Appendix 4

Appendix 4

Figures on child migration during the twentieth century

Table 4.1: Numbers of child migrants sent to Australia

Source

Time Period

Numbers

Reference

Mr Alan Gill

1912-late 1960s

30 000

Gill, Orphans of the Empire, p.86

National Council of Voluntary Child Care Organisations (NCVCCO)

1920 - late 1960s

7 446

Submission No.55 (NCVCCO), p.5

Child Migrants Trust

1920 - late 1960s

7 000 +

(based on NCVCCO data)

Submission No.132 (CMT), p.7

Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs

1912 - 1961

6 500

(3 500 pre-war; 3 000 post-war)

Submission No.42 (DIMA), pp.15,17

Professor Sherington

1912 - late 1960s

6 000

(approx half pre-war; half post-war)

Submission No.119 (Professor Sherington), p.1

UK Health Committee

1947-1967

7 000 - 10 000

UK Health Committee Report, para.13

Dr Coldrey

1947-late 1960s

3 000-3 500

Submission No.15 (Dr Coldrey), p.38

Dr Constantine

1947-1965

3 170

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01, (Dr Constantine), p.2

Table 4.2: Numbers of child migrants: data by receiving agencies

Source

Time Period

Numbers

Reference

Barnardos

1921 - 1965

2 784

(2 340 pre-war; 444 post-war)

Committee Hansard, 22.3.01, p.467 (Barnardos Australia)

1921-1967

3 000

Gill, Orphans of the Empire, p.116

1929-1939

1 600

Submission No.119, Additional Information, 26.6.01 (Professor Sherington)

1947-1965

457

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01, p.2 (Dr Constantine)

Fairbridge

1912 - 1960

2 301

(1 471 pre-war; 830 post-war)

Sherington & Jeffery, Fairbridge, pp.264-66

1912-1939

1 500

Submission No. 119, Additional Information, 26.6.01 (Professor Sherington)

1947-1953

516

Sherington & Jeffery, p.231

1947-1965

1 109

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01, (Dr Constantine), p.2

Catholic religious orders

1938 - 1965

1 355

(110 pre-war; 1 245 post-war)

Submission No.54 (JLG), p.5; Hansard (JLG), p.482

1938 - 1963

1 149*

Submission No.51 (CCWC), p.5

1947-53

843*

Sherington & Jeffery, p.231

1947-1965

946*

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01 (Dr Constantine), p.2

Church of England

1947-1965

408

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01, (Dr Constantine), p.2

Church of England (Swan Homes, WA)

1947-1960

350

Submission No.56 (Swanleigh), p.2

Salvation Army

1950-1960

91

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01, (Dr Constantine), p.2

1950s

less than 100 ‘youth migrants’

Good British Stock, Ch 3, Part 16

NCH

1937-1952

129

Submission No.98 (NCH), p.1

1950-1952

92

Submission No.98 (NCH), p.1

Methodist Church

1950- 1954

91

Good British Stock, Ch 3, Part 17

1950-1952

76

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01, (Dr Constantine), p.2

Presbyterian Church

1950-1960

83

Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01, (Dr Constantine), p.2

1950-1960

79

Good British Stock, Ch 3, Part 18

*Excludes Maltese child migrants

Table 4.3: Child and youth migration statistics: 1947-June 1961

Age on

Arrival

1947

1948

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

Total

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

3

0

0

3

3

0

2

2

0

0

1

0

1

1

2

0

15

4

2

0

5

3

1

4

5

4

5

2

3

3

1

4

2

44

5

18

2

12

15

12

11

17

15

13

6

1

5

4

4

1

136

6

34

13

17

24

12

17

25

20

12

4

7

6

3

2

2

198

7

36

10

22

23

20

32

22

22

15

5

5

6

3

6

3

230

8

49

13

21

29

19

31

36

30

17

7

3

7

7

6

3

278

9

43

14

23

33

16

41

46

31

23

15

11

12

4

4

0

316

10

48

9

20

45

19

38

59

39

28

13

8

8

13

10

3

360

11

60

5

21

39

21

21

39

23

27

13

8

9

9

6

2

303

12

51

14

14

41

25

19

50

20

22

7

5

15

13

11

1

308

13

42

7

18

46

19

8

35

21

20

16

7

6

16

6

2

269

14

24

2

13

34

8

7

15

10

20

15

1

13

17

4

4

187

15

4

4

14

32

27

25

9

19

13

16

13

5

22

20

10

233

Sub-Total

411

93

203

367

199

256

360

254

215

120

72

97

113

85

33

2878

16

29

42

65

86

93

87

49

55

70

49

77

50

56

51

34

893

17

14

65

46

144

235

178

120

98

110

105

123

80

131

109

54

1612

18

0

0

1

6

10

38

43

20

46

31

43

49

103

130

61

581

19

0

0

0

6

10

12

2

1

0

0

2

4

43

32

11

123

20

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

3

Sub-Total

43

107

112

242

348

315

214

174

226

185

245

184

333

322

162

3212

Total

444

200

315

609

547

571

574

428

441

305

317

281

446

407

195

6090

Source: Submission No.42, p.45 (DIMA).

Table 4.4: Subsidised child migrants sent to Australia from the UK by voluntary societies: 1947-65

1947

1948

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

Total

Catholic Church

334

28

18

84

14

134

184

82

34

15

1

2

4

5

2

2

1

2

946

Church of England

16

12

39

32

12

53

36

47

35

37

24

29

13

20

1

1

1

408

Barnardos

38

22

24

50

36

44

18

22

46

31

10

30

8

12

11

31

8

16

457

Fairbridge

51

65

39

109

73

57

54

52

63

24

36

42

56

24

46

60

38

95

47

997

NCH

65

8

1

76

Northcote

38

9

13

14

4

5

6

12

3

5

3

112

Church of Scotland

28

3

7

1

22

4

2

1

2

11

83

Salvation Army

7

1

23

7

12

5

12

5

12

4

1

91

Total

411

165

129

388

161

323

305

243

199

124

82

90

103

68

64

74

71

104

66

3170

Source: Submission No.88, Additional Information, 25.3.01 (Dr S Constantine).

STATISTICS ON CATHOLIC CHILD MIGRANTS FROM THE UK AND MALTA

Table 4.5: Child migrants by country of origin

Country of Origin

Male

Female

Total

From U.K.

725

320

1,045

From Malta

259

51

310

Total

984

371

1,355

Table 4.6: Child migrants by State of destination

State of Destination

Male

Female

Total

WA

903

193

1,096

SA

-

53

53

QLD

11

37

48

NSW

31

35

66

TAS

39

-

39

VIC

-

53

53

Total

984

371

1,355

Figure 4.1: Numbers of child migrants by year of arrival and country of origin
Figure 4.1: Numbers of child migrants by year of arrival and country of origin

* Note: Three (3) children arrived with the Fairbridge Scheme in 1935 and were transferred to Tardun in 1942.

Table 4.7: Child migrants by diocese and initial destination

Diocese

Initial Destination

No. of Child Migrants

Perth

Castledare (Christian Brothers)

212

Clontarf (Christian Brothers)

188

St. Joseph’s Subiaco (Sisters of Mercy - Perth)

103

St. Vincent’s Subiaco (Sisters of Mercy - Perth)

28

Transfers from Fairbridge to Clontarf

3

Bindoon (Christian Brothers)

245

Geraldton

Nazareth House Bluff Point (Poor Sisters of Nazareth)

94

Tardun (Christian Brothers)

220

Transfers from Fairbridge to Tardun

3

Hobart

Glenorchy (Salesians of Don Bosco)

39

Adelaide

Goodwood (Sisters of Mercy - Adelaide)

53

Melbourne

Nazareth House/ East Camberwell (Poor Sisters of Nazareth)

53

Sydney

Lane Cove (Sisters of St Joseph)

7

Ryde (Sisters of Mercy - Parramatta)

6

Maitland

Murray Dwyer (Diocesan home staffed by Daughters of Charity)

31

Wagga

Thurgoona (Sisters of Mercy - Goulburn)

22

Rockhampton

Neerkol (Sisters of Mercy - Rockhampton)

48

Total

1,355

Source: Submission No. 54, pp.5-6 (JLG).

Figure 4.2: Age at emigration: British and Maltese child migrants sent to Catholic institutions in Australia 1938 - 1965
Figure 4.2: Age at emigration: British and Maltese child migrants sent to Catholic institutions in Australia 1938 - 1965

Source: Submission No.47, Additional Information, 16.2.01 (WA Christian Brothers Province Archivist).

STATISTICS ON MALTESE CHILD MIGRANTS

Table 4.8: Age distribution of Maltese child migrants

Age

Male

Female

Total

4

4

1

5

5

3

5

8

6

6

5

11

7

9

3

12

8

19

6

25

9

23

10

33

10

30

6

36

11

49

3

52

12

42

3

45

13

36

2

38

14

24

5

29

15

7

2

9

16

7

0

7

Total

259

51

310

State of Destination

WA 303

SA 7

At a minimum 139 (45%) Maltese former child migrants left the institutions in Australia to go to their families who had become resident in Australia (often in another State), while another 15 (5%) returned to Malta, that is, 50% of Maltese former child migrants were reunited with families.

Source: Submission No.45, Additional Information, 4.5.01, p.4 (C-BERS).

CATHOLIC CHILD WELFARE COUNCIL (UK) - STATISTICS ON CATHOLIC CHILD MIGRANTS FROM THE UK

Age

The average age of children sent to Australia was approximately 9.4 years, the youngest being 2 years and the oldest entrant on the original register was a 23 year old who was accompanying her younger sister. The majority of children sent were between the ages of 5 - 13 years, the Australian Catholic Church preferring younger children to be sent. The highest single percentage of children sent were 8 year olds with about half of all children aged between 7 - 10 years of age. There are 92 children for whom the date of birth/age is not given in records.

Table 4.9: Ages of children and numbers sent to Australia

Age

Number sent to Australia

2 years

1

3 years

3

4 years

11

5 years

55

6 years

84

7 years

100

8 years

163

9 years

143

10 years

154

11 years

114

12 years

85

13 years

62

14 years

40

15 years

20

16 years

9

17 years

8

18 years

4

23 years

1

Unknown

92

TOTAL

1149

Age of former child migrants as at December 2000

As can be seen from the table below, former child migrants are an ageing group, and have an average age of approximately 60.

Table 4.10: Age of child migrants (as at December 2000)

Age

Number

Unknown

161

47

1

49

1

50

4

51

11

52

21

53

39

54

38

55

63

56

82

57

90

58

61

59

85

60

59

61

69

62

36

63

55

64

56

65

47

66

38

67

25

68

9

69

13

70

19

71

13

72

18

73

18

74

10

75

5

76

1

92

1

Average (approx.)

60

Gender of children

Of the 1,149 children sent 795 were boys (69%) and 354 were girls (31%).

Consent to Migration

Consent by birth parent(s) was given to the migration of children in 229 instances (20%). In 920 (80%) instances it is unknown whether or not parental consent was given as the documentary evidence remains unfound.

Sender

An analysis of those sending children to Australia reveals that of the 1,149 children, 65.5% appear to have been sent by the Poor Sisters of Nazareth.

Destination

Over half (52.2%) of all children who migrated went to the care of the Christian Brothers. For 7.9% of all children CCWC has no record of their destination. Details of destinations are contained in the following table.

Table 4.11: Destination of children sent to Australia

Order/Institution sent to

Location

State

Number

FCIC

Brisbane

Queensland

1

Father Carroll

Total

1

Unknown

Rockhampton

Queensland

2

Father Leahy

Total

2

FCIC

Unknown

Unknown

2

Father Stinson

Total

2

East Camberwell/Nazareth House

Melbourne

Victoria

55

Nazareth House

Geraldton

Western Australia

84

Nazareth House

Ballarat

Victoria

1

St Joseph’s

Ballarat

Victoria

1

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

5

Nazareth Sisters

Total

146

St John Bosco’s Boys’ Town

Hobart

Tasmania

33

Salesians

Total

33

Murray Dwyer Memorial Home

Mayfield

New South Wales

31

Sisters of Charity

Total

31

Goodwood Orphanage

Adelaide

South Australia

47

St Joseph’s Home, Neerkol

Rockhampton

Queensland

54

St Brigid’s

Ryde

New South Wales

6

St Joseph’s

Subiaco

Western Australia

80

St Vincent’s

Perth

Western Australia

7

Thurgoona

Albury

New South Wales

22

Hostel (YCW)

Melbourne

Victoria

13

Sisters of Mercy

Total

229

St Joseph’s

Kellerberrin

Western Australia

7

St Joseph’s

Sydney

New South Wales

7

Sisters of the Sacred Heart

Total

14

Catholic Immigration Committee

Rockhampton

Queensland

1

Hostel (YCW)

Melbourne

Victoria

2

Tresca - Fairbridge

Western Tamar

Tasmania

2

Unknown

Unknown

New South Wales

86

Unknown

Total

91

Castledare Junior Orphanage

Cannington

Western Australia

171

Clontarf Boys’ Town

Victoria Park

Western Australia

128

Quarantine

Western Australia

2

St Mary’s Agricultural School

Tardun

Western Australia

113

St Joseph’s Farm & Trade School

Bindoon

Western Australia

171

Unknown

Unknown

Western Australia

15

Christian Brothers

Total

600

OVERALL TOTAL

1149

Deaths

There were 13 deaths recorded either in the Register or in supporting correspondence. Two were girls who died within months of arrival. The remainder were boys, mostly in road accidents.

To the above deaths have been added additional details on the deaths of former migrants as adults. In total 34 former child migrants are known to have died at the time of this analysis (December 2000).

Source: Submission No.51, Attachment 2 (Catholic Child Welfare Council). The information is based on an analysis of data provided by the Child Migrants’ Register, kept at the time, and other records in the United Kingdom and Australia. Data are current as at December 2000.

CHILD MIGRANTS - STATISTICS BY STATE

Table 4.12: Numbers of British child migrants sent to Australia - data by State: 1947-53

State/Organisation

1947

1948

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

Total

WA

Fairbridge

42

75

61

12

49

239

Catholic

334

4

36

53

164

591

Other

15

12

24

18

12

8

42

131

Sub Total

961

NSW

Fairbridge

28

42

20

34

12

30

28

194

Catholic

22

42

64

Other

38

22

24

65

36

33

45

263

Sub Total

521

VIC

Northcote

20

27

13

14

4

5

83

Catholic

15

16

6

30

67

Other

56

11

10

5

82

Sub Total

232

QLD

Catholic

36

36

Other

7

1

23

7

38

Sub Total

74

SA

Catholic

42

4

46

Other

16

16

Sub Total

62

TAS

Catholic

39

39

Other

6

2

1

9

Sub Total

48

Totals

415

96

198

368

183

262

376

1 898

Source: Sherington, G and Jeffery, C, Fairbridge: Empire and Child Migration, University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, 1998, p.231.

Western Australia

While unaccompanied child migrants had been coming to Western Australia under various schemes since the 1830’s, the Fairbridge Society was the first government-assisted scheme.

Kingsley Fairbridge popularised the farm school movement, initially supported by a land grant from the Western Australian government and sponsorship from the Child Emigration Society of Oxford. The first group of 13 child migrants arrived in WA in 1913.

The Depression bought a halt to government assistance to immigration, apart from a small number of Fairbridge children.

Assisted immigration resumed in 1938 on a small scale. The Christian Brothers began their child migration scheme and in 1938 and 1939 some three groups of boys, 116 in all, sailed for WA to be educated and trained by the Christian Brothers.

Immigration ceased with the outbreak of WWII. By this time 1,290 child migrants had been sent to Western Australia, 1,174 of these to Fairbridge.

The Fairbridge Society, the Catholic Church, the Church of England and the Methodist Church, played major roles in post-war child migration to WA.

In 1947, the first post war child migrants (nearly 500) were sent to Australia, most of them (over 300) received by the Christian Brothers in WA. The Christian Brothers cared for children sent by UK Catholic agencies together with 300 Maltese child migrants. This Order operated four institutions that received child migrants, viz Tardun, Bindoon, Clontarf and Castledare. Throughout the years of Catholic child migration, the Christian Brothers received approximately 1140 children.

The Church of England Society (and Advisory Council) for Empire Settlement began its work with Swanleigh and in total arranged for the emigration of some 273 children to Swanleigh.

Fairbridge continued its work through the Child Emigration Society (Oxford) and the Children’s Farm School Society of WA and received 346 post war child migrants. Fairbridge also received child migrants sent by Barnardo’s. During the operation of its child migrant scheme Fairbridge received a total of 1520 children (1,174 pre-war and 346 post-war) - the highest number of children of all the child migrant schemes.

The United Kingdom National Children’s Homes (Methodist Church) arranged for the emigration of only 8 children to Mofflyn.

In the period 1947 to 1950 a number of Catholic women’s religious Orders - notably the Sisters of Mercy and the Sisters of Nazareth - entered the field of child migration.

Child migrants were initially sent to one of ten receiving agencies, viz Nazareth House (96), St Joseph’s Leederville (110), St Vincent’s (30), Tardun (220), Bindoon (244), Castledare (250), Clontarf (190), Mofflyn (8), Swanleigh (273) and Fairbridge (1,520). In total, 1,651 children emigrated under the post-war child migrant schemes.

Source: Submission No.135, pp.1-3 (WA Department for Family & Children’s Services).

Queensland

The Queensland Government stated that a total of 125 British child migrants were admitted to two homes between 1950-51 and 1958-9:

St Joseph’s Home, Neerkol 48

Salvation Army Home, Riverview 77

Total 125

Source: Submission No.146, p.1 (Queensland Government).

Tasmania

The Tasmanian Government provided statistics on the numbers of child migrants sent to Tasmania in the post-war period:

St John Bosco Boys’ Town, Hobart (Roman Catholic): 1952 33 (37)*

Clarendon Children’s Home, Kingston (Church of England): 1950-1960 18

Tresca House, Exeter (Fairbridge) :1958 13

Hagley Farm School (Fairbridge) :1952-55 9

Total 73 (77)*

* Numbers vary depending on data source

Source: Submission No.144, pp.1-2 (Tasmanian Government). The submission stated that 300 ‘child migrants’ were sent to Tasmania from 1949-76, however, this number includes 161 children aged 15 to17 years sent under the auspices of the Big Brother Movement and 54 children sent under the Fairbridge scheme whereby children migrated in advance of, or accompanied by, one or both parents.

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