ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING
8.1 In this chapter the Committee examines other radio and television
broadcasting services operating in the Asia pacific region and comments
on the increasing globalisation of the media.
International Radio Services in the Asia Pacific Region
8.2 Term of reference (b) of this inquiry calls for assessment of the
'activities of similar broadcast services, radio and television , broadcasting
to countries in the Asia-Pacific region.'Currently there are thirty-eight
other international broadcasters who target the Asia-Pacific region in
English and a range of regional languages. English and Mandarin are offered
by a majority of these services. Well-known
broadcasters which are based outside the region include:
- BBC World Service (12 regional languages)
- Voice of America (12 regional languages)
- Deutsche Welle (6 regional languages)
- Voice of Russia (9 regional languages)
- Radio France International (5 regional languages)
- The Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran (7 regional languages)
8.5 There are also several major national broadcasters based in the
- China Radio International (22 regional languages)
- Radio Japan (11 regional languages)
- All India Radio (15 regional languages)
- Voice of Indonesia (5 regional languages)
- Radio Korea International (5 regional languages)
- Voice of Malaysia (5 regional languages)
- Radio Pakistan (6 regional languages)
- Radio Thailand (9 regional languages)
- Voice of Vietnam (9 regional languages)
- Voice of Free China (Taiwan) (7 regional languages)
8.6 In addition, several religious organisations also broadcast to
the Asia-Pacific region in regional languages. These organisations range
from fundamentalist Christian to Islamic groups.
8.7 The editorial standards of these broadcasters vary greatly depending
on the degree of Government or other control or on the broader objectives
of the organisation.
8.8 Voice of America, for example, is known for its accurate news but,
as an arm of the US State Department, it is also required to pursue
government foreign policy objectives. The US is also pursuing its foreign
policy objectives with the recent establishment of a new service, known
as Radio Free Asia, which targets China, Tibet, North Korea, Vietnam,
Cambodia, Laos and Burma. The implementation costs of the new service
were US$30 million (A$38 million).
8.9 Services such as Radio China International and the Voice of Vietnam
are tightly controlled and were established to broadcast the views of
their governments as direct instruments of foreign policy. Most religious
and some national broadcasters, such as the Voice of the Islamic Republic
of Iran, have strongly ideological messages.
8.10 In the section on transmission in this report, evidence was cited
that showed short-wave transmission is a major growth area in international
broadcasting. International competitors are heavily investing in transmission
facilities throughout the region, branching into satellite rebroadcasting
and entering into leasing and exchange arrangements with other broadcasters.
Within this field, Radio Australia stands out as the only broadcaster
who is unable to make use of off-shore transmitters to boost its signal
to target areas. Despite being advantaged by its strategic location
within the region, and therefore being petitioned for lease or exchange
of air time, Radio Australia is the only international broadcaster which
has not been able to trade in this increasingly competitive market.
The following broadcasters use off-shore transmitters to target the
- Radio Canada International uses transmitters in Korea, China and
- Radio France International uses transmitters in Japan and Thailand
- Deutsche Welle uses transmitters in Sri Lanka and the Russian Far
- Voice of America uses transmitters in the Philippines, the Russian
Far East, Singapore, Thailand (two sites), Tinian (Northern Marianas)
and Sri Lanka
- Radio Nederland uses transmitters in Madagascar to broadcast to
- BBC World Service uses transmitters in Singapore and Thailand.
8.13 In the past 12 months several of the national broadcasters targeting
the region have taken steps to improve their short-wave signal strength.
A summary listing includes:
- China Radio International imported ten 500kW short-wave transmitters
to boost its signals to Asia.
- The BBC opened a new transmitter site in Thailand at a cost of £30
million including four 250kW short-wave transmitters and seven aerials.
- Voice of America contracted to build a new short-wave station in
Tinian Island in the Northern Marianas using three 550kW transmitters
transferred from Portugal.
- Radio France International started using two short-wave transmitters
in the Russian Far East targeted at China and Vietnam.
- Radio Japan resumed the use of short-wave transmissions from Sri
- Voice of Vietnam started using a short-wave transmitter in the Russian
8.14 At a time when Australia is considering closing or reducing its
international radio service, other countries are spending significant
sums of money to boost their coverage and signal strength in the Asia
Pacific region. With the end of the Cold War in Europe, the BBC and
Voice of America are redeploying resources from Europe to Asia and the
Pacific, while other western and regional broadcasters are making use
of former Soviet transmitters in the Russian Far East and other former
Radio Australia's Position
8.15 Radio Australia's undoubted strength amongst all other broadcasters
is its objective and timely coverage of regional news:
With the exception of Australia Television - which, with Radio
Australia, is regionally focused - the major world TV news services,
CNN and BBC-World, will inform English-speaking elites in detail about
the US, Europe and the Middle East, much less about Indonesia and
the Asia-Pacific region, and certainly not about Australia. They deliver
their news in English; RA in eight languages of the region, from the
same time-zones and from the regional perspective.
8.16 About 75 per cent of regional submitters to this inquiry commented
positively on Radio Australia' regional focus. Expert witnesses with
substantial expertise in the areas of international journalism, broadcasting,
Asian studies and government reported their knowledge and first-hand
experience of the value which regional audiences placed on Australia's
perceptive analysis of local events, informative and engaging programs
about regional cultures. Further, Radio Australia has earned a respected
reputation amongst its competitors as a reporter of regional events.
This was confirmed by other major international broadcasters in their
responses to the inquiry (see below).
8.17 As Mr Mansfield and others have observed, broadcasting is booming
in Asia. At a superficial glance, it would appear that there is a considerable
choice of media in the region and that it is already adequately served
by local radio, television and newspapers. However, as this inquiry
has confirmed, the quality and range of information provided in the
region is severely limited by the political controls or by limited resources,
as in the Pacific and Papua New Guinea. In addition, despite the increasing
provision of services by other international broadcasters, few focus
on regional events.
8.18 Dr Hart Cohen, co-ordinator of recent audience surveys in Surabaya
and Medan in Indonesia, confirmed the value of Radio Australia and Australia
Television as alternative news sources in Indonesia:
one of the attractions of both these services to its users is
its perceived 'independence' from government influence in media environments
which do not customarily have independence
The constant refrain
emerging from our research is that Australia Television and Radio Australia
offer alternatives they present
a 'different' point-of- viewone that contrasts with and can then
be compared to both Indonesian local media and other global/regional
8.19 Professor Kessler noted there are advantages for Australia too:
The main Bahasa Indonesia services that I hear regularly going
into South East Asia are: first, Radio Australia; secondly, the Voice
of America, which is a serious program but reflects their notions of
broadcasting and also their geostrategic political interests; thirdly,
various evangelical radio stations that seem to emanate from the Philippines;
and, fourthly, an increasing number of broadcast services in Malay and/or
Indonesian that emanate I believe from Saudi Arabia and Iran. The content
of that material, you can imagine, is a rather different perspective
from the perspective that emanates from Australia and projects Australia's
interests. I think there is a vast amount to be lost by discontinuing,
for example, the Bahasa Indonesia service. 
8.20 Radio Australia's Mr Djajamihardja of the Indonesian languages
service made an important point about the particular facility Radio
Australia's NewsCAff has for providing, not only regionally focused
news but timely news reporting. Quite simply, Australia is located in
the region and so can provide a service that cannot be matched by its
northern hemisphere counterparts:
we are supported by the time factor. We are three hours
ahead of Indonesia. So anything happening there would be beamed back
to Indonesia just in time; whereas the BBC would be 10 hours behind
the event. The incident on 27 July 1996 took place about midmorning.
I was still at work at 7 p.m. when I read in the wires that an incident
had been taking place - the headquarters of the PDI being attacked.
We started working and we contacted all the contacts we have. I interviewed
General Sumitro, who was the commander of the restoration command. I
asked him what was behind this incident and why it took place. So we
are ahead because of the time factor. Indonesians listened to Radio
Australia, starting at 3 p.m. Jakarta time, and then they followed what
was happening through Radio Australia. 
8.21 As a result, Mr Djajamihardja continued, 'Radio Australia is synonymous
with news in Indonesia' , which he
When I was in East Timor in 1988, the head of military information
came to my hotel and asked me how you guys in Melbourne got this news
first hand and so quickly. He was a major and he asked me, `Can you
tell me why the Australian government put a spy satellite over East
Timor?' I said, `No, I just sent the report to Melbourne today through
any normal means. I went to the telephone exchange and I reported from
8.22 RA's prime focus on the region in its selection and coverage of
news and current affairs differentiates its services from those of VOA
and the BBC.  The American or British
services give more on-air time to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and
8.23 A comparison of bulletins (of similar duration) from BBC-World
Service and Radio Australia at 11.00 am on March 5, 1997 (as monitored
in Australia) are shown below:
|BBC - World Service
|Albania Crisis Initiative
||PM Howard on Bougainville
||Bougainville Mine Bid
|Albanian Officers in Italy
|German Nuclear Protest
||Arafat at U.N.
|Israel Close Palestinian Offices
||China Heald Loyalty Call
|Turkish Government Services
|Iran Earthquake Appeal
||Anthrax - Export Concerns
||Iran Earthquake Appeal
||Clinton on Arkansas Emergency
||ABC Chairman on RA
8.24 The Committee's independent assessment of Radio Australia's programming
also revealed that a large percentage of the items on the Asia Pacific
reported by BBC World Services were sourced from Radio Australia's new
International Broadcasting Survey
8.25 In the course of the inquiry the Committee invited major international
broadcasters to provide information on their services in the region.
A number of these broadcasters also commented on their perception of
the role of international broadcasting generally, and more particularly,
their estimate of the contribution made by Radio Australia. In this
way, the Committee received an insight into what other international
broadcasters see as their priorities, broad objectives and specific
goals. Within this context these organisations also provide an international
perspective on Radio Australia's proposed withdrawal from the industry.
BBC World Service
8.26 BBC World Service reported that it had recently expanded its services
in the Asia Pacific region. Mr Sam Younger, Managing Director, clarified
the organisation's priorities in the region to the Committee:
It may be helpful if I outline BBC World Service's thinking for
this major region which combines information rich and information poor
countries. It is also a top priority for the Foreign and Commonwealth
Office, who indicated to us, at a BBC/FCO review of the region, the
importance they place on radio as a means of promoting free information
within China and enhancing the profile of the UK there. We plan to strengthen
our broadcasts in Mandarin and must rely on short wave as the main means
of reaching China and other closed societies in the area, such as Burma.
We see Indonesian as another key language to be strengthened. 
8.27 On BBC World Service plans for rebroadcasting Mr Younger commented:
We will pursue rebroadcasting opportunities wherever we can,
but this is not a viable option for a number of countries in the region.
We may well lose our present rebroadcasting in Hong Kong after June
1997: accordingly we are turning to the Internet for Cantonese and are
already using this for English teaching. We think it essential that
programming be tailored specifically for target audiences. The proportion
of domestic BBC radio programming that World Service's English network
uses is quite small and all our news and current affairs is specially
made in-house, as domestic programming has a different and obviously
domestic audience in mind. 
8.28 It has been noted by the ABC and many witnesses to this inquiry,
that the BBC World Services and other major broadcasters have been eager
to buy or lease transmission time, or take up frequencies which a closed
Radio Australia would vacate, yet BBC World Service's Director writes:
BBC World Service would regard the closure of Radio Australia
with concern. True, we might pick up some additional listeners, but
the community of international public service broadcasters, providing
unbiased and accurate international and national news, is small by comparison
with the vast range of competitors who do not. The loss of an old-established
member of that community would, we feel, weaken the overall standing
of the international public broadcaster. 
Radio France International
8.29 As observed in the section on RA's foreign language services,
Radio Australia's French service is provided by short-wave and rebroadcast
to countries in the Pacific. Listeners have said in submissions that
they particularly value the service for providing independent and regionally
focussed news, in contrast to that broadcast by Radio France Internationale.
Even so, RFI responded to the Committee expressing its upmost support
for the continuation of Radio Australia's Services in the region. Mr
Arnaud Littardi, Director of International Affairs, RFI writes:
As an international broadcaster R.F.I. was deeply concerned
by the announcement of the Australian government to cut the budget
of Radio Australia.
The public international broadcasters contribute to preserve
liberty and pluralism of information, which are still to be defended
in many countries.
For instance, at the very moment when all the international radios
of the democratic countries increase their outputs towards Asia we need
the voice of Australia, one of the most prominent country in the region.
Voice of America
8.30 Voice of America, too, despite its keen pursuit of air time in the
region, affirmed the fraternity of influence of which Radio Australia
was part and endorsed its continuation. Mr Alan L. Heil Jr , Deputy Director,
quoted a headline from the Australian, which referred to Indonesian listeners'
responses to the closure of Radio Australia as 'axe[ing] the Voice of
Freedom' (and quoted elsewhere in the report). Mr Heil also described
how VOA had focussed its language services delivery on the East Asia and
Pacific regions, expecting that they would be 'a powerful commercial engine
of the global economy in the coming century'. 
8.31 Deutsche Welle, Germany's international broadcasting service,
reported that it had recently extended its interests in Asia with the
launch of the Asia-Pacific Satellite AsiaSat 2 in April 1996. It appended
to its submission an extensive list of countries in the region, including
Australia, with whom it has entered into rebroadcast arrangements for
its television and radio programs, offered as multi lingual package
- 'The European Bouquet'.
8.32 Deutsche Welle also identifies that a focal interest is in promoting
European unification as part of its broader agenda aimed at fostering
has the task of conveying in German and foreign language
radio and TV programming an accurate and comprehensive picture of political
cultural and economic life in Germany and to inform objectively about
world events. The programmes are to foster the peaceful co-existence
of nations, to serve as a bridge of understanding among the peoples
of the world, and to contribute towards Europe's unification process.
With its numerous radio and TV programmes, DW promotes freedom of information,
cultural pluralism and a sense of solidarity. 
Swiss Radio International
8.33 Radio Swiss International, reporting its role as limited as a 'public
service organisation operating in a small country', nevertheless emphasised
that it is 'respected for its independence, its democratic and humanitarian
traditions and its services of political mediation.' 
Mr Ulrich Kundig, General Manager therefore made the following two general
points about the objectives of international broadcasting:
- Over the long period of its existence, international broadcasting
- especially non-governmental, politically independent broadcasting
- has proved to be an extremely important part of worldwide communication.
It may be true that the way it worked in the past (and is still working)
in some countries has not always been impeccable, but it is undoubtedly
a valid concept for developing and improving pluralism in international
communication, as well as reciprocal understanding and tolerance
for cultural diversity.
- In a world where technical innovation makes unlimited communication
possible, international broadcasting as a country's tool of external
relations has become an essential and indispensable means of dialogue.
A country's self-presentation via international broadcasting is not
- and should not be - an egoistic promotional act; it must and it can
be a useful contribution to a better understanding of different realities
and therefore to making international co-existence safer and more constructive.
8.34 Information supplied by SRI also describes one of its major functions
as keeping its 530,000 Swiss abroad, described as the countries 'ambassadors'
well informed about Swiss life, and importantly, so they can participate
by voting in Swiss Federal Affairs.
8.35 Keeping travelling Japanese business people well informed in the
Pacific was also an impetus to the expansion of Radio Japan. 
Japan's international broadcaster wrote to the Committee describing its
expanded services in the region. Despite
Radio Australia's closing their short-wave services to Japan because of
its obvious communications advances, NHK, the parent of Radio Japan, approached
Radio Australia for sharing transmitter time . As Mr Holmes of Radio Australia
Radio Japan wanted to broadcast Japanese programs from Shepparton,
using Radio Australia's transmitters, to New Zealand and the South Pacific
for the express purpose of providing news and current affairs information
to travelling Japanese business people. This proposal was not made 10
or 15 years ago; it was made 18 months ago. Independent, reliable, portable,
affordable and accessible communications is what short wave represents.
8.36 Mr William Yates quoted to the Committee a letter to the Minister
for Communications and the Arts, Senator Alston, which confirms that
Radio Japan, too, sees Radio Australia as integral member of the fraternity
of international broadcasters:
As the Deputy Director General of Radio Japan, NHK's international
broadcasting service, I am writing to you concerning the future of
Radio Australia. We have heard that RA faces imminent closure as a
result of government budget cuts. We are deeply concerned about this
We believe that the role of international broadcasting in the
promotion of international understanding and cooperation grows ever
larger as world affairs become ever more complex. 
Radio New Zealand International
8.37 Radio New Zealand International offers a strong languages service
to the Pacific, broadcasting in Cook Islands Maori, Samoan, Tongan Niuean
for periods each week day. Weekly and monthly broadcasts in Fijian, French,
Tokelauan, I-Kiribati, Pitcairnese and Bislama (Vanuatu) are also offered.
RNZI's ongoing programming consists of Pacific-focussed cultural, news
information, sport and religious items. It broadcasts via short-wave,
on average, for 19 hours a day. RNZI programs are also rebroadcast by
nine Pacific countries and ten Pacific Broadcasters. 
8.38 Radio New Zealand International reported that it is funded by the
South Pacific Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT)
and is overseen by a Policy Board composed of MFAT, New Zealand Public
Radio and Radio New Zealand representatives and one independent member.
8.39 The Committee also received responses to this inquiry from other
broadcasters in the region. These included APSARA TV and Radio Station
in Cambodia and the International Broadcasting Corporation News of Bangkok,
Thailand who wrote to the committee expressing their alarm that Radio
Australia and ATV services might cease and commending Radio Australia
for its 'top-notch' reporting on the Asian region.
Television Services in the Asia Pacific Region
8.40 ATV submitted to the Committee:
While AusTV was one of the pioneers in the Asia/Pacific satellite
broadcasting industry it has been joined since 1993 by many competitors
who have realised the value of television as a vehicle for the dissemination
of news and information or the promotion of everything from a nation's
image to a brand of breakfast cereal. The one thing all of these services
have in common is their recognition of Asia as the world's fastest
growing marketplace for both breakfast cereal and ideas.
It is worth noting at this point that AusTV was the first public
broadcaster in the Asia/Pacific regions to transmit its programs internationally
via satellite. AusTV's lead has since been followed by the public broadcasters
of China, Japan, Singapore, Brunei and India. 
ATV provided the Committee with the following list of major satellite
broadcasters available in the Asia Pacific region. The list is divided
into government and privately owned services -
PRIVATELY OWNED SERVICES
In addition to the above list of privately owned services, the Hong
Kong based satellite broadcaster, Star TV, carries a 'package' of channels
on its Asiasat 2 satellite. These are operated by Star and a variety
of other firms. The channels are listed below.
STAR TV - ASIASAT 2 CHANNELS
|Star Chinese Channel
8.41 The Committee notes that ATV is the only international broadcaster
which broadcasts a comprehensive programming format in English. The
Indian broadcaster, Doordarshan, a comprehensive broadcaster uses both
Hindi and English and the Philippines broadcaster, ABS/CBN, broadcasts
in Tagalog and English. The main commercial station in the region, the
Hong Kong based Star TV, does not broadcast and news or current affairs
programs. Most English language news programs are American in origin
other than the BBC. Although there may be many channels in operation,
many are in foreign languages and/or broadcast specific types of programming.
Direct competition with ATV is therefore much less than one might expect
from a simple count of the number of satellite channels in operation.
It should also be noted that the 100 plus channels mentioned by Mr Mansfield
includes local television broadcasters using multi-channel satellite
transmissions to differentiate among programming types.
8.42 In a section entitled 'The Future' in his report, Mr Bob Mansfield
The environment in which the ABC will operate over the next
decade will be characterised by continuing and rapid change, as well
as increased competition for audiences and available government funding.
Digital technology developments have the potential to revolutionise
both the production and distribution of broadcasting content. The
compression of digital broadcasting signals will significantly increase
the number of broadcasting channels available, effectively ending
spectrum scarcity and increasing the range of services available to
consumers. Potentially, listeners and viewers will have access to
arrange of niche services offering extremely high quality sound and
pictures as well as more services offering general programming
Broadcasting services will be increasingly be provided by a mix
of delivery systems, including terrestrial transmitters, satellites
and broadband cable. Subscription services will increase their share
of the listening and viewing audience in Australia. 
8.43 The Committee received ample evidence confirming these statements.
They apply to both Australia's domestic and also the international broadcasting
environment. The very technological developments that dictate change,
expansion and diversity are those which determine that domestic and international
broadcasting interests must merge as communications systems become increasing
8.44 Although Mr Mansfield refers to the interactive 'mix of delivery
systems' he did not consider, because presumably it was beyond the scope
of his inquiry, that such diversification means there is no simple line
progression of advancement from one technology to the other: instead
media developments complement each other and compete in an expanded
communications network. Mr Mansfield was not in a position to comment
on the implications for the ABC as a national broadcaster in a world
of other national broadcasters and regional commercial broadcasters.
As ABC Managing Director, Mr Brian Johns pointed out in evidence to
The national public broadcaster of Australia does not operate
in isolation. It has served diverse community interests throughout Australia.
But, in serving local audiences, the ABC has never limited its vision
to parochial interests, even more so in the era of media globalisation.
The ABC must have a clearly focused international outlook. 
8.45 Professor Rod Tiffin, communications expert and twice reviewer
of Radio Australia (1989; 1994-95) submitted to the inquiry:
In many ways the future of international public service broadcasting
will depend on whether different national organisations, which traditionally
viewed each others as competitors, can develop productive co-operative
arrangements, together producing a presence in the multi-channel international
broadcasting environment that none can achieve alone. 
8.46 The response from Radio Australia's international counterparts
suggests that the current international broadcasting environment is
on the right path. Dynamic and competitive as the field is, the broadcasters
themselves show that their operations run on idealism and a commitment
to producing services which serve national and international needs;
in that there is a fellowship of difference which necessarily unites.
8.47 In a tangible sense, the serving of mutual interest drives the
international market for leasing or exchange of time options which are
increasingly conducted between broadcasters. Mr Nigel Holmes of RA reports
on such a beneficial exchange arrangement RA has with the BBC:
We are carrying some BBC broadcasts at the moment. The BBC wanted
to improve the quality of its short - wave signal into Papua New Guinea
and the south-west Pacific and, as I speak, we are carrying two one
- hour BBC World Service broadcasts every day. The quid pro quo is that
we have access to the BBC master control centre in London, which switches
Radio Australia programs - received from Sydney via ISDN line - to the
World Radio Net headquarters. World Radio Net is a small operation which
operates satellite transmissions around the world, and the BBC help
us get our signal into the World Radio Net system, in exchange for the
two one-hour broadcasts carried on Radio Australia transmitters. 
8.48 He drew attention to potential areas of international co-operation
Ideally we would like to mount our short-wave broadcasts within
1,500 to 3,000 kilometres of the intended target area. For example,
if Radio Australia were able to take up the proposal from NHK, from
Radio Japan, to share transmission resources, we would be delighted
to let the Japanese broadcast in Japanese, for example, to New Zealand
and the South Pacific, and in exchange mount broadcasts in standard
Chinese from a Japanese based transmitter which would direct a very
reliable signal into North Asia. 
8.49 Dr Tiffen submitted that:
We are entering an unprecedented era of media globalisation.
Transnational broadcasting and communication of all forms have increased
in volume and intensity.
Regional relations have never been more central to Australia's
national interest, while media globalisation requires that all major
media organisations have an international dimension to their strategies.
At the very moment when transnational media traffic is becoming important,
and when Australia's relations with Asia are universally recognised
as crucial to our future, we are about abandon an established reputation
and expertise, and give up enterprise entirely . It is hard to envisage
a more irrational, historically bizarre policy. 
8.50 It is unfortunate that the Minister for Communications and the
Arts gave Mr Mansfield very restricted terms of reference for his inquiry
into the ABC. The omission of a proper examination of the ABC's international
broadcasting services and of the future role of the ABC in a rapidly
globalising broadcasting environment meant that these important issues
were not considered. Although this inquiry examined the 'foreign affairs'
and other related aspects of Australia 's international broadcasters
(RA and ATV), the Committee's inquiry did not extend to the future role
of the ABC itself. Nevertheless, the Committee believes that evidence
taken during the inquiry has made it clear that there is a need to ensure
the future of the ABC in the context of media globalisation and technological
advances so that the organisation will indeed be in a position to meet
the challenges of the 21st century.
 Information in this section is largely
drawn form the ABC Submission No. 377, pp 23-5.
 Submission No. 386, p. 4. .
 Committee Hansard, p. 284.
 Committee Hansard, p. 382.
 Committee Hansard, p. 382.
 Committee Hansard, p. 382.
 ABC Submission No. 377, p. 14.
 Submission No. 268, p. 1.
 Submission No.268, p. 1.
 Submission No.268, p.2
 Submission No. 566, p. 4.
 Submission No. 269.
 Submission No. 605, p. 1.
 Submission No. 186, p. 1.
 Submission No 186., p. 2.
 Committee Hansard, p. 386.
 Submission No 484.
 Committee Hansard, p. 386.
 Committee Hansard, p. 430.
 Submission No. 470, p. 3, 4.
 Submission No. 470, p. 5.
 ATV submission, p. 15.
 Mansfield, op.cit. p. 12.
 See Mr Brian Johns, ABC Managing Director,
Committee Hansard, pp. 93-4.
 Committee Hansard, p. 93.
 Submission No. 422, p. 7.
 Committee Hansard, p. 385.
 Committee Hansard, p. 384.
 Dr R. Tiffen, submission no. 422, p.