Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        A final report by the Reference Group on Welfare Reform, A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, was released on February 2015. References in this report are drawn from the interim report published in June 2014.

[2]        Budget Paper No. 1, Budget Strategy and Outlook 2014–15, Budget Overview, http://www.budget.gov.au/2014-15/content/bp1/download/BP1_BS1.pdf

[3]        Australian Government, Re-think, Tax discussion paper, Better tax system, better Australia, March 2015, p. 2, http://bettertax.gov.au/files/2015/03/TWP_combined-online.pdf

[4]        Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, 'Reform of the Federation White Paper', https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/about  (accessed 2 April 2015).

[5]        Reform of Federation White Paper, Roles and Responsibilities in Housing and Homelessness, Issues Paper, 2 December 2014, p. 26, https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/issues-paper/Housing_and_Homelessness_Issues_Paper.pdf. See also Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Reform of the Federation White Paper: a Federation for our Future, Issues Paper 1, September 2014, https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/issues-paper/issues_paper1_a_federation_for_our_future.pdf

[6]        Budget Paper No. 1, Budget Strategy and Outlook 2014–15, Budget Overview, p. 1–9, http://www.budget.gov.au/2014-15/content/bp1/download/BP1_BS1.pdf

[7]        Australian Government, Re:think, Tax discussion paper, Better tax system, better Australia, March 2015, http://bettertax.gov.au/files/2015/03/TWP_combined-online.pdf

[8]        Council of Australian Governments, National Affordable Housing Agreement, p. 3, http://www.federalfinancialrelations.gov.au/content/national_agreements.aspx (accessed 18 March 2015).

  -  Overview of housing affordability in Australia

[1]        In its submission, the Department of Social Services (DSS) notes that the term 'affordable housing' is sometimes used to refer to specific types of low cost housing, such as public or community housing. DSS uses the term more broadly in its submission, to refer to 'the ability of all individuals and households to access housing that is appropriate and affordable to them.' Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 6. This report prefers the broader definition used by DSS, and therefore unless otherwise specified, the term 'affordable housing' herein should not be taken to refer specifically to public or community housing.

[2]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 3. In setting out these categories, DSS notes that the first two categories include people who do not have acceptable outcomes—for example, owner-occupiers in mortgage stress and private renters experiencing rental stress or living in inappropriate accommodation.

[3]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 5.

[4]        Ms Felicity Hand, Deputy Secretary, Disabilities and Housing, Department of Social Services Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 1.

[5]        Dr Harley Dale, Chief Economist, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 43.

[6]        Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, pp. 1–2.

[7]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 6.

[8]        Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney's Senior Visiting Fellow Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 36.

[9]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, pp. 6–7.

[10]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. ii.

[11]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 6.

[12]      Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23, pp. 4–7.

[13]      Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23, p. 2.

[14]      HomeGround Services, Submission 70, p. 5.

[15]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 2.

[16]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, pp. 2–3.

[17]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 4.

[18]      Mr Adam Mills, Senior Strategic Planner, City of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 29.

[19]      Hobsons Bay City Council, Submission 39, p. 4.

[20]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, pp. 6–7.

[21]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, pp. 1–2.

[22]      Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23, pp. 4–5.

[23]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 2.

[24]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 7.

[25]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 4.

[26]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, pp. 7–8.

[27]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 6.

[28]      Master Builders Australia, Submission 48, pp. 9–10.

[29]      United Voice, Submission 169, p. 5.

[30]      Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry, Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Submission 24, p. 3.

[31]      The Salvation Army, Submission 114, p. 6. The nine countries assessed by Demographia were Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States.

[32]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 16.

[33]      Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 72.

[34]      Professor Carolyn Whitzman, Professor of Urban Planning, University of Melbourne, and Professor Tony Dalton, Professor of Urban and Social Policy, RMIT University, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 28.

[35]      Rismark International, Submission 64, pp. 2–3.

[36]      Tamworth Regional Council, Submission 12, p. 3.

[37]      Housing Alliance, Submission 73, p. 5.

[38]      Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, p. 5.

[39]      Select Committee on Housing Affordability in Australia, A good house is hard to find: Housing affordability in Australia (June 2008).

[40]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 1–3.

[41]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 7.

[42]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 9.

[43]      Ms Felicity Hand, Deputy Secretary, Disabilities and Housing, Department of Social Services Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 1.

[44]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 3.

[45]      Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry, Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Submission 24, p. 5.

[46]      Ms Michelle Waterford, Director, Research and Policy, Anglicare Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 24.

[47]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 108, p. 1.

[48]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 17.

[49]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 4.

[50]      Dr Emma Baker, Deputy Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 14. The research findings Dr Baker referred to are presented in Emma Baker, Kate Mason, Rebecca Betley and Shelley Mallett, 'Exploring the Bi-directional Relationship between Health and Housing in Australia', Urban Policy and Research 32, No. 1 (2014): 71–84.

[51]      Department of Education, Submission 142, pp. 5–8.

[52]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 14.

[53]      Ms Molly Johnson, Researcher, The Australia Institute, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 60. Also see The Australia Institute, Submission 92, pp. 5–6.

[54]      Mr Mark O'Brien, Chief Executive Officer, Tenants Union of Victoria, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 44.

[55]      Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry, Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Submission 24, p. 6.

[56]      Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 72.

[57]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 7.

[58]      Kingsford Law Centre, Submission 68, p. 3.

[59]      Anglicare Sydney, Churches Housing and BaptistCare, Submission 85, pp. 8–9.

[60]      HomeGround Services, Submission 70, p. 6.

[61]      Ms Maria Palumbo, Chair, Community Housing Council of South Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 39; Ms Sarah Toohey, Manager, Policy and Communications, Council to Homeless Persons, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 55–56

[62]      St Vincent de Paul Society, National Council of Australia, Submission 189, p. 2.

[63]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 3.

[64]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 5.

[65]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Household Wealth and Wealth Distribution, Australia, 2011–12, 21 August 2013, pp. 4, 19.  

[66]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 4.

[67]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, pp. 4, 7.

[68]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 3.

[69]      Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 33.

[70]      PowerHousing Australia, Submission 79, p. 19.

[71]      Ms Kerrie Young, Committee Member, Regional Development Australia, Gold Coast, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 26.

[72]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney's Senior Visiting Fellow Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 36.

[73]      Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 34.

[74]      Benjamin Purvis, 'Housing boom is 'lesser evil' for RBA, says Goldman Asset', AFR, 23 March 2015.

[75]      Mr David Collyer, Policy Director, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 1; Mr Philip Soos, Researcher, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 2–3.

[76]      Associate Professor Roger Wilkins, Principal Research Fellow, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 27.

[77]      Dr Ian Winter, Executive Director, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Limited, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 28.

[78]      Dr Luci Ellis, Head, Financial Stability, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 10.

[79]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 11.

[80]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 7.

[81]      Dr Luci Ellis, Head, Financial Stability, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 5.

[82]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, pp. 5–6.

Chapter 3 -  The drivers of housing affordability in Australia

[1]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 4.

[2]        Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 34.

[3]        Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 3.

[4]        Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 44–45.

[5]        Dr Harley Dale, Chief Economist, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 43.

[6]        Dr Harley Dale, Chief Economist, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 43–44.

[7]        Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 3.

[8]        Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 3.

[9]        Dr Harley Dale, Chief Economist, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 43.

[10]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 16, p. 1.

[11]      Mr Liam Foley, Policy Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 66; Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 9.

[12]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 113, p. 2. The submission was made in March 2014, and considered Net Overseas Migration through to 2012–13.

[13]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Submission 113, p. 2.

[14]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 9.

[15]      Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 72.

[16]      The Hon Kevin Andrews MP, 'Opening remarks to the Real Estate Institute of Australia Housing Affordability Roundtable', 26 March 2014, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15342/opening-remarks-to-the-real-estate-institute-of-australia-housing-affordability-roundtable/.

[17]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 8.

[18]      Professor Terry Burke, private capacity, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 14–15.

[19]      Mr Philip Soos, Researcher, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 7.

[20]      Mr Philip Soos, Researcher, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 7.

[21]      Prosper Australia did, however, suggest that while there was no shortage of housing supply, there was a shortage of supply of affordable housing. This apparent contradiction could be explained, it argued, by the fact that prices were not based on fundamentals like rents, income, GDP and inflation, but on debt speculation. Mr Philip Soos, Researcher, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 9.

[22]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 5.

[23]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, pp. 3–5.

[24]      Dr Ian Winter, Executive Director, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Limited, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 14.

[25]      Mr Adam Mills, Senior Strategic Planning, City of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 29.

[26]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 6.

[27]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 6. The RBA does allow that such growth in house prices 'may, however, have some implications for intergenerational equity if first home buyers increasingly rely on parental assistance or bequests to fund larger deposits (and thus higher prices) than they could sustain from their own resources, because such assistance may not be available to the children of renters.'

[28]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, pp. 1–2.

[29]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 4.

[30]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 2.

[31]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 18.

[32]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Economics, Report on Foreign Investment in Residential Real Estate (November 2014).

[33]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. iii.

[34]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 10.

[35]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 2.

[36]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 2.

[37]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 4.

[38]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, pp. 3–4.

Chapter 4 -  A Commonwealth Housing Minister

[1]        Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 33.

[2]        Ministerial titles included Minister for Housing (3 December 2007 to 14 September 2010), Minister for Social Housing and Homelessness (14 September 2010 to 14 December 2011), Minister for Housing and Minister for Homelessness (14 December 2011 to 25 March 2013), and Minister for Housing and Homelessness (23 March 2013 to 18 September 2013).

[3]        Ms Jacqueline Phillips, Director of Policy, Australian Council of Social Service, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 28.

[4]        Professor Tony Dalton, Professor of Urban and Social Policy, RMIT University, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 12–13.

[5]        City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 6.

[6]        NT Shelter, Submission 118, p. 13.

[7]        Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 47.

[8]        Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 36.

[9]        Ms Jacqueline Phillips, Director of Policy, Australian Council of Social Service, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 28.

[10]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 7.

[11]      Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 47.

[12]      Media release, 'Tony Abbott – Establishment of a Prime Minister's Indigenous Advisory Council, 10 August 2013, http://www.liberal.org.au/latest-news/2013/08/10/tony-abbott-establishment-prime-ministers-indigenous-advisory-council.

Chapter 5 - Housing as intergovernmental policy: roles, responsibilities and accountability

[1]        National Affordable Housing Agreement, pp. 5–6.

[2]        Ms Felicity Hand, Deputy Secretary, Disabilities and Housing, Department of Social Services Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 3.

[3]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 4.

[4]        Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 36.

[5]        Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 76.

[6]        Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, pp. 15–16.

[7]        Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 7.

[8]        City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 6.

[9]        Housing Tasmania, Submission 217, p. 2.

[10]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, pp. 7–8.

[11]      Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 47.

[12]      HomeGround Services, Submission 70, p. 18.

[13]      Mrs Allison Hailes, Executive Manager, Planning and Community Development, Western Australian Local Government Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 42.

[14]      Local Government Association of Queensland, Submission 196, p. 5.

[15]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 6.

[16]      Dr Lucy Burgmann, Chief Executive Officer, NSW Federation of Housing Associations, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 11.

[17]      Dr Lucy Burgmann, Chief Executive Officer, NSW Federation of Housing Associations, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 12.

[18]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 11.

[19]      Ms Sarah Toohey, Manager, Policy and Communications, Council to Homeless Persons, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 55.          

[20]      Dr Heather Holst, Chief Executive Officer, HomeGround Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 55.

[21]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 5.

[22]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, pp. 5–6.

[23]      Professor Hal Pawson, Associate Director, City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 34.

[24]      Professor Hal Pawson, Associate Director, City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 34.

[25]      Ms Maria Palumbo, Chair, Community Housing Council of South Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[26]      Mr Simon Schrapel, Chief Executive, Uniting Communities, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40; Dr Alice Clark, Executive Director, Shelter SA, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[27]      Mr Scott Langford, General Manager, Junction and Women's Housing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[28]      Ms Felicity Hand, Deputy Secretary, Disabilities and Housing, Department of Social Services Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 3.

[29]      Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 45–46.

[30]      Mr Liam Foley, Policy Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 66–67.

[31]      Mr Liam Foley, Policy Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 69; Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 40.

[32]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 34.

[33]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 41.

[34]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 4.

[35]      Mr Scott Langford, General Manager, Junction and Women's Housing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 41.

[36]      Ms Margaret Findlater Smith, National Coordinator of Standing Committees, National Council of Women of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57.

[37]      Dr Ian Winter, Executive Director, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Limited, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 20.

[38]      Community Employers WA, Submission 46, p. 2.

[39]      Housing Tasmania, Submission 217, p. 12.

[40]      Professor Jago Dodson, Professor of Urban Policy, RMIT University, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 13.

[41]      National Housing Supply Council, State of Supply Report (2008), p. xii. The NHSC's terms of reference were amended in 2012, the most important change being that it was directed to examine the implications for housing supply of urban planning and infrastructure development processes, including transport and telecommunications services. For the updated terms of reference, see National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13 (2013), http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx, pp. 131–133.

[42]      National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13 (2013), http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx, p. 133.

[43]      Treasury, National Housing Supply Council, http://www.treasury.gov.au/Policy-Topics/PeopleAndSociety/completed-programs-initiatives/NHSC.

[44]      The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Prime Minister, 'Boosting Productivity and Delivering Effective, Efficient Government', 8 November 2013, http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressrel/2829445/upload_binary/2829445.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22media/pressrel/2829445%22.

[45]      Mr Rob Heferen, Executive Director, Revenue Group, The Treasury, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 18.

[46]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney's Senior Visiting Fellow, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 39.

[47]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 11.

[48]      Professor Hal Pawson, Associate Director, City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 34.

[49]      Dr Alice Clark, Executive Director, Shelter SA, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 41.

[50]      Mr Scott Langford, General Manager, Junction and Women's Housing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 41–42.

[51]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 7.

[52]      Mr Liam Foley, Policy Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 70; Mr Richard Lindsay, Chief Executive Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia (National), Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 70.

[53]      Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 46.

[54]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 39.

[55]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 7.

[56]      Ms Maria Palumbo, Chair, Community Housing Council of South Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 42.

[57]      Mr Simon Schrapel, Chief Executive, Uniting Communities, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 42.

[58]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 1.

[59]      Ms Jacqueline Phillips, Director of Policy, Australian Council of Social Service, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp. 27–28.

[60]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, pp. 5, 9–10.

[61]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 1.

[62]      Master Builders Australia, Submission 48, p. 6.

[63]      Master Builders Australia, Submission 48, pp. 12–13.

[64]      Brimbank City Council, Submission 193, p. 2.

[65]      NT Shelter, Submission 118, p. 13.

[66]      Housing Tasmania, Submission 217, p. 17.

[67]      Local Government Association of Queensland, Submission 196, p. 5.

[68]      City of Darebin, Submission 123, p. 3.

[69]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 10.

[70]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 1.

Chapter 6 - The impact of state and local taxes, fees and charges on housing affordability

[1]        Dr Harley Dale, Chief Economist, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 43; Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, pp. 6–7.

[2]        Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, pp. 11–12.

[3]        Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, pp. 11–12.

[4]        JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 7.

[5]        Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), pp. 251–52.  

[6]        Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), pp. 253–54.

[7]        Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 14. Also see Mr Liam Foley, Policy Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 72.

[8]        Residential Development Council, Property Council of Australia, Submission 212, p. 13.

[9]        Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 6.

[10]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 7.

[11]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 12.

[12]      Mr John Hawkins, Submission 105, p. 3.

[13]      HomeStart Finance, Submission 72, p. 16.

[14]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 7.

[15]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), p. 251.

[16]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), pp. 260–61.

[17]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 7; Tenants' Union of NSW, Submission 120, p. 13.

[18]      Professor Frank Stilwell, Submission 25, p. 4.

[19]      Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, pp. 6–7.

[20]      Professor Jago Dodson, Professor of Urban Policy, RMIT University, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 13.

[21]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 8.

[22]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), p. 263.

[23]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), p. 263.

[24]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 5; Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 72.

[25]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 14.

[26]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 7.

[27]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, pp. 20–21.

[28]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 15.

[29]      AHL Investment Pty Ltd (Aussie), Submission 186, p. 4.

[30]      Mr David Collyer, Policy Director, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 2–4.

[31]      Mr David Collyer, Policy Director, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 5.

[32]      Mr John Hawkins, Submission 105, p. 3.

[33]      ACT Government, ACT Taxation Review (May 2012), p. 3.

[34]      ACT Government, ACT Taxation Review (May 2012), pp. 7–8.

[35]      John A. McLaren, 'The Australian Capital Territory has adopted measures to abolish stamp duty and impose a land tax on all real property: will this approach be adopted by other states in Australia?' Journal of the Australasian Tax Teachers Association 8, No. 1 (2013), pp. 101-116.

[36]      COAG Housing Supply and Affordability Reform Working Party, final report, Housing Supply and Affordability Reform (July 2012), p. 14.

[37]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 7.

[38]      Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23, p. 7.

[39]      Mr Liam Foley, Policy Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 67.

[40]      AHL Investments Pty Ltd, Submission 186, p. 4.

[41]      Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry, Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Submission 24, p. 7.

[42]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, pp. 7–8.

[43]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, pp. 12–13.

[44]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 13.

[45]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, pp. 5–6.

[46]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 7.

[47]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 16.

[48]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 20–21.

[49]      Mr Michael Basso, Submission 209, p. 5.

[50]      These limits are set out in Department of State Development, Infrastructure and Planning, State Planning Regulatory Provision (adopted charges) (July 2012), http://www.dsdip.qld.gov.au/resources/laws/state-planning-regulatory-provision/sprp-ict.pdf.

[51]      Mr Kerry Doss, Manager, City Planning and Economic Development, City Planning and Sustainability Division, Brisbane City Council, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 2.

[52]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, pp. 9–10. On TIF, see PriceWaterhouseCoopers, draft report for the Property Council of Australia, 'Tax Increment Financing to fund infrastructure in Australia' (April 2008), http://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/public_submissions/published/files/486_propertycouncilofaustralia_sub2.pdf.

[53]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 15.

[54]      Youth Action NSW, Submission 51, pp. 81–82.

[55]      Youth Action NSW, Submission 51, p. 84.

[56]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 5.

[57]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 16, p. 3.

[58]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), pp. 423–29.

[59]      COAG Housing Supply and Affordability Reform Working Party, Final Report, Housing Supply and Affordability Reform (July 2012), pp. 14–15. The best practice guidelines are included in the final report at Appendix B. COAG agreed the report recommendations out-of-session in July 2012. https://www.coag.gov.au/node/451.

[60]      COAG Housing Supply and Affordability Reform Working Party, Final Report, Housing Supply and Affordability Reform (July 2012), p. 15.

Chapter 7 - Zoning, planning and approval processes

[1]        Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), p. 420.

[2]        Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 11.

[3]        BIS Shrapnel, Submission 16, p. 4.

[4]        Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 11.

[5]        Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, pp. 10–11.

[6]        Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 15.

[7]        Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 18–19.

[8]        JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 8.

[9]        Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 8.

[10]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 6.

[11]      Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, p. 5.

[12]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 8.

[13]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 16, p. 2.

[14]      Master Builders Australia, Submission 48, p. 13.

[15]      Western Australian Local Government Association, Submission 37, p. 2.

[16]      Professor Tony Dalton, Professor of Urban and Social Policy, RMIT University, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 15.

[17]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 10–11.

[18]      Professor Carolyn Whitzman, Professor of Urban Planning, University of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 15.

[19]      Associate Professor Roger Wilkins, Principal Research Fellow, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 15–16.

[20]      Ms Ruth Spielman, Executive Officer, National Growth Areas Alliance, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 62.

[21]      Ms Ruth Spielman, Executive Officer, National Growth Areas Alliance, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 62.

[22]      Professor Jago Dodson, Professor of Urban Policy, RMIT University, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 13.

[23]      Professor Hal Pawson, Associate Director, City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 35.

[24]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 4.

[25]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, pp. 4, 6–7.

[26]      Professor Frank Stilwell, Submission 25, pp. 3–4.

[27]      Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 10; Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 9; JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 9.

[28]      National Commission of Audit, Toward Responsible Government: Appendix to the Report of the National Commission of Audit, Vol. 2 (February 2014), p. 188.

[29]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 8.

[30]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, pp. 6–7.

[31]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 14.

[32]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 10.

[33]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, pp. 16–17.

[34]      Mr Liam Foley, Policy Officer, Urban Development Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 69–70.

[35]      Australian Government, Our Cities, Our Future: A national urban policy for a productive, sustainable and liveable future  (2011), p. 2.

[36]      The Hon Anthony Albanese, media release, 'Urban Policy Forum to provide stakeholder advice on cities', 20 January 2012, http://anthonyalbanese.com.au/urban-policy-forum-to-provide-stakeholder-advice-on-cities.

[37]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 35.

[38]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 36.

[39]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 37–38; Dr Brent Davis, National Director, Industry Policy, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 38–39.

[40]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia Ltd, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 38.

[41]      Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 48.

[42]      Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 50.

[43]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 11.

[44]      Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 45.

[45]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 6.

[46]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 15.

[47]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 11.

[48]      Brisbane City Council, Submission 121, p. 2.

[49]      Mr Kerry Doss, Manager, City Planning and Economic Development, City Planning and Sustainability Division, Brisbane City Council, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 1.

[50]      Housing Tasmania, Submission 217, p. 3.

[51]      Mr Damien Walker, Deputy Director-General, Department of Housing and Public Works, Queensland, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 44.

[52]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 16, p. 5.

[53]      The Hon Luke Foley MLC, Shadow Minister for Planning and Infrastructure, media release, 'Labor Opposition forces 46 amendments to O'Farrell Government's planning bill', 27 November 2013, http://www.scca.org.au/Pdf%20links/2013PDFLinks/ShadowMinFoleyPlanningBill.pdf.

Chapter 8 - Innovation and the building industry

[1]        Looking at the five mainland state capitals in its second State of Supply Report in 2010, this was true of infill developments in all markets, and greenfield developments in all markets except Sydney, where construction costs were 38 per cent of the total costs (with land costs constituting a higher proportion of greenfield development costs in Sydney). National Housing Supply Council, 2nd State of Supply Report (2010), pp. 119, 121.

[2]        Australian Building Codes Board, 'About the National Construction Code', http://www.abcb.gov.au/about-the-national-construction-code.aspx.

[3]        Mr Neil Savery, General Manager, Australian Building Codes Board, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 3.

[4]        Mr Neil Savery, General Manager, Australian Building Codes Board, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 2.

[5]        Mr Neil Savery, General Manager, Australian Building Codes Board, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp. 1–2.

[6]        Mr Neil Savery, General Manager, Australian Building Codes Board, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 3.

[7]        Mr Neil Savery, General Manager, Australian Building Codes Board, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 3.

[8]        Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, pp. 12–13.

[9]        Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, pp. 12–13. Mr Savery informed the committee that member governments have agreed that as of 2016 changes will be introduced on a three-year cycle. Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 7.

[10]      Lend Lease, Submission 170, p. 1.

[11]      Lend Lease, Submission 170, p. 2.

[12]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 12.

[13]      Western Australian Local Government Association, Submission 37, p. 12.

[14]      Professor Shane Murray, Dean, MADA, Monash University Faculty of Art Design & Architecture, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 14.

[15]      Mr Adam Mills, Senior Strategic Planning, City of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 32.

[16]      Mr Neil Savery, General Manager, Australian Building Codes Board, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 7. Also see The Hon John Thwaites, Chairman of the Australian Building Codes Board, Submission 19, pp. 8–9.

[17]      The Hon John Thwaites, Chairman of the Australian Building Codes Board, Submission 19, pp. 9–10.

[18]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 28.

[19]      Western Australian Local Government Association, Submission 37, p. 12.

[20]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, Council on the Ageing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22

[21]      Aged and Community Services Australia, Submission 111, p. 6.

[22]      Aged and Community Services Australia, Submission 111, p. 6.

[23]      Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 95, p. 15.

[24]      Mr Alan Pears AM, Submission 67, pp. 1–2.

[25]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, pp. 12–13.

[26]      Dr Wendy Stone, private capacity, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 18.

[27]      Dr Maree Petersen, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 14.

[28]      COTA Australia, Submission 191, p. 6.

[29]      Liveable Housing Australia, 'About the Guidelines', http://www.livablehousingaustralia.org.au/86/about-the-guidelines.aspx

[30]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, Council on the Ageing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22.

[31]      COTA Australia, Submission 191, p. 6.

[32]      Residential Development Council, Property Council of Australia, Submission 212, p. 14.

[33]      Ms Marie Skinner, Senior Policy Adviser, National Seniors Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 9.

[34]      Mrs Kylie Ullman, Policy Adviser, National Seniors Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 14.

[35]      RI Australia and Australian Network for Universal Housing Design, Submission 221, p. 14.

[36]      Disability Advocacy Network Australia, National Ethnic Disability Alliance and Australian Federation of Disability Organisations, Submission 202, pp. 9–10, 18.

[37]      Aged and Community Services Australia, Submission 111, p. 4.

Chapter 9 - Commonwealth taxation settings

[1]        As the ATO puts it, a 'rental property is negatively geared if it is purchased with the assistance of borrowed funds and the net rental income, after deducting other expenses, is less than the interest on borrowings'. ATO, 'Expenses you can deduct in the income year incurred', https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Property/Residential-rental-properties/Expenses-you-can-claim/Expenses-you-can-deduct-in-the-income-year-incurred/. 'Negative gearing' is taken in this chapter to refer to when taxpayers use losses from a negatively geared asset to reduce their overall assessable income.

[2]        For assets acquired before the new arrangements were introduced in September 1999, investors can calculate their capital gains liability using either the old indexation method or the current CGT discount method.

[3]        Review of Business Taxation, John Ralph AO (Chair), A Tax System Redesigned: More Certain, Equitable and Durable (Canberra 1999), p. 14.

[4]        Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 10.

[5]        Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 108, pp. 3–4. Also see City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 11.

[6]        Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 10. According to AHURI sponsored research, the 50 per cent CGT discount will not always result in a lower capital gains tax liability for property investors than the pre-1999 application of CGT on real capital gains. This research suggests if 'house prices appreciate at less than twice the rate of inflation investors have lower after-tax returns under current than pre-1999 capital gains tax arrangements. While many if not most landlords will end up paying more capital gains tax under current arrangements, the real issue for many is the failure to tax real rather than nominal gains.' Gavin Wood, Rachel Ong and Clinton McMurray, 'The impacts of the Henry Review recommendations on the private rental market: Savings income discount and rent assistance,' AHURI Final Report No. 175 (September 2011), pp. 3–4.

[7]        Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), pp. 69–70.

[8]        Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 5.

[9]        Gavin Wood, Rachel Ong and Clinton McMurray, 'The impacts of the Henry Review recommendations on the private rental market: Savings income discount and rent assistance,' AHURI Final Report No. 175 (September 2011), pp. 15–16.

[10]      Ms Molly Johnson, Researcher, The Australia Institute, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 63.

[11]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), p. 70.

[12]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), pp. 417–18.

[13]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 6.

[14]      Treasury, Australia's Future Tax System Review final report (Canberra 2010), pp. 71, 418.

[15]      The Hon Wayne Swan MP, Deputy Prime Minister and Treasurer, and the Hon Kevin Rudd MP, Prime Minister, joint media release, 'Stronger, Fairer, Simpler: A Tax Plan for Our Future', 2 May 2010, http://ministers.treasury.gov.au/DisplayDocs.aspx?doc=pressreleases/2010/028.htm&pageID=003&min=wms&Year.

[16]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 10.

[17]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 108, pp. 3–4.

[18]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 5.

[19]      Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 34.

[20]      The Australia Institute, Submission 92, p. 8. Also see Mr David Baker, Director of Research, The Australia Institute, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 62.

[21]      NT Shelter, Submission 118, p. 5; Mr Simon Scrapel, Chief Executive, Uniting Communities, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 32; Mr Mark O'Brien, Chief Executive Officer, Tenants Union of Victoria, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 48; Youth Action NSW, Submission 51, pp. 58–68.

[22]      Mr Jock Kreital, Manager, Policy, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 75.

[23]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 8.

[24]      Mr Rob Heferen, Executive Director, Revenue Group, The Treasury, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 21.

[25]      Jim O'Donnell, 'Quarantining Interest Deductions for Negatively Geared Rental Property Investments', eJournal of Tax Research 3, no. 1 (2005), p. 70.

[26]      Pasqualina Callea, 'Negative Gearing: should we move towards the United Kingdom system?' ConTax Newsletter (September 2012), p. 8, http://www.taxinstitute.com.au/files/dmfile/Feature_Article_Negative_Gearing_Contax_Sept20121.pdf.

[27]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 12–13.

[28]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 6.

[29]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 11.

[30]      Mr John Hawkins, Submission 105, p. 2.

[31]      Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 36.

[32]      Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 95, p. 8.

[33]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 19.

[34]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 108, pp. 3–4.

[35]      Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, p. 3.

[36]      Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 95, p. 8; Youth Action NSW, Submission 51, pp. 69–70.

[37]      Mr Simon Scrapel, Chief Executive, Uniting Communities, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 30; Mr Mark O'Brien, Chief Executive Officer, Tenants Union of Victoria, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 48.

[38]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 6.

[39]      Mr Rob Heferen, Executive Director, Revenue Group, The Treasury, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 22.

[40]      The Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Submission 130, p. 2.

[41]      Anglicare Australia, Submission 159, p. 4.

[42]      Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 36–37.

[43]      Ms Jacqueline Phillips, Director of Policy, Australian Council of Social Service, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 29.

[44]      Ms Jacqueline Phillips, Director of Policy, Australian Council of Social Service, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 29.

[45]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, pp. 4–5.

[46]      Residential Development Council, Property Council of Australia, Submission 212, p. 13.

[47]      The Treasury, Tax Expenditures Statement 2014 (January 2015), p. 3, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2015/TES-2014.

[48]      The Treasury, Tax Expenditures Statement 2014 (January 2015), p. 129, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2015/TES-2014.

[49]      Mr Rob Heferen, Executive Director, Revenue Group, The Treasury, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 21.

[50]      On the difference between the 'revenue forgone' and 'revenue gain' approaches to calculating tax expenditures, see Treasury, Tax Expenditures Statement 2014 (January 2015), pp. 4–5, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2015/TES-2014.

[51]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 13.

[52]      Dr Harley Dale, Chief Economist, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 51.

[53]      Housing Industry Association, Submission 178, p. 8.

[54]      Mr Rob Johnson, Submission 155, p. 3.

[55]      Mr Rob Heferen, Executive Director, Revenue Group, The Treasury, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 22.

[56]      Mr David Baker, Director of Research, The Australia Institute, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 62.

[57]      Baptist Care Australia, Submission 134, p. 15.

[58]      Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23, p. 8.

[59]      The Victorian Public Tenants Association, Submission 40, p. 2; Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 95, p. 8.

[60]      AHL Investments Pty Ltd (Aussie), Submission 186, pp. 2–3.

[61]      To be precise, ACOSS's submission, made in March 2014 with a view to the 2014–15 Budget, suggested the change only apply to investments made after 1 January 2015.

[62]      Australian Council of Social Service, Submission 108, pp. 3–4.

[63]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 13.

[64]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 13.

[65]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 13.

[66]      Tenants' Union of NSW, Submission 120, pp. 12–13.

[67]      Associate Professor Roger Wilkins, Principal Research Fellow, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 27–28.

[68]      Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, p. 7.

[69]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 9.

[70]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 6.

[71]      This total is arrived at by estimating the benefit from the non-taxation of imputed rent, less operating costs and a cost for the non-deductibility of mortgage interest.

[72]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, pp. 2–3. The source AHURI refers to is Judith Yates, Tax Expenditures and Housing, AHURI Research Paper (September 2009).

[73]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 5.

[74]      Mr John Hawkins, Submission 105, p. 3.

[75]      NT Shelter, Submission 118, p. 5.

[76]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 6. The exemption of the family home from the aged pension assets test is discussed in chapter twelve.

[77]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 15.

[78]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 6. As the Productivity Commission noted in its 2004 report on first home ownership, the tax treatment of imputed rental income is not unique to housing, and individuals do not pay tax on imputed income from other assets, such as motor vehicles. Productivity Commission 2004, First Home Ownership, Report no. 28, Melbourne, p. 77.

[79]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney's Senior Visiting Fellow Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 43.

Chapter 10 - Housing finance, investor activity and macroprudential policy

[1]        Mortgage and Finance Association of Australia, Submission 42, p. 2.

[2]        Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 2.

[3]        Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 5.

[4]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 11.

[5]        Ms Felicity Hand, Deputy Secretary, Disabilities and Housing, Department of Social Services Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 1. Ms Hand's comments related to lower interest rates since the early 1990s, and did not refer to income growth.

[6]        Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, pp. 1–2.

[7]        Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 5.

[8]        Reserve Bank of Australia, Submission 14, p. 6.

[9]        Reserve Bank of Australia, Financial Stability Review (March 2015), pp. 2, 37, 39.

[10]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Financial Stability Review (March 2015), pp. 2, 37, 39.

[11]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, pp. 1–2.

[12]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 11.

[13]      Professor Frank Stilwell, Submission 25, p. 1.

[14]      The Western Community Legal Centres (Wyndham Legal Service, Footscray Community Legal Centre, Brimbank Melton Community Legal Centre and Western Suburbs Legal Service), Submission 44, pp. 12–13.

[15]      Governor Glenn Stevens, Address to CEDA Luncheon, 'The Economic Scene', Adelaide, 3 September 2014, http://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2014/sp-gov-030914.html.

[16]      Dr Luci Ellis, Head, Financial Stability, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 8.

[17]      Luis I. Jácome and Erlend W. Nier, 'Macroprudential Policy: Protecting the Whole', Finance and Development 49, no. 1 (March 2012), http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/basics/macropru.htm#author. Dr Luci Ellis, the RBA's Head of Financial Stability, is critical of this supposed dichotomy between microprudential and macroprudential regulation, and suggests that most 'supposedly macroprudential policy tools are in fact the usual prudential tools long used by ostensibly "micro" prudential supervisors'. Luci Ellis, address to the Paul Woolley Centre for Capital Market Dysfunctionality Annual Conference, 'Macroprudential Policy: A Suite of Tools or a State of Mind?' 11 October 2012, http://www.afr.com/rw/2009-2014/AFR/2012/10/10/Photos/7acdc298-1333-11e2-b1c0-1b3f887c6e6e_Ellis%20speech%20on%20macroprudential%20policy.pdf.

[18]      Deniz Igan and Heedon Kang, IMF Working Paper, 'Do Loan-to-Value and Debt-to-Income Limits Work? Evidence from Korea' (December 2011), https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2011/wp11297.pdf.

[19]      Dr Luci Ellis, Head of Financial Stability Department, Reserve Bank of Australia, 'Macroprudential policy: What have we learned?' http://www.rba.gov.au/foi/disclosure-log/pdf/131413.pdf.

[20]      Luci Ellis, Head of Financial Stability Department, Reserve Bank of Australia, address to the University of Adelaide, 'Why Financial Stability Matters, and What We Can Do About It', 4 June 2014, http://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2014/sp-so-fs-040614.html.

[21]      Mr Glenn Stevens, Governor, Reserve Bank of Australia, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 20 August 2014, p. 21.

[22]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Financial Stability Review, September 2014, p. 1.

[23]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Financial Stability Review, September 2014, pp. 1–2.

[24]      Governor Glenn Stevens, Address to the Melbourne Economic Forum, University of Melbourne, 'Financial System Reform and the Monetary System', 25 September 2014, http://www.brrmedia.com/event/127406/sp-gov-250914.

[25]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 2.

[26]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 4.

[27]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 4.

[28]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 3.

[29]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 6.

[30]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 12.

[31]      Dr Malcolm Edey, Assistant Governor, Financial System, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 October 2014, p. 9.

[32]      Mr David Collyer, Policy Director, Prosper Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 1–2.

[33]      Professor Terry Burke, private capacity, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 25.

[34]      Reserve Bank of New Zealand, 'Memorandum of Understanding between the Minister of Finance and Governor of Reserve Bank of New Zealand', 13 May 2013, http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/financial_stability/macro-prudential_policy/5266657.html.

[35]      Reserve Bank of New Zealand, 'Limits for high-LVR lending', 20 August 2013, http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/news/2013/5406716.html.

[36]      Gael Price, Reserve Bank of New Zealand Analytical Note, 'How has the LVR restriction affected the housing market: a counterfactual analysis', May 2014, p. 13, http://rbnz.govt.nz/research_and_publications/analytical_notes/2014/an2014_03.pdf.

[37]      See Ivo Krznar and James Morsink, IMF Working Paper, 'With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility: Macroprudential Tools at Work in Canada' (May 2014), http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2014/wp1483.pdf; and Choongsoo Kim, 'Macroprudential policies in Korea: Key measures and experiences', Bank of Korea, April 2014, https://www.banque-france.fr/fileadmin/user_upload/banque_de_france/publications/FSR18_Kim.pdf.

[38]      Mr Nicholas Proud, Executive Director, Residential Development Council, Property Council of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 54.

[39]      Home Loan Experts, Submission 5, p. 1.

[40]      Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, p. 7.

[41]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Financial Stability Review (March 2015), p. 45.

[42]      Mr Wayne Byres, Chairman, Australian Prudential Regulation Authority, Proof Committee Hansard, 20 March 2015, p. 23.

[43]      James Eyers, 'APRA keeps macroprudential strictures on bank lending secret', AFR, 20 March 2015.

[44]      Mr Wayne Byres, Chairman, Australian Prudential Regulation Authority, Proof Committee Hansard, 20 March 2015, p. 7.

[45]      Australian Securities and Investments Commission, media release 14-329MR, 'ASIC to investigate interest-only loans', 9 December 2014, http://asic.gov.au/about-asic/media-centre/find-a-media-release/2014-releases/14-329mr-asic-to-investigate-interest-only-loans/.

[46]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Financial Stability Review (March 2015), p. 2.

[47]      The Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Submission 130, pp. 3–4.

[48]      Reserve Bank of Australia, Financial Stability Review (September 2013), p. 49.

Chapter 11 - Home ownership

[1]        Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, pp. 2–3; Reform of the Federation White Paper, Issues Paper No. 2, Roles and Responsibilities in Housing and Homelessness (December 2014), p. 5.

[2]        Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 2.

[3]        Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 2.

[4]        Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 4.

[5]        Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 5.

[6]        Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 1–3.

[7]        Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 9.

[8]        Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 9.

[9]        The Australia Institute, Submission 92, p. 3.

[10]      Mr Adrian Pisarski, Executive Officer, National Shelter, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 33.

[11]      Mr Simon Schrapel, Chief Executive, Uniting Communities, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 32.

[12]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 3.

[13]      Dr Emma Baker, Deputy Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide , Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 19.

[14]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 8.

[15]      Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 72.

[16]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 3.

[17]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 2.

[18]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, pp. 6–7.

[19]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. ii.

[20]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 2.

[21]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, pp. 6–7.

[22]      United Voice, Submission 169, p. 5.

[23]      For background on FHOGs in Australia, see Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 2

[24]      City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 4.

[25]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 7. Mr Eslake's findings were endorsed by the Australia Institute. The Australia Institute, Submission 92, p. 8.

[26]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 9.

[27]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 9.

[28]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 4.

[29]      JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 4.

[30]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 4.

[31]      Productivity Commission, First Home Ownership, Australian Government, Canberra, 2004, as cited in Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 95, p. 5.

[32]      NT Shelter, Submission 118, p. 4.

[33]      The Victorian Public Tenants Association, Submission 40, p. 4.

[34]      Tamworth Regional Council, Submission 12, p. 2.

[35]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 9.

[36]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 4.

[37]      Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 72.

[38]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 5.

[39]      Mr Jock Kreitals, Manager, Policy, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 75–76.

[40]      Home Loan Experts, Submission 5, p. 1.

[41]      Figures from APRA, First Home Saver Accounts, http://www.apra.gov.au/crossindustry/FHSA/Pages/default.aspx.

[42]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 12.

[43]      Mr Jock Kreitals, Manager, Policy, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 73.

[44]      Customer Owned Banking Association, Submission 146, pp. 3–4.

[45]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 5.

[46]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 2; HomeStart Finance, Submission 72, pp. 17–18.

[47]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, pp. 5–6; Ms Amanda Lynch, Chief Executive Officer, Real Estate Institute of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 72–73.

[48]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, pp. 5–6.

[49]      Mr Simon Schrapel, Chief Executive, Uniting Communities, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 32.

[50]      The Victorian Public Tenants Association, Submission 40, p. 2.

[51]      The Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia, Submission 130, p. 7.

[52]      Simon Pinnegar, Hazel Easthope, Bill Randolph, Peter Williams and Judith Yates, AHURI Final Report No. 137, 'Innovative financing for homeownership: the potential for shared equity initiatives in Australia' (August 2009), pp. 1–2.

[53]      Pinnegar et al., 'Innovative financing for homeownership', pp. 1–2. 

[54]      See http://www.keystart.com.au/home-loans/shared.

[55]      Mr Grahame John Searle, Director-General, Department of Housing, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp. 4–5.

[56]      This is noted on http://www.keystart.com.au/about-us/about-us. The Department of Housing told the committee that over 25 years 57,545 loans had been issued. Ms Tania Loosley-Smith, General Manager, Strategy and Policy, Department of Housing, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 5.

[57]      Mr Grahame John Searle, Director-General, Department of Housing, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 5.

[58]      Mr Grahame John Searle, Director-General, Department of Housing, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 8.

[59]      ACT Government, Submission 162, p. 1.

[60]      ACT Government, Submission 162, p. 1.

[61]      Housing Tasmania, Submission 217, pp. 3–4.

[62]      Mr Saul Eslake, Submission 2, p. 15.

[63]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, pp. 3–4.

[64]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, pp. 8–9.

[65]      Carers Victoria, Submission 110, p. 6.

[66]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, pp. 10, 16.

[67]      Rismark International, Submission 64, p. 4.

[68]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, p. 8.

[69]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 7.

[70]      HomeStart Finance, Submission 72, pp. 1–13.

[71]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 2.

[72]      HomeStart Finance, Submission 72, p. 1.

[73]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 1–2.

[74]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 3.

[75]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 3.

[76]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 7.

[77]      Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 7.

[78]      Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 10.

[79]      The Victorian Public Tenants Association, Submission 40, p. 3.

[80]      Western Australian Local Government Association, Submission 37, p. 13.

[81]      IBA is an Australian Government statutory authority created to assist and enhance the economic and development opportunities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. It operates economic development programs spanning home ownership, business development and larger scale investments. Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, p. 9.

[82]      For detail on these barriers, see Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, pp. 11–16.

[83]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 19.

[84]      For detail, see Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, pp. 20–29.

[85]      Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, pp. 4–5.

[86]      Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, p. 5.

[87]      Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, p. 31.

[88]      Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, pp. 5–6.

[89]      Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, p. 6.

[90]      Indigenous Business Australia, Submission 203, p. 6.

[91]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 20.

[92]      Australian Bankers' Association, Submission 197, p. 20.

Chapter 12 - Older people and home ownership

[1]        Dr Debbie Faulkner, Research Fellow, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 11–12. Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry pointed to research that suggested outright ownership for over 65s would likely decline by 10 per cent by 2046. Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry, Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Submission 24, p. 5. COTA reports that 78 per cent of over 65s own their home outright, and 6.5 per cent have a mortgage. COTA, Submission 191, p. 1.

[2]        Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23, p. 10.

[3]        City Futures Research Centre, UNSW, Submission 152, p. 9.

[4]        Combined Pensioners and Superannuants Association of NSW Inc., Submission 164, p. 3.

[5]        Anglicare Australia, Submission 159, p. 3.

[6]        Urban Development Institute of Australia, Submission 190, p. 7.

[7]        Dr Vivienne Milligan, Associate Professor, City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 40.

[8]        Mr Graham Wolfe, Chief Executive, Industry Policy and Media Relations, Housing Industry Association, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 46.

[9]        Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 95, p. 12.

[10]      On the Productivity Commission's proposed Australian Aged Care Home Credit scheme, see Productivity Commission, Caring for older Australians, Vol. 1 (2011), p. xxxvii.

[11]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, Council on the Ageing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 25.

[12]      As of March 2015, the lower thresholds (that is, the thresholds above which the full pension is gradually reduced) are $202,000 and $286,500 for single and couple combined homeowners respectively, and $348,500 and $433,000 for single and couple combined non-homeowners respectively. Department of Human Services, http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/assets/.

[13]      Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 3.

[14]      Honorary Associate Professor Judith Yates, University of Sydney, Submission 53, p. 6.

[15]      Western Australian Local Government Association, Submission 37, p. 7.

[16]      National Seniors, Submission 165, p. 4; COTA Australia, Submission 191, p. 5.

[17]      National Seniors, Submission 165, p. 4.

[18]      COTA Australia, Submission 191, p. 5.

[19]      Mr Michael Basso, Submission 209, p. 5.

[20]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, Council on the Ageing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 23.

[21]      Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23, p. 10 (emphasis in source).

[22]      Combined Pensioners and Superannuants Association of NSW Inc., Submission 164, p. 13.

[23]      KinCare, Submission 76, p. 3.

[24]      Ms Marie Skinner, Senior Policy Adviser, National Seniors Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 9.

[25]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, Council on the Ageing, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 23.

[26]      COTA Australia, Submission 191, p. 6.

[27]      Ms Mary Wood, Executive Director, Retirement Living Council, Property Council of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp. 46–47.

[28]      Productivity Commission, Caring for older Australians, Vol. 1 (2011), p. xl.

[29]      Parliamentary Library, Research Paper No. 3, 2012–13, Budget Review 2013–14 (May 2013), p. 175. 

[30]      Budget Paper No. 2, Budget Measures 2013–14, p. 152. Also see Parliamentary Library, Research Paper No. 3, 2012–13, Budget Review 2013–14 (May 2013), pp. 175–76.

[31]      Mr Ian Yates, Chief Executive, Council on the Ageing, 28 July 2014, Proof Committee Hansard, p. 23; COTA Australia, Submission 191, p. 7.

[32]      National Seniors Australia, answer to a question on notice from a public hearing held in Brisbane on 10 September 2014, received on 13 October 2014, p. 2.

[33]      Residential Development Council, Property Council of Australia, Submission 212, p. 12.

[34]      Ms Mary Wood, Executive Director, Retirement Living Council, Property Council of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 47. On the proposal, see Property Council of Australia, 'Unlocking home equity solution to ageing population', 6 March 2015, https://www.propertyoz.com.au/Article/NewsDetail.aspx?p=16&id=10665.

[35]      Combined Pensioners and Superannuants Association of NSW Inc., Submission 164, p. 13.

  - Affordable rental market

[1]        See for example, Professor Hulse, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 11; Dr David Baker, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 19.

[2]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 60.

[3]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 60.

[4]        National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability—Key indicators, 2012, p. vi, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2012/NHSC (accessed 4 March 2015).

[5]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 43–44. Using an average annual rate of growth in the population of 1.3 per cent, the intergenerational report projected that Australia’s population would rise to 39.7 million by 2054-55. It noted, however, that population projections are particularly sensitive to assumptions about the rate of net overseas migration. The 2015 Intergenerational Report, Australia in 2055, p. 3, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2015/2015-Intergenerational-Report (accessed 23 March 2015).

[6]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 44.

[7]        Submission 198, p. 4.

[8]        National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability—Key indicators, 2012, p. vii, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2012/NHSC (accessed 4 March 2015).

[9]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 3, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[10]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2 p. 413, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[11]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 83, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033  (accessed 18 January 2015).

[12]      See for example, Maryann Wulff, Margaret Reynolds, Dharmalingam Arunachalam, Kath Hulse and Judith Yates, Australia’s private rental market: the supply of, and demand for, affordable dwellings, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Swinburne-Monash Research Centre, May 2011, p. 6, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/search.asp?ShowSearch=False&Direction=DESC&Search=Properties&Keywords=Maryann+Wulff&Search-Author=True&Sort=Search%2DTitle&CurrentPage=3 (accessed 4 March 2015).

[13]      National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability—Key indicators, 2012, p. 3, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2012/NHSC (accessed 4 March 2015).

[14]      National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability—Key indicators, 2012, p. 5, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2012/NHSC (accessed 4 March 2015).

[15]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2, p. 413, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[16]      National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability—Key indicators, 2012, p. vii, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2012/NHSC (accessed 4 March 2015).

[17]      National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, p. 7, http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 22 August 2014).

[18]      National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, pp. xi and 129, http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 22 August 2014).

[19]      The report was intended to inform stakeholders within the region of issues relating to housing affordability. The project was commissioned by MacroPlan Dimasi to undertake the research and the report was completed in March 2014. Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 24.

[20]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 42.

[21]      Dr Burgmann, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 11.

[22]      Submission 101, p. [1].

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 1.

[24]      See Kath Hulse, Terry Burke, Liss Ralston and Wendy Stone, The Australian private rental sector: changes and challenges, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, July 2012, p. 6,  https://www.melbourneinstitute.com/downloads/hilda/Bibliography/Other_Publications/2012/Hulse_etal_The_Australian_private_rental_sector_changes_and_challenges.pdf (accessed 15 January 2015).

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 45.

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 60.

[27]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 11. Dr Stone gave evidence in a private capacity.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 10. Professor Hulse gave evidence in a private capacity.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 11.

[30]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 44–45.

[31]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 44–45.

[32]      See, for example, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Submission 93, p. 32; Council to Homeless Persons, Submission 179, p.2.

[33]      Submission 179, p. 2.

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 25.

[35]      See for example, Maryann Wulff, Margaret Reynolds, Dharmalingam Arunachalam, Kath Hulse and Judith Yates, Australia’s private rental market: the supply of, and demand for, affordable dwellings, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Swinburne-Monash Research Centre, May 2011, p. 13, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/search.asp?ShowSearch=False&Direction=DESC&Search=Properties&Keywords=Maryann+Wulff&Search-Author=True&Sort=Search%2DTitle&CurrentPage=3 (accessed 4 March 2015).

[36]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 35.

[37]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 37.

[38]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 62.

[39]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 66.

[40]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 62.

[41]      Queensland Government, Submission 215, p. 2.

[42]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, pp. 83 and 85, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[43]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 66.

[44]      Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, p. ix, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 12 January 2015).

[45]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 3, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[46]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 25.

[47]      See for example, Mr Myers, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 51.

[48]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 29.

[49]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 29.

[50]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 24.

[51]      Ms Findlater Smith, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 55.

[52]      Submission 74, pp 3–4.

[53]      Submission 23, p. 4.

[54]      Submission 23, p. 2.

[55]      Submission 70, p. 5.

[56]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 29.

[57]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 29.

[58]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 29–30.

[59]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 32.

[60]      Submission 161, p. 7.

[61]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 42.

[62]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 30.

[63]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 41.

[64]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 29–30.

[65]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22. See also Jane Berry, Home Sweet Home—Act for the house not the tenant, Footscray Community Legal Centre Inc, 2013, pp. 8 and 10–11. The issue of energy efficiency and housing affordability was also discussed in chapter 8.

[66]      Submission 191, p. 6.

[67]      See, for example, Hobsons Bay City Council, Submission 39, p. 3.

[68]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 44.

[69]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 44.

[70]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 41.

[71]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 24.

[72]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 24.

[73]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 16.

[74]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 13. The issue of spatial disadvantage was also addressed in chapter 7.

[75]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 33.

[76]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 12–13.

[77]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 13.

[78]      Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Submission 86, p. 3.

[79]      See for example, Ms Molly Johnson, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 60 and Dr Gennadi Kazakevitch, Associate Professor Lionel Frost and Mr Luc Borrowman, Submission 23.

[80]      Submission 78, pp. 4–5.

[81]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 11.

[82]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 11–12.

[83]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 11.

[84]      Submission 101, p. [5].

[85]      Submission 23, p. 11.

[86]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[87]      Submission 70, pp. 4–5.

[88]      Submission 70, p. 5.

[89]      Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 46.

[90]      Dr Kazakevitch, Professor Frost and Mr Borrowman, Submission 23, p. 12.

[91]      Submission 27, p. 4.

[92]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 13.

[93]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 13.

[94]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 13.

[95]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 63.

[96]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 63.

[97]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[98]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 11.

[99]      Submission 23, p. 3. See also the Western Community Legal Centres, Submission 44, p. 11, which stated: 'It is important to note that in a climate where the vacancy rate is low, tenants are often reluctant to exercise their rights under the Residential Tenancies Act 1997 (RTA) or to seek help. For example, tenants may not request repairs to be done or take landlords to VCAT over unfair rental increases for fear of facing evictions'.  

[100]    See, for example, Tamworth Regional Council, Submission 12, p. 3.

[101]    Submission 120, p. 11.

[102]    Submission 44, p. 11. Also see Jane Berry, Home Sweet Home—Act for the house not the tenant, Footscray Community Legal Centre Inc., 2013, http://www.footscrayclc.org.au/images/stories/home_sweet_home__-_act_for_the_house_not_the_tenant_report_2013.pdf (accessed 19 February 2015.

[103]    See, for example, Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry, RMIT University, Submission 24, p. 3; Western Australian Local Government Association, Submission 37, p. 2; National Foundation for Australian Women ACT, Submission 38, p. 2; JELD-WEN Australia, Submission 54, p. 2; Inner South Rooming House Network, Submission 58, p. 1; HomeGround Services, Submission 70, p. 2.

[104]    Submission 23, p. 4.

[105]    Submission 24, p. 5.

[106]    Submission 24, p. 6.

[107]    Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 30.

[108]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 41.

[109]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 34.

[110]    Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 39.

[111]    Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 39

[112]    See, for example, Professor Haslam McKenzie, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 39.

[113]    Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 17.

[114]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 15.

[115]    Dr Emma Wood et al, 'Exploring the Bi-directional Relationship between Health and Housing in Australia', Urban Policy and Research, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 71–84.

[116]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[117]    Submission 101, p. [5].

[118]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 41.

[119]    Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 13.

[120]    Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57.

[121]    Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57.

[122]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 45.

[123]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 45.

[124]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[125]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2015, p. 15.

[126]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 13.

[127]    Tenants Union of Victoria, Submission 119, p. 5.

[128]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[129]    Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 27.

[130]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 63.

[131]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 26.

[132]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 26.

[133]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 26–27.

[134]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 26–27.

[135]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 63.

[136]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 63.

[137]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 27.

[138]    Submission 78, p. 12. Dr Petersen was of the view that there were some lessons to be learnt from considering the tenancy laws. Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 15.

[139]    Submission 78, p. 12.

[140]    Western Community Legal Centres, Submission 44, p. 11.

[141]    Western Community Legal Centres, Submission 44, p. 3.

[142]    Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 43.

[143]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 15.

[144]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 66.

Chapter 14 - Social Housing

[1]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 1, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[2]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 86, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[3]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 2 and 8, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[4]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 85, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[5]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 81, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[6]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. ix, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 12 January 2015). The Institute also records that in 2013, there were around 421,000 social housing dwellings across Australia, see p. 28.

[7]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 3, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[8]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. ix, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 12 January 2015).

[9]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. ix, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[10]      Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 16.

[11]      Submission 24, p. 9.

[12]      Submission 3, p. 1.

[13]      Submission 86, p. 3.

[14]      National Regulatory System for Community Housing Providers, a Joint Initiative of Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments, Decision Regulation Impact Statement, p. 5, http://ris.dpmc.gov.au/files/2013/05/NRS-Community-Housing-DRIS.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[15]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 1, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015) and National Regulatory System for Community Housing Providers, a Joint Initiative of Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments, Decision Regulation Impact Statement, p. 5, http://ris.dpmc.gov.au/files/2013/05/NRS-Community-Housing-DRIS.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[16]      Submission 52, p. 1.

[17]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 29.

[18]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 29.

[19]      Submission 48, p. 18.

[20]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p.58, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[21]      Submission 48, p. 18.

[22]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 2.

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 2.

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 2.

[25]      See for example, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 27, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[26]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. ix, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[27]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 37, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 18.

[29]      Submission 198, p. 29.

[30]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 44.

[31]      Submission 68, p. 3. See also Mr Keith Jacobs, who observed that the reduction in the public sector stock had led to state authorities restricting the allocation of available properties to those in acute need, Submission 33, p. 2. Ms Christine Allison similarly noted that access to social housing was dependent on eligibility and eligibility depended on remaining disadvantaged. In her view that was no incentive to improve and improvement for example, finding a job could mean ineligibility. Submission 35, p. 2.

[32]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 16.

[33]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 16.

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[35]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[36]      Submission 174, p. 18.

[37]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. ix, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 12 January 2015).

[38]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p.41, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[39]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 6.

[40]      In December 2013, the then Minister for Social Services, the Hon. Kevin Andrews MP, commissioned a review of the welfare system. The purpose was to identify improvements to ensure the system was sustainable, effective and coherent, and encouraged people to work. The Minister appointed an independent Reference Group to lead the review. Mr Patrick McClure AO chaired the Reference Group. The other members are Mr Wesley Aird and Ms Sally Sinclair.

[41]      A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, pp. 30 and 70, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015). Note that a final report was released in February 2015, A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Final Report, February 2015, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/02_2015/dss001_14_final_report_access_2.pdf (accessed 2 April 2015).

 

[42]      A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014,  p. 70, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015). The final report indicated that consultations on the interim report reinforced the need 'to address poor work incentives for public housing tenants (caused by income-based rents) and the discrepancies in government support between public and private tenants'. A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Final Report, February 2015, p. 20, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/02_2015/dss001_14_final_report_access_2.pdf (accessed 2 April 2015).

[43]      A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 30, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[44]      Queensland Government, Submission 215, p. 2.

[45]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[46]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[47]      A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 71, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015). The final report made a similar recommendation—'Reduce disincentives to workforce participation by moving from income based rents in public housing and extending Commonwealth Rent Assistance to public housing tenants.' A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Final Report, February 2015, p. 20, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/02_2015/dss001_14_final_report_access_2.pdf (accessed 2 April 2015).

[48]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 6.

[49]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 6.

[50]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 35.

[51]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 19.

[52]      AnglicareWA, Submission 161, p. 7.

[53]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 61.

[54]      Submission 101, p. [6].

[55]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[56]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[57]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[58]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2012, p. 34.

[59]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 44.

[60]      See for example, Mr David Cant, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 60–61.

[61]      Submission 3, p. 1.

[62]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p.27, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[63]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p.33, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[64]      Submission 33, p. 2.

[65]      Submission 179, p. 4.

[66]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 61.

[67]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 37.

[68]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 50.

[69]      Real Estate Institute of Australia, Submission 88, pp. 14–15.

[70]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 51.

[71]      Submission 48, p. 18.

[72]      Submission 101, p. 6 and Mr Myers, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[73]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 60–61.

[74]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 61.

[75]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 37.

[76]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 24.

[77]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 14.

[78]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 33.

[79]      See for example, Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, p. 8.  

Chapter 15 - Community housing

[1]        National Regulatory System for Community Housing Directorate, Charter, p. 10, http://www.nrsch.gov.au/__data/assets/file/0011/288218/D_Charter.pdf (accessed 12 January 2015).

[2]        Ms Croce, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9.

[3]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9.

[4]        See National Regulatory System for Community Housing Providers, a Joint Initiative of Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments, Decision Regulation Impact Statement, p. 5, http://ris.dpmc.gov.au/files/2013/05/NRS-Community-Housing-DRIS.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[5]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, pp 27–28, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[6]        Community Housing Federation of Australia, Submission 171, p. 7.

[7]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 28, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[8]        See paragraphs 15.65–15.66.

[9]        Submission 80, p. 2.

[10]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015, Volume G: Housing and homelessness p. 17.8, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf (accessed 27 February 2015).

[11]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015, Volume G: Housing and homelessness p. 17.10, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf (accessed 27 February 2015).

[12]      Submission 93, p. 12.

[13]      Implementing the National Housing Reforms, A Progress Report to the Council of Australian Governments from Commonwealth, State and Territory Housing Ministers, November 2009, p. 26, https://www.coag.gov.au/node/91 (accessed 5 March 2015) and AHURI, Submission 93, p. 30.

[14]      AHURI, Submission 93, p. 30.

[15]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 28, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[16]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 10.

[17]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 37.

[18]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 31.

[19]      AHURI, Submission 93, p. 30.

[20]      Mr Myers, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[21]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 64.

[22]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 17.

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 17.

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 12. The NSW Federation of Housing Associations is the industry peak body for community housing providers in NSW.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 12.

[26]      Submission 52, p. 4.

[27]      See, for example, Mr Astbury, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 36.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 45–46.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 12.

[30]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 15.

[31]      Submission 99, p. 1.

[32]      Ms Croce, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9.

[33]      Submission 171, p. 9.

[34]      Hal Pawson, Vivienne Milligan, Ilan Wiesel and Kath Hulse, Public housing transfers: past, present and prospective, AHURI Final Report No. 215, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, University of New South Wales and Swinburne University of Technology, October 2013, p. 5, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/projects/p71008 (accessed 5 March 2015).

[35]      Submission 171, p. 6.

[36]      Submission 80, p. 2.

[37]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 47.

[38]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 17.

[39]      Submission 39, p. 8.

[40]      Submission 171, p. 6.

[41]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 42.

[42]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 37.

[43]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 42.

[44]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 37.

[45]      Queensland Government, Media Release, 10 July 2013, http://statements.qld.gov.au/Statement/2013/7/25/housing-2020-strategy-to-renew-social-housing, quoted in Submission 163, p. 2.

[46]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[47]      Submission 175, p. 21.

[48]      Submission 175, p. 21.

[49]      Andrew Beer et al, Public Housing stock transfer—impacts and implications for local government, CHURP, p. 19, http://www.lga.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/2013.37%20-%20Public%20housing%20stock%20transfer%20Final%20Report%2024%20June.pdf (accessed 5 January 2015).

[50]      Submission 99, p. 2.

[51]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 24.

[52]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[53]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 16.

[54]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 16.

[55]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 34.

[56]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 45–46.

[57]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 45–46.

[58]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 48.

[59]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 46.

[60]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 48. The Productivity Commission noted that: 'The Logan Renewal Initiative was the first major step in the reform to achieve the large scale transfer of the management of public housing and redevelopment of housing stock in the Logan area. The intention was to enhance service delivery outcomes through local decision making, increase supply of social and affordable housing, reduce social housing concentration and better align the portfolio with housing need'. Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015, Volume G: Housing and homelessness p. 17.55, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf (accessed 27 February 2015).

[61]      Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 38. The report cited in this quote is The Sphere Company, Maximising growth potential of housing providers through title transfer, 2013, http://www.chcsa.org.au/sites/default/files/Maximising%20growth%20through%20title%20transfer%20(Final)%20November%202013.pdf (accessed 20 March 2015).

[62]      Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 38. The report cited in this quote is The Sphere Company, Maximising growth potential of housing providers through title transfer, 2013, http://www.chcsa.org.au/sites/default/files/Maximising%20growth%20through%20title%20transfer%20(Final)%20November%202013.pdf (accessed 20 March 2015).

[63]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 38.

[64]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 38.

[65]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 33.

[66]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 11.

[67]      Submission 175, p. 21.

[68]      Andrew Beer et al, Public Housing stock transfer—impacts and implications for local government, CHURP, p. 19, http://www.lga.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/2013.37%20-%20Public%20housing%20stock%20transfer%20Final%20Report%2024%20June.pdf (accessed 5 January 2015).

[69]      Hal Pawson, Vivienne Milligan, Ilan Wiesel and Kath Hulse, Public housing transfers: past, present and prospective, AHURI Final Report No. 215, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, University of New South Wales and Swinburne University of Technology, October 2013, p. 6, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/projects/p71008 (accessed 5 March 2015).

[70]      Submission 175, p. 21.

[71]      Submission 78, p. 24.

[72]      Andrew Beer et al, Public Housing stock transfer—impacts and implications for local government, CHURP, p. 19, http://www.lga.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/2013.37%20-%20Public%20housing%20stock%20transfer%20Final%20Report%2024%20June.pdf (accessed 5 January 2015).

[73]      Tamworth Regional Council, Submission 12, p. 3.

[74]      Submission 3, p. 1.

[75]      Andrew Beer et al, Public Housing stock transfer—impacts and implications for local government, CHURP, p. 19, http://www.lga.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/2013.37%20-%20Public%20housing%20stock%20transfer%20Final%20Report%2024%20June.pdf (accessed 5 January 2015).

[76]      Submission 171, p. 12.

[77]      Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9.

[78]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9.

[79]      Submission 80, p. 3.

[80]      Andrew Beer et al, Public Housing stock transfer—impacts and implications for local government, CHURP, p. 19, http://www.lga.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/2013.37%20-%20Public%20housing%20stock%20transfer%20Final%20Report%2024%20June.pdf (accessed 5 January 2015).

[81]      There are numerous references throughout this report on the importance of having policy certainty around housing and homelessness. See, for example, paragraphs 15.64, 17.30–17.31, 18.63–18.65, 22.40.

Chapter 16 - Particular housing needs

[1]        A recent Productivity Commission paper found that people at the highest risk of experiencing deeper or multiple forms of disadvantage include those who are dependent on income support, unemployed people, Indigenous Australians, people with a long-term health condition or disability, lone parents and people with low educational attainment. Rosalie McLachlan Geoff Gilfillan Jenny Gordon, Deep and Persistent Disadvantage in Australia, Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper, Productivity Commission, July 2013, p. 11 http://www.pc.gov.au/research/completed/deep-persistent-disadvantage/deep-persistent-disadvantage.pdf (accessed 5 January 2015).

[2]        See, for example, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 38.

[3]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 12, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[4]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 9.

[5]        Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 11–12.

[6]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 9.

[7]        See for example, Dr Petersen, University of Queensland, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 11.

[8]        Submission 191, p. 3.

[9]        Aged and Community Services Australia had 'the housing crisis for older people' as a heading in its submission, Submission 111, p. 3.

[10]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 10.

[11]      Rosalie McLachlan, Geoff Gilfillan and Jenny Gordon, Deep and Persistent Disadvantage in Australia, Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper, July 2013, p. 65, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/completed/deep-persistent-disadvantage/deep-persistent-disadvantage.pdf (accessed 9 February 2014). See also Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 19.

[12]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 33.

[13]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 11.

[14]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 37.

[15]      Dr Jeff Harmer, Pension Review Report, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, 27 February 2009, p. 53. https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/pensionreviewreport.pdf (accessed 14 January 2015).

[16]      Dr Jeff Harmer, Pension Review Report, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, 27 February 2009, p. 52. https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/pensionreviewreport.pdf

[17]      A new System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 68, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[18]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 13–14.

[19]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[20]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[21]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[22]      See for example, National Seniors, Submission 165, p. 1.

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 9.

[24]      Submission 38, p. [5].

[25]      See, for example, Submission 78, p. 25. Ms Mary Wood, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 46.

[26]      Submission 78, p. 25. See also paragraphs 13.37–13.39.

[27]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 18.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[30]      Submission 191, p. 7.

[31]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 18.

[32]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 15.

[33]      Mr Yates, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22.

[34]      Dr Baker, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 14 and 17.

[35]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 9.

[36]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[37]      Submission 38, p. [5].

[38]      Dr Jeff Harmer, Pension Review Report, 27 February 2009, p. 52. https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/pensionreviewreport.pdf (accessed 14 January 2015).

[39]      The National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, p. 58, http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 6 March 2015).

[40]      Submission 191, p. 4.

[41]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 14.

[42]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 18.

[43]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 12.

[44]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22.

[45]      The National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, p. 58, http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 22 August 2014).

[46]      The National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, pp. 58–59. http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 22 August 2014).

[47]      The National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, pp. 58–59. http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 22 August 2014).

[48]      The National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, pp. 58–59. http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 22 August 2014).

[49]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[50]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[51]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 25.

[52]      See for example, Mr Schrapel, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 33.

[53]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 19.

[54]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 55.

[55]      Submission 38, p. [2].

[56]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 19.

[57]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 19.

[58]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 53.

[59]      Submission 98, p. 7.

[60]      Submission 98, p. 7.

[61]      See, for example, Older Women and Homelessness Seminar, prepared by DMA for National Council of Women of Australia ACT, p. 8, Submission 98, National Council of Women of Australia Ltd and The National Foundation for Australian Women, Submission 38, p. [1].

[62]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 53.

[63]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[64]      Submission 65, p. 2.

[65]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[66]      See, for example, Women's Legal Services NSW, Submission 65, p. 3.

[67]      Submission 55, p. 3.

[68]      Ms Dalley-Fisher, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 19.

[69]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 20.

[70]      Submission 59, p. 2.

[71]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[72]      Submission 95, p. 10.

[73]      Submission 59, p. 2.

[74]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[75]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[76]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 20.

[77]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[78]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 19.

[79]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 22–23.

[80]      Submission 65, p. 5.

[81]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[82]      Submission 59, p. 3.

[83]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[84]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 18.

[85]      Submission 65, p. 6.

[86]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 17.

[87]      Submission 57, p. 4.

[88]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 36.

[89]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp. 36 and 37.

[90]      Submission 102, p. [2].

[91]      Submission 102, p. [3].

[92]      Submission 143, p. [4].

[93]      Submission 93, p. 32.

[94]      Submission 93, p. 32.

[95]      Submission 57, p. 6.

[96]      Department of Social Services, 'Disability and Carers: National Disability Strategy', https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/disability-and-carers/program-services/government-international/national-disability-strategy (accessed 19 March 2015).

[97]      Submission 117, p. 2.

[98]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 18.

[99]      Submission 102, p. [1].

[100]    Submission 102, p. [1].

[101]    Equal Opportunity Commission, Report of outcomes of the Recommendations of Accommodating everyone, March 2011, p. 8, http://www.eoc.wa.gov.au/publications/reviews-and-reports (accessed 6 March 2015).

[102]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 39.

[103]    Submission 82, p. 3.

[104]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 57.

[105]    Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2, p. 615, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[106]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 34. See also, Western Australian Local Government Association, Submission 37, p. 14.

[107]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2015, p. 34.

[108]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2015, p. 34.

[109]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 34.

[110]    Submission 46, p. [2]. See also Submission 174 and Submission 161.

[111]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 13.

[112]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 13.

[113]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 13.

[114]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 25.

[115]    Submission 174, p. 8.

[116]    Submission 43, pp. 2–3 and Submission 37, p. 14.

Chapter 17 - Indigenous Australians

[1]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance for Indigenous Australians, 2014, p. 1, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129548051 (5 January 2015).

[2]        Closing the Gap, Prime Minister’s Report 2015, Commonwealth of Australia, 2015, p. 20,  http://www.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/Closing_the_Gap_2015_Report_0.pdf (accessed 2 Mach 2015).

[3]        Closing the Gap, Prime Minister’s Report 2015, Commonwealth of Australia, 2015, p. 7,  http://www.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/Closing_the_Gap_2015_Report_0.pdf (accessed 2 Mach 2015).

[4]        Closing the Gap, Prime Minister’s Report 2015, Commonwealth of Australia, 2015, p. 22,  http://www.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/Closing_the_Gap_2015_Report_0.pdf (accessed 2 Mach 2015).

[5]        Closing the Gap, Prime Minister’s Report 2015, Commonwealth of Australia, 2015, p. 18,  http://www.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/Closing_the_Gap_2015_Report_0.pdf (accessed 2 Mach 2015).

[6]        Closing the Gap, Prime Minister’s Report 2015, Commonwealth of Australia, 2015, p. 27,  http://www.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/Closing_the_Gap_2015_Report_0.pdf (accessed 2 Mach 2015).

[7]        Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2 p. 604, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[8]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance for Indigenous Australians, 2014, p. vi, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129548051 (5 January 2015).

[9]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 36, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[10]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance for Indigenous Australians, 2014, p. vi, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129548051 (5 January 2015).

[11]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 52, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[12]      Reform of Federation White Paper, Roles and Responsibilities in Housing and Homelessness, Issues Paper, 2 December 2014, p. 15, https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/issues-paper/Housing_and_Homelessness_Issues_Paper.pdf (accessed 6 March 2015).

[13]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 51, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[14]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance for Indigenous Australians, 2014, p. 10, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129548051 (5 January 2015).

[15]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance for Indigenous Australians, 2014, p. 10, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129548051 (5 January 2015).

[16]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance for Indigenous Australians, 2014, p. 10, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129548051 (5 January 2015).

[17]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance for Indigenous Australians, 2014, p. 10, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129548051 (5 January 2015).

[18]      Submission 127, p. [1].

[19]      Submission 127, p. [1]

[20]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2 p. 596, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[21]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2 p. 597, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[22]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2 p. 604, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[23]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2, p. 616, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[24]      Submission 198, p. 33.

[25]      Submission 198, p. 33.

[26]      Submission 198, p. 33.

[27]      Submission 198, p. 32.

[28]      Submission 198, p. 33.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57.

[30]      Statement by the Honourable Jenny Macklin MP, Minister for Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, 'Continued Investment to Close the Gap', Indigenous Budget Statement 2013–14, 14 May 2013, p. 2, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2013/indigenous_budget_statement_2013-14_0.pdf (accessed 20 April 2015).

[31]      Reform of Federation White Paper, Roles and Responsibilities in Housing and Homelessness, Issues Paper, 2 December 2014, p. 26, https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/issues-paper/Housing_and_Homelessness_Issues_Paper.pdf (accessed 6 March 2015).

[32]      Submission 198, pp. 31–32.

[33]      Submission 198, pp. 32–33.

[34]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 45, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[35]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 44, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[36]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 75, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[37]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 45, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[38]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services, 2015, Produced by Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, p. G.13, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf (accessed 2 February 2015).

[39]      Reform of Federation White Paper, Roles and Responsibilities in Housing and Homelessness, Issues Paper, 2 December 2014, p. 19, https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/issues-paper/Housing_and_Homelessness_Issues_Paper.pdf (accessed 6 March 2015).

[40]      Submission 117, p. [2].

[41]      Submission 117, p. [2].

[42]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 75, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[43]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services , 2015, Produced by Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, p. G.15, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf (accessed 2 February 2015).

[44]      Submission 127, p. [3].

[45]      Submission 127, p. [4].

[46]      Submission 127, p. [5].

[47]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2, p. 596, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

Chapter 18 - Homelessness

[1]        National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability Issues 2012–13, p. xi, http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Publications%20and%20Media/Publications/2013/NHSC/Downloads/PDF/housing_supply_affordability_report_2012-13.ashx (accessed 22 August 2014).

[2]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Information paper—a statistical definition of homelessness, no. 4922.0, 2012, p. 7,   http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/B4B1A5BC17CEDBC9CA257A6E00186823/$File/49220_2012.pdf (accessed 20 January 2015).

[3]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Information paper—a statistical definition of homelessness, no. 4922.0, 2012, p. 7,   http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/B4B1A5BC17CEDBC9CA257A6E00186823/$File/49220_2012.pdf (accessed 20 January 2015).

[4]        National Housing Supply Council, Housing Supply and Affordability—Key indicators, 2012, p. 61, http://www.treasury.gov.au/PublicationsAndMedia/Publications/2012/NHSC (accessed 4 March 2015).

[5]        Submission 198, p. 33.

[6]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Summary of Findings, Introduction, 2049.0—Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2011 http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/2049.0Main%20Features22011 (accessed 23 December 2014).

[7]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Summary of Findings, Introduction, 2049.0—Census of Population and Housing: Estimating homelessness, 2011 http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/2049.0Main%20Features22011 (accessed 23 December 2014).

[8]        See also, Mr Patrick Flynn, Mission Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 27.

[9]        Submission 214, p. 18.

[10]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 13.

[11]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2 p. 596, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[12]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 26.

[13]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 29.

[14]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 34.

[15]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 28.

[16]      Submission 174, p. 13.

[17]      Submission 38, p. 6.

[18]      Submission 50, p. 8.

[19]      Submission 50, p. 8.

[20]      Submission 117, p. [1].

[21]      See for example, Ms Kerrie Young, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 25.

[22]      Submission 214.

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 30.

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 23.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 22.

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 28.

[27]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 29.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 32.

[29]      Submission 214, p. 10.

[30]      Centrelink website, 'Community Engagement Officers', http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/community-engagement-officers (accessed 10 March 2015).

[31]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2014, p. 2.

[32]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, pp. 1–2.

[33]      Submission 166, p. [7].

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 49. See also Submission 166.

[35]      Submission 51, p. [1].

[36]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 24.

[37]      Submission 166, p. [6].

[38]      See Submission 166, p. [7].

[39]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp. 48–49.

[40]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 49.

[41]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 50.

[42]      Submission 166, p. [7].

[43]      Submission 166, p. [7].

[44]      Abraham Chigavazira, Guy Johnson, Julie Moschion, Rosanna Scutella, Yi-Ping Tseng and Mark Wooden, The Journey Home Research, No. 5, September 2014, Findings from Waves 1 to 5: Special Topics, University of Melbourne, p. 2,  http://melbourneinstitute.com/journeys_home/assets/pubs/2014/Scutella%20et%20al%20Journeys%20Home%20Research%20Report%20W5.pdf (accessed 10 March 2015).

[45]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 12.

[46]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[47]      Submission 191, p. 4.

[48]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 11–12.

[49]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 12.

[50]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22.

[51]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 13.

[52]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 12.

[53]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[54]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 11.

[55]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[56]      Submission 214, p. 6.

[57]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 25. MICAH is a member of the community services sector in Brisbane.

[58]      Submission 58, p. 3.

[59]      Submission 78, p. 18.

[60]      Submission 165, p. 3.

[61]      Abraham Chigavazira, Guy Johnson, Julie Moschion, Rosanna Scutella, Yi-Ping Tseng and Mark Wooden,  The Journey Home Research, No. 5, September 2014, Findings from Waves 1 to 5: Special Topics, University of Melbourne, p. 50, http://melbourneinstitute.com/journeys_home/assets/pubs/2014/Scutella%20et%20al%20Journeys%20Home%20Research%20Report%20W5.pdf (accessed 10 March 2015). 

[62]      Based in Parramatta, MISHA follows on from The Michael Project—a three-year initiative that aimed to improve the social inclusion of homeless men through intensive case management and wrap-around support services. See Mission Australia, 'Michael's Intensive Supported Housing Accord (MISHA)', https://www.missionaustralia.com.au/what-we-do-to-help-new/homelessness/improving-services/misha (accessed 18 February 2015).

[63]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 26.

[64]      Submission 35, p. 2.

[65]      Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, The Road Home: A National Approach to Reducing Homelessness, 2008, p. viii, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/housing-support/programmes-services/homelessness/the-road-home-the-australian-government-white-paper-on-homelessness (accessed 10 March 2015).

[66]      Australian National Audit Office, Implementation of the National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness, Audit Report No. 312 2012–13, Performance Audit, 2013, p. 13, http://www.anao.gov.au/Publications/Audit-Reports/2012-2013/Implementation-of-the-National-Partnership-Agreement-on-Homelessness (accessed 10 March 2015).

[67]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 78, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[68]      Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 33.

[69]      Submission 198, p. 33.

[70]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 2.

[71]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 2.

[72]      Submission 198, p. 33.

[73]      The Hon Kevin Andrews, Minister for Social Services, Homeless Funding', 30 March 2014, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15296/homelessness-funding/ (accessed 12 January 2015) and Submission 198, p. 33.

[74]      The Hon Kevin Andrews, Minister for Social Services, Media Release, 'National support for homelessness agreement', 15 July 2014, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15257/national-support-for-homelessness-agreement/ (accessed 10 March 2015).

[75]      The Hon Kevin Andrews MP, Media Release, 'National homelessness agreement on track', 8 July 2014, http://kevinandrews.com.au/latest-news/2014/07/08/national-homelessness-agreement-track/ (accessed 19 March 2015).

[76]      Australian National Audit Office, Audit Report No.31 2012–13, Performance Audit Implementation of the National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, p. 16, http://www.anao.gov.au/~/media/Files/Audit%20Reports/2012%202013/Audit%20Report%2031/Audit%20Report%20No%2031.PDF (accessed 10 March 2015).

[77]      Australian National Audit Office, Audit Report No.31 2012–13, Performance Audit Implementation of the National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, p. 17, http://www.anao.gov.au/~/media/Files/Audit%20Reports/2012%202013/Audit%20Report%2031/Audit%20Report%20No%2031.PDF (accessed 10 March 2015).

[78]      Australian National Audit Office, Audit Report No.31 2012–13, Performance Audit, Implementation of the National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, p, 19, http://www.anao.gov.au/~/media/Files/Audit%20Reports/2012%202013/Audit%20Report%2031/Audit%20Report%20No%2031.PDF (accessed 10 March 2015).

[79]      Towards Responsible Government, Appendix to the Report of the, National Commission of Audit, Volume 2, p. 72, http://www.ncoa.gov.au/report/index.html (accessed 10 March 2015).

[80]      AnglicareWA, Submission 161, p. 10.

[81]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 48.

[82]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 48.

[83]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 13.

[84]      The Hon Scott Morrison MP, Minister for Social Services, Media Release, 'Coalition reverses Labor’s funding cuts on homelessness with $230 million commitment prioritising victims of domestic violence', 23 March 2015, http://scottmorrison.dss.gov.au/media-releases/coalition-reverses-labor-s-funding-cuts-on-homelessness-with-230-million-commitment-prioritising-victims-of-domestic-violence (accessed 25 March 2015).

[85]      The Hon Mark Butler, '$159 million for national homelessness agreement', Media Release, 16 March 2013 and '$320 million deal of homelessness services, 28 March 2013. 

[86]      Media Release by Hon Kevin Andrews MP, 'Coalition Government to renew homelessness funding', 30 March 2014, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15200/coalition-government-to-renew-homelessness-funding/ (accessed 10 April 2015).

[87]      Department of Social Services Budget Statements 2014–2015, p. 132, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2014/2014-2015_dss_pbs.pdf (accessed 10 March 2015).

[88]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 16.

[89]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 16.

[90]      Ms Glenda Stevens, Homelessness Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 1.

[91]      Mr Pisarski, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, pp. 5–6. See also Mr Palmer, Department of Social Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 16.

[92]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 11.

[93]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 3.

[94]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, pp. 1–2.

[95]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 11.

[96]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 8.

[97]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 25.

[98]      High Court of Australia, Ronald Williams v The Commonwealth of Australia & Ors, [2012] HCA 23, 20 June 2012, http://www.hcourt.gov.au/assets/publications/judgment-summaries/2012/hca23-2012-06-20.pdf (accessed 2 April 2015).

[99]      The Hon Scott Morrison MP, Minister for Social Services, 'Department of Social Services Grant Funding Offers', 24 December 2014 http://scottmorrison.dss.gov.au/media-releases/1 (accessed 24 March 2015).

[100]    The Hon Scott Morrison MP, Minister for Social Services, 'Morrison to fill critical front line service gaps in Social Service grants', 30 January 2015, http://scottmorrison.dss.gov.au/media-releases/morrison-to-fill-critical-front-line-service-gaps-in-social-service-grants (accessed 24 March 2015).

[101]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 16.

[102]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 17.

[103]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 20.

Chapter 19 - National Affordable Housing Agreement

[1]        Submission 198, p. 27.

[2]        Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015: Housing and homelessness, Volume G, produced by the Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, p. G.2, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf

[3]        Council of Australian Governments, National Affordable Housing Agreement, p. 3, http://www.federalfinancialrelations.gov.au/content/national_agreements.aspx (accessed 18 March 2015).

[4]        Ms Hand, Department of Social Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 2.

[5]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 78, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[6]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 2.

[7]        Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015: Housing and homelessness, Volume G, produced by the Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, pp. G.5–6, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf

[8]        Portfolio Budget Statements 2014–15, Budget Related Paper No. 1.5A, Social Services Portfolio, p. 129, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2014/2014-2015_dss_pbs.pdf (accessed 18 March 2015).

[9]        Submission 198, p. 33 and Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 2.

[10]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 28.

[11]      Submission 54, p. 4.

[12]      Submission 78, p. 20.

[13]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 26.

[14]      Submission 179, p. 3.

[15]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[16]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[17]      Submission 37, p. 4.

[18]      Ms Hand and Mr Palmer, Department of Social Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 15.

[19]      Submission 48, p. 19.

[20]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 45.

[21]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 53.

[22]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 20.

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 20.

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 64.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 64.

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[27]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 38.

[28]      Dr Milligan was involved in policy negotiations for many years around the Commonwealth State Housing Agreement, which preceded the National Affordable Housing Agreement. Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp 37–38.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 38.

[30]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 38.

[31]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 45.

[32]      Submission 166, p. [2].

[33]      Submission 174, p. 18.

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[35]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[36]      Submission 78, p. 27.

[37]      Ms Croce, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[38]      Submission 197, p. 5.

[39]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 49.

[40]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 48. Also refer to paragraphs 15.64–15.66, 17.30–17.31, 18.61–18.71 and 22.40 of this report.

[41]      Submission 198, p. 33.

[42]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 15.

[43]      Submission 198, p. 31.

Chapter 20 - National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS)

[1]        Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 31.

[2]        Portfolio Budget Statements 2014–15, Budget Related Paper No. 1.5A, Social Services Portfolio, p. 133, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2014/2014-2015_dss_pbs.pdf (accessed 18 March 2015).

[3]        Submission 198, p. 31 and Mr Somerville, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 57.

[4]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 15.

[5]        Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 17.

[6]        Department of Social Services, National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS), NRAS Incentive (indexation) https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/04_2014/nras_incentive_indexation_factsheet_-_dss_template_-_indexation_update_april_2014_2.pdf (accessed 23 February 2015) and Realestate, 'What is NRAS: the National Rental Affordability Scheme', http://www.realestate.com.au/blog/what-is-the-national-rental-affordability-scheme/ (accessed 23 February 2015).

[7]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[8]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[9]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[10]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[11]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[12]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[13]      There are too many submitters that supported the continuation of NRAS to list here but see for example, City of Perth, Submission 43, pp. 1–2; National Shelter, Submission 78, pp. 12–13; Tenants Union of Victoria, Submission 119, pp. 9–10; Shelter WA, Submission 174, p. 2.

[14]      Mr Flynn, Mission Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 26.

[15]      Submission 190, p. 14. See also Grace Mutual Limited, Submission 1; Neumann and Turnour Lawyers, Submission 20, p. 3.

[16]      Submission 191, p. 4.

[17]      Submission 74, p. 45.

[18]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 36.

[19]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[20]      Submission 152, p. 9.

[21]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 43.

[22]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 31.

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 39.

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 39.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 39.

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[27]      Submission 43, pp. 1–2.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 14.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 14.

[30]      Submission 99, p. 1.

[31]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 15.

[32]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 15.

[33]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57. See also Ms Milne, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 21.

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 52.

[35]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 52.

[36]      Submission 171, pp. 2, 5–7 and 14.

[37]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 14.

[38]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[39]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 52.

[40]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 31.

[41]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 28–29.

[42]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 29.

[43]      Mr David Somerville, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[44]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 42.

[45]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[46]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[47]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 55.

[48]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[49]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 42.

[50]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 42.

[51]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 42.

[52]      Submission 99, p. 1.

[53]      Submission 31, p. 7.

[54]      Submission 54, pp. 4–5.

[55]      Submission 55, p. 1.

[56]      Submission 55, p. 1.

[57]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57.

[58]      Submission 54, p. 4.

[59]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 30.

[60]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 61.

[61]      Submission 212, pp. 5, 8.

[62]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 30.

[63]      Submission 1, p. 1.

[64]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 43.

[65]      Submission 161, p. 9.

[66]      Submission 212, p. 5.

[67]      Submission 52, p. 3.

[68]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 44.

[69]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57.

[70]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57.

[71]      Submission 41, p. 6.

[72]      Submission 41, pp. 6–7.

[73]      Submission 41, pp. 6–7.

[74]      Submission 24, p. 9.

[75]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 6.

[76]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 29.

[77]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 3.

[78]      Submission 119, p. 10.

[79]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 4.

[80]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 4.

[81]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, pp. 5, 6–7. See also Mr Liam Foley, Urban Development Institute of Australia (National), Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 69.

[82]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 5.

[83]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 6.

[84]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 55.

[85]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 69.

[86]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 27.

[87]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[88]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 57.

[89]      Submission 62, executive summary.

[90]      Submission 82, p. 7.

[91]      See, for example, Australian Financial Review 'Affordable rents review', 9 March 2013.

[92]      See, for example, The Australian, 'Unlike Labor, one state closed rental loophole', 13 March 2014 and Transcript, The Hon. Kevin Andrews MP, Minister for Social Services, Bush Telegraph, ABC National, 20 May 2014, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15285/bush-telegraph-abc-radio-national-20-may-2014/ (accessed 5 January 2015).

[93]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 8.

[94]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 9.

[95]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 11.

[96]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 30.

[97]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 29.

[98]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 29.

[99]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 55.

[100]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 55.

[101]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 55.

[102]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 56.

[103]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 56.

[104]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[105]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[106]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[107]    Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 15.

[108]    Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 23.

Chapter 21 - NRAS, review of housing and homelessness and the Federation White Paper

[1]        The Hon Kevin Andrews, Minister for Social Services, Media Release, 'Round 5 of flawed National Rental Affordability Scheme not proceeding', 13 May 2014, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15215/round-5-of-flawed-national-rental-affordability-scheme-not-proceeding/ (accessed 27 August 2014).

[2]        Department of Social Services, Portfolio Budget Statement, p. 23, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2014/2014-2015_dss_pbs.pdf (accessed 18 March 2015).

[3]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 10.

[4]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 10.

[5]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 10.

[6]        Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 22.

[7]        Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 23.

[8]        Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 23.

[9]        Proof Committee Hansard, 11 February 2015, p. 24.

[10]      Department of Social Services, 'Cautionary Note to Developers, Investors and Charitable Organisations', October 2014, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/housing-support/programmes-services/national-rental-affordability-scheme/cautionary-note-to-developers-investors-and-charitable-organisations (accessed 12 January 2015).

[11]      Department of Social Services, 'Cautionary Note to Developers, Investors and Charitable Organisations', October 2014, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/housing-support/programmes-services/national-rental-affordability-scheme/cautionary-note-to-developers-investors-and-charitable-organisations (accessed 12 January 2015).

[12]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 56.

[13]      Portfolio Budget Statements 2014–15, Budget Related Paper No. 1.5A, Social Services Portfolio, p. 129, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2014/2014-2015_dss_pbs.pdf (accessed 18 March 2015).

[14]      Submission 198, p. 31.

[15]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 4.

[16]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 3.

[17]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 3.

[18]      Media Release by Hon Kevin Andrews MP, 'Coalition Committed to Reducing Homelessness', 4 August 2014, http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15242/coalition-committed-to-reducing-homelessness/ (accessed 12 January 2015).

[19]      Senate Legislation Committee on Community Affairs, Estimates Hansard, 23 October 2014, p. 163.

[20]      Senate Legislation Committee on Community Affairs, Estimates Hansard, 23 October 2014, p. 163.

[21]      Senate Legislation Committee on Community Affairs, Estimates Hansard, 23 October 2014, p. 159.

[22]      ANAO, Audits in progress, 'Administration of the National Rental Affordability Scheme', http://www.anao.gov.au/Publications/Audits-in-Progress?portfolio=1104C9D81F57435393DBCC1681E1B62B (accessed 27 March 2015).

[23]      Reform of the Federation, White Paper, Roles and Responsibilities in Housing and Homelessness, Issues Paper, 2 December 2014, p. 3, https://federation.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/issues-paper/Housing_and_Homelessness_Issues_Paper.pdf (accessed 2 March 2015).

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[27]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 15.

[30]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 15.

[31]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 20.

[32]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22.

[33]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 38–39.

[35]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[36]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[37]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 39.

[38]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 42.

[39]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 47.

[40]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 47.

[41]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 55.

[42]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 56.

[43]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 52.

[44]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 29.

[45]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 13.

[46]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[47]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 29.

[48]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 13.

[49]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp. 40–41.

[50]      See, for example, Mr Flynn, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 26. See also Grace Mutual Limited, Submission 1; Neumann and Turnour Lawyers, Submission 20; National Affordable Housing Consortium, Submission 31, p. 6; and Women's Housing Company, Submission 52, p. 2.

[51]      Submission 49, p. 3.

[52]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 38.

[53]      Submission 99, p. 1.

[54]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 57. See also Ms Milne, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 21.

[55]      Submission 212, pp. 3, 5.

[56]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 57.

[57]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 67.

[58]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 69.

[59]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[60]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[61]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[62]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 68.

[63]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 69.

[64]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 38.

[65]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 49.

[66]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 49.

[67]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 47.

[68]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[69]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[70]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 54.

[71]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 55.

[72]      Mr Myers, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 57.

[73]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 56.

[74]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 56.

[75]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 57.

[76]      Submission 175, p. 3.

[77]      Standing Committee on Community Affairs, National Rental Affordability Scheme Bill 2008 [Provisions]: National Rental Affordability Scheme (Consequential Amendments) Bill 2008 [Provisions], November 2008.

[78]      Standing Committee on Community Affairs, National Rental Affordability Scheme Bill 2008 [Provisions]: National Rental Affordability Scheme (Consequential Amendments) Bill 2008 [Provisions], November 2008, pp. 6–7.

[79]      Submission 171, pp. 17–18.

[80]      Submission 171, p. 18.

[81]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[82]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[83]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 18.

[84]      See the Community Housing Federation of Australia, Submission 171, p. 18.

[85]      Submission 80, p. 3. Also see Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 18.

[86]      Submission 20, p. 8.

Chapter 22 - Commonwealth Rent Assistance

[1]        Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2 p. 411, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[2]        See Ms Phillips, Council of Social Service, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[3]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. 6, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[4]        See, for example, Department of Social Services, Submission 198, p. 31 and Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 2. The Appendix to Volume 2 of the Report of the National Commission of Audit, Towards Responsible Government, February 2014, p. 71, stated that CRA is provided to over a million renters at a cost of about $3.6 billion per year. http://www.ncoa.gov.au/report/index.html (accessed 27 March 2015).

The Hon Scott Morrison MP, Minister for Social Services, 'Answer to Question Without Notice—National Partnership Agreement on Homelessness', 24 March 2015 http://scottmorrison.dss.gov.au/speeches/answer-to-question-without-notice-national-partnership-agreement-on-homelessness (accessed 3 April 2015).

[5]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Housing assistance in Australia 2014, Canberra, 2014, p. ix, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129549033 (accessed 18 January 2015).

[6]        Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services, 2015, Produced by Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, p. G.7, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf (accessed 2 February 2015).

[7]        Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services, 2015, Produced by Productivity Commission for the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, p. G.7, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/housing-and-homelessness/download-the-volume/rogs-2015-volumeg-housing-and-homelessness.pdf (accessed 2 February 2015).

[8]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[9]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[10]      Dr Jeff Harmer, Report Pension Review Report, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, 27 February 2009, p. 52, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/pensionreviewreport.pdf  (accessed 14 January 2015).

[11]      Dr Jeff Harmer Report Pension Review Report, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, 27 February 2009, p. 93, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/pensionreviewreport.pdf  (accessed 14 January 2015).

[12]      Dr Jeff Harmer Report Pension Review Report, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, 27 February 2009, p. 93, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/pensionreviewreport.pdf  (accessed 14 January 2015).

[13]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2, p. 413, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[14]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2, p. 491, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[15]      Australia’s future tax system, Report to the Treasurer, December 2009, Part Two, Detailed analysis, volume 2, p. 491, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/final_report_part_2/AFTS_Final_Report_Part_2_Vol_2_Consolidated.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[16]      Towards Responsible Government, Appendix to the Report of the National Commission of Audit, Volume 2, p. 73, http://www.ncoa.gov.au/report/docs/appendix_volume%202.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[17]      Towards Responsible Government, Appendix to the Report of the National Commission of Audit, Volume 2, p. 73, http://www.ncoa.gov.au/report/docs/appendix_volume%202.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).  

[18]      A new System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, pp. 9, 68–71, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[19]      A new System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 31, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[20]      A new System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 69, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[21]      A new System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 69, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015)

[22]      A new System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 71, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[23]      A new System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes, Interim Report of the Reference Group on Welfare Reform to the Minister for Social Services, Full Report, June 2014, p. 71, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/06_2014/dss001_14_full_report_27_june_tagged.pdf (accessed 19 January 2015).

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 56.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2015, p. 29.

[26]      Submission 191, p. 3.

[27]      Submission 191, p. 7.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 25.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 34. It should be noted that the former Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs in an answer to a question on notice stated that 'The annual cost of increasing the maximum rate of RA by $15 per week is $596 million. The annual cost of increasing the maximum rate of RA by $25 per week is $932 million. These costings are indicative only, as they are based on the RA population at only one point in time'. Senate Community Affairs Committee, answers to Estimates questions on notice Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs Portfolio, 2011-12 Budget Estimates Hearings, Question No: 246.

[30]      Mr O'Brien, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 43.

[31]      Submission 119, p. 4 and Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 42.

[32]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 39. For details on the call for increasing CRA by 30 per cent see Australians for Affordable Housing, Easing Housing Stress Budget Statement 2012–13, p. 6, http://housingstressed.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/AAH_12_Memo_Federal-Budget-Statement-final_SD_060212.pdf (accessed 10 April 2015).

[33]      Australians for Affordable Housing, Easing Housing Stress Budget Statement 2012–13, p. 6, http://housingstressed.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/AAH_12_Memo_Federal-Budget-Statement-final_SD_060212.pdf (accessed 10 April 2015).

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 36.

[35]      Submission 82, p. 5.

[36]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 10.

[37]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 31.

[38]      Mr Patrick Flynn, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[39]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 20.

[40]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 30.

[41]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 30.

[42]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 43.

[43]      Submission 23, pp. 2–3.

[44]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 33.

[45]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 23.

[46]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 23–24.

[47]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 23–24.

[48]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 61.

[49]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 59.

[50]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 56.

[51]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 59.

[52]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 27.

[53]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 35.

[54]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 35.

[55]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[56]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[57]      See for example, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[58]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 33.

[59]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 33.

[60]      For Mr Schrapel's reference to the 20,000 public houses see paragraph 14.10.

[61]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 33.

[62]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 30.

[63]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp. 9–10.

[64]      Proof Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 6.

[65]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, pp. 11–12.

[66]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 16.

[67]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[68]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 31.

[69]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

                                  Chapter 23                           - Investment in affordable housing

[1]        See, for example, National Foundation for Australian Women ACT, Submission 38, p. 4.

[2]        See for example, Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17, pp. 8 and 12.

[3]        Vivienne Milligan, Judith Yates, Ilan Wiesel and Hal Pawson with Carrie Hamilton, Financing rental housing through institutional investment Volume 1: outcomes from an Investigative Panel, for the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute at University of New South Wales, March 2013, p. 2. http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download.asp?ContentID=ahuri_71016_fr1&redirect=true (accessed 12 January 2015).
The Investigative Panel comprised 'hand-picked experts from the banking and financial investment sectors, affordable housing providers (for-profit and not-for-profit) and affordable housing industry specialists, together with nominated senior officials of interested Commonwealth and state government agencies' (p. 9).

[4]        Mr Mills, City of Melbourne, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 30.

[5]        See Dr Julie Lawson and Professor Mike Berry, Submission 24, p. 10; Professor Frank Stilwell, Submission 25, pp. 4–5.

[6]        Queensland Government, Submission 215, p. 4.

[7]        Submission 39, p. 8.

[8]        Submission 39, p. 8.

[9]        Submission 191, p. 4.

[10]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 36.

[11]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 53–54.

[12]      Submission 78, p. 23.

[13]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 40.

[14]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, pp. 34, 44.

[15]      Submission 24, p. 9.

[16]      Submission 24, p. 8.

[17]      Submission 24, p. 8.

[18]      Vivienne Milligan, Judith Yates, Ilan Wiesel and Hal Pawson with Carrie Hamilton, Financing rental housing through institutional investment Volume 1: outcomes from an Investigative Panel, for the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute at University of New South Wales, March 2013, p. 2, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download.asp?ContentID=ahuri_71016_fr1&redirect=true (accessed 12 January 2015).

[19]      Christopher Kent, 'Recent Developments in the Australian Housing Market' Reserve Bank of Australia, Address to the Australian Institute of Building, 14 March 2013, http://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2013/sp-ag-140313.html (accessed 12 January 2015).

[20]      Submission 198, p. 29.

[21]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 22.

[22]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 4.

[23]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 4.

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 60.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 60.

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 60.

[27]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, pp. 5–6.

[28]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 60.

[29]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 62.

[30]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 50.

[31]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 17.

[32]      Vivienne Milligan, Judith Yates, Ilan Wiesel and Hal Pawson with Carrie Hamilton, Financing rental housing through institutional investment Volume 1: outcomes from an Investigative Panel, for the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute at University of New South Wales, March 2013, p. 3, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download.asp?ContentID=ahuri_71016_fr1&redirect=true (accessed 12 January 2015).

[33]      Submission 166, pp. [5–6].

[34]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 17.

[35]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 35.

[36]      Submission 24, p. 19.

[37]      Submission 24, p. 19.

[38]      Senate Economics Committee, Investing for good: the development of a capital market for the not-for-profit sector in Australia, November 2011, p. 156, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Economics/Completed%20inquiries/2010-13/capitalmarket2011/index (accessed 1 April 2015).

[39]      Government Response, Senate Economics References Committee Report—Investing for good: the development of a capital market for the not-for-profit sector in Australia, June 2012, p. 9, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Economics/Completed%20inquiries/2010-13/capitalmarket2011/index (accessed 24 February 2015).

[40]      Submission 93, p. 29.

[41]      Julie Lawson, Vivienne Milligan and Judith Yates, Housing Supply Bonds—a suitable instrument to channel investment towards affordable housing in Australia?, AHURI Final Report No. 188, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT Research Centre UNSW-UWS Research Centre, May 2012, p. 63, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download/ahuri_30652_fr (accessed 12 January 2015).

[42]      Julie Lawson, Vivienne Milligan and Judith Yates, Housing Supply Bonds—a suitable instrument to channel investment towards affordable housing in Australia?, p. 64.

[43]      Julie Lawson, Vivienne Milligan and Judith Yates, Housing Supply Bonds—a suitable instrument to channel investment towards affordable housing in Australia?, p. 5.

[44]      Julie Lawson, Vivienne Milligan and Judith Yates, Housing Supply Bonds—a suitable instrument to channel investment towards affordable housing in Australia?, AHURI Final Report No. 188, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT Research Centre UNSW-UWS Research Centre, May 2012, p. 5, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download/ahuri_30652_fr (accessed 12 January 2015)

[45]      Julie Lawson, Vivienne Milligan and Judith Yates, Housing Supply Bonds—a suitable instrument to channel investment towards affordable housing in Australia?, AHURI Final Report No. 188, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT Research Centre UNSW-UWS Research Centre, May 2012, p. 5.

[46]      Julie Lawson, Vivienne Milligan and Judith Yates, Housing Supply Bonds—a suitable instrument to channel investment towards affordable housing in Australia?, AHURI Final Report No. 188, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT Research Centre UNSW-UWS Research Centre, May 2012, p. 7.

[47]      Submission 24, p. 27.

[48]      Submission 175, p. 20.

[49]      Submission 175, p. 20.

[50]      Submission 56, p. 14.

[51]      Submission 69, p. 15.

[52]      Submission 69, p. 16.

[53]      Submission 86, pp. [8–9].

[54]      Submission 78, p. 22.

[55]      Vivienne Milligan, Judith Yates, Ilan Wiesel and Hal Pawson, Financing rental housing through institutional investment, Volume 1: outcomes from an Investigative Panel, AHURI Final Report No. 202, March 2013, p. 41, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download.asp?ContentID=ahuri_71016_fr1&redirect=true (accessed 12 January 2015).

[56]      Submission 78, pp. 22–23.

[57]      Submission 78, p. 23.

[58]      Submission 78, p. 11.

[59]      Julie Lawson, Vivienne Milligan and Judith Yates, Housing Supply Bonds—a suitable instrument to channel investment towards affordable housing in Australia?, AHURI Final Report No. 188, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT Research Centre UNSW-UWS Research Centre, May 2012, p. 6, http://www.ahuri.edu.au/publications/download/ahuri_30652_fr (accessed 12 January 2015).

[60]      See paragraphs 23.28–23.29.

Chapter 24 - Conclusion

[1]        See for example, Mr Langford, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[2]        Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 47.

[3]        Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 31.

[4]        Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 31.

[5]        Professor Andrew Beer, Director, Centre for Housing, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Adelaide, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 10.

[6]        Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 31.

[7]        Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 15.

[8]        Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[9]        See for example, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 31.

[10]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[11]      Dr Lucy Burgmann, Chief Executive Officer, NSW Federation of Housing Associations, Proof Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 11.

[12]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[13]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[14]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[15]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 40.

[16]      Proof Committee Hansard, 30 July 2014, p. 45.

[17]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 12.

[18]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 September 2014, p. 12.

[19]      Submission 175, p. 5.

[20]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 29.

[21]      Submission 24, p. 5.

[22]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 30.

[23]      Submission 24, p. 6.

[24]      Proof Committee Hansard, 10 September 2014, p. 33.

[25]      Aged and Community Services Australia had 'the housing crisis for older people' as a heading in its submission, Submission 111, p. 3 and Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 10.

[26]      Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 10.

[27]      See, for example, National Foundation for Australian Women ACT, Submission 38, p. 4.

[28]      See, for example, Mr Cameron Murray, Submission 17.

Additional comments by Senator Nick Xenophon

[1]        Mr John Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, HomeStart Finance, Proof Committee Hansard, 28 July 2014, p. 2

[2]        The Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1301.1 Year Book Australia 2012, Housing - Home Owners and Renters, available at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/1301.0Main+Features1292012, accessed 7 May 2015.

[3]        National Shelter, Housing Australia Fact Sheet, p. 1, available at http://www.shelternsw.org.au/publications-new/factsheets-new/226-housing-australia-factsheet/file, accessed 7 May 2015.

[4]        National Shelter, Housing Australia Fact Sheet, p. 1, available at http://www.shelternsw.org.au/publications-new/factsheets-new/226-housing-australia-factsheet/file, accessed 7 May 2015.