Out of home care

19 August 2015

© Commonwealth of Australia 2015
ISBN 978-1-76010-264-7

View the report as a single document - (PDF 2589KB)

View the report as separate downloadable parts:

Chapter 1 - Introduction (PDF 275KB)

Establishment of the inquiry
The committee's areas of interest
Structure of report
Conduct of the inquiry
Key concepts
Key out-of-home care trends and statistics
Figure 1.1 – Number of children in out-of-home care, 2004–05 to 2013–14
Figure 1.2 – Rate of children in out-of-home care per 1000 children aged 0‑17 years in the population across jurisdictions at 30 June 2014
Figure 1.3 – Number of children in out-of-home care by placement type, 2004–05 to 2013–14
Figure 1.4 – Proportion of children in main types of care across jurisdictions, 30 June 2013
Figure 1.5 – Proportion of children in out-of-home care at 30 June per 1000 children aged 0–17 in the population by Indigenous status, 2004–05 to 2013–14
Figure 1.6 – Rate of children in out-of-home care by Indigenous status across jurisdictions, per 1000 children in the population, 30 June 2014
Figure 1.7 – Proportion of children in out-of-home care by Indigenous status and jurisdiction, 30 June 2014
Figure 1.8 – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children placed in accordance with the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle by type of care, 30 June 2014
Figure 1.9 – Real expenditure on out-of-home care services, 2004–05 to 2013–14
Figure 1.10 – Real expenditure per child ($), out-of-home care services, 2013–14.

Chapter 2 - Out-of-home care frameworks (PDF 449KB)

Current out-of-home care framework
Table 2.1 – State and territory child protection inquiries
Table 2.2 – Out-of-home care legislative framework
Figure 2.1 – The child protection process in Australia
Figure 2.2 – Proportion of children on care and protection order at 30 June 2014 by type of order
Figure 2.3 – Proportion of children in out-of-home by type of order across jurisdictions, 30 June 2014
State and territory frameworks
Table 2.3 – State and territory independent bodies
Commonwealth framework
Figure 2.4 – A public health model for child protection
Table 2.4 – Out-of-home care standards and measures
Table 2.5 – Available data on measures for National Standards for out-of-home care

Chapter 3 - Drivers for out-of-home care trends (PDF 220KB)

Reasons children enter out-of-home care
Figure 3.1 – Percentage of children who were subject to a substantiation of neglect by jurisdiction and Indigenous status
Children remaining longer in care
Figure 3.2 – Number of child protection notifications, investigations and substantiations, 2008-09 to 2012-13
Figure 3.3 – Percentage of children by length of time in continuous placement, 2009–2013.
Social disadvantage
Systemic factors

Chapter 4 - Outcomes for children and young people in out-of-home care (PDF 261KB)

Safety and stability
Participation in decision making and planning
Access to health and education
Connection with family
Transition from care

Chapter 5 - Support for families (PDF 338KB)

Building safe and resilient families
Figure 5.1 – Real expenditure on child protection services, by type of service, 2013-14
Figure 5.2 – Proportion of real expenditure on child protection services by jurisdiction, 2013/14
Support for families with children in care

Chapter 6 - Out-of-home care models and supports (PDF 309KB)

Types of care
Table 6.1 – Children in out-of-home care, by type of placement, states and territories, 30 June 2013
Table 6.2 – Proportion of children in main types of care, 30 June 2013
Figure 6.1 – Proportion of real expenditure on residential and non-residential care, 2013/14
Figure 6.2 – Estimated real expenditure per child for residential and non-residential out-of-home care services, 2013/14
Relative/kinship care
Table 6.3 – Ongoing training support for relative/kinship carers
Foster care
Residential care
Cross-jurisdictional issues
Table 6.4 – Relative/kinship and foster carer allowances
Table 6.5 – Role of non-government sector in delivering out-of-home care services across types of care

Chapter 7 - Permanent models of care (PDF 223KB)

Permanent care options
Table 7.1 – Permanent care arrangements across selected jurisdictions
Figure 7.1 – Number of known carer adoptions across jurisdictions 1999‑2000 to 2013-14

Chapter 8 - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities (PDF 260KB)

Supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families
Empowering Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
Table 8.1 – Role of Aboriginal organisations across jurisdictions

Chapter 9 - Specific needs of particular groups (PDF 143KB)

Families and children with disability and complex health issues
Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds

Chapter 10 - Conclusion and recommendations (PDF 92KB)

National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009–2020
Support for children
Support for families
Support for carers

Additional Comments—Coalition Senators (PDF 44KB)
APPENDIX 1 - Submissions and additional information received by the Committee (PDF 80KB)
APPENDIX 2 - Public hearings (PDF 31KB)

Committee Secretariat contact:

Committee Secretary
Senate Standing Committees on Community Affairs
PO Box 6100
Parliament House
Canberra ACT 2600

Phone: +61 2 6277 3515