The committee has received evidence of the failure of current systems to
deliver safe services to people with disability in the first instance, and a
failure to appropriately respond to occurrences of violence, abuse or neglect of
people with disability as a secondary measure.
The committee received evidence of some excellent initiatives and
programs which seek to improve both service delivery and protective mechanisms.
Some of these programs are having significant positive impacts. However, when
viewed as a national sector response, these programs and initiatives are ad
hoc, localised, and often underfunded.
It is clear to the committee that a coordinated, well-resourced national
response is required to address the issue of widespread violence, abuse and
neglect of people with disability.
The committee has received hundreds of individual recommendations from
expert organisations, advocates, supporters and most importantly from people
with disability themselves. In analysing these recommendations, a very
consistent message was heard about the need for four headline approaches to
tackle violence, abuse and neglect:
A Royal Commission: to conduct a more thorough
investigation of instances of violence, abuse and neglect of people with
disability, including investigative powers and funded and empowered to visit
A national disability complaints mechanism: Establishment
of an independent, statutory, national protection mechanism that has broad
functions and powers to protect, investigate and enforce findings in relation
to violence, abuse and neglect of people with disability, including
investigating systemic issues.
National workforce and workplace regulation: to address
systemic workforce and workplace issues that increase the prevalence of
violence, abuse and neglect, with a focus on training and working in close
collaboration with, or as part of, the new national watchdog organisation.
Access to justice: to ensure a 'just' approach to justice
is achieved in all jurisdictions by improving systemic barriers to justice for
people with disability, including legal capacity, supported decision-making,
guardianship and the indefinite detention of people with disability.
Recommendations to address these and further issues will be outlined in
this chapter, with a view to giving full effect to the wealth of experience and
expertise embodied in the evidence provided to the inquiry.
A Royal Commission
It has been a challenging task for this inquiry to adequately capture
the full scale of violence, abuse and neglect of people with disability and the
toll this has had on individuals and their families.
Evidence to the inquiry clearly demonstrates that this is happening around
Australia and that the cases reported to the Committee are not isolated
instances. However, given the lack of reliable data, the committee considers
this issue is likely to be far greater in prevalence that this inquiry has been
able to determine.
Many submitters to the inquiry have called for a Royal Commission to
address these issues. The committee is aware that calls for a Royal Commission
are often made when people feel strongly and seek greater recognition for a
particular issue. The committee recognises the full import of such a step and believes
in this instance such calls are justified.
In the case of violence, abuse and neglect of people with disability,
the committee notes that nature of disability (requiring communications or
transport support to present evidence) combined with the closed nature of
institutions, means that the most vulnerable people and those most likely to
have been abused, may not have been able to contact the inquiry. Advocates expressed
concern that many potential witnesses were not able to access the support they
required to be able to participate in the inquiry. The committee is also highly
conscious of the criminal nature of many of the allegations brought before it,
through both confidential and public evidence. The committee is therefore of
the view that only a Royal Commission with investigative powers, funded and
empowered to visit institutions, could properly conduct an inquiry, and give
full weight to the seriousness of this issue.
The committee recommends that a Royal Commission into violence, abuse and
neglect of people with disability be called, with terms of reference to be
determined in consultation with people with disability, their families and
supporters, and disability organisations.
National disability complaints
Much of the lived experience evidence presented to this inquiry focused
on the responses to reports on violence, abuse and neglect, more so than the
instances of abuse themselves. From the range of evidence received, it is clear
to the committee from the range of evidence, that the reporting and
investigating frameworks across all jurisdictions fail to adequately respond to
individual cases, and through this failure, do not provide an appropriate
secondary protection measure to reduce future acts of violence, abuse or
The two key problems with the existing system raised by most submitters,
is that the lack of an enforceable complaints resolution body exacerbates an
environment of abuse, and the lack of consistency across jurisdictions creates
confusion and reduces overall numbers of reporting of individual instances of
violence, abuse or neglect.
Evidence to this inquiry indicated that a key problem with the current
state and territory based complaints reporting and investigation systems, is
that they generally approach their complaints handling functions as a dispute
resolution process. While this is an appropriate mechanism to address low-level
service complaints, it is an inadequate and inappropriate response to complaints
of violence and abuse, many of which are crimes. Many submitters saw an ongoing
need to retain the existing state and territory level complaints handling
mechanisms to handle service level dispute resolution, but wanted a new
national watchdog with increased powers.
Submitters provided a wealth of ideas to create a national system for
reporting and investigating instances of violence, abuse and neglect. The key
recommendations for such a system include:
incorporating elements of the NSW disability reportable incidents
scheme, particularly mandatory reporting of incidents linked to an excluded
a 'no wrong door' complaints handling function;
it must cover all disability workers, organisations and people
with disability, without being restricted to National Disability Insurance Scheme
its functions to be broader than individual complaints handling
mechanism: must have powers to undertake own motion inquiries and
investigations into individual cases, organisations and systemic issues of concern;
should work in collaboration with existing state based disability
complaints mechanisms, and work toward increasing national consistency between
should include a role in developing linkages between different
service delivery types and oversight mechanisms to reduce the current 'siloed'
as a matter of urgency, develop a national vulnerable persons worker
scheme to include pre-employment screening and ongoing monitoring through a
national excluded worker scheme linked to the mandatory incident reporting
the establishment of a national, independent, statutory protection
watchdog that has broad functions and powers to protect, investigate and
enforce findings related to situations of violence, abuse and neglect.
From the range of evidence presented to this inquiry, the committee
believes there is an urgent need to take action to establish a national
protective mechanism to respond to individual cases, but also to address
systemic issues that contribute to increasing the prevalence of violence, abuse
and neglect of people with disability.
The committee recommends the Australian Government consider the
establishment of a national system for reporting and investigating and
eliminating violence, abuse and neglect of people with a disability, which
should, at a minimum:
be required to work in collaboration with existing state and
territory oversight mechanisms;
cover all disability workers, organisations and people with
disability, without being restricted to NDIS participants;
include a mandatory incident reporting scheme; and
include a national worker registration scheme with pre-employment
screening and an excluded worker register.
These elements are best implemented through the establishment of
a national, independent, statutory protection watchdog that has broad
functions and powers to protect, investigate and enforce findings related to
situations of violence, abuse and neglect of people with disability.
National workforce and workplace regulation
Much of the evidence presented to this inquiry discussed the need to
establish a watchdog to address the issue of individual predatory workers.
However, a significant body of evidence discussed broader workforce issues that
contribute to the prevalence of violence, abuse or neglect caused through
issues such as poor training, workplace cultures, workplace frustration and
inappropriate staffing levels.
The range of evidence put to the committee indicated a need to address issues
to do with individual workers, but also to address workforce and workplace
issues that can contribute to instances of violence, abuse and neglect.
A key recommendation put forward by multiple submitters was around the
need for improved training and accreditation for individual workers. There was a
uniform view from witnesses that the approach to training should be nationally
consistent, and must contain mandatory rights-based training to ensure all
workers have the core competency skills to recognise and report abuse and
violence, and understand their obligation to report. The committee also
recognises the need for increased funding to ensure this training is delivered
not only to incoming disability workers, but also to be rolled out as a
mandatory requirement for existing workers.
A national approach to training could include the establishment of a
central agency or body with a function to ensure national consistency in
training through a training program accreditation scheme. The committee
believes this could work much like the functions performed by bodies such as
the Australian Medical Council or the Australian Psychology Accreditation
A recommendation of great interest to the committee, was to take an
approach to 'professionalise' the workforce through a national disability
worker registration scheme, with requirements for ongoing professional development.
Such a registration scheme could accommodate another recommendation made by
multiple witnesses, which is the need for a tiered approach to training and
registration, which recognises the need for increased training to provide
services to people with increased needs or vulnerabilities.
Analysis of the body of individual lived experience evidence has enabled
the committee to form a clear picture of the compelling need for stricter
regulation of workplaces as a mechanism to address violence, abuse and neglect.
The committee supports the view that existing service delivery
accreditation schemes should be strengthened to impose stricter requirements
for facility and client specific induction for new carers as well as a
mandatory reporting requirement tied to ongoing accreditation.
A recommendation made to the inquiry which the committee believes is an
area worthy of further thought, is the consideration of a scheme that imposes
service standard requirements on management and board members, similar to the
obligations imposed by various occupational health and safety schemes.
The committee recommends the Australian Government establish a scheme to
ensure national consistency in disability worker training, to include the
mandatory rights based training to develop core competency
skills in recognising and reporting violence, abuse and neglect of people with
review of current training and qualification levels to be
conducted in collaboration with people with disability and the disability
sector, with a view to increasing requirements;
increased levels of training requirements to work with people
with disability who have greater needs or vulnerabilities; and
consideration of the need for an independent training program accreditation
agency or body to oversee the scheme.
The committee recommends the Australian Government consider
establishing a disability worker registration scheme, to include the elements
nationally consistent pre-employment screening;
an excluded worker registration scheme, tied to a mandatory
incident reporting scheme;
yearly worker registration scheme, with requirements for national
criminal checks every five years;
requirements for ongoing professional development; and
a step-up system of registration, which requires increased
training and skills to work with people with disability who have increased
needs or vulnerabilities.
The registration worker scheme will be best overseen by the national
The committee recommends the Australian Government consider establishing
a national approach to modify state and territory and Commonwealth service
delivery accreditation programs, to:
ensure national consistency in service delivery accreditation
impose stronger requirements for facility and client specific
induction training for carers;
impose a mandatory incident reporting requirement tied to ongoing
consider a scheme to impose service delivery standard
requirements on management and boards, similar to occupational health and
The changes to accreditation schemes will be best overseen by the
national disability watchdog.
Access to justice
The committee is disturbed at the evidence presented which highlights
the lack of progress to improve access to justice for people with disability.
Previous expert inquiries by the Law Reform Commission, the Human Rights
Commission and the Productivity Commission have made detailed recommendations
on how to address this issue.
The committee recommends the Australian Government work with state and
territory governments on the implementation of initiatives to improve access to
justice for people with disability contained in the reports by the Law Reform
Commission, Equality, Capacity and Disability in Commonwealth Laws, the
Human Rights Commission, Equal Before the Law and Productivity Commission,
Access to Justice Arrangements, with particular focus on:
better intervention and support services;
expanded Community Visitor's schemes;
improved witness support services to people with disabilities;
creation of an assessment protocol that assists police, courts,
and correctional institutions in identifying people with disabilities. Where
identified, a trained officer will provide support;
transparent, effective and culturally appropriate complaints
training for police, lawyers and others in justice in needs of
people with disability; and
where a person who has been found unfit to plead is to be held in
detention, demonstrate that all reasonable steps have been taken to avoid this
outcome, and that person must be held in a place of therapeutic service
The committee also recommends that each state and territory implement a
Disability Justice Plan.
The committee believes that there is a need for further investigation of
access to justice issues, with a focus on:
national implementation of the South Australian model to ensure
people with disability are able to provide evidence;
the implementation requirements for supported decision-making;
investigating the potential for the UK system of registered
the access to justice needs of specific groups such as women,
children, culturally and linguistically diverse communities and Aboriginal and,
Torres Strait Islander peoples; and
the indefinite detention of people with cognitive impairment or
State and Territory reporting and
As discussed in the recommendation for a national disability watchdog, a
key problem in the existing systems of disability sector oversight is the
conflation of investigation mechanisms with dispute resolution processes. Evidence
presented to the inquiry showed that many such complaints processes are not
enforceable, and are more appropriate for service delivery dispute resolution
rather than reporting and investigation of alleged criminal behaviour.
Evidence to this inquiry indicated that agencies which engage in dispute
resolution tend to have an ongoing working relationship with service delivery
organisations, which is appropriate to the mediation and resolution of
low-level service faults, but is a clear conflict of interest in the
investigations of serious misconduct, service contract breaches or allegations
of violence or abuse.
Evidence also suggested a 'siloed' approach to complaints handling,
which made it confusing for individuals to know where to lodge complaints.
The committee recommends the Australian Government work with state and
territory governments on a nationally consistent approach to existing state and
territory disability oversight mechanisms, to include;
a clear distinction between dispute resolution and complaints
a requirement that service delivery organisations should not
report to funding agencies due to the conflict of interest;
the principle that immediate action be taken on allegations of
abuse to ensure the individual's safety;
increased funding for community visitor schemes, with
consideration these schemes be professionalised in all jurisdictions and with
a mandatory reporting requirement for suspected violence, abuse or neglect; and
greater crossover in oversight and complaints mechanisms between
aged care and disability and recognising that over 7000 young people with
disability live in aged care facilities, ensure that disability service
standards are applicable.
A nationally consistent approach to disability oversight
mechanisms is best overseen by the national disability watchdog.
The right to self-determination
Evidence presented to this inquiry has led the committee to believe that
a change in culture needs to occur from the top down, including funding bodies,
oversight mechanisms, service delivery organisations and advocates, to
acknowledge that people with disability have a fundamental right to
self-determination. This right encompasses a wide range of decision-making,
from the right to individual legal capacity, the right to make day to day
living decisions and the right to take risks when seeking positive life
The committee recommends that the Australian Government consider driving
a nationally consistent move away from substitute decision-making towards
supported decision-making models.
The issue of where determining what constitutes legal incapacity, as
well as the flow-on effect of loss of legal capacity, has been the subject of
recent expert inquiries and reports. There is no need for this inquiry to
re-tread over well-travelled ground. There is simply a need for the
recommendations of those expert reports to be implemented as a matter of
The committee agrees with the premise that the concept of legal
incapacity is more subtle and complex than the current absolutist approach.
Legislative reform may be required to ensure that where a person requires
support to make certain decisions, such as substantial financial decisions,
they do not lose the right to make all decisions, such as where they
live or who may visit them.
The committee recommends that the Australian Government work with state
and territory governments to consider implementing the recommendations of the
Australian Law Reform Commission report Equality, Capacity and Disability in
Commonwealth Laws, in relation to legal capacity and supported
The committee recommends the Australian Government work with state and
territory governments to create national consistency in the administration of
guardianship laws to ensure:
public advocate and guardianship functions are separate to ensure
mandatory training on supported decision-making for guardians;
a requirement for guardianship to achieve positive outcomes, not
just avoiding risk of negative outcomes;
the ability to have nuanced guardianship/decision-making
frameworks – to ensure the legal ability of parents to advocate on behalf of
adult children without having to establish legal incapacity;
that service delivery organisations or accommodation providers
are never given guardianship;
automatic increased oversight where service delivery
organisations or accommodation providers recommend families lose guardianship;
that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' particular
circumstances are taken into account in developing guardianship systems.
The committee further acknowledges the issues raised around enforced
'therapeutic' treatment of people with disability, and recognises that in many
instances these are cases of 'disability specific lawful violence'. The
committee believes that policy and practice in the disability sector must
remain cognizant of the deprivation of fundamental rights that many disability
interventions entail, to ensure this is done to the minimum necessary.
The right to risk
Evidence to this inquiry has shown that another overarching problem with
the approach to disability service delivery is the culture of risk management
being based on avoiding risk, rather than appropriately managing risk. The committee
agrees with the proposition put forward by witnesses that the tendency of
service delivery organisations to disregard the requirement to seek positive
outcomes and life experiences for people with disability, is itself a form of
abuse or neglect. The committee notes that evidence shows this is often caused
by service delivery organisations being overly focused on avoiding negative
outcomes, often at the cost to individual people with disability being able to
live fulfilling lives.
The committee recommends state and territory and Commonwealth service
delivery accreditation programs should be modified to impose additional
requirements for positive life outcomes for individual people with disability,
rather than a singular focus on the avoidance of negative outcomes. The
committee recommends this work is best overseen by the national disability
Counselling and support services
The committee received a great deal of lived experience evidence from
witnesses. As part of this evidence, a clear picture emerged of the lack of
appropriate recovery support and counselling services available to people with
disability. In cases presented to this inquiry, people with disability were
denied the services of mainstream counselling services, purely on the basis of service
providers being unable to meet the needs of people with disability.
The committee recommends all levels of government provide increased
funding for support and counselling services. This should be to create
specialist disability counselling services where required, as well as to
mainstream organisations so they may meet the needs of people with disability.
The committee acknowledges the vital role that formal and informal advocacy
plays in addressing violence, abuse and neglect of people with disability.
However, the advocacy sector urgently needs greater assistance from all levels
of government to continue in this role.
The committee recommends all levels of government acknowledge the vital
role that formal and informal advocacy plays in addressing violence, abuse and
neglect of people with disability, by considering:
increased training for people with disability to recognise
violence, abuse and neglect so they can self-report;
government service contracts to include provisions to enforce
access to facilities for advocates, requirement for self-advocacy programs;
further consideration of the Victorian Self Advocacy Resource
Unit, with a view to roll out across other states and territories;
funded advocacy programs to include training for informal
States and Territories not to reduce advocacy funding with the
rollout of the NDIS.
The committee recommends the National Disability Advocacy Program
implement the following recommendations:
significant investment to National Disability Advocacy Program
funded advocates, to deliver equitable access and representation of issues and
to match the increased demand for advocacy anticipated under the NDIS;
undertake a review to ensure delivered advocacy is appropriately
spread across service types and complaint types, to ensure the most vulnerable
are receiving advocacy;
increase funding for self-advocacy programs;
ensure that current model of funding peak bodies does not
inadvertently result in the closure of smaller specialist or local advocacy
Improved coordination between the National Disability Advocacy
Program and the National Aged Care Advocacy Program.
National Disability Insurance
The committee acknowledges that with the roll out of the NDIS, there
will be a significant shift to individualised funding arrangements, which could
have some inadvertent negative consequences. There is a need for a watchful eye
during implementation, and an approach that will embrace the need for change
should unforeseen problems arise.
The committee recommends of the Government consider the following when
rolling out the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS):
an urgent roll out of capacity-building and advocacy support for
individuals undertaking negotiations for self-directed disability support;
increased training for NDIS planners around intellectual
impairment and guidelines on when to require decision-making support;
further investigation of whether the current NDIS unit pricing
will have an impact on incidents of violence, abuse or neglect.
NDIS quality and safeguarding framework must ensure a
zero-tolerance approach to restrictive practice, and be tied to the National Framework for Reducing and Eliminating the Use
of Restrictive Practices in the Disability Service Sector; and
amendment of the Quality and Safeguarding Framework to
include advocacy as a key component to reduce and address incidents of
violence, abuse and neglect.
Evidence presented to this inquiry has raised serious concerns that restrictive
practices are often imposed as a means of coercion, discipline, convenience, or
retaliation by staff, family members or others providing support. In some
jurisdictions there is minimal regulation of practice in government run
facilities, with only self-regulation in the non-government sector.
The committee is greatly concerned with what appears to be systemic
problems within the education system that are leading to many of the
inappropriate practices described in this section. Many of the systemic
problems that lead to the use of restrictive practices actually reinforces an
attitude that facilitates the mistreatment of children with disability because
they are viewed as different.
The committee recommends the Australian Government work with state and
territory governments to implement a national zero-tolerance approach to
eliminate restrictive practice in all service delivery contexts. This would
ensuring the national framework is properly implemented across
all jurisdictions, as a mandatory, reviewable and enforceable scheme, with
oversight by a qualified senior practitioner and with a mandatory element of
positive behaviour support;
a scheme that is not limited to the disability sector, but
applies to all places where restrictive practice is used against people with
imposing requirements for the use of positive behaviour
management tools. These policies and guidelines would be guided by the
Policies and advice need to be available to the general public
and linked in with behaviour and discipline policy.
The preferred substitution of positive behavioural management
tools such as Applied Behavioural Analysis for 'restrictive practices'.
The committee believes that the use of restrictive practice against
children must be eliminated as a national priority. The committee recommends
the Australian Government work with state and territory governments to
implement a zero-tolerance approach to restrictive practice in a schools
context, which should include:
the principle that restrictive practice must not form a part of a
behaviour management plan;
written behaviour management plans must be agreed to by the
student, their parents, the school and a Principal Practice Leader or Senior
Practitioner (or similar position) within the state education department;
that parents must be notified should there be an instance of emergency
restrictive practice being used;
specialist support be made available by the state education
department to guide and support teachers, students and families through the
understanding and implementation of these new policies; and
a compulsory unit of training should be developed and delivered
to all principals, teachers and teachers' aides to ensure that these new
policies are clearly understood and implemented. This training should be made
available to interested students and families.
A consistent message was presented to the inquiry, that broad systemic
and cultural issues are key causes of violence, abuse and neglect of people
Evidence to the inquiry indicated that where people with disabilities
live and the cultures of the organisations which provide services, in
particular residential services, are significant factors that impact on risk of
violence, abuse and neglect.
The committee recommends the Australian Government work with state and
territory governments to consider the principle that there should be no
enforced shared accommodation for people with disability.
The committee encourages increased resources for public and social
housing for people with disability, including models where people with
disability may choose to cohabitate with other people with a disability or
abled people. The goal being to achieve a move away from institutions and
forced congregate housing models.
The committee recommends all accommodation and service delivery funding
agreements should have a mandatory gender-sensitivity requirement, particularly
that people with disability must have a choice as to the gender of who provides
intimate forms of care.
The committee was deeply concerned with the range of evidence presented on
the treatment of children with disability in schools. While this is primarily a
state and territory based issue, there is a clear need for Commonwealth
involvement due to the serious breaches of children's rights under the
Convention on the Rights on the Child and the Convention on the Rights of
Persons with Disabilities.
The committee recommends the Australian Government work in collaboration
with the states and territories to address the needs of children and young
people with disability in schools to:
establish a national program to address bullying of students with
ensure that schools are adequately funded to provide for the
needs of students with disability, and ensure schools must spend this funding
on those students, not merge it into the mainstream budget;
ensure adequate funding for improved disability school transport,
with a maximum school transport time limit to limit the travel time of
students with a disability;
develop a national requirement that schools may not exclude
students with disability from school activities, purely on the basis of the
student's disability; and
ensure that all disability oversight systems must include
Recognition of disability in
The committee heard a range of evidence that the specific needs of
people with disability are often missing from mainstream protective policy and mechanisms,
or the needs of specific cohorts are missing from disability-specific policy.
The committee recommends that the Australian Government consider
amending the following protective policies to include the specific needs of
people with disability, to ensure that people with disability are afforded the
full range of rights protections that are available to people without
the National Disability Strategy must be updated to refer
to the specific needs of children and young people, must address violence,
abuse or neglect of people with disability and should be linked to domestic
the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their
Children must be updated to include institutional and disability
the National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children
must be updated to address the specific needs of children with disability, and
in order to put effect to these frameworks, there must be
increased funding to support women with disability escaping domestic violence.
Evidence given to this inquiry shows that there is a paucity of reliable
statistical data around the prevalence of violence, abuse and neglect of people
with disability, and the success of existing reporting and investigating
There is overwhelming anecdotal evidence of violence, abuse and neglect
of people with disability, which indicates a need to formally recognise and
quantify this problem. Nationally consistent data on this issue is an essential
element to guide policy development that will help eliminate violence, abuse
and neglect against people with disabilities.
There also appears to be definitional issues around how incidents are
categorised which impacts how incidents of abuse are reported. A project to set
national guidelines to define violence, abuse and neglect would give clarity to
reporters and investigators of abuse.
It is the committee's position that where data exists, it should be made
available, albeit in a way that takes into consideration any personal
identifiers. It is also the committee's position that where there is an absence
of data, that it should be a priority for that data to be collected so that the
quantum of violence, abuse and neglect against people with disability can be
The committee also considers that further thought be given to the Human
Rights Commission's recommendation for further research to validate a link
between institutional and residential settings and intentional self‑harm
and suicidal behaviour.
The committee recommends that the Australian Bureau of Statistics ensures
all of its surveys are inclusive of people with disability. The committee
further recommends that the Australian Government commits additional funding to
ensure the triennial survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers and the Personal
Safety Survey include the collection of data on the prevalence of violence,
abuse and neglect against people with disability. This data should include the
type of disability;
place of residence;
cultural background; and
whether the violence, abuse and neglect has been reported to an
The committee further recommends this data to be used to address
violence and abuse in future National Disability Strategy implementation plans.
The committee recommends that the National Disability Strategy Progress
Report should include specific data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
peoples with disability.
The committee recommends that the Department of Social Services publish
data relating to the National Disability Abuse and Neglect Hotline on its
website every six months. This data should include the following information:
type of disability;
number of complaints;
number of complaints resolved;
timeliness of resolution; and
systemic trends in relation to abuse and neglect.
The committee recommends that the Australian Institute of Health and
Welfare's annual report Child Protection in Australia should
disaggregate data on the basis of disability.
The committee recommends that finalisation of the Child Protection
National Minimum Data Sets should be prioritised as this additional data will
be a useful addition to policy makers and service providers in this area.
International Human Rights
The committee recommends the Commonwealth review the reports of the United
Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, with a view to
giving effect to recommendations that would improve Australia's adherence to
the human rights obligations that have been voluntarily undertaken.
Senator Rachel Siewert
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