Effectiveness of agreements
The Act provides for agreements to be established between the
Commonwealth and state or territory governments. These agreements put in place
mechanisms whereby the states or territories are delegated responsibility for
some environment protection processes which would otherwise be undertaken by
Submitters to the inquiry provided comments on bilateral agreements and
RFAs. Given the substantive information provided to the committee on RFAs and
the complexity of the issues raised, the committee will discuss RFAs in a
separate, subsequent report.
Bilateral agreements between the Commonwealth and state and territory
governments are provided for under the Act. Bilateral agreements are written
agreements that provide for one or more of the following:
Protecting the environment;
Promoting the conservation and
ecologically sustainable use of natural resources;
Ensuring an efficient, timely and
effective process for environmental assessment and approval of actions;
Minimising duplication in the
environmental assessment and approval process through Commonwealth
accreditation of the processes of the State or Territory (or vice versa).
Section 50 of the Act requires that the minister may only enter into a
bilateral agreement if the minister is satisfied that the agreement:
Accords with the objects of the Act; and
Meets the requirements (if any) prescribed by the regulations to
Bilateral agreements can be used to reduce duplication of environmental
assessments or approvals processes. However, agreements on assessment are far
more widespread than for approvals.
To date, bilateral agreements for environmental impact assessment exist
between the Commonwealth and South Australia, New South Wales, the Northern
Territory, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia.
Draft bilateral agreements for assessment processes are currently under
negotiation between the Commonwealth and the Australian Capital Territory and
In contrast, there is currently only one very limited bilateral agreement
that applies to approvals. This agreement, between the Commonwealth and New
South Wales governments, accredits approvals granted in accordance with the
Sydney Opera House management plan.
While bilateral agreements are intended to minimise duplication in the
environmental assessment and approval process, the committee heard evidence
that proponents continue to experience duplication and overlap of Commonwealth
and state and territory processes. The NFF stated:
[W]hat we are pointing to is a streamlining of not just the EPBC
Act but how you might incorporate the requirements at local and state levels in
terms of assessment. What we are after is a one-stop shop that farmers can go
to if they are looking to do a particular activity on their farm—for example,
implement an infrastructure development. They get one assessment; they do not
need to get one off local government, one off the state government and one off
the federal government.
The committee heard evidence that the Commonwealth's role should be to
provide strategic oversight through a legislative framework for use by the
states and territories, and that assessment and approval of actions should not
be the responsibility of the Commonwealth:
Ms Stutsel – We certainly think the Commonwealth should have
primary responsibility for the framing of the legislation, identifying matters
of national environmental significance and ensuring there are appropriate
bilateral assessment and approval processes in place with the states to remove
the duplication that is occurring between those jurisdictional layers. We as
an industry strongly support the existence of regulation. We consider that
that provides a minimum for underperformance, but we are always looking to go
beyond that in terms of continuous improvement to better align with societal
CHAIR – Who do you think should have the call on whether or not
something goes ahead?
Ms Stutsel – If the Commonwealth actually sets the regulatory
framework, which is the decision-making process, then the states should be able
to use that framework to make a determination about whether a project is in
compliance with it.
Concern was also raised about the operation of bilateral agreements in
situations where the proponent had close links with the state or territory
government, for example a wholly government-owned corporation, and the
possibility of 'a clear and undeniable conflict of interest in the State
Government operating in the simultaneous roles of proponent and assessor under
a bilateral agreement'.
For example, Mr Ian Matthews was concerned about the RFA in Tasmania. He was
concerned that state government entities with an economic interest in
development approvals may have an inappropriate say in assessment or decision
processes under agreements between the Commonwealth and states or territories.
The bilateral agreement between the Commonwealth and the NSW government
was criticised for a lack of 'rigorous processes to protect matters of national
This criticism was also made about the agreements generally.
The NSW bilateral agreement delegates development assessments required
under Part 8 of the EPBC Act to Part 3A of the NSW Environmental Planning
and Assessment Act 1979.
The agreement states that 'this assessment approach corresponds to assessment
by Environmental Impact Statement and meets the requirements of a Public
Environment Report under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999'.
Under section 75F of Part 3A of the NSW Environmental Planning and
Assessment Act 1979, the NSW Director-General has discretion to decide on
the environmental assessment requirements for a project seeking approval.
Further, major developments and critical infrastructure approved under Part 3A
are exempt from a number of other state approvals.
The committee heard claims that this 'largely unfettered discretion with
respect to preparing environmental impacts assessment requirements, and
determining the adequacy of environmental assessments undertaken',
coupled with exemptions from other state approval processes, has meant that
some actions in NSW may have avoided rigorous environmental impact assessment.
The Central West Environment Council Inc of NSW stated:
There is therefore no guarantee of adequate assessment of, for
example, threatened species and native vegetation, local heritage, aboriginal
cultural heritage, greenhouse gas emissions. It is inappropriate to accredit a
process that potentially excludes comprehensive assessment of such matters.
The Inland Rivers Network agreed.
The application of Part 3A of the NSW Environmental Planning and
Assessment Act 1979 has been legally challenged on a number of occasions.
Critics have argued that the general failure of these challenges has
demonstrated the lack of procedural rigour in Part 3A,
and in the NSW bilateral agreement more broadly.
Some submitters wanted to see a reduction in the use of bilateral and
other agreements under the Act. NPAC and the Conservation Council (ACT Region)
(CCACT) argued that there should be limited or no use of declarations under
section 84 of the Act (referred to as 'accredited assessment processes'), and
that other exemptions (such as for bilateral agreements) should be removed from
The committee did not have an opportunity to test these concerns with
governments because some state governments (NSW and Victoria) did not provide
submissions to the inquiry. However, the committee notes that the high levels
of ministerial discretion in the EPBC Act are a concern for many stakeholders,
as outlined in the previous chapter. It appears that Part 3A of the NSW
legislation creates higher levels of discretion again, particularly in regard
to public consultation processes. The committee understands the concern that
this causes stakeholders in some jurisdictions.
At the same time, the committee notes that the bilateral agreements in
general cover only assessment; they do not extend to the actual decision on
approval, which remains with the Commonwealth. That decision, under sections
136 to 140A of the Act, must be guided by principles, agreements and plans
designed to ensure protection of matters of national environmental
significance. The bilateral agreements do not alter those obligations.
The committee recommends that the Independent Review of the EPBC Act and
/ or the ANAO examine the effect of existing bilateral agreements on the
quality of environmental assessments of matters of national environmental
significance. The committee suggests that particular regard be given to the
transparency of, public engagement in, and appeal rights in relation to assessments
performed under a bilateral agreement, compared to the conditions that would
have existed had the assessment been performed under the EPBC Act.
Activities undertaken by Commonwealth agencies
Under the Act, the Commonwealth is responsible for actions undertaken by
Commonwealth agencies. Furthermore, actions which are likely to have a
significant impact on the environment of Commonwealth land, or are undertaken
by the Commonwealth and are likely to have a significant impact on the
environment anywhere in the world, are prohibited unless approved by the
minister. As a result, there are regular requirements for a wide range of
Commonwealth agencies to deal with the Act and to seek decisions under it. Two
of the most directly affected agencies, Defence and AFMA, made submissions to
As a Commonwealth agency, the Department of Defence is required to apply
the principles of environmental management as outlined in the Act. Given that the
Department of Defence is responsible for some 2.8 million hectares of land, the
department's use and experience of the Act is considerable. 
The Department of Defence discussed the issue of being required 'to seek
additional approval for implementation of decisions by the Government or for
the ongoing use of existing training areas for routine military activities,
since that land has been set aside by the Government precisely for that
Defence argued that the requirement to submit for additional approval for
activities undertaken on Defence land was not an optimal use of resources, nor
an efficient application of the Act.
The Department of Defence believed that the efficiency and effectiveness
of the Act, as it applies to Commonwealth agencies and in particular the
Department of Defence, could be improved by exempting certain of their
activities from the formal assessment and approval processes under the Act:
Defence considers a better approach might be to shift the centre
of gravity in the legislation pertaining to Commonwealth agencies away from a
traditional regulation / enforcement model to one that delivers more proactive
guidance and advice, including benchmarking and auditing environmental
practice. Defence considers sharing this information within other government
agencies managing similar issues would enhance environmental performance. This
approach could help drive continuous improvement, minimise impacts and reduce
the resources needed to address the strict regulation and compliance
enforcement processes that currently exist in the Act.
The committee acknowledges the Department of Defence's desire to reduce
repetition with regard to seeking approval for ongoing Defence activities.
The CFA and AFMA were critical of the duplication and lack of integration
between the Act, the Fisheries Management Act 1991 (FMA) and the Commonwealth
Fisheries Harvest Strategy Policy. The CFA and AFMA also discussed a lack of
clarity regarding the roles of DEWHA, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries
and Forestry (DAFF) and AFMA in the management of fisheries.
The CFA described what they believed to be a 'double jeopardy' whereby
Commonwealth fisheries must be assessed under both the EPBC Act and the FMA:
...despite meeting the sustainability objectives of the FMA
1991, the fishing industry is being further assessed under the EPBC Act,
which is effectively creating a "double jeopardy" situation.
It is important for the Government to determine clearly defined
legislative responsibility for management of Australian fisheries resources and
currently the duplication between DEWHA, DAFF and AFMA is significant.
For example, the Commonwealth fishing industry is exposed to the
risk of being excluded from export markets by an unfavourable DEWHA strategic
assessment, which can occur even if an industry is meeting all the requirements
of the FMA 1991. Worse still, despite fulfilling all the requirements
of the FMA 1991, industry is exposed to the risk of having fisheries
closed through the listing of a key target or by-catch species under the
provisions of the EPBC Act, which over-ride the FMA 1991.
DAFF acknowledged the intersection between the EPBC Act and the FMA:
While Commonwealth fisheries are managed through the application
of the FM Act, the management of Australia's domestic fishing activity
including the management of internationally-shared and straddling fish stocks
cannot be meaningfully separated from the EPBC Act. The EPBC Act, which looks
at species from a biological conservation point of view, intersects with
fisheries management in a number of ways, principally through Part 10 (Strategic
Assessments), Part 13 (Species and Communities listings) and Part
13A (International Movement of Wildlife Specimens).
DAFF went on to explain that the Commonwealth Harvest Strategy Policy
was intended to clarify 'the relationship between fisheries management and the
EPBC Act in relation to the application of threatened species listing for
fished stocks above a limit biomass reference point'.
However, clear guidance is not provided on threatened species listings for
stocks below the limit biomass reference point and '[a]ction under both
fisheries and environmental legislation may be considered when the limit
reference point is exceeded'.
DEWHA also provided an explanation of the Harvest Strategy Policy and
...it was developed jointly between the Department of Agriculture,
Fisheries and Forestry and ourselves, because we recognised that there was some
kind of confusion, sometimes, between how people perceived the different parts
of the act. The policy really elaborated ways of thinking about fisheries and
the interaction with the EPBC Act versus fisheries management. It set up ways
of thinking about target catch levels and catch levels for fisheries at a point
when the EPBC Act would become interested in them because of the relative
overall reduction in the species...The harvest strategy is directed towards
looking at the listings exercise.
It was recommended to the committee that the 'double jeopardy' facing
the fisheries industry be addressed through rationalisation of duplicated
legislative requirements under the EPBC Act and the FMA. The CFA suggested:
That the Government initiate a comprehensive and transparent
review of the interaction of the EPBC Act and the FMA 1991 with the objective
of eliminating areas of duplication in preference for a more complementary
In addition, and similarly to the Department of Defence, the CFA
believed that a more pragmatic and collaborative arrangement between different
Commonwealth agencies would improve both the operation of the Act and the environmental
standards it seeks to achieve:
In addition to legislative changes, the CFA strongly recommends
the establishment of a government / industry consultative committee comprising
representatives from DEWHA, DAFF, AFMA and CFA to encourage and promote a more
functional and collaborative administrative arrangement on environmental issues
The committee notes that there appears to be ongoing concern amongst
fisheries managers regarding conflict and overlap between the EPBC Act and the
FMA. The issues appear complex, and the committee was not in a position to
assess whether the matters raised by stakeholders represent undesirable
duplication, or parallel assessment processes necessary to ensure all aspects
of fisheries conservation are properly considered and addressed.
The committee recommends that the government review the interaction
between the EPBC Act and the Fisheries Management Act in relation to the
conservation of fish species and relevant assessment processes.
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