Sales, service and repair sectors
This chapter explores issues relating to the sales, service and repair
sectors. It also examines issues related to the training and the maintenance of
a workforce to support these sectors.
Demand for new vehicles and maintenance services has risen consistently
as an ever increasing number of vehicles traverse Australian roads. There are
over 17.6 million motor vehicles in Australia and the number of registered
motor vehicles is increasing by 2.5 per cent annually, or by around 450,000
vehicles per year.
Almost all of these vehicles require servicing and some vehicles may need
significant repairs or even replacement.
Notwithstanding the significant demand for services, many businesses
within the downstream automotive sectors are expected to face significant
adjustment, or complete restructure, in the short to medium term. According to
the MTAA, change is being driven by a number of factors including:
...globalisation, environmental protection policy, rapid
technology advances, workforce shortages and changing skill requirements, shifting
consumer behaviours and the maturation, or decline, of business life-cycles...
And these structural changes are resulting in the following effects
already being felt within the industry:
the decline of independent businesses, particularly within the
automotive repair sector;
the concentration of market power through the emergence of new
constant technological change; and
challenges with job roles, skills development and training.
While some of these developments are essentially the product of a
competitive marketplace, stakeholders have raised concerns that businesses in
some sectors are being adversely affected by the emergence of vertically
integrated and dominant firms that are exerting market power by dictating
But parts of the downstream automotive sector are facing different sets
of challenges and, as such, it is prudent to consider them separately.
The authorised dealer network generates revenue in excess of $72 billion
and employs over 66,000 people in more than 4,700 dealerships.
The Australian new car market is the most open and competitive in the
world where 67 brands offering over 400 models compete for annual sales of just
over 1.1 million new car sales. By comparison, the average
number of sales per brand is double in Canada, almost three times higher in the
United Kingdom and more than 15 times higher in the United States.
While this vast array of choice at competitive prices is of benefit to
consumers, it means that margins on new car sales in Australia are relatively
low. According the Mr Steven Moir from the Motor Trades Association of Western
The dealership we were at this morning is probably a $10
million to $15 million establishment. It did not have a lot of choice in
that investment. He [the franchisee] has to make that investment to keep that
franchise. Now, you would have to sell a lot of cars to get a return on that
As such, dealerships are increasingly reliant on all aspects of their
business, including servicing and car parts sales, to remain viable and get a
reasonable return on their investment.
And concerns were raised about the conduct of franchisors. Mr Moir submitted
There is also no doubt that there is harsh and what I would
consider unconscionable conduct being carried out now by franchisors. If I use
the motorcycle industry as an example: we had a meeting of motorcycle
franchisees last month. The majority of those people were asked to sign
two-year contracts, which required up to a million dollars' investment in their
franchises. This is simply not a viable business model going forward...
It is fair to say that that behaviour also transposes across
to automotive dealers.
While the introduction of the Franchising Code of Conduct earlier in
2015 was seen as a positive move in terms of increasing the transparency of
agreements and empowering both sides of the franchise equation, it is likely
that many franchising issues will continue to persist, particularly given the
Code of Conduct was not retrospective.
Given the consolidations and closures in the automotive and related
industries, the committee recommends that a close examination of the operation
of the Franchising Code of Conduct be undertaken as part of the next scheduled
review of the code, with particular regard to the automotive sectors, including
new cars, motorcycles, farm and industrial machinery and fuel retailing
Concerns about parallel vehicle imports and regulatory restrictions on
importation have been raised by various stakeholders.
The parallel vehicle import issue has been considered by a number of
inquiries over the last 5 years including the Productivity Commission's Review
of Australia's Automotive Manufacturing Industry, the Harper Competition
Policy Review and the Department of Infrastructure and Regional
Development's Review of the Motor Vehicle Standards Act.
The Productivity Commission (PC) recommended that restrictions on the
importation of second-hand vehicles be progressively relaxed with net benefits
to the community primarily arising from lower prices and/or improved product
specification (vehicle features) as well as increased product choice and
availability for vehicle buyers.
That said, the PC also recommended that any changes to the existing importation
not be implemented until local vehicle manufacturing ceases in
give reasonable advance notice to affected individuals and
be preceded by a regulatory compliance framework that includes
measures to provide appropriate levels of community safety, environmental
performance and consumer protection;
be limited to vehicles imported from countries that have design
standard which are consistent with those recognised by Australia; and
be initially limited to vehicles manufactured no earlier than
five years prior to the date of application for importation.
In addition, a recommendation was made to accelerate the harmonisation
of Australian Design Rules with the United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe (UNECE) Regulations and the mutual recognition of other appropriate
vehicle standards. Further, all Australian governments should justify any
existing and future jurisdictional deviations from UNECE Regulations through
comprehensive and independent cost benefit analysis.
Similarly, the Harper Review concluded that relaxing parallel import
restrictions would deliver net benefits to the community, provided appropriate
regulatory and compliance frameworks and consumer education programs were in
place. It endorsed the PC's recommendation that parallel import restrictions on
second-hand cars should be removed, subject to the transitional arrangements
outlined by the PC.
The Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development released a
discussion paper in September 2014 but has yet to release a final report.
The Assistant Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, the
Honourable Jamie Briggs, announced in April 2015 that:
Cabinet has now agreed to consider possible options to reduce
restrictions on the personal importation of new vehicles after further public
consultation is undertaken. The Australian Government is not inclined to take
the same approach with used vehicles.
Insurance Australia Group was supportive of the government's proposed
approach to increase competition in the new car market but noted that this
change could delay servicing and smash repair times for some vehicles if parts
supply and availability is limited.
A number of stakeholders opposed the relaxation of regulations
restricting the second-hand vehicle imports and questioned whether there would
actually be a net benefit to consumers and the economy from such reforms.
According to the Australian Fleet Lessors Association (AFLA):
Should the Government materially alter existing policy in the
importation of second-hand vehicles in Australia it has the potential to
produce profound and long lasting direct and flow-on impacts.
AFLA noted that the Australian car market is one of the most competitive
in the world and the benefits from relaxing second-hand imports restrictions
may be limited.
They questioned the assumption that prices for second-hand vehicles would be
lower and went further to suggest that, over the course of ownership, consumers
may be worse off if vehicles are compliant with Australian Design Rules but are
not fit for Australian conditions and require modification or repair.
The National Automotive Leasing and Salary Packaging Association
(NALSPA) submitted that the overall costs of owning an imported vehicle may be
higher in the long run:
...a consumer buying a personally-imported new vehicle or an
imported second-hand vehicle is likely to face a range of issues, including
potentially higher repair, maintenance and insurance costs, as well as
difficulties in determining whether such a vehicle is 'fit for purpose' for
The MTAA contended that:
...consumers who buy vehicles sourced directly from overseas
are often immune to the caution that is usually applied and available when
buying a car through a regulated environment which provides protection. Equally
on the promissory note of cheaper costs, consumers can be blind to the many
complex customs, transportation, finance, insurance, warranty and service and
repair support issues that may arise.
In response to the Productivity Commission's findings, Mr Robert Bryden
highlighted a number of downsides to the parallel importation scheme used in
New Zealand—the administration costs are significant, unscrupulous
operators can emerge, 'used' cars may undermine the legitimate new car market,
and new car prices may increase.
Given the concerns raised, the committee does not support the widespread
relaxation of restrictions and requirements on the parallel importation of new
and used vehicles. It considers that the potential detriment to consumer
welfare from relaxing these restrictions outweighs any potential benefits.
The committee notes the Australian Government's response to the Harper
Review not to relax parallel import restrictions on second-hand vehicles:
Following consultation as part of the review of the Motor
Vehicles Standards Act 1989 and having regard to consumer protection and
community safety concerns, the Government has decided not to proceed with
reducing parallel import restrictions on second‑hand cars at this time.
While the committee welcomes this announcement, it is not clear whether the
government is still considering relaxing the restrictions on the parallel
importation of new vehicles, where the same concern regarding consumer
However, the committee considers that there may be scope for reforming
the processes associated with the importation of specialist and enthusiast
vehicles. These issues are considered in chapter 5.
The committee recommends that the current restrictions and requirements
on the parallel importation of both new and used vehicles be maintained.
Servicing and repairs
The servicing and mechanical repair sector has been subject to a variety
of factors which are making it increasingly difficult for the traditional small
business service model to be sustainable. Some of the main factors contributing
to remaining viable include:
rising business operational and administrative costs;
the adoption of longer vehicle warranties and fixed price
servicing for virtually all vehicle brands (up to 7 years for some models);
technological change and difficulties for independent repairers
to access relevant information from manufacturers and dealerships; and
the requirement to invest in costly capital equipment and the
continual upgrading of skills to diagnose, service and repair ever changing and
complex vehicles and components.
Many of these issues affect independent repairers disproportionately and
these independent repairers make up a significant proportion of repairers in
The MTAA reports that small businesses have taken a variety of different
approaches to adapt to this new business environment:
Some independent mechanical repairers have decided it is
already too hard and have adapted to changing circumstances by specialising in
one or a few marques and making the necessary investment in the specific
training, tools, equipment and facilities to service those marques. Some have
already left the industry, while others are trying to survive by maintaining
current business models and practices, despite them becoming increasingly
Other industry participants are diversifying to remain viable. Mr David
Roscio, founder of KPM Motorsport, told the committee that:
We saw 10 years ago that we needed to move away from normal
car work, because that will be dead in the next 5 to 10 years. We moved into
tuning and supporting motorsport vehicles...
We have seen the writing on the wall, firstly, with the
workshop and now the aftermarket. So we have been diversifying in several
The 'one-stop-shop' model of service repair is under significant
pressure and the role for independent mechanical repairers to provide
competition and consumer choice is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.
Increasing specialisation is also having flow on effects for the workforce as
discussed later in the chapter.
And this situation is only going to intensify as technological
developments are increasingly incorporated in automotive applications:
As vehicle technologies evolve further and with the increased
adoption of hybrid and battery electric vehicles over time, it is likely that
there will be a greater segmentation of skills within the automotive industry,
with narrower and deeper specialisations in vehicle brands or technologies
becoming the norm.
The Commonwealth Consumer Affairs Advisory Council (CCAAC) has noted
...the viability of the independent repair sector is in the
interests of consumers, repairers and manufacturers.
It is likely that this may have significant implications for securing
servicing and mechanical repairs in regional and rural locations.
Access to information
Another emerging issue of concern for independent repairers, and
ultimately the consumer, is how can the information needed to service and
repair contemporary motor vehicles be reliably accessed and at what cost. The
MTAA reports that independent vehicle repairers (both mechanical and smash
repairers) are effectively prevented from accessing repair and servicing
information from motor vehicle manufacturers.
The committee notes that a review of this issue was undertaken by the CCAAC
in 2012. The review concluded that:
...the accessibility of repair information has the potential to
become a barrier to entry in this market going forward.
The CCAAC encouraged the industry to expedite the development of an
industry‑led outcome within a reasonable period of time that ensures
there is an avenue to reasonably access repair information.
The committee notes that the members of the Federal Chamber of
Automotive Industries (FCAI), the MTAA, the Australian Automobile Association, the
Australian Automotive Aftermarket Association (AAAA) and the Australian
Automotive Dealer Association (AADA) signed an Agreement to Access Vehicle
Service Repair Information (the Agreement) in December 2014.
The Agreement aims to provide a safeguard to consumers that service and repair
information is available in a timely manner to the repairer of their choice at
a fair and reasonable cost. The Agreement set a 12 month timeline to review
whether it has made a meaningful impact on the availability of repair and
In addition, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries released the Voluntary
Code of Practice—Access to Service and Repair Information for Motor Vehicles
(the Code) in February 2015. The objectives of this code include the provision
of an information pathway and a fair means of access to repair information that
may be used by parties outside the Authorised Dealer network. An initial review
of the Code must be conducted within 18 months of commencement.
Reflecting on the progress made, the MTAA submitted that:
Although there has been progress towards such an outcome,
there is a need for continual monitoring of the capacity of independent vehicle
repairers to have access (at reasonable cost) to vehicle manufacturing repair
and service information. Without such information, consumer choice will be
limited and independent business restricted to servicing and repairing old
The AAAA reported in September 2015 that only nine of the 68 car brands
sold in Australia were offering some level of data access. The AAAA has also
set up an online incident reporting portal to allow repairers to monitor how well
vehicle makers are meeting their obligations under the Agreement.
Given that the industry has worked together to develop a voluntary
solution, the committee considers it prudent to give both the Agreement and
Code a period of time to be implemented before a formal and independent
evaluation is undertaken. As such, it considers that CCAAC should undertake a
follow‑up review of access to repair and service information beginning no
later than three years after commencement of the Code.
It behoves industry to gather evidence of any systemic failing of the
Agreement and Code and to present these findings to the relevant authorities.
In the face of such evidence, a more timely review of these arrangements may be
warranted. The committee notes the work of the AAAA in setting up an online
incident reporting system, which helps to address this requirement.
The committee recommends that the government continues to work with
industry to ensure suitable access to manufacturer information by independent
automotive service and repair businesses. The committee notes the progress that
has been made through the Voluntary Code of Practice for Access to Service and
Repair Information for Motor Vehicles (the Code) and recommends that the
Commonwealth Consumer Affairs Advisory Council undertake a review of the Code
no later than three years after commencement.
Service and repair warranties
The issue of who is responsible for service and repair warranties was
raised by some stakeholders in submissions and during the committee's visit to
These concerns relate to the operation of Australian Consumer Law with
regard to which party bears responsibility when replacement parts fail. The
Engine Reconditioners Association of Victoria (ERA Victoria) submitted that:
...the current law actually disadvantages the consumer, and
helps the importers and suppliers avoid responsibility in regards to warranty
by placing the onus and expense back on the engine reconditioner.
Similar concerns were raised by the owner of an independent mechanical
service establishment who told the committee that consumers purchased parts
from a third party and when they asked his business to fit the part, it was his
business that was ultimately responsible if the part prematurely failed.
These two examples appear to be representative of a systemic issue with
how the Australian Consumer Law is applied to the automotive sector. The issue
was succinctly described by the ERA Victoria:
Cars or trucks are far from the simple item that can be
replaced with another from stock or returned and refunded in full...
Automotive warranty issues are complicated; they involve
complex manufactured goods within which even a small defect can cause failure.
And it is the repairers that are not getting fair treatment as consumers
and part suppliers are protected:
The overall result is that the repairer is actually taking on
the risk of ACL guarantee costs which should be borne by the replacement part
manufacturer/importer. Often the repairer does not contribute in any way to the
failure of the part yet bears much of the consequences and costs to rework the
job and ensure that the ACL protects the consumer.
The committee notes that a review of the Australian Consumer Law will
commence in 2016 and considers that this issue should be part of that review to
establish whether the law is operating in a way that unfairly disadvantages
automotive servicing and repair businesses.
A number of stakeholders indicated the difficulties facing the smash
repair industry, predominantly related to the market power of insurers,
vertical integration and the supply of 'safe' parts, and access to information
(as discussed above).
A number of participants highlighted the unconscionable conduct and
misuse of market power by some car insurers (which are effectively the
purchases of smash repair services on behalf of their customers). Mr Geoffrey
Gwilym, Executive Director of the Victorian Automobile Chamber of Commerce,
outlined how the car insurance market has become increasing concentrated:
If you went back 20 or 30 years there might have been 40
insurers in the market and there were relationships between insurers and
It looks and appears that we are heading towards an
environment of two or three dominant insurers in the market.
According to the MTAA, two powerful players effectively control 80 per
cent of the market. In addition, these insurers are vertically integrating
their activities by 'writing off' cars, harvesting their parts to supply the
repairers and then are also involved in running some repair shops.
As a result, the dominant insurers dictate the prices they are prepared
to pay for work, they can also effectively determine the availability of work
and the quality of the repairs allowed.
Mr Gregory Patten, Chief Executive Officer of the Motor Traders' Association of
New South Wales, summarised the situation:
There are large controlling and influential insurance
companies who now control the policy holders. They direct where the work goes
and they also formulate agreements with some repairers so that individuals
cannot compete in a fair and open marketplace to win work. We have found that
part of the arrangements that are now being put in place today...allows insurance
companies to set unrealistic repair rates. That encourages a lot of small
businesses to do work probably not at a professional and acceptable standard,
but they need to do this to keep their doors open to keep employing staff.
Of particular concern to the committee was the implication that the
safety of repairs was being compromised by the market power of insurers. In
this regard, Mr Patten provide some examples:
In the modern-day technology, the older types of technique of
stretching out chassis rails...with the new materials weakens the materials, and
they really need to be replaced. But to meet that dollar value of the repair
cost, a few repairers might carry out the older technologies and older methods
of repair. Therefore, once the vehicle is back on the road, those major
components do not have the strength in them anymore.
Similarly for repairs to door skins:
Instead of replacing a whole door shell that has an intrusion
bar in it, if the car has been hit on the side and it has intrusion bars, the
[repair] allowance might be to replace the door skin and not the actual
For its part, Insurance Australia Group submitted that:
Repairers conducting repair work authorised by IAG have
autonomy to order, procure and fit the necessary parts in accordance with the
above guidelines. There are some circumstances where IAG may specify to a
repairer that a particular type of part be fitted (for example, new genuine
parts in newer cars) before issuing an authority to proceed with repairs.
However, once IAG has assessed a proposed repairer quote and issued an
authority to proceed, the sourcing of the replacement parts specified and their
installation lies with the repairer.
The issues affecting the sustainability of the smash repair industry and
the relationships between repairers, insurers and car parts suppliers are
complex and very difficult to unbundle. The committee considers that a more
comprehensive and systemic review of the structure, conduct and performance of
the smash repairs market is warranted and should be undertaken as a matter of
The committee recommends that an independent inquiry into the smash repair
industry be undertaken to examine the relationships between insurers, parts
suppliers and smash repair businesses, and inform an appropriate policy
Automotive skills and training
A flexible and appropriately skilled workforce is an important contributor
to a well-functioning automotive industry. Continued investment in human
capital is essential to meet the demands of Australian consumers and the
requirements in keeping the national vehicle fleet moving.
But within the downstream automotive industry, there have been persistent
skill shortages for over a decade.
The Automotive Environmental Scan 2015, the most recent industry report
by Auto Skills Australia, concluded that:
A national shortage of approximately 16,359 people is
forecast as at October 2014. Vehicle mechanical and vehicle body trades account
for the bulk of this [shortage]...
And there is an expectation that these workforce shortages will deepen
as economic conditions improve. The MTAA reports that some of the key reasons
for the continued labour shortages include competition for workers from other
industries, the overall poor quality of many available candidates, and a lack
of practical hand skills or exposure to basic trade technologies in school
As a result, the main workforce challenges faced by the industry are:
attracting skilled workers;
achieving productivity improvements with the current staff and
adoption of higher skill levels across the workforce (including
facilitating the uptake of mature age workers and training.
As in other parts of the automotive industry, technological change will
profoundly reshape roles in the automotive workforce and the skills required by
workers to undertake these roles. At the heart of this change is the increasing
complexity and incorporation of new technologies in vehicles.
The increasing complexity of motor vehicles—as evidenced
through the merging of electronic and mechanical technologies, intelligent
transport systems, navigation, tracking and infotainment systems and the
embedded network of computerised controls that manage these technologies—is
placing greater demands on the skills base and workforce.
And as a result, automotive trade specialists will increasingly need to
be multidisciplinary—part mechanical engineer, part chemical engineer, part
structural engineer, part computer engineer, part mathematician, as well as
specialising in hydraulics, diagnostics, information technology, electrical
systems and other systems.
The rate of technological change means that it is difficult for even an
experienced technician to keep up with the required technological knowledge
without constant upskilling and training.
This has flow-on effects to the quality of the service that is delivered to the
A key problem area within the current skills base...is the
absence of effective practical skills in vehicle diagnostics. This involves
troubleshooting or fault-finding skills, along with the appropriate action to
repair the problem. Even with the use of diagnostic scan tools in modern
vehicle servicing, there is still a large element of misdiagnosis or failure to
adequately pinpoint the real source of particular vehicle problems. This
failure has led to a culture of parts replacement within the industry...
And such issues are only going to become more prevalent in the future as
the complexity of vehicles increases.
Formal training mechanisms
Given the technological change and new business models facing the
industry, it is imperative that skills development and formal training
mechanisms equip workers with the knowledge and practical skills to undertake
their roles. Some of this training is undertaken through the formal mechanisms,
some is achieved through vehicle manufacturers but the vast majority is
undertaken 'in-house' by employers directly.
Vocational education and training
The national vocational education and training (VET) system provides the
framework through which industry and registered training organisations
collectively deliver training and assess the competency of individuals. This
system provides the structure for training and assessment pathways that enable
the growth of organisations and individuals through vocational skills
However, the use of VET training systems remains divided with just over
half of all businesses choosing not to engage with the system. Consultations by
the MTAA with employers raised significant issues relating to the quality,
diversity and delivery of formal VET qualifications across Australia:
Employers have expressed concern over the general quality of
training, lack of delivery or training provider options in most regions, lack
of available technology and infrastructure with training providers, limited
collaboration across the industry and public providers, limitations on post‑trade
Concerns were also raised of a disconnect arising between the training
provided at some registered training organisations and what is required in the
But the structure and delivery of VET training in the automotive
industry is changing in some states. Mr Moir indicated that new delivery models
were being implemented:
In New South Wales and Western Australia we have moved away
from the traditional TAFE model of delivery to an employment based delivery
model. This has a couple of advantages. One is that the apprentice is trained
in the workplace by a qualified trainer. It also assists in keeping up to date
with the latest technology that is coming in to the industry.
It would appear that the VET system as it applies to the automotive
industry should be reviewed to ensure that qualifications and training are
recast to align more closely with future automotive and consumer requirements.
In doing so, it is important that the adoption of new qualifications and
training standards is flexible enough to incorporate appropriate skills as
required for emerging technologies.
In addition to the VET system, apprenticeships are an important
mechanism by which people enter the industry and receive training. According to
Employers are strongly supportive of the apprentice system
linked to competency based progression and a national qualification framework.
Given the relatively low attractiveness of the automotive industry,
facilitating the uptake of apprenticeships by older workers may be one way to
address current shortages and meet future demand. Despite an appetite for
employers to take on older workers as apprentices, it is difficult to do so
when there is limited support from governments and employers have to pay adult
apprentice wages over the four year training period. According to Mr Gwilym:
There are many adults who do seek to transition into industries
like automotive, and often there are barriers at the state level, and this is
normally found in terms of, 'You already have a high-level qualification; we
can't fund you to do an apprenticeship'...
All that stuff needs to go. There need to be exemptions for
adults coming into apprenticeship, who transition.
The retention of apprenticeships is also a significant factor
contributing to workforce shortages. Traditionally, only around half of
automotive apprentices actually finish their training. In response, some of the
industry skills councils developed a national mentoring program to boost
apprentice retention. Mr Moir outlined the effect that program had:
...in Western Australia's experience, we had three mechanical
trained people doing our mentoring. They were also qualified mentors. The
success rate was well into high 80 per cent retention as opposed to the
traditional 50 per cent, so it did have a very real effect on turning it
around predominantly in the areas where a lot of these young people were suffering
at home. The mentors were able to help them manage that plus the work‑life
Despite the success of this program, the government has decided to roll
the program into the apprenticeship centres program. Mr Gwilyn was not
supportive of the change noting that:
Our [MTAA's] view is that that [change] will not provide the
outcomes that we need...It will not be facilitated by automotive people; it will
be facilitated, potentially, by people who are selling cake decorating in the
morning, welding at lunchtime and underwater spaghetti knitting in the
The committee believes that reforming training systems for the
automotive industry is necessary to ensure that Australia has enough skilled
workers to meet the demand for automotive services. Developing and implementing
strategies and actions to address workforce sustainability challenges and
technological change should be a priority for the proposed Automotive Industry
Taskforce (Recommendation 1).
The committee is also concerned that the future of Auto Skills Australia
is unclear given the important role that this organisation has played, and will
continue to play, in understanding the automotive workforce and identifying
trends and future needs.
The committee recommends that the government recognise the vital role of
training in this sector and support a comprehensive, industry-wide approach to
assist the automotive sector to redesign and implement training courses that
reflect the needs of employers and give workers the skills they require.
Due to the unprecedented structural adjustment across all sectors of the
automotive industry, changes to training and skills development VET packages in
the automotive fields should be put on hold for a period of 12 months. During
this time, Auto Skills Australia and a coordinated alliance of national
industry sectors should undertake the necessary work to recast all
qualification requirements, including for new skills occupations. Owing to
their national reach and previous experience, the committee suggests that the
Motor Trades Association of Australia is the most suitably qualified
organisation to led and coordinate this work.
The committee recommends that the government, through the Council of
Australian Governments (COAG), work with state and territory governments to
identify and address barriers for mature workers seeking to enter the automotive
industry as apprentices.
The committee recommends that the mentoring program for automotive
apprentices developed under the Australian Apprenticeships Mentoring Program
and the Australian Apprenticeships Advisers Program be reinstated.
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