Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Emma Rush and Andrea La Nauze, Corporate paedophilia: sexualisation of children in the media, Australia Institute, Discussion Paper 90, October 2006.

[2]        Emma Rush and Andrea La Nauze, Letting children be children: stopping the sexualisation of children in Australia, Discussion Paper 93, December 2006.

[3]        Senate Hansard, 12 March 2008, p. 62.

[4]        It is important to recognise that the status of women in particular has been determined by a range of cultural and economic orthodoxies throughout history. The current sexualised stereotyping, while undesirable, is far from the worst.

[5]        Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, pp 16-17.

[6]        For ethical and practical reasons it is difficult to conduct research on these matters with young children.

[7]        Although it is beyond this committee's terms of reference, it is important to remember there are other possible causes for anxiety disorders—for example, poverty and social exclusion.

[8]        In chapters 4 and 5 the question of the levels of complaints about products and services is discussed.

[9]        The National Classification Code (NCC) is a schedule to the Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Act 1995. The NCC is available at the ComLaw website, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/framelodgmentattachments/A4DD01BB110AD94DCA25700D002EF73E (accessed 9 June 2008).

[10]      American Psychological Association, Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, 2007, p. 2.

[11]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 15.

[12]      American Psychological Association, above n 10, p. 4.

[13]      Ibid p. 5.

[14]      See Mary Carolan, Submission 52, p. 1; Trevor Thomas and Jude Powell Thomas, Submission 79, p. 2; Moira Kirkwood, Submission 135, p. 1. Cath Nohlmans, Submission 42, p. 1. Jeynelle Grimshaw-Hughes, Submission 1(a); and Peter Dolan, Submission 71, p. 1. That the content on the billboard may be offensive (and unsolicited) is a separate issue which clearly comes within the jurisdiction of the ASB and can be grounds for its removal.

[15]      The committee notes that Professor Lumby is also a member of the Advertising Standards Board, which is considered in Chapter 5.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 104.

[17]      Ibid p. 21.

[18]      Ibid pp 17-18.

[19]      Ibid p. 107.

[20]      Kids Free 2B Kids website, http://www.kf2bk.com/ (accessed 2 April 2008). The text of the letter and the names of its submitters may be found on the inquiry homepage: at http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eca_ctte/sexualisation_of_children/index.htm

Chapter 2 - Sources and beneficiaries of premature sexualisation of children in the media

[1]        These and related issues are considered in chapters 3, 4 and 5.

[2]        AANA, Submission 68, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[3]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 92.

[4]        The committee notes that Dr Cockburn writes for Girlfriend magazine, which is considered in chapters 2 and 4.

[5]        Ibid p. 62.

[6]        Dr Sally Cockburn, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 62.

[7]        Ibid p. 63.

[8]        Ibid p. 62.

[9]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, pp 17-18.

[10]      The committee has used Girlfriend as an example of the issues raised because the publishers provided a submission and appeared before the committee. The committee would not wish to give the impression that Girlfriend is being singled out for particular criticism.

[11]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 48.

[12]      Ibid pp 49-50.

[13]      Ibid p. 53.

[14]      Ibid p. 62.

[15]      Ibid p. 53.

Chapter 3 - Effects of premature sexualisation on child development

[1]        Dr Katherine Albury, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 99.

[2]        These are discussed in detail in chapters 4 and 5.

[3]        SHine SA, Submission 39, pp 1-2.

[4]        The committee notes that Dr Rosewarne is a lecturer in policy studies at the University of Melbourne.

[5]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 28.

[6]        Ms Melinda Tankard Reist, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 32.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 15.

[8]        Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 104.

[9]        Jacinta and Nathan Peterson and Fitzpatrick [sic], Submission 1(a). See also Denise den-Bakker, Submission 24, p. 1; Mary Carolan, Submission 52, p. 1; Jane and Chris Clark, Submission 70, p. 1.

[10]      Narelle Cullen, Submission 1(a). See also Yvonne Dunse, Submission 1(a); Kyla and Dan Miller, Submission 23, p. 1; Kym Keady, Submission 53, p. 1.

[11]      Julie, Gordon, Jordon, Erin and Elyse Macpherson, Submission 1(a). See also Mary Carolan, Submission 52, p. 1; Trevor Thomas and Jude Powell Thomas, Submission 79, p. 2; Moira Kirkwood, Submission 135, p. 1.

[12]      Cath Nohlmans, Submission 42, p. 1.

[13]      Jeynelle Grimshaw-Hughes, Submission 1(a). See also Peter Dolan, Submission 71, p. 1.

[14]      Graham and Carol Phillips, Submission 21, p. 1. See also Ian Bell, Submission 59, p. 1.

[15]      Name withheld, Submission 40, p. 1. See also Leanne Nicholson, Submission 47, p. 1.

[16]      Leanne Nicholson, Submission 47, p. 1. See also Pamela Andreallo, Submission 61, p. 1; Grace Judd, Submission 64, p. 1; Jill Ireland, Submission 74, p. 1; Matthew Smith, Submission 81, p. 1; Dr Philip Freier, Submission 97, p. 1; Lisa Gaston, Submission 99, pp 1-2.

[17]      Helen Rubin, Submission 1(a).

[18]      Nicole T G Bristow, Submission 32, p. 1. See also Grace Judd, Submission 64, p. 1; Dr Clare Boothroyd, Submission 122, p. 1; Gillian Sofatzis, Submission 125, p. 1.

[19]      Submission 146, p. 3.

[20]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 4.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 17.

[22]      APA, Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, 2007, p. 4.

[23]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 99.

[24]      Submission 146, p. 3.

[25]      David Buckingham and Sara Bragg, Young People, sex and the media: the facts of life?, 2003, p. 238.

[26]      Ibid p.125.

[27]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 83.

[28]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 16.

[29]      Above n 24, p. 111.

[30]      Ibid p. 240.

[31]      Professor Anne Mitchell, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 84.

[32]      Ms Melinda Tankard Reist, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 27.

[33]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 39; see also SHIne SA, Submission 39, p. 2.

[34]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 40.

[35]      Ibid.

[36]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 19.

[37]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 93.

[38]      Submission 39, p. 2.

[39]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 69.

[40]      Professor Anne Mitchell, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 81.

[41]      Ibid p. 85.

[42]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 85.

[43]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 5.

[44]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 58.

[45]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 100.

[46]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 22.

[47]      Submission 55, p. 1.

[48]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 97.

Chapter 4 - Regulation of the electronic and print media

[1]        These principles are taken from the statement of purpose contained in the National Classification Code (NCC), which is a schedule to the Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Act 1995. The NCC uses the term 'minor', defined as a person under the age of 18; the committee has substituted the term for child in keeping with the focus of the inquiry. The NCC is available at the ComLaw website, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/framelodgmentattachments/A4DD01BB110AD94DCA25700D002EF73E (accessed 9 June 2008).

[2]        Broadcasting regulation is dealt with more fully in this committee's recent report into The Effectiveness of the Broadcasting Codes of Practice, June 2008, available at http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eca_ctte/broadcasting_codes/index.htm (accessed 23 June 2008).

[3]        Broadcasting Services Act 1992, section 3.

[4]        Submission 139, p. 2.

[5]        Ibid p. 23.

[6]        Ibid p. 3.

[7]        Ibid p. 9.

[8]        Ibid.

[9]        ACMA website, http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_91815 (accessed 5 June 2008).

[10]      Free TV Australia, Submission 139, p. 3.

[11]      ACMA website, http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/aba/tv/content/requirements/children/documents/assessment%20procedures.pdf (accessed 5 June 2008).

[12]      ACMA, Annual Report 2006-07, p. 48.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 44.

[14]      Ibid.

[15]      Ibid p. 45.

[16]      Ibid p. 49.

[17]      ACMA, Annual Report 2006-07, p. 48.

[18]      Free TV Australia, Submission 139, p. 3.

[19]      Ibid p. 2.

[20]      Commercial Code, Appendix 4, p. 23.

[21]      Ibid.

[22]      Ibid.

[23]      Ibid.

[24]      Ibid.

[25]      Ibid.

[26]      Submission 139, p. 4.

[27]      Ibid p. 7.

[28]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 44. The committee's report, Inquiry into the effectiveness of the   codes of practice, is available at http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eca_ctte/broadcasting_codes/index.htm (accessed 23 June 2008).

[29]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, pp 66-67.

[30]      Submission 139, p. 4.

[31]      ACMA, Reality Television Review – Final Report, 30 March 2007, p. 66.

[32]      Free TV Australia, Submission 139, p. 8.

[33]      Ibid p. 2.

[34]      Ibid p. 11.

[35]      ACMA, Annual Report 2006-07, pp 103-109.

[36]      Ellen Choat, Submission 1(a). See also Ben and Nicole Myers, Submission 57, pp 1-2; Trevor Thomas and Jude Powell Thomas, Submission 79, p. 2.

[37]      Submission 1, p. 1.

[38]      Submission 139, p. 9.

[39]      Ibid.

[40]      The committee's report, Inquiry into the effectiveness of the broadcasting codes of practice, is available at http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eca_ctte/broadcasting_codes/index.htm (accessed 23 June 2008).

[41]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 44.

[42]      Committee Hansard, p. 51.

[43]      Mr Donald McDonald, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 66.

[44]      In this chapter 'adult magazines' simply refers to publications directed to adults. Publications containing explicit content such as nudity and sexual acts are referred to as 'submittable publications' as per the classification scheme outlined at paragraphs 4.74 and 4.86.

[45]      The committee has acknowledged elsewhere in this report the role that material produced for adults but readily accessible to children may have in creating and reinforcing stereotypes images, particularly of young women.

[46]      Mr Donald McDonald, Committee Hansard, 20 April 2008, p. 66.

[47]      Advertising in children's magazines is regulated by the ASB as described in Chapter 5.

[48]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 66.

[49]      Ibid p. 70.

[50]      Details of the classifications can be found at the ComLaw website, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/framelodgmentattachments/A4DD01BB110AD94DCA25700D002EF73E (accessed 10 June 2008).

[51]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, pp 66-67.

[52]      Ibid.

[53]      Ibid.

[54]      National Classification Code, Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Act 1995, ComLaw website, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/framelodgmentattachments/A4DD01BB110AD94DCA25700D002EF73E (accessed 9 June 2008).

[55]      The Classification Board may also consider advertising when classifying 'submittable magazines'. See Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 73.

[56]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 67.

[57]      Ibid.

[58]      Ibid p. 68.

[59]      Ibid.

[60]      Ibid.

[61]      Mr Donald McDonald, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 67.

[62]      Classification Board, answer to question on notice, 30 April 2008 (received 26 May 2008).

[63]      Mr Donald McDonald, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 68.

[64]      Pacific Magazines, answer to question on notice, 30 April 2008 (received 26 May 2008).

[65]      Ibid.

[66]      Even where a magazine adopts a particular positive theme—for example, Girlfriend's 'Perfection is Boring' slogan that 'rejects the idea of beauty that's constantly rammed down our throats'—it is contradicted by the images presented in the advertising and other sections that make up the majority of the magazine.

[67]      Ibid.

[68]      Ibid.

[69]      Ibid.

[70]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 63.

[71]      Pacific Magazines, answer to question on notice, 30 April 2008 (received 26 May 2008).

[72]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 63.

[73]      Dr Katherine Albury, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 99.

[74]      Parents for a Real Choice, Submission 144, p. 4.

Chapter 5 - Advertising

[1]        ASB, Submission 89, p. 5.

[2]        Ibid.

[3]        However, see paragraph 5.33 for exceptions to complaints accepted for consideration by the board.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 2.

[5]        AANA, Submission 89, Attachment B, Code for Advertising and Marketing Communications to Children, p. 1.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 2.

[7]        ASB, Submission 89, p. 10.

[8]        Ibid p. 2. This code came into operation on 18 April 2008, replacing the AANA's Code for Advertising to Children.

[9]        AANA, Advertiser Code of Ethics, p. 1, http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eca_ctte/sexualisation_of_children/submissions/sub89atta.pdf (accessed 30 May 2008).

[10]      ASB, Submission 89, p. 2.

[11]      Readers who may doubt this statement are directed to any copy of magazines such as Dolly or Girlfriend, where the clothes and cosmetics advertisements and the beauty and style sections are almost indistinguishable.

[12]      Figures provided to the committee by the ASB show that, in the years 2004 to 2007, between one-quarter and one-third of complaints received fell outside the advertising codes.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 17.

[14]      Ibid p. 30.

[15]      See Young Media Australia, Submission 141A.

[16]      The committee's report, Inquiry into the effectiveness of the broadcasting codes of practice, was tabled in the Senate on 19 June 2008. It is available at http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eca_ctte/broadcasting_codes/index.htm (accessed 23 June 2008).

[17]      Bratz dolls have been the subject of some adverse comment in submissions to the committee for their sexualising impact. The only recent complaint to the ASB with regard to Bratz dolls related to light sensitive accessories and whether they might encourage inappropriate exposure to the sun.

[18]      The ASB's website lists complaints and their outcomes at http://www.advertisingstandardsbureau.com.au/pages/casestudy_a.asp?PageIndex=1.

[19]      ASB, Submission 89, p. 3.

[20]      Ibid p. 4.

[21]      ASB, http://www.adstandards.com.au/pages/casestudy_search.asp (accessed 2 June 2008).

[22]      ASB, complaint no. 130/08, March 1999, http://www.adstandards.com.au/pages/casestudy_search.asp?keyword=children&PageIndex=37 (accessed 2 June 2008). See also, for example, CRN 173d/06 (May 2006) and CRN 16/08 (February 2008).

[23]      ASB, complaint no. 73/99, May 2008, http://www.adstandards.com.au/pages/casestudy_search.asp (accessed 2 June 2008).

[24]      ASB, http://www.adstandards.com.au/pages/images/Complaints_%20process.pdf (accessed 20 June 2008).

[25]      The independent reviewer process was introduced in April 2008.

[26]      ASB, answer to question on notice, 29 April 2008 (received 23 May 2008).

[27]      Dr Lauren Rosewarne, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 29.

[28]      ASB, Submission 89, p. 9.

[29]      Ibid. Attachment H to the ASB submission describes the backgrounds of current board members.

[30]      ASB, Submission 89, p. 9.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 81.

[32]      AANA, Submission 89, Attachment B, 'Advertising Standards Board Complaints Process', p. 6.

[33]      ASB, answer to questions taken on notice, 29 April 2008 (received 23 May 2008).

[34]      Ibid.

[35]      Ibid.

[36]      AANA, Submission 89, Attachment B (Children's Code), p. 2.

[37]      Ibid.

[38]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 13.

[39]      ASB, Submission 89, p. 10.

[40]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 30.

[41]      The committee's report, Inquiry into the effectiveness of the broadcasting codes of practice, was tabled in the Senate on 19 June 2008. It is available at http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/eca_ctte/broadcasting_codes/index.htm (accessed 23 June 2008).

[42]      Two examples of this are discussed in Lauren Rosewarne, Sex in public: women, outdoor advertising and public policy, 2007, pp 178-199.

[43]      Sophie Eley, Submission 1(a). See also Kym Keady, Submission 53, p. 1; Gerard and Andrea Calilhanna, Submission 82, p. 1-2; Rosalind Hecker, Submission 88, p. 1; Dr David van Gend, Submission 119, p. 1; Gillian Sofatzis, Submission 125, p. 2.

[44]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 28.

[45]      Ibid.

[46]      Ibid p. 13.

[47]      Ibid.

[48]      Ibid p. 35.

[49]      AMI, answer to question on notice, 30 April 2008 (received May 23 2008).

[50]      ASB, complaint no. 20/07, http://www.advertisingstandardsbureau.com.au/pages/casestudy_search.asp (accessed 5 June 2008).

[51]      AMI, answer to question on notice, 30 April 2008 (received May 23 2008).

[52]      ASB, complaint no. 20/07, http://www.advertisingstandardsbureau.com.au/pages/casestudy_search.asp (accessed 5 June 2008).

[53]      Submission 139, p. 8.

Chapter 6 - Education

[1]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 53.

[2]        Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, pp 3-4.

[3]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 82.

[4]        Ibid pp 79-80.

[5]        Ibid p. 83.

[6]        Submission 90, p. 4.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 83.

[8]        Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 57.

[9]        Ibid p. 83.

[10]      Ibid p. 85.

[11]      Ibid p. 18.

[12]      Ibid pp 34-35.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 17.

[14]      Ibid.

[15]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, pp 100-101.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 17.

[17]      Ibid pp 17-18.

[18]      APS, answer to question on notice, 30 April 2008 (received 30 May 2008).

[19]      Submission 39, p. 2

[20]      Ibid p. 3.

[21]      Ibid p. 82.

[22]      Ibid p. 90.

[23]      Ibid p. 82.

[24]      Submission 90, p. 4.

[25]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 68.

[26]      Ibid p. 69.

[27]      Ibid p. 74.

[28]      Ibid p. 69.

[29]      Ibid.

[30]      Ibid.

[31]      Ibid.

[32]      Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, p. 4. Supplementary information provided by Ms Brassil cites research which demonstrates that comprehensive relationships and sexuality education is overwhelmingly positive in its outcomes, reducing the risk of pregnancy, vulnerability to sexual abuse and, in some studies, delaying the onset of sexual activity (SHFPA, answer to question on notice, 30 April 2008 (received 4 June 2008).

[33]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 77.

[34]      Ibid p. 84.

[35]      Ibid p. 76.

[36]      Ibid.

[37]      Submission 55, p. 1.

[38]      Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, p. 43.

[39]      Ibid.

[40]      Ibid p. 49.

[41]      Submission 146, pp 3-4.

Family First - Additional Comments

[1]        Paragraph 2.10

[2]        Paragraph 2.17

[3]        Paragraph 3.48

[4]        Professor McKee, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, page 106; submission 146

[5]        Ms Amanda Gordon, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2008, page 19

[6]        Australian Childhood Foundation, submission 109

[7]        Dr Rosewarne, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, page 29

[8]        Paragraph 5.52

[9]        Dr Rosewarne, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2008, page 31

[10]      Paragraph 4.98