. Walsh and G.J. Munster, 1980, pp. 189-90; published in Tom Uren, Straight Left, Sydney, Random House, 1994, pp. 477-8; cited by the Hon. Tom Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 757.

[139]       Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 14 May 1982, p. 13; ‘Timor in no hurry to change’‚ The Canberra News, 10 July 1974.

[140]       ‘Meeting between the Prime Minister and President Soeharto in Townsville, 3-5 April, 1975: Record of the second discussion, 4 April 1975’ p. 4; published in The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 March 1999 and included in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999.

[141]       Bruce Juddery, ‘Situation in East Timor seems to be warming up again’, The Canberra Times, 11 June 1975; Peter Hastings, ‘Why Australia should reopen its consulate in East Timor’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 June 1975.

[142]       Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, p. 445.

[143]       Quoted in Documents on Australian Defence and Foreign Policy, 1968-1975, Sydney, J.R. Walsh and G.J. Munster, 1980, p. 199; published in Tom Uren, Straight Left, Sydney, Random House, 1994, pp. 477-8; cited by the Hon. Tom Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, pp. 756-7.

[144]       House of Representatives Hansard, 26 August 1975, pp. 491-3; quoted in Australian Yearbook of International Law, vol.6, 1974-1975, p. 209; cited in Mr Whitlam’s submission, no. 5, 26 March 1999, p. 8.

[145]       Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 761.

[146]       Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, pp. 754-5.

[147]       House of Representatives, Hansard, 14 November 1979, pp. 2966-7. Senator Arthur Gietzelt stated to the Senate on 7 April 1976: ‘Five Australian journalists were shot down in cold blood. I have been told on reliable information that that information was heard on Australian radio at Shoalhaven’. On 3 June 1976 he corrected this to say: ‘information about the murder of the Australian newsmen was available on 16 October’ 1975 from radio intercepts made ‘at Shoal Bay, near Darwin’ (Senate Hansard, pp. 1171, 2334).

[148]       House of Representatives Hansard, 30 October 1975, pp. 1609-10, Australian Yearbook of International Law, vol. 6, 1974-1975, pp. 209-10.

[149]       Bruce Juddery, ‘Do not accuse Jakarta: ambassador’, The Canberra Times, 31 May 1976; Paul Kelly, ‘Willesee: Whitlam reigned on East Timor’, The Australian, 10 March 1999.

[150]       The Canberra Times, 27 November 1975.

[151]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1002.

[152]       Dr Goodman, Committee Hansard, 10 September 1999, p. 482.

[153]       Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, pp. 442-3.

[154]       Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, p. 443.

[155]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no. 21, pp. 1-2.

[156]       Brian Toohey, ‘Mr Whitlam has his Yalta’, The Australian Financial Review, 17 October 1974.

[157]       Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 756; Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 555.

[158]       Documents on Australian Defence and Foreign Policy, 1968-1975, Sydney, J.R. Walsh and G.J. Munster, 1980, pp. 221-2; also in Brian Toohey and Marian Wilkinson, The Book of Leaks, Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1987, pp. 184-90, and Tom Uren, Straight Left, Sydney, Random House, 1994, pp. 481-2; cited by the Hon. Tom Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 756, and by Mr R. Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 555.

[159]       Mr Whitlam, submission, no. 5, 23 November 1999, pp. 9-10.

[160]       Defence Department support for Timorese independence was reported by Hugh Armfield in The Age of 13 September 1974, ‘Canberra aim for Timor: go Indonesian’. An article by Bruce Juddery in The Canberra Times of 17 September 1975 stated that an ‘eminent Australian strategist’ believed a bitter war of resistance to Indonesia could continue in Timor for up to ten years (‘Are we about to watch a new show on the Vietnam theme?’).

[161]       Documents on Australian Defence and Foreign Policy, 1968-1975, Sydney, J.R. Walsh and G.J. Munster, 1980, p. 220. Draft brief for Barnard [December 1974]; Barnard to Willesee, 11 February 1975; Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 139-41; 176-80. Paul Kelly, in The Australian of 25 February 1975 reported, ‘The Minister for Defence, Mr Barnard, has already written to Mr Whitlam expressing the concern of the Defence Department’ (‘PM plans strong note to Suharto’). Defence briefed the media on the arguments against encouraging the Indonesians to incorporate Portuguese Timor using military force: these arguments were set out in Peter Hastings, ‘Jakarta ponders a military “solution” ’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 February 1975. Cf. draft brief for Barnard, December 1974, Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, pp. 139-40.

[162]       House of Representatives Hansard, 30 October 1975, pp. 1609-10, Australian Yearbook of International Law, vol. 6, 1974-1975, pp. 209-10; Paul Kelly, ‘Willesee: Whitlam reigned on East Timor’, The Australian, 10 March 1999.

[163]       Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, p. 444.

[164]       Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 602; Mr Uren, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 762. In his letter to Willesee of 11 February 1975; Barnard complained that the Indonesians ‘seem to have heard only so much of what we have said to them as they wanted to hear, namely our acceptance of their interest in the future of Portuguese Timor and of its eventual absorption into the Indonesian state’ (Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 179).

[165]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no.21, pp. 1-2.

[166]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no. 21, pp. 1-2.

[167]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no. 21, pp. 1-2.

[168]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no. 21, pp. 1-2.

[169]       Alan Renouf, The Frightened Country, Melbourne, Macmillan, 1979, pp. 447-8.

[170]       Michael Richardson reported in The Age of 5 September 1974 (‘Timor: a colonial question that has to be settled’) that Australia’s response would be ‘crucial’ to Indonesia's decision on whether or not to proceed with a policy of incorporation of Portuguese Timor.

[171]       Aboeprijadi Santoso, ‘Weighing the “ifs” of East Timor’, The Jakarta Post, 20 January 2000.

[172]       Andrew McNaughtan, submission no. 49, pp. 1-2; and ‘New nation has opportunity for gains in the Gap’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 April 2000.

[173]       In preliminary talks between Australia and Portugal on a seabed boundary from 1971 to 1975; the Portuguese insisted that the seabed should be split midway between Timor and Northwest Australia, while the Australians wished for a simple straight line linking the two ends of the boundary negotiated with Indonesia in 1971, much closer to Timor than to Northwest Australia (House of Representatives Hansard, 26 October 1972, p. 3381, and 2 June 1973, p. 2589; Senate Hansard, 2 May 1973, p. 1740, and 23 May 1973, p. 1840; Ian Davis, ‘Rich seabed at stake in Indon talks’, The Age, 2 February 1984).

[174]       Brian Toohey, ‘Oil: Portuguese tail-twisting could backfire’, The Australian Financial Review, 26 March 1974. This article provoked a protest from the Portuguese Ambassador, Carlos Empis Wemans, that the Prime Minister had made public the dispute with Portugal. A subsequent note from the Ambassador said: ‘Whilst regretting the fact of the Australian Prime Minister having made public declarations on the subject, the Portuguese Government maintain their willingness to enter into negotiations with the Australian Government. However, since a conference on the Law of the Sea is scheduled to take place in Caracas, in June next, the Portuguese Government are of the opinion that immediate negotiations would be ill-timed and would therefore prefer to await the results of that Conference’ (Cour internationale de justice, Affaire relative au Timor oriental (Portugal c. Australie): mémoire du governement de la république Portugaise, La Haye, 1991, pp. 321-6, Annexes IV.9-10, 25 March and 18 April 1974).

[175]       Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 52.

[176]       John McIlwraith, ‘Drilling under way on remote Troubadour Shoals off Timor’, The Australian Financial Review, 4 July 1974; Nigel Wilson, ‘Keep hope fires burning’, The Australian, 4 October 2000.

[177]       Statement by Senator Cyril Primmer, Senate Hansard, 24 February 1976, p. 150.

[178]       Jill Jolliffe, ‘Hawke slated over E. Timor’, The Canberra Times, 30 August 1985. Jill Jolliffe (ed.), Guide to the East Timor question, 1975-1996, Rochester, (New York), MMF Publications, 1996.

Chapter 7 - Australia’s policy: late 1975–99

[1]           House of Representatives Hansard, 2 October 1975, p. 1660.

[2]           Hamish McDonald, ‘Indonesia will take Timor ... in slow motion and by remote control’, The National Times, 13-18 October 1975.

[3]           Paul Kelly, ‘Intelligence leak against Minister’, The National Times, 2-7 May 1977. Cf. Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, p. 791n; James Dunn, Timor: A People Betrayed, Sydney, ABC Books, 1993, pp. 199-201.

[4]           Hamish McDonald, ‘Australia supports Indonesia takeover of East Timor’, The National Times, 15-20 December 1975. In preliminary talks between Australia and Portugal on a seabed boundary from 1971 to 1975; the Portuguese insisted that the seabed should be split midway between Timor and Northwest Australia, while the Australians wished for a simple straight line linking the two ends of the boundary negotiated with Indonesia in 1971, much closer to Timor than to Northwest Australia (House of Representatives Hansard, 26 October 1972, p. 3381, and 2 June 1973, p. 2589; Senate Hansard, 2 May 1973, p. 1740, and 23 May 1973, p. 1840; Ian Davis, ‘Rich seabed at stake in Indon talks’, The Age, 2 February 1984).

[5]           ‘Fighting tragic, says Peacock’, The Age, 8 December 1975.

[6]           Hamish McDonald, ‘Australia supports Indonesia takeover of East Timor’, The National Times, 15-20 December 1975.

[7]           Hamish McDonald, ‘Australia supports Indonesia takeover of East Timor’, The National Times, 15-20 December 1975.

[8]           Arthur Gray, ‘Labor knew: Timor war’, The Canberra Times, 13 October 1976.

[9]           Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of East Timor, 1974-76, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 579-80.

[10]         House of Representatives Hansard, 4 March 1976, pp. 567-70.

[11]         Alison Stokes, the New Zealand diplomat who attended the meeting, commented: ‘Who were these representatives taking this decision, how had they been elected, and did they indeed represent the wishes of the people of East Timor’. Wendy Way, Damien Browne and Vivianne Johnson (eds.), Australia and the Indonesian incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp. 770, 772.

[12]         ‘Takeover of Timor rejected’‚ The Canberra Times, 21 July 1976.

[13]         Hamish McDonald, ‘Timor squabble appals Jakarta’‚ The Australian Financial Review, 18 October 1976.

[14]         On 6 October 1976 Ambassador Richard Woolcott in Jakarta handed over $83,000 to the Indonesian Red Cross for relief work in East Timor. This was the first instalment of a $250,000 grant (Hamish McDonald, ‘Indonesia will be seeking reassurance’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 October 1976).

[15]         Michael Richardson, ‘Timor: one year later’, The Age, 7 December 1976.

[16]         Hamish McDonald and Mike Steketee, ‘Not applicable’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 October 1976.

[17]         Peter Bowers, ‘Timor policy stands, says PM: Jakarta claim denied’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 October 1976.

[18]         ‘ “Risk” in restating now policy on Timor’, The Canberra Times, 15 October 1976.

[19]         Michael Richardson, ‘Indonesia’s Timor carrot’, The Australian Financial Review, 19 October 1976. Woodside-Burmah’s Troubadour No.1 well, drilled in July 1974 in the Timor Sea, had produced hydrocarbon findings that had raised hopes of commercial deposits (‘Hydrocarbon encounter by Woodside’, The Australian Financial Review, 3 July 1974; Hamish McDonald, ‘Indonesia cool on Timor oil search’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 29 December 1975.

[20]         Russell Skelton, ‘Recognise takeover—Companies in approach to Canberra’, The Age, 23 October 1976; ‘Timor Sold for Oil’, Tribune, 27 October 1976.

[21]         Michael Richardson, ‘Timor: one year later’, The Age, 7 December 1976.

[22]         ‘PM accused of “illegal” talks on sea border’, The Canberra Times, 18 October 1976.

[23]         Mike Steketee, ‘Seabed border plan shelved’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 October 1976.

[24]         House of Representatives Hansard, 20 October 1976, pp. 2015-6.

[25]         Stephen Nisbet, ‘Timor is Indonesian now: takeover reality: Peacock’, The Age, 21 January 1978.

[26]         Senate Hansard, 22 February 1978, p. 79; ‘ “Scramble for oil” led to Timor recognition’, The Canberra Times, 23 February 1978.

[27]         Michelle Grattan, ‘Timor: sense or just a sellout?’, The Age, 23 January 1978, p. 8.

[28]         Michael Richardson, ‘Drawing the seabed line’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 10 March 1978, pp. 79, 81.

[29]         Peter Terry, ‘Way opens for Timor oil hunt’, The Australian Financial Review, 21 February 1978. Such a line would have left the highly prospective Kelp structure on the Australian side. The existence of the Kelp structure had been known from seismic surveys by Burnah Oil in 1969 and 1970 (Mark Westfield, ‘Showdown at Timor Gap’, Australian Business, 28 March 1984, pp. 44-5).

[30]         Michael Richardson, ‘Tying up Timor's loose ends’‚ Far Eastern Economic Review, 5 January 1979, and ‘Aust-Indonesia talks on seabed boundaries’, The Australian Financial Review, 6 March 1978; Peter Hastings, ‘Rearranging the sea bed a task of diplomacy’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 December 1978.

[31]         The Canberra Times, 16 December 1978.

[32]         Senate Hansard, 8 March 1979, p.720; quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 8, p. 281.

[33]         P.G. Bassett, ‘Australia's Maritime Boundaries’‚ Australian Foreign Affairs Record, vol. 55, no. 3, March 1984, p. 188.

[34]         ‘Timor talks unresolved’, The Australian, 6 February 1984.

[35]         Senate Hansard, 23 February 1982, p. 306; quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 10, p. 273.

[36]         William Pinwill, ‘Timor  takeover approval sealed by Sinclair visit’, The Australian, 3 February 1983. Michael McKinley, ‘Problems in Australian Foreign Policy, January-June 1983’, The Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 29, no. 3, 1983, p. 419.

[37]         Wio Joustra, ‘Labor moves to reassure Jakarta’, The Australian, 8 March 1983.

[38]         Michael Richardson, ‘Timor seven to join families in Australia’, The Age, 14 March 1983.

[39]         Quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 10, p. 366.

[40]         Michelle Grattan, ‘Hawke turns foreign policy on its head’, The Age, 6 June 1983.

[41]         Ian Perkin and Peter Young, ‘New perspective on Hawke’s Timor stand’, The Australian, 27 June 1983.

[42]         Peter Hastings, ‘Indonesia, Fretilin in E Timor talks’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 27 June 1983; Michael Richardson, ‘Talks on Timor ceasefire confirmed’, The Age, 29 June 1983.

[43]         Jill Jolliffe, ‘Peace hopes dogged by military shootings’, The Age, 14 November 1991; Geoffrey C. Gunn, A Critical View of Western Journalism and Scholarship on East Timor, Manila and Sydney, Journal of Contemporary Asia Publishers, 1994, p. 154. The Kraras killings took place as a reprisal for the killing by Falintil guerrilheros of sixteen ABRI engineers engaged in road construction (Barbara Crosette, ‘War goes on in Indonesia isle’‚ The New York Times, 19 July 1985, p. A1).

[44]         Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence, report, The Human Rights and Conditions of the People of East Timor, Parliamentary Paper 108/83, p. 86.

[45]         Senate Hansard, 16 November 1983; quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 10, p. 367.

[46]         ‘Timor talks unresolved’, The Australian, 6 February 1984.

[47]         Michael Richardson, ‘Australian claims to oil area untenable, says Indonesia’, The Age, 31 March 1984; Michael Richardson, ‘Timor Gap rift remains’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 19 April 1984, pp. 40, 42.

[48]         Teresa Mannix, ‘Recognising East Timor “hard reality” ’, The Canberra Times, 18 April 1984.

[49]         Peter Hastings, ‘ “Cool it”, Jakarta tells Australia’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 29 June 1984.

[50]         Pat Walsh, ‘ALP Conference: A requiem for Timor?’, Inside Indonesia, no. 3, October 1984, pp. 18-22.

[51]         Jill Jolliffe, ‘Fretilin drops demand’, The Age, 7 November 1984.

[52]         ‘Talks likely on “Timor gap” ’, The Australian Financial Review, 20 July 1984.

[53]         Nikki Savva, ‘Portugal unhappy with Hayden over Timor talks’, The Australian, 10 September 1984; On 7 July 1976, Opposition Leader Gough Whitlam had been told in Lisbon by Socialist Party Leader Mario Soares that Portugal would continue to look to the United Nations for a solution, and could not adopt a position contrary to the United Nations. Ambassador Frank Cooper commented in his report on the meeting: ‘As we have previously reported, there seems no disposition either in the Provisional Government or the Foreign Ministry to abandon the self-determination principle.’ (Cooper to DFA, 7 July 1976, CRS A6364/4 LB1975/12, included with Mr Whitlam’s submission, 23 November 1999).

[54]         Jill Jolliffe, ‘Hayden, Eanes gloss over differences’, The Age, 10 September 1984.

[55]         ‘Joint exploration plan for Timor oilfields’, The Age, 16 August 1985.

[56]         Leigh Mackay, ‘Timor annexation should not be irritant, says Howard’, The Australian, 13 June 1985.

[57]         John Howard, ‘It’s time we made it up with the Indonesians’, The Australian, 6 July 1985.

[58]         ‘Sovereignty over Timor recognised, PM says’, The Canberra Times, 19 August 1985.

[59]         ‘Mochtar says PM’s view on Timor is policy’, The Age, 22 August 1985.

[60]         Jill Jolliffe, ‘Portuguese rebuke to Hawke on East Timor’, The Canberra Times, 21 August 1985.

[61]         Hugh White, ‘Hawke shrugs off Portugal’s Timor protest’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 August 1985.

[62]         Bill Goodall, ‘Portugal protests at zone’, The Canberra Times, 21 September 1985. The Portuguese perceived Australia to be motivated by ‘crass opportunism in signing away Timorese human rights in exchange for expected access to the oil-rich seabed’ (Jill Jolliffe, ‘Why Portugal is so angry over Timor’, The Age, 4 September 1985).

[63]         Deborah Snow, ‘Hawke confirms recognition of East Timor takeover’, The Australian Financial Review, 23 August 1985.

[64]         Senate Hansard, 22 August 1985, p.169; quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 11, pp. 239-40.

[65]         Michael Byrnes, ‘Timor-gap talks show ice has melted’, The Australian Financial Review, 29 October 1985.

[66]         Senate Hansard, 30 April 1986, p. 2078.

[67]         ‘Indonesian rule in East Timor formally recognised’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 July 1986.

[68]         Quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 12, p. 380.

[69]         Paul Grigson, ‘Sea dispute settled: now hope for oil’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 September 1989.

[70]         Anna Grutzner, ‘Portugal challenges Timor Gap oil pact’, The Australian, 12 September 1988.

[71]         ‘Portugal calls for Timorese independence’, The Age, 5 October 1988.

[72]         Chris Milne, ‘Wildcatting for the big one’, The Courier-Mail, 5 August 1989.

[73]         ‘Australia and Indonesia settle Timor Gap Treaty’, The Canberra Times, 28 October 1989; ‘Australia, Indonesia plan Timor oil search’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 28 October 1989.

[74]         Quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 12, p. 3802.

[75]         ‘Ambassador recalled as Timor treaty protest’, The Canberra Times, 14 December 1989.

[76]         ‘Australia first to give East Timor direct aid’, The Canberra Times, 29 October 1989.

[77]         Keith Scott, ‘Sovereignty is a reality’, The Canberra Times, 5 December 1989.

[78]         ‘Oil treaty to bring “era of cooperation” ’, The Canberra Times, 10 October 1991; House of Representatives Hansard, 10 October 1991, p. 1748.

[79]         Robert Domm, ‘Report From The Mountains Of East Timor’, Background Briefing, 28 October 1990.

[80]         David Lague, ‘Portugal sues over Timor treaty’, The Australian Financial Review, 26 February 1991.

[81]         Opinion of the International Court of Justice, Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), 30 June 1995. General List No. 84, 30 June 1995.

[82]         Quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 17, p. 680.

[83]         Quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 17, p. 683.

[84]         Opinion of the International Court of Justice, Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), 30 June 1995. General List No. 84, 30 June 1995.

[85]         ‘Australia’s sea boundary challenged’, Australian Broadcasting Corporation News, 2 September 1997; ‘Portugal denounces new Australia-Indonesia agreement on exclusive economic zone in East Timor’, Lusa, 11 September 1997.

[86]         House of Representatives Hansard, 28 April 1992, p. 1829; quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 14, p. 535.

[87]         House of Representatives Hansard, 13 November 1991, p. 2951.

[88]         Bernard Lagan, ‘Aust may rethink Timor recognition’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 December 1991. The Indonesian Government conveyed its rejection of Australia’s request to open a consulate in Dili to Senator Evans during his visit to Jakarta 20-22 December 1991 (David Lague, ‘Alatas wants “fair play” on massacre inquiry’, The Australian Financial Review, 23 December 1991).

[89]         Senate Hansard, 5 December 1991, p. 4275.

[90]         Senate Hansard, 11 December 1991, p. 4618.

[91]         David Lague, ‘Timor oil deal signed’, The Australian Financial Review, 12 December 1991.

[92]         John Loizou, ‘Secret talks herald oil boom’, Sunday Territorian, 15 December 1991.

[93]         Robert Garran, ‘Portugal slams Timor oil pact’, The Australian Financial Review, 19 December 1991.

[94]         ‘Portugal to take issue on Timor oil’, The Canberra Times, 17 December 1991. Soon after this, the Keating Government took the decision to close the Australian embassy in Lisbon, as a ‘cost-cutting’ measure. The embassy was re-opened by the Howard Government in April 2000 (Minister for Foreign Affairs - Alexander Downer, ‘Diplomatic Appointment - Ambassador to Portugal’, media release, 26 April 2000).

[95]         Ross Peake, ‘Indons back summit offer’, The Canberra Times, 23 April 1992.

[96]         To assist East Timor’s economic development, the Keating Government increased the level of aid directed to the province. In 1992 AIDAB began an aid program for the five years following, for which $30 million had been approved: $3.1 million was spent in 1992-93; $3.7 million in 1993-94; $5 million in 1994-95; $4 million in 1995-96; and $5 million in 1996-97. Between 1980 and financial year 1996-97, Australia’s assistance amounted to over $38 million. In 1998/99, approximately $7 million was approved by the Howard Government to fund activities in the province (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Annual Reports for 1992-93, 1993-94, 1995-96; submission no. 52, p. 13).

[97]         Geoff Kitney, ‘PM puts premium on political stability’, The Australian Financial Review, 23 April 1992.

[98]         Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade, A Review of Australia’s Efforts to Promote and Protect Human Rights, 1992, p. 76.

[99]         Senate Hansard, 27 May 1993, p. 1568.

[100]       ‘Leave Timor, says US chief’, The Sunday Herald Sun, 2 July 1995.

[101]       AM, 1 July 1995.

[102]       David Jenkins, David Lague and Mark Skulley, ‘Jakarta backs down’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 July 1995.

[103]       John McBeth, ‘Dili-Dallying: Australia and Indonesia fuss over Timor, again’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 13 July 1995.

[104]       Senate Hansard, 29 November 1995, p. 4217ff.

[105]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no. 21, p. 6.

[106]       Paul Keating, Engagement: Australia faces the Pacific, Sydney Macmillan 2000, p. 130; excerpt published in ‘The Keating Files’‚ The Australian, 13 March 2000.

[107]       Australia voted against Resolution 37/30 (Department of Foreign Affairs, submission to the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence, April 1982, p. 503). Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar did not submit a report to the 38th session of the General Assembly, in view of the talks which had begun in July 1983 between the Indonesian and Portuguese ambassadors at the United Nations, and the Indonesian truce with Fretilin in Timor in mid-1983 (Ted Morello, ‘Into a holding pattern’ and ‘On the shelf, again’‚ Far Eastern Economic Review, 8 September 1983, pp. 40-41 and 9 August 1984, p. 16).

[108]       Expresso, 1 April 1984, quoted in ‘Talks should be wider’, The Canberra Times, 2 April 1984.

[109]       Jill Jolliffe, ‘Hayden’s Portugal visit holds little hope for East Timorese’, The Age, 7 September 1984.

[110]       Jill Jolliffe, ‘Talks to resume on Timor’s future’, The Age, 28 September 1992. The Australian Government also rejected the appeal from Xanana Gusmão in his letter to Mr Hawke of February 1991 to use his influence to promote peace talks under the United Nations which included the East Timorese. Foreign Minister Evans responded: ‘We simply can’t be party to trying to facilitate some kind of negotiation between some group that is still contesting effectively the incorporation of East Timor into Indonesia’, and added that the conflict in East Timor would end if Fretilin surrendered (House of Representatives Hansard, 10 October 1991, p. 1748; Tom Hyland, ‘Captured: a living symbol of resistance’, The Sunday Age, 22 November 1992).

[111]       Yaroslav Trofimov, ‘Lisbon, Jakarta meet for talks on East Timor’, The Australian, 19 December 1992.

[112]       Jill Jolliffe, ‘Secret talks try to bridge differences on East Timor’, The Age, 20 December 1992.

[113]       At this conference Guilherme Gonçalves, Liurai (Raja) of Atsabe, who in 1975 had been leader of Apodeti and subsequently second Governor of the ‘27th province’, repudiated the so-called Declaration of Balibo of 1975, which called for incorporation of Portuguese Timor into Indonesia (Jill Jolliffe, ‘East Timor factions reconciled’, The Canberra Times, 12 June 1995; David Jenkins, ‘Fear, Death, Despair: Daily Life in Dili’s Paradise Lost’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 August 1995).

[114]       John McBeth, ‘Timor surprise: unexpected declaration shocks Jakarta’, Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 July 1995.

[115]       ‘Timorese talks at a standstill’, The Canberra Times, 10 July 1995.

[116]       Lindsay Murdoch, ‘East Timor role: hope at last’, The Age, 13 January 1999.

[117]       Quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 17, p. 681. Cf. Australia’s vote against General Assembly Resolution 37/30 of 1982, and opposition in subsequent years to similar resolutions (Department of Foreign Affairs submission on East Timor to Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence, April 1982, p. 503).

[118]       Senate Hansard, 16 October 1996, pp. 4248-9; quoted in The Australian Year Book of International Law, vol. 18, pp. 286-7.

[119]       Don Greenlees, ‘Labor policy ups the ante for autonomy in East Timor’, The Weekend Australian, 18 October 1997; Grahame Armstrong, ‘Labor in Timor backflip’, The West Australian, 25 October 1997.

[120]       Anthony Burke, ‘Labor could be set for a backflip on East Timor’, The Canberra Times, 22 December 1997. No official Australian representative attended the award ceremony in Oslo (José Ramos Horta, ‘East Timor must take some blame’, The Australian, 20 September 2000).

[121]       Ross Peake, ‘Party adopts a get-tough policy on Timor abuses’, The Canberra Times, 23 January 1998. Ross Peake, ‘ALP toughens East Timor line’, The Canberra Times, 27 May 1998.

[122]       Norman Abjorensen, ‘Pursuing peace in East Timor’, The Canberra Times, 21 February 1998.

[123]       Lindsay Murdoch, ‘East Timor: hope at last’, The Age, 13 January 1999.

[124]       Don Greenlees, ‘Habibie rules out Timor referendum’, The Australian, 4 June 1998.

[125]       ‘Habibie to consider status of East Timor’, The Canberra Times, 10 June 1998.

[126]       ‘After all the publicity about how much Indonesia was investing in building roads, hospitals and infrastructures in East Timor, we were surprised to see how small the budget was’, said Portuguese Foreign Ministry spokesman Mr Horacio Cesar. The current budget was ‘approximately that of a largish Portuguese municipality’. Foreign Minister Gama had consulted with Prime Minister Antonio Guterres and Finance Minister Antonio Sousa Franco over funds available to take over the Indonesian-financed budget. It was agreed that Portugal would foot the entire yearly $US100 million if necessary, but it was hoped other countries might contribute (Jill Jolliffe and Louise Williams, ‘Old colonist Portugal throws financial lifeline to E Timor’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 25 February 1999).

[127]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1002.

[128]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 and 9 December 1999, pp. 1003, 1027.

[129]       Don Greenlees, ‘Row over Timor shift’, The Australian, 16 January 1999.

[130]       DFAT, submission (March 1999), pp. 3-4.

[131]       Don Greenlees, ‘Row over Timor shift’, The Australian, 16 January 1999.

[132]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1002.

[133]       The preamble to the Indonesian constitution states: ‘Independence being the right of every nation, colonialism in this world must be abolished as being inconsistent with humanity and justice [Bahwa sesungguhnja kemerdekaan itu ialah hak segala bangsa dan oleh sebab itu, maka pendjadjahan diatas dunia harus dihapuskan, karena tidak sesuai dengan peri kemanusiaan dan peri keadilan]’.

[134]       Don Greenlees, ‘Offer of freedom doomed Habibie’, The Australian, 27 January 2000. Adviser to President Habibie, Dewi Fortuna Anwar, has commented that Bishop Ximenes Belo’s refusal of a request to come to Jakarta for further discussions after President Habibie had received Mr Howard's letter was a major factor influencing the President to propose to his cabinet that the people of East Timor be allowed to vote on their future (Karen Poleglaze, ‘Indonesia downplays PM’s Aussie influence on Timor’, AAP, 8 June 2000). Ms Dewi Anwar had said previously ‘the letter that provoked President Habibie’s change of mind regarding East Timor’s independence was the one that was sent by Howard’. (Sunday, 19 September 1999).

[135]       Louise Williams, ‘Jakarta hints at freedom for East Timor’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 28 January 1999. ‘We were then very convinced we would win the referendum’, Mr Alatas told the Jakarta magazine Tempo in September 2000 (Lindsay Murdoch, ‘Whitlam “backed what we were doing in East Timor” ’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 September 2000).

[136]       Lindsay Murdoch, ‘Australia to play key Timor role: Habibie’, The Age, 21 April 1999. See also Prime Minister Howard’s and President Habibie’s Joint Press Conference, Bali Hilton International, 27 April 1999. [http://www.pm.gov.au/news/interviews/1999/bali2704.htm].

[137]       Tim Dodd, ‘Indonesia's wounded pride over East Timor’, The Australian Financial Review, 21 April 1999.

[138]       Malcolm Booker, ‘East Timor should not get hopes high’, The Canberra Times, 19 August 1997.

[139]       Peter Cole-Adams, ‘Summit puts halt to stalling ploy’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 29 April 1999.

[140]       Peter Cole-Adams, ‘The long goodbye’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 April 1999.

[141]       The Hon. R.J.L. Hawke, AC, Sir Richard Kirby Lecture, 20 April 1999, quoted in Bob Hawke, ‘Timor: a Kosovo on our doorstep’, The Age, 21 April 1999.

[142]       Geoffrey Barker, ‘PM returns on wing and promise’, The Australian Financial Review, 28 April 1999; Peter Hartcher, ‘Indonesian army retains upper hand’, The Australian Financial Review, 5 May 1999. See also Prime Minister Howard’s and President Habibie’s Joint Press Conference, Bali Hilton International, 27 April 1999. [http://www.pm.gov.au/news/interviews/1999/bali2704.htm].

[143]       Don Greenlees, ‘A full and free choice’, The Australian, 28 April 1999. See also Prime Minister Howard, press conference, 28 April 1999. [http://www.pm.gov.au/news/interviews/1999/PresConf2804.htm].

[144]       In Jakarta, former Foreign Affairs Department Deputy Secretary Geoffrey Forrester detected the change and commented, ‘Australians are totally preoccupied with the East Timor situation and tend to see the fate of 202 million Indonesians through the prism of 800,000 East Timorese’ (Lindsay Murdoch, ‘Timor “timetable to disaster” ’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 29 April 1999).

[145]       Mr Kevin, Committee Hansard, 10 April 2000, p. 1040.

[146]       Sian Powell, ‘Freedom was worth the heavy price’, The Australian, 27 January 2000.

[147]       ‘ONU não tem visão neocolonialista, afirma Viera de Mello’, Lusa, 24 July 2000.

[148]       Nancy Viviani, ‘Australia Indonesia Relations—Past, Present, Future’, presented at ‘Indonesia Update’ seminar, Australian National University, 25 September 1999.

[149]       Mr Kevin, Committee Hansard, 10 April 2000, p. 1031.

[150]       Mr Kevin, Committee Hansard, 10 April 2000, p. 1032.

[151]       Mr Kevin, Committee Hansard, 10 April 2000, p. 1032.

[152]       Mr Kevin, Committee Hansard, 10 April 2000, p. 1032.

[153]       Mr Kevin, Committee Hansard, 10 April 2000, p. 1032. From April 1999, Special Air Services Regiment and the RAN Clearance Diving Team cells were performing clandestine reconnaissance in East Timor in preparation for a large Australian Defence Force deployment (Ian Hunter, ‘Elite forces scouted island from April’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 11 October 1999; ‘Navy divers return home from Timor’, AAP, 5 December 1999; Max Blenken, ‘Collins class submarines in action off East Timor—book’, AAP, 29 June 2000).

[154]       Mr Kevin, Committee Hansard, 10 April 2000, p. 1034.

[155]       Dr Crouch, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 572.

[156]       Mark Davis, Dateline, 16 February 2000, reported that at least $A12 million earmarked for welfare and development in Indonesia was channelled from the World Bank directly to the militias.

[157]       Professor Desmond Ball has said that ‘from the end of 1998, intelligence intercepts produced by the Defence Signals Directorate were providing a very accurate, precise and detailed picture, both of planning for the subsequent holocaust as well as details of the relationship between particular commanders of the Indonesian Army and militia groups and militia leaders in East Timor itself’ (Late Night Live, 24 July 2000).

[158]       Mr Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 517.

[159]       Mr Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 517.

[160]       Mr Mark Plunkett of the Pax Group, submission no. 92, p. 5.

[161]       Mr Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 525. The reference to Colonel Suratman was to his statement reported on the Channel 9 Sunday program of 30 May 1999: ‘There will be a civil war which I imagine will be much worse and more horrifying than what happened in 1975. If the pro-independents do win, it won’t just be the government of Indonesia that has to deal with what follows. The UN and Australia are also going to have to solve the problem. And well if this does happen then there’ll be no winners, everything is going to be destroyed. East Timor won’t exist as it does now. It’ll be much worse than 23 years ago’. The reference to UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for East Timor Jamsheed Marker was presumably to his statement in Dili on 18 August 1999 that the popular consultation could be conducted peacefully considering the improved security situation in the territory (‘UN Envoy says E Timor Ballot can be conducted peacefully’, Antara, 18 August 1999).

[162]       Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 554.

[163]       Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 556.

[164]       Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 555.

[165]       Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 663.

[166]       Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 664.

[167]       ‘East Timor Betrayed: The price of appeasement’, Sunday, 30 May 1999.

[168]       Professor Smith, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 594.

[169]       Mr Dupont, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, pp. 623-4. Cf. Professor Desmond Ball, Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University: ‘I think you had a situation where, back in about March, the intelligence community was alerting the government to the fact that there were very close relationships between the Indonesian military and the militia groups and leaderships in East Timor, and that in the event of an independence poll that was lost, from the Indonesian point of view, there would be widespread massacres, deaths and destruction. The government really didn’t want to hear that back in March/April. It was resisting any moves to set up any peacekeeping force; it was wanting to keep the Indonesian relationship along the sort of cosy lines that Canberra and Jakarta had been working for previous years, and hence didn’t really want to know what the intelligence community was telling it.’ (The National Interest, 31 October 1999).

[170]       Dr William Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, pp. 859-60.

[171]       Dr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 860.

[172]       Dr Kingsbury, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 947. Cf. Professor Desmond Ball: ‘I think that there are some very major questions involved about the influence on intelligence by the policy-making process. In other words, the intelligence assessment process was distorted to make it more consonant with the views of the government here in Canberra. I think that’s potentially disastrous in any intelligence collection or assessment process.’ The National Interest, 31 October 1999.

[173]       Dr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 863.

[174]       Dr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 866.

[175]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1004.

[176]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 9 December 1999, p. 1026.

[177]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 13 August 1999, p. 220.

[178]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 9 December 1999, p. 1026.

[179]       John Lyons, ‘The Secret Timor Dossier’, The Bulletin, 12 October 1999, p. 27.

[180]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1004.

[181]       Dr Maley, submission no. 91, p. 1; Cf. the statement by Professor Desmond Ball, Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University: ‘I believe that we’re now witness to the greatest failures in Australian defence policy since the 1960s.’ Four Corners, ‘The Ties that Bind: the story behind the East Timor crisis and how it plunged Australian-Indonesian relations to and all-time low’, 14 February 2000.

[182]       Mr Plunkett, submission no. 92, p. 5; Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 524.

[183]       Mr R. Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 555.

[184]       Dr Chan, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 832.

[185]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1005. The Department also declined to respond to Mr Tony Kevin’s submission at the hearing on 10 April 2000.

[186]       John Lyons, ‘The Secret Timor Dossier’, The Bulletin, 12 October 1999, p. 25.

[187]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 1004.

[188]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 9 December 1999, pp. 1028-9.

[189]       Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 9 December 1999, p. 1026.

[190]       Mr Dunn, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 602.

[191]       Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 555.

[192]       Dr Chan, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 831. ‘From my own observations, Dr Kenneth Chan, the Australian representative in the [UN] Fourth Committee, was deeply involved with the Indonesians in running the plan to endeavour to defeat the resolution on East Timor that was before the body’, Professor Roger Clark, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1982, p. 1402.

[193]       Mr Whitlam, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, pp. 987-8.

[194]       The Hon. Gareth Evans, QC, MP, submission no. 21, p. 6.

[195]       ‘Australia’s insistence on maintaining good relations’, AM, 13 September 2000; ‘Australia’s stance on 1975 E. Timor invasion “a mistake” ’, The Canberra Times, 14 September 2000.

[196]       Dr Chan, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 832.

[197]       Dr Chan, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 832.

[198]       Dr Chan, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 833.

[199]       Dr Chan, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 834.

[200]       Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 665.

[201]       Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 667.

[202]       Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 665.

Chapter 8 - Australia and Indonesia

[1]           Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 991.

[2]           James Grubel, ‘Indonesia scraps security treaty over East Timor’, AAP, 16 September 1999; Don Greenlees and Robert Garran, ‘Jakarta severs security ties with Canberra’, The Australian, 17 September 1999.

[3]           Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 996.

[4]           Dr van Langenberg, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 781.

[5]           Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 557.

[6]           Dr Kingsbury. Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 942.

[7]           ‘Gus Dur-Howard meeting successful: Alwi’, The Jakarta Post, 9 June 2000. Japan’s Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura during a visit to Jakarta in late April had expressed concern to President Wahid and Foreign Minister Alwi Shihab about the deterioration in relations between Indonesia and Australia (Lincoln Wright, ‘Japan steps in to smooth ties with Indonesia’, The Canberra Times, 11 May 2000). Mr Komura and Prime Minister Yoshihiro Mori facilitated the meeting in Tokyo between Prime Minister Howard and President Wahid (James Grubel, ‘Funeral in Tokyo brings Pacific family together’, AAP, 9 June 2000). At the April talks in Jakarta, the idea was raised of a tri-partite meeting or council of Indonesia, Australia and East Timor. President Wahid discussed the idea with Xanana Gusmão in Jakarta on 28 April, proposing that Gusmão raise it with Prime Minister Howard, which Gusmão did during his visit to Australia on 6 May. Mr Howard agreed, in principle, to a tri-partite meeting, but only after a bilateral meeting between himself and President Wahid (Karen Polglaze, ‘Wahid calls for meeting with Howard’, AAP, 28 April 2000; Lindsay Murdoch, ‘Jakarta, Canberra and Dili must talk, says Wahid’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 May 2000; Karen Michelmore, ‘Howard backs tri-nation East Timor meeting’, AAP, 6 May 2000).

[8]           Mr Dupont, Committee Hansard, 24 September 1999, p. 620.

[9]           Mr Aspinall, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999. p. 829.

[10]         Dr William Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 866.

[11]         See Lt Gen. Sanderson, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 545; Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 672; Dr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 866.

[12]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 991.

[13]         Mr Dauth, Committee Hansard, 6 December 1999, p. 995.

[14]         Mr Mark Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 529.

[15]         Dr Kingsbury. Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 942.

[16]         Dr Kingsbury. Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 942.

[17]         Dr Maley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 864.

[18]         Mr Aspinall, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, p. 830.

[19]         Dr Crouch, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 581.

[20]         Mr B. Ely, Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 382.

[21]         Mr B. Ely, Committee Hansard, 8 September 1999, p. 381.

[22]         Defence Department, submission no. 55, annex A, 30 March 1999.

[23]         Defence Department, submission no. 55, annex A, 30 March 1999.

[24]         Mr Alcock, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 45; Ms Van Der Sman, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 86; Dr Bourchier, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 170; Ms Lawrence, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 157; Mr Aubrey, Committee Hansard, 27 August 1999, p. 316; Mr O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, pp. 787-8; Mr Haigh, Committee Hansard, 3 November 1999, p. 672; Dr Kingsbury, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, pp. 945-6; Dr Hill, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 953.

[25]         Mr O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, pp. 787-8.

[26]         Dr Bourchier, Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 173; Dr Kingsbury, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 945.

[27]         Dr Kingsbury, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, pp. 945-6.

[28]         For example, Mr J. Aubrey, Committee Hansard, 27 August 1999, p. 322; Mr Alcock, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 45; and Ms Van Der Sman, Committee Hansard, 19 July 1999, p. 86.

[29]         Dr Kingsbury, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 945.

[30]         Dr Hill, Committee Hansard, 18 November 1999, p. 953.

[31]         Dr Crouch, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 583.

[32]         Mr M.J. Scrafton, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 850.

[33]         Air Commodore K.J. Clarke, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 850.

[34]         Mr H. White, Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Committee Hansard, 8 June 1999, p. 216.

[35]         Dr Bourchier,Committee Hansard, 20 July 1999, p. 173; Mr O’Connor, Committee Hansard, 4 November 1999, pp. 790-2.

[36]         Mr Mark Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 546.

[37]         Mr Mark Plunkett, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 545.

[38]         Mr Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 September 1999, p. 566.

[39]         Lt Gen. Sanderson, Committee Hansard, 15 September 1999, p. 546.

[40]         Air Commodore Clarke, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 843.

[41]         Mr Scrafton, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 843.

[42]         ‘Indonesian defence ties helped in Timor crisis’, AAP, 3 May 2000.

[43]         Lincoln Wright, ‘Ties with Indonesian military prevented bloodshed: Cosgrove’, Canberra Times, 17 May 2000.

[44]         ‘Aust cancels military training with Indonesia’, AAP, 10 September 1999; Mr Scrafton, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 854; Mr Hugh White, Deputy Secretary (Strategy), Department of Defence, estimates hearings, Legislation Committee Hansard, 3 May 2000, p. 88.

[45]         Mr M.J. Scrafton, Committee Hansard, 11 November 1999, p. 853.

[46]         James Grubel, ‘Howard says too early to resume defence ties with Indonesia’, AAP, 2 May 2000; Michelle Grattan and Lindsay Murdoch, ‘Too soon to resume defence ties, says PM’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 3 May 2000.

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