Footnotes

Footnotes

[1] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, Report on Child Migration, August 2001 (Chair: Senator Rosemary Crowley).

[2] Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC), Bringing them home, Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, April 1997 (Chair: Sir Ronald Wilson).

[3] Australian Institute of Health & Welfare, Child protection Australia 2002-03, AIHW, Child Welfare Series no.34, 2004, p.39.

[4] Bringing them home, p.27. This generic term is used throughout Bringing them home to include all Aboriginal groups and Torres Strait Islanders.

[5] Bringing them home, pp.303-307.

[6] The Hon John Howard MP, Motion of Reconciliation, 26 August 1999 - http://www.pm.gov.au/media/pressrel/1999/reconciliation2608.htm

[7] Buti, Antonio, Unfinished Business: The Australian Stolen Generations, Vol. 7(4), December 2000 [E Law] http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v7n4/buti74_text.html

[8] Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Forde Report), 1999, p.iii. Institutions examined were all government and non-government children and young people’s residential care or detention centres established under the relevant Queensland legislation. www.qld.gov.au/html/fordeinquiry

[9] Submission 125, p.2 (Queensland Government).

[10] Submission 159, pp.1, 5 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[11] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, Report on Child Migration, August 2001 (Lost Innocents).

[12] http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/1999-02/child_migrat/gov_response/child_migration.pdf

[13] Additional information, Mr Jim Bacon, Premier of Tasmania, 11.11.03.

[14] O'Grady J (Tasmanian Ombudsman), Interim report on abuse of children in State care, 7.1.04. http://www.justice.tas.gov.au/ombudsman/CART.html

[15] O'Grady J (Tasmanian Ombudsman), 7.1.04, p.2.

[16] Rose, Danny, '"Horror" at child abuse', The Mercury, 2.4.04.

[17] Ramsland J, 'An anatomy of a nineteenth century child-saving institution', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, v.70, pt 3, 1984, pp.202-203.

[18] Tenison-Woods, M (Chair) Delinquency Committee of the Child Welfare Advisory Council, Report on the Girls' Industrial School, Parramatta, Melbourne University Press, 1945, pp.ix-x.

[19] Lost Innocents, p.40.

[20] Forde Report 1999, pp.126-128.

[21] Lost Innocents, p.121; Forde Report 1999, p.281.

[22] Bringing them home, pp.308-313; Lost Innocents, p.217.

[23] Forde Report 1999, p.iv; Lost Innocents, pp.104-5.

[24] Murray A & Rock M, ‘The hidden history of child migration’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, Vol 38, No 2, May 2003, pp.153-155.

[25] O'Grady J (Tasmanian Ombudsman), 7.1.04. www.media.tas.gov.au/

[26] Submission 159, p.3 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[27] Submission 235, p.3.

[28] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 'Deinstitutionalisation: the move towards community-based care', Australia's Welfare 2001, p.98, citing Goffmann E, Asylums: essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates, 1961 & 1968.

[29] Submission 22, p.10.

[30] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.22 (Association of Children's Welfare Agencies).

[31] Submission 313, Additional Information, 11.8.04.

[32] Liddell, MJ, 'Child welfare and care in Australia: understanding the past to influence the future', in CR Goddard and R Carew, Responding to children: child welfare practice, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, 1993, p.30.

[33] Submission 207, p.3.

[34] Cunneen, C & White, R, Juvenile justice: an Australian perspective, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, 1996, p.9.

[35] The child welfare reformers of those times were known as 'child savers' - submission 207, p.3.

[36] Tomison, A, 'A history of child protection: back to the future', Family Matters, No 60 Spring-Summer 2001, Australian Institute of Family Studies, p.49.

[37] Liddell 1993 p.30.

[38] Mellor EJ, Stepping stones: the development of early childhood services in Australia, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, London, 1990, pp.16-17.

[39] McGrath MS, 'Catholic orphanages 1890s-1950s: two case studies - St Brigid's Ryde and St Michael's Baulkham Hills', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol 77, pt 2, October 1991, p.26.

[40] Garton S, Out of luck: poor Australians and social welfare, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1990, p.95.

[41] McGrath 1991, pp.26-27.

[42] Ramsland J, 'An anatomy of a nineteenth century child-saving institution', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, v.70, pt 3, 1984, p.202.

[43] The girls from Biloela were later transferred to a site at Parramatta which subsequently became the Parramatta Training School for Girls.

[44] Garton 1990, p.90-1.

[45] Liddell 1993, p.34.

[46] Liddell 1993, p.31.

[47] Submission 173, p.4 (Victorian Government).

[48] Forde Report 1999, p.36.

[49] Liddell 1993, p.40.

[50] Mellor 1990, p.95.

[51] Garton 1990, pp.91-92.

[52] Mellor 1990, p.94.

[53] Mellor 1990, p.142.

[54] Garton 1990, p.92.

[55] AIHW 2001, p.127.

[56] Forde Report 1999, p.vii & p.36.

[57] AIHW 2001, p.101.

[58] AIHW 2001, p.99.

[59] AIHW 2001, chapter 4.

[60] Mellor 1990, p.144.

[61] Submission 55, p.7 (WA Department for Community Development).

[62] Submission 173, p.7 (Victorian Government).

[63] Submission 269.

[64] Liddell 1993, pp.30-31.

[65] Garton 1990, p.95.

[66] Forde Report 1999, p.36.

[67] Garton 1990, p.92.

[68] Garton 1990, p.95.

[69] McGrath 1991 p.34.

[70] McGrath 1991 p35.

[71] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, pp.142-43 & 152 (Dr Penglase).

[72] Submission 173, pp.5-6 (Victorian Government).

[73] Submission 47, p.24 (Mr McIntosh).

[74] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.1 (WA Department for Community Development).

[75] Submission 173, p.7 (Victorian Government).

[76] Forde Report, pp.35-36.

[77] Submission 313, Additional Information (Dr Liddell).

[78] Liddell 1993, pp.44-45.

[79] Submission 173, p.5 (Victorian Government).

[80] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.16 (Ms Gaffney).

[81] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.15 (WA Department for Community Development).

[82] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, p.144 (Dr Penglase).

[83] Mellor 1990, p.17; McGrath 1991, p.33.

[84] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.9 (Wesley Dalmar).

[85] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, pp.151-52 (Dr Penglase).

[86] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.18 (Ms Gaffney).

[87] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.18-19 (Ms Gaffney).

[88] Submission 173, p.8 (Victorian Government).

[89] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.7-8 (Association of Children's Welfare Agencies).

[90] Mellor 1990, pp.92-94.

[91] Garton 1990, pp.94-95.

[92] Mellor 1990, pp.74-76, 92-94.

[93] AIHW 2001, p.127.

[94] Submission 173, p.8 (Victorian Government).

[95] Submission 22, p.21 (CLAN).

[96] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, p.144 (Dr Penglase).

[97] Submission 47, pp.25-26 (Mr McIntosh).

[98] Mellor 1990, p.73.

[99] Tomison 2001, p.49.

[100] Cunneen & White 1996, pp.18-20.

[101] Mellor 1990, p.18.

[102] Forde Report 1999, p.289.

[103] Mellor 1990, p.18.

[104] Cunneen & White 1996, pp.14-15.

[105] Submission 47, p.20 (Mr McIntosh).

[106] Submission 173, p.4 (Victorian Government).

[107] Submission 47, pp.20-21 (Mr McIntosh).

[108] Victorian Legislative Assembly, Report of the committee of enquiry into child care services in Victoria (Norgard Report), Government Printer, Melbourne, 1976, p.25.

[109] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.108 (Mr Quinn).

[110] Submission 22, p.9; Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.110 (Mr Quinn).

[111] Submission 47, p.20 (Mr McIntosh).

[112] Submission 63, p.2 and Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.117 (Mr Quinn).

[113] Submission 173, p.5 (Victorian Government).

[114] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, pp.107-108 (Mr Quinn).

[115] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.108 (Mr Quinn).

[116] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.110 (Mr Quinn).

[117] Norgard Report 1976, p.26.

[118] Submission 47, p.22 (Mr McIntosh), quoting Tierney L, Children who need help, Melbourne University Press, 1963.

[119] Liddell 1993, p. 30.

[120] Cunneen & White 1996, p.12.

[121] Ramsland 1984, pp.194-209.

[122] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.108 (Mr Quinn).

[123] Liddell 1993, p. 31.

[124] Mellor 1990, p.16.

[125] Forde Report 1999, pp.31-34.

[126] Mellor 1990, p.16.

[127] Mellor 1990, p.18.

[128] Cunneen & White 1996, p.17.

[129] Mellor 1990, p18.

[130] Mellor 1990, pp.19-20.

[131] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.109 (Mr Quinn).

[132] Cunneen & White 1996, p.9.

[133] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.107, (Mr Quinn).

[134] Cunneen & White 1996, p.17.

[135] Submission 238, p.2.

[136] McGrath 1991, pp.26-29.

[137] Ramsland 1984, pp.194-209.

[138] Mellor, 1990, pp.16-17.

[139] Lost Innocents, p.86.

[140] Bringing them home, pp.171-172.

[141] Ramsland 1984, p.201.

[142] Mellor 1990, pp.18-19.

[143] A Piece of the Story, National Directory of Records of Catholic Organisations Caring for Children Separated from Families, Australian Catholic Social Welfare Commission, November 1999.

[144] Boyce James, For the record. Background information on the work of the Anglican Church with Aboriginal children and directory of Anglican agencies providing residential care to children from 1830 to 1980, Anglicare Australia, 2003, pp.23-44.

[145] Boyce 2003, p.42.

[146] Submission 46, (Salvation Army - Australia Southern Territorial Headquarters).

[147] Submission 52, pp. 3-4, 16-17 (UnitingCare Victoria and Tasmania).

[148] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.64.

[149] Submission 160, pp.1-3 (Mofflyn).

[150] Submission 160, p.6 (Mofflyn).

[151] Queensland Department of Families, Missing Pieces: Information to assist former residents of children's institutions to access records, Brisbane, 2001.

[152] Submission 178, pp.1-9 (Wesley Mission - Dalmar Child & Family Care).

[153] Submission 59, Executive Summary (UnitingCare Burnside).

[154] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, pp.73-75.

[155] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.78.

[156] Queensland Department of Families, Missing Pieces: Information to assist former residents of children's institutions to access records, Brisbane, 2001.

[157] Submission 30, p.1 (United Protestant Association of NSW Limited).

[158] Missing Pieces, p.84.

[159] Submission 337, p.3.

[160] Submission 93, pp.2-3.

[161] Submission 37, p.1 (Barnardos Australia).

[162] Lost Innocents, p.48.

[163] Submission 40, pp.47-49 (Dr Coldrey).

[164] Submission 37, p.3 (Barnardos Australia).

[165] McLean D, Children in need: an account of the administration and functions of the Child Welfare Department, New South Wales, Australia: with an examination of the principles involved in helping deprived and wayward children, Government Printer, Sydney, 1956, pp.36‑48.

[166] McLean 1956, p.39.

[167] McLean 1956, p.45.

[168] McLean 1956, p.28.

[169] McLean 1956, pp.143-144.

[170] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.111 (Mr Quinn).

[171] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.109 (Mr Quinn).

[172] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.110 (Mr Quinn).

[173] Van Krieken, Children and the state, Unwin & Allen, North Sydney, 1991, p.93.

[174] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.111 (Mr Quinn).

[175] Community Services Commission, The Ormond Centre - a complaint investigation into institutional care of children, April 1999, p.4.

[176] Prior to the 1950s Turana was known as the Department of Children's Welfare and Reformatory Schools Receiving Depot for Boys and Girls - Submission 207, p.4 (Ms Gaffney).

[177] Submission 207, pp.4-6 (Ms Gaffney).

[178] Initially known as Moreton House, Karrala House was set up in 1963 as a Training Home for Girls at the Ipswich Mental Hospital - Forde Report 1999, p.149.

[179] Forde Report 1999, pp.151-154.

[180] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.44 (Father Dethlefs).

[181] Forde Report 1999, pp.124-125.

[182] Submission 55, pp.4-6 (Western Australian Department for Community Development)

[183] McLean 1956, p.153.

[184] McLean 1956, p.129.

[185] Submission 128, p.4.

[186] Hanson D, Why are they in children's homes? Report of the ACOSS children's home intake study, Department of Social Security, 1979, pp.14-17.

[187] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.9 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[188] Victorian Legislative Assembly, Report of the committee of enquiry into child care services in Victoria (Norgard Report), Government Printer, Melbourne, 1976, p.24.

[189] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.16-17 (Ms Gaffney).

[190] Norgard Report, p.78.

[191] Submission 35, p.6 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[192] Submission 207, pp.3-5 (Ms Gaffney).

[193] See also WA Child Welfare Act 1947 ss.5-66 regarding administrative and legal procedures for placing state wards in homes, including the role of institutions and courts and types of placements for children.

[194] Norgard Report, p.26.

[195] Submission 207, p.3 (Ms Gaffney).

[196] Submission 178, p.8.

[197] Forde Report, 1999, p.ii.

[198] Submission 207, p.5 (Ms Gaffney).

[199] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, A hand up not a hand out: renewing the fight against poverty, Report on poverty and financial hardship, March 2004, p.258.

[200] Hanson, pp.14-17.

[201] Parliamentary Library, Social Security payments 3: Sole parents and widowed people, 1942 to 1995, p.4.

[202] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, p.117 (Dr Penglase).

[203] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, p.118 (Dr Penglase).

[204] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, pp.125-26 (Dr Penglase)..

[205] Submission 73; Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.59.

[206] Department of Veterans' Affairs, Additional Information, 13.7.04.

[207] Submission 272, p.4.

[208] Graphic stories of internal examinations, especially at Bidura where the doctor was nicknamed Dr Finger, were reported, eg Submissions 272, 315, 407 - Bidura; 39, 298, 325, 377 - Parramatta.

[209] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, pp.237-240 (Dr Penglase).

[210] Removal of personal belongings, toys and clothing to be replaced by standard issue was common, eg Submissions 217 - Neerkol; 231 - SA, Nedlands; 297 - St John's Goulburn; 382 - SA Bexley; 413 - Royal Park.

[211] Submission 220, Additional Information 24.6.04 (CLAN).

[212] Being forced to eat vomited food was not isolated, Submissions 5 and 108 - Nazareth Houses, Vic; 120 - WR Black; 142 - Blackwood House; 266 - SA Camberwell.

[213] Having to eat food that was rancid or containing weevils was reported by many care leavers.

[214] For example Submissions 231 - Salvation Army, Nedlands; 282 - SA Gill; 406 - Goodwood; 409 - WR Black; 416 - Parramatta.

[215] The trauma for young girls of cutting long locks 'to look like a boy' was often described. A comment was made that is why so many Homies have long hair today.

[216] The use of toothbrushes to scrub clean toilets and corridors as a punishment was referred to in many submissions, especially from NSW and Victoria, eg Submissions 271 - Mittagong; 278 - Parkside; 279 - Winlaton.

[217] Rubbing noses in wet sheets, beatings and cold showers were commonly reported punishments, eg Submissions 101, 409 - WR Black; 203 - Dalmar; 297 - St John's Goulburn; 411 - SA Bexley; 415 - SA Stanmore.

[218] Draping wet sheets over the head and standing for lengthy periods or parading ('Kangaroo Hopping'), and forced nappy wearing were favoured humiliations, eg Submissions. 89, 406 - Goodwood; 141 - Westbrook; 166 - Abbotsford; 169 - Nazareth House, Camberwell; 201 - Lismore; 217 - Neerkol; 237 - Nazareth House, Wynnum; 322 - St Joseph's Croyden.

[219] Isolation for long periods by locking in cupboards, dark rooms, attics or cellars for minor misdemeanours was a common punishment, eg Submissions 5 and 237 - Nazareth House; 105 - Wilson; 120 - Holy Cross Wooloowin; 146 - Abbotsford; 192 - Burnside; 268 - Bayswater; 278 - Parkside; 279 - Brighton; 318 - Royleston; 322 - St Joseph's Lane Cove; 329 - Tamworth Boys Home; 356 - St Joseph's Cowper; 406 - Goodwood; 421 - SA Fullerton.

[220] Many submissions about Parramatta especially recalled the panic and trauma of being locked in isolation and detention, eg Submissions 250, 263, 284 ('There were rat droppings in the cell, and the mattress on the floor smelled of urine and vomit'), 293, 304.

[221] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.31 (Positive Justice Centre).

[222] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.103.

[223] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, Report on Child Migration, August 2001, pp.76-79.

[224] Submission 11, p.1. Other submissions providing graphic descriptions of these WA institutions include Submissions 25, 34, 41, 85, 251, 365.

[225] Submission 158, p.8 (Relationships Australia NSW).

[226] Submission 104. Other submissions with personal stories about the removal of children and commenting on adoption practices include Submissions 216, 247 and 387.

[227] 'Adoption files opened to mothers' and 'Mothers who can't forget', The Age, 7.8.04.

[228] Lost Innocents, pp.94-6.

[229] Submission 22, Additional information 12.3.04 (CLAN).

[230] Anderson SG and Hamilton J, 'The epidemiology of primary herpes simplex infection', The Medical Journal of Australia, 5 March 1949 and Anderson SJ et al, 'An attempt to vaccinate against herpes simplex', Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 28 1950, 579-84.

[231] Anderson SG et al (authors were from Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Melbourne; Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research; Fairfield Hospital), 'Influenza in Victoria, 1950 and 1951', Medical Journal of Australia, 11 July 1953.

[232] The Age 10, 11, 12 June 1997.

[233] 'Victorian orphans and clinical research', Editorial, Medical Journal of Australia, 21 July 1997.

[234] Submission 121 (Shortkids Downunder).

[235] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Report on the CJD Settlement Offer, October 1997, pp.164-6.

[236] Forde Report, pp.153-4 and Forde Closed Report on Karrala, pp.3-4. Conflict between the two Departments over the direction of caring for children in their care led to the takeover of the Wilson institution in 1983 by DCS and its renaming as Sir Leslie Wilson Youth Centre.

[237] Submission 122, pp.13-17 (Positive Justice Centre).

[238] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.38; also Submission 228.

[239] Submission 35, p.7 (NSW Commissioner for Children and Young People).

[240] Forde Closed Report on Neerkol, pp.8-9.

[241] Lost Innocents, pp.99-100.

[242] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.63.

[243] 'Police advice on orphanage allegations', News Release, Hon Kevin Foley MP, 29.6.04.

[244] Forde Report, pp.277-280; Submissions 31, p.3 (Relationships Australia Qld) and 159, pp.2-3 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[245] Submission 336.

[246] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.113 (Mr Quinn).

[247] Submission 282, p.26.

[248] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.4.

[249] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.75.

[250] Submission 365, pp.21-3;

[251] Submission 11, p.2.

[252] Submission 167, p.4 (VANISH).

[253] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.68.

[254] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living,(Dr Penglase).

[255] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, p.185 (Dr Penglase).

[256] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, p.182 (Dr Penglase).

[257] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.4.

[258] Submission 18, p.4.

[259] Submission 63, p.2.

[260] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, pp.145-46 (Dr Penglase).

[261] Coldrey B, The Devoted, the Dull, the Desperate and the Deviant - The Staff Problem of Traditional Residential Care, Tamanaraik Press, 2003 p.8.

[262] Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Forde Report), 1999, p.92.

[263] Coldrey, p.26.

[264] Coldrey, p.16.

[265] Coldrey, p.31.

[266] Coldrey, pp.19-20.

[267] Coldrey, p.32.

[268] Submission 383.

[269] Forde, p.92; Coldrey, p.32.

[270] Coldrey, p.36.

[271] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, pp.9-10.

[272] Coldrey, p.31.

[273] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.113 (Mr Peter Quinn).

[274] Submission 246, p.14.

[275] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.74.

[276] Forde, p.92.

[277] Forde, p.93.

[278] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, pp.81, 84.

[279] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.16.

[280] Submission 207, p.7 (Ms Gaffney).

[281] Submission 22, p.17 (CLAN).

[282] Submission 22, p.17 (CLAN).

[283] Submission 207, p.8 (Ms Gaffney).

[284] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.89.

[285] See also Submission 67, p.7 (AIFS).

[286] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.63.

[287] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.51.

[288] Committee Hansard 4.2.03, p.57.

[289] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.15.

[290] Committee Hansard 11.11.03.

[291] Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.39.

[292] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.10 (HAN).

[293] Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.37.

[294] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.69.

[295] Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Our Homeless Children, Report of the National Inquiry into Homeless Children, February 1989 (Chairman: Mr Brian Burdekin), pp.109-117.

[296] Submission 167, p.4 (VANISH) citing 'Streets and Beyond - An Alienated Youth', Alex McDonald (1980s).

[297] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.52.

[298] Committee Hansard 13.11.03, p.22.

[299] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.104.

[300] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.10 (HAN).

[301] Confidential Submission 24.

[302] Submission 347, extract from Who Will Look After the Children? JAS Australia's Public Intellectual Forum, UQP, No.59, p.21.

[303] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.30 (Positive Justice Centre).

[304] Kids First Foundation, The Cost of Child Abuse and Neglect in Australia, 2003. See also Submission 305, p.1 (Abused Child Trust).

[305] McGurk H, The Economic Cost of Child Abuse and Neglect in South Australia, Office of Families and Children and Australian Institute of Family Studies, Adelaide, 1998.

[306] Submission 49, p.12 (CBERSS).

[307] Sun-Herald, 'Victims of sex abuse refusing Pap tests', 16.11.03, p.35.

[308] Gil-Rivas V, Fiorentine R & Anglin MD, 'Sexual abuse, physical abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder among women participating in outpatient drug abuse treatment', Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 28(1), 1996, p.95.

[309] Committee Hansard 4.3.04, p.31 (Positive Justice Centre). See also Submission 68, pp. 5-6 (Association of Childrens Welfare Agencies).

[310] Colvin K, The Women and Poverty Report 'More than half - less than equal', Victorian Council of Social Services, October 2001, p.15.

[311] Lynch L, Buckman MJ & Krenske L, 'Youth Justice: Criminal Trajectories', Australian Institute of Criminology: trends and issues, No 265, Sept 2003, p.2.

[312] Austeal P, 'Don't talk, don't trust, don't feel', Alternative Law Journal, 19(2), 1994, pp.185-89.

[313] Butler TB et al, 'Childhood sexual abuse among Australian prisoners', Venereology, 14(3), 2001, pp.109-15.

[314] Submission 35, p.11.

[315] Submission 35, p.11.

[316] Submission 35, p.11.

[317] Submission 35, p.11.

[318] Submission 35, p.11 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[319] Submission 412, p.7.

[320] Submission 371, p.10.

[321] Senate Standing Committee on Social Welfare, Children in Institutional and Other Forms of Care, June 1985, p.8.

[322] Children in Institutional and Other Forms of Care, p.9.

[323] Submission 173, pp.4-7 (Victorian Government).

[324] Submission 47, p.25 (Mr McIntosh).

[325] Submission 55, p.14 (WA Department for Community Development).

[326] Extract from the Annual Report of the Child Welfare Department 1951 in Submission 55, Attachment 9 (WA Department for Community Development).

[327] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.19 (Ms Gaffney).

[328] Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Forde Report), 1999 p.35. See also Submission 31, p.2 (Relationships Australia - Queensland).

[329] Submission 71, p.24 (CWA).

[330] Submission 52, p.10 (UnitingCare Victoria & Tasmania).

[331] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.87.

[332] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.25.

[333] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.18.

[334] Submission 173, p.5 (Victorian Government).

[335] Submission 173, pp.5, 18 (Victorian Government).

[336] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, pp.117-118 (Mr Quinn).

[337] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.14 (Ms Gaffney). See also Submission 173, p.5 (Victorian Government).

[338] Submission 47, pp.29-30 (Mr McIntosh).

[339] Submission 55, Attachment 10 (WA Department for Community Development).

[340] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.31.

[341] Lost Innocents, p.110.

[342] Submissions 68, p.8 (ACWA); 44, p.2 (Professor Goddard).

[343] Forde Inquiry, p.97.

[344] Submission 329, pp.5-6. The submission noted that the reference to the 'Minister' was probably a reference to a high ranking official from the welfare department.

[345] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.25.

[346] Submission 55, p.14 (WA Department for Community Development).

[347] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, pp.108, 110 (Mr Quinn).

[348] Submission 40, p.24 (Dr Coldrey).

[349] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.25.

[350] See, for example, Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.38 (Broken Rites).

[351] Submission 173, p.3 (Victorian Government).

[352] Committee Hansard 12.11.3, p.38 (Broken Rites).

[353] Submission 55, p.12 (WA Department for Community Development).

[354] Submission 55, p.14 (WA Department for Community Development).

[355] Submission 46, p.1 (Salvation Army).

[356] Submission 37, p.3 (Barnardos).

[357] Submission 71, p.5 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[358] Submission 65, pp.1,6 (Christian Brothers).

[359] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.55-56 (Christian Brothers).

[360] Submission 50, p.2 (MacKillop Family Services).

[361] Submission 52, p.8 (UnitingCare Victoria and Tasmania). No homes operated in Tasmania under the auspices of the Church.

[362] Submission 178, p.12 (Wesley Mission).

[363] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.62-63 (Anglicare Victoria).

[364] Submission 59, p.7 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[365] Submission 30, p.2 (UPA).

[366] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.7 (UPA).

[367] Submission 160, p.5 (Mofflyn).

[368] Alter S, Apologising for Serious Wrongdoing: Social, Psychological and Legal Considerations, Law Commission of Canada, 1999, p.2.

[369] Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Healing: A Legacy of Generations, November 2000, pp.111-12.

[370] Queensland Government, Queensland Government Response to Recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions, August 1999, p.41.

[371] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.13 (WA Department for Community Development).

[372] Submission 55, p.34 (WA Department for Community Development).

[373] Submission 173, p.22 (Victorian Government).

[374] Alter, pp.8-11, 36-38.

[375] 'The Response of the Irish Government to Past Institutional Child Abuse' at www.publications.parliament.uk; and www.politics.ie

[376] Alter, pp.8, 36-37.

[377] Statement of Sisters of Mercy Central Leadership Team, 5.5.04 at www.mercyworld.org. See also 'Orders testify at abuse commission', RTE News, 30.6.04.

[378] Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Towards Healing, June 2003, p.1 at www.catholic.org.au

[379] Submission 46, Supplementary Information, 8.6.04 (Salvation Army).

[380] 'Riverview abuse: Salvos say sorry', The Queensland Times, 17.6.04.

[381] Submissions 286, pp.5-6; Additional Information, 13.8.04; 336, pp.3-7.

[382] Submission 46, Supplementary Information, 8.6.04 (Salvation Army). (emphasis added).

[383] Submission 46, p.2 (Salvation Army).

[384] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.24 (Barnardos).

[385] Submission 37, p.6 (Barnardos).

[386] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.25 (Wesley Mission).

[387] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.4 (Wesley Mission).

[388] Submission 178, Supplementary Information, 29.6.04 (Wesley Mission).

[389] Submission 30, p.2 (UPA).

[390] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.25-26 (Burnside).

[391] Submission 52, Supplementary Information, 11.6.04 (UnitingCare Victoria & Tasmania).

[392] Submission 52, p.11 (UnitingCare Victoria & Tasmania).

[393] Alter, p.7.

[394] Alter, pp.1-16.

[395] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.18.

[396] Committee Hansard 13.11.03, p.2.

[397] Submission 49, p.18 (CBERSS).

[398] Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.119 (Broadening Horizons).

[399] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.68.

[400] Submission 61, p.19 (Mercy Community Services).

[401] For a discussion see Submission 49, p.18 (CBERSS).

[402] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.25 (Wesley Mission); Submission 59, p.17 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[403] NSW Ombudsman, Apologies and Child Protection, Child Protection Fact Sheet No 11, April 2003.

[404] Submission 51, Supplementary Information, p.3 (Professor Graycar). See also Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.98 (Ms Wangmann).

[405] Submission 167, p.5 (VANISH).

[406] Submission 158, p.11 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[407] Submission 70, p.3 (National Children's & Youth Law Centre). See also Submission 277, pp.7-8 (Office of the Commissioner for Children - Tasmania).

[408] Submission 22, p.32 (CLAN).

[409] Submission 79, p.16 (Broken Rites).

[410] Submission 219, p.6.

[411] Submissions 147, pp.5-6 (Professor Cunneen); 51, pp.8-9 (Professor Graycar).

[412] Submission 79, p.6 (Broken Rites).

[413] Submission 65, p.5 (Christian Brothers).

[414] Submission 79, p.9 (Broken Rites).

[415] Submission 159, p.8 (Forde Foundation).

[416] 'Salvos pay for abuse to ex-ward', The West Australian, 5.7.04; 'Salvos sorry for abuse', Sun Herald, 7.6.04; 'Salvos make abuse payout' Queensland Times, 24.6.04.

[417] Submissions 51, pp.3-8 (Professor Graycar); 300, pp.1-35 (Dr Mathews). Similar problems were cited with respect to the Stolen Generations' civil litigation claims. See Submission 147 (Professor Cunneen).

[418] Submissions 51, pp.4-5 (Professor Graycar); 295, pp.1-2 (Ms Sdrinis); 159, p.8 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation); 35, p.17 (NSW Commission for Children & Young People). See also Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.90 (Professor Graycar).

[419] Submission 300, p.5 (Dr Mathews).

[420] 'Nine held after child-sex squad raids', The Age, 21.6.04.

[421] Submissions 51, p.4 (Professor Graycar); 300, pp.3-5 (Dr Mathews).

[422] Submission 300, p.23 (Dr Mathews).

[423] Submission 300, p.23 (Dr Mathews).

[424] Submission 49, pp.7-9 (CBERSS).

[425] Submission 300, p.25 (Dr Mathews).

[426] Submission 346, p.1 (Mr Owen).

[427] Submissions 51, p.5 (Professor Graycar); 300, pp.18-19 (Dr Mathews).

[428] 'Church facing mega-suit', at www.sfgate.com. The Los Angeles Catholic archdiocese is seeking to join a challenge to the Californian state law on the statute of limitations arguing that it has been placed in an untenable position of having to defend itself against sexual abuse allegations now up to 70 years old. See www.signonsandiego.com

[429] Submission 51, p.5 (Professor Graycar).

[430] Submission 295, pp.2-3 (Ms Sdrinis).

[431] The High Court was asked to decide whether or not the school authorities had breached their duty of care in relation to children who had been sexually assaulted in a day school or whether vicarious liability was the correct way to approach the issue. One witness noted that 'the High Court by majority decided that vicarious liability was the most appropriate way to deal with it. But when you look at the judgements...the way in which each of the judges that adopts vicarious liability approaches the issue of child sexual assault shows a number of limitations about whether or not vicarious liability would be found'. Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.89 (Ms Wangmann).

[432] Submission 295, pp.3-4 (Ms Sdrinis).

[433] Submission 295, p.4 (Ms Sdrinis). See also Submission 79, p.18 (Broken Rites). See also Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, August 2001, pp.311-315.

[434] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.37 (Mercy Community Services).

[435] Submissions 51, p.6 (Professor Graycar); 295, p.5 (Ms Sdrinis).

[436] Submission 295, p.5 (Ms Sdrinis). See also Submission 164, p.4 (Whistleblowers Action Group).

[437] Submissions 51, p.6 (Professor Graycar); 159, p.8 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[438] Submission 144, p.1.

[439] Submission 116, p.1.

[440] Submission 295, p.5 (Ms Sdrinis).

[441] Submission 79, p.17 (Broken Rites).

[442] Submission 79, p.18 (Broken Rites).

[443] 'Abuse settlement reached' ABC News, 9.9.03; 'Seattle archdiocese to pay $8 million', MSNBC News Service, 11.9.03.

[444] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.41 (CLAN).

[445] See for example Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp. 9-11 (Dr Coldrey).

[446] For a summary of these inquiries, and a background to the development of whistleblowing legislation in Australia, see Senate Finance and Public Administration Legislation Committee, Report on the Public Interest Disclosure Bill 2001 [2002], Appendix 5, p95, September 2002.

[447] Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services, Report on the CLERP (Audit Reform and Corporate Disclosure) Bill 2003, Part 1 - ‘Enforcement, executive remuneration, continuous disclosure, shareholder participation and related matters’, June 2004.

[448] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp. 36-7 (Mercy Community Services).

[449] Catholic Church in Australia, Submission to the Board of Taxation on the Definition of a Charity, October 2003, p.5.

[450] Note that some entities may choose incorporation as a company limited by guarantee in which case the Corporations Law would become applicable. They would presumably therefore be subject to the new whistleblower provisions in the Act.

[451] The question of whether a particular entity qualifies as a charity is a separate issue to the entity’s corporate structure.

[452] Submissions 22, p.34 (CLAN); 300, p.ii (Dr Mathews). See also Submissions 70, p.5 (National Children's & Youth Law Centre); 277, p. 8 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[453] Senate Hansard, 21.6.04, p.24056.

[454] Cited in Submission 51, pp.9-10 (Professor Graycar).

[455] Buti A, 'International Law Obligations to Provide Reparations for Human Rights Abuses' at www.murdoch.edu.au, pp.2-4.

[456] Cited in Buti, pp.2-3.

[457] The information on Canadian redress schemes is largely drawn from Submission 51, pp.10-13 (Professor Graycar); and Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.88-89 (Ms Wangmann).

[458] Submission 22, Supplementary Information, 9.7.04 (CLAN).

[459] Information on the Irish scheme was drawn largely from RIRB, Annual Report 2003; and Submissions 51, pp.13-14 (Professor Graycar); 300, pp.42-43 (Dr Mathews).

[460] Submissions 300, p.43 (Dr Mathews); 51, p.14 (Professor Graycar).

[461] Residential Institutions Redress Board, Annual Report 2003, p.18.

[462] RIRB Annual Report, pp.10,18.

[463] 'Abuse claims double original estimate', RTE News, 8.7.04 at www.rte.ie

[464] Submission 22, Supplementary Information, 9.7.04 (CLAN). A local call number - 1300 308 478 - has been established in Australia for abuse survivors who wish to make claims under the scheme. People contacting the number will then be contacted by an Irish-based legal team who will provide advice in the application process.

[465] Submission 295, p.7 (Ms Sdrinis).

[466] 'Victim protests over redress board hearing', The Irish Times, 16.4.04.

[467] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.88-89 (Ms Wangmann).

[468] Premier of Tasmania, the Hon J Bacon MHA, Additional Information, 11.11.03; Submission 300, pp.43-45 (Dr Mathews).

[469] Tasmanian Government, Additional Information, 29.6.04.

[470] Submissions 219, p.6; 78, p.1. See also Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.3-29 (Historical Abuse Network/Esther Centre).

[471] 'Forde Inquiry victims call for compo', AAP, 2.6.04.

[472] Historical Abuse Network, Charter for Redress, Additional Information, 12.3.04.

[473] Queensland Government, Response to Recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions, August 1999, p.43.

[474] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.90 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[475] Cited in Submission 159, p.6 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[476] 'Catholics offer $2.1 million over child abuse', The Age, 25.9.03.

[477] Bringing them home, pp.302-313.

[478] Buti A, 'Bridge Over Troubled Australian Waters' at www.murdoch.edu.au, p.13.

[479] Buti, Bridge Over, p.13.

[480] Buti, Bridge Over, p.13.

[481] 'Church watchdog reviews Towards Healing protocol', Catholic Weekly, 13.7.03.

[482] National Committee for Professional Standards, personal communication, 3.8.04.

[483] Archdiocese of Melbourne, personal communication, 27.7.04. The Archdiocese has received a total of 115 complaints since 1996 (as at December 2001). These complaints mainly involve clergy in parish settings. See 'US campaigner calls church to account', The Age, 9.7.04.

[484] Submission 46, Supplementary Information, 8.6.04 (Salvation Army).

[485] Submission 59, p.9 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[486] Submission 178, p.12 (Wesley Mission).

[487] Submission 30, pp.1-2 (UPA).

[488] Barnardos, personal communication, 29.7.04.

[489] Submission 37, p.4 (Barnardos).

[490] Submission 160, p.6 (Mofflyn).

[491] 'Church watchdog reviews Towards Healing protocol', The Catholic Weekly, 13.7.03.

[492] Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Towards Healing, June 2003 at www.catholic.org.au

[493] Submissions 216, pp.1-12; 348, pp.1-15.

[494] Submission 93, p.1. See also Submission 249, pp.1-2.

[495] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.47 (Fr Dethlefs).

[496] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.48 (Fr Dethlefs).

[497] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.108.

[498] Submission 295, p.5 (Ms Sdrinis).

[499] Submission 93, p.5.

[500] Altobelli T, 'Institutional processes for dealing with allegations of child sexual abuse', Paper presented at the Australian Institute of Criminology Conference, May 2003, p.11; and Supplementary Information, 4.6.04.

[501] Altobelli, pp.9, 11-12; and Supplementary Information, 4.6.04.

[502] Submission 79, p.17 (Broken Rites).

[503] Submission 144, p.2.

[504] Salvation Army, Procedures for Complaints of Sexual and Other Abuse Against Salvationists and Workers, November 1996.

[505] Submission 336, p.7. See also Submission 286, Additional Information, 13.8.04.

[506] Submission 37, Supplementary Information, 17.6.04 (Barnardos).

[507] NSW Uniting Church, Additional Information, 1.7.04.

[508] NSW Uniting Church, Additional Information, 5.7.04.

[509] Submission 59, pp.21-22 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[510] Submission 178, Additional Information, 29.6.94 (Wesley Mission).

[511] Submission 79, p.18 (Broken Rites); 'Bishops to play no role in sex abuse inquiries', Sydney Morning Herald, 26.3.03.

[512] Anglican Church of Australia, Sexual Abuse Working Group, Work in Progress, March 2003, p.1 at www.anglican.org.au

[513] 'Anglican Church drafts new guidelines for dealing with sex offenders', AM, 6.8.04; Anglican Church of Australia, Benchmark Principles and Framework for an Abuse Protocol at www.anglican.org.au

[514] Submission 59, p.10 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[515] Some members of the Stolen Generations in Victoria have successfully made claims under the criminal injuries compensation scheme for sexual assaults and were awarded approximately $4 000 each. However, not all claims succeed. See Submission 147, p.31 (Professor Cunneen).

[516] Submission 147, pp.31-32 (Professor Cunneen); Australian Institute of Criminology, Victims' Needs, Victims' Rights, 1999, pp.133-147.

[517] Submission 94, p.19.

[518] Submission 116, p.1.

[519] Submission 116, Additional Information, pp.2-20.

[520] Submissions 22, p.28 (CLAN); 79, p.18 (Broken Rites). See also Submissions 64, p.1; 145, p.3; 249, p.2; 280, p.6.

[521] Submissions 336, p.7; 385, pp.23-24.

[522] Submission 22, p.28 (CLAN). See also Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.35 (Broken Rites).

[523] Submission 176, p.1 (Bravehearts). See also Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.77-82 (Bravehearts).

[524] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.43 (Broken Rites).

[525] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.83 (Bravehearts).

[526] Ransley J, 'The powers of royal commissions and controls over them', in Weller P, ed. Royal Commissions and the Making of Public Policy, CAPSM, 1994, p.22.

[527] Parliamentary Library, Examples of Public Sector Inquiries: Commonwealth Paedophile Inquiry, Research Paper no.9, 1996-97, p.8.

[528] Ransley, p.24.

[529] Parliamentary Library, pp.8-9.

[530] Chamley W, 'Exposing a shameful past', Courier Mail, May 2003.

[531] Submission 225, p.5.

[532] Cited in Submission 40, p.28 (Dr Coldrey).

[533] Submission 326, p.3.

[534] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.91.

[535] Submission 79, p.6 (Broken Rites).

[536] Submission 385, p.1.

[537] Submission 40, p.28 (Dr Coldrey).

[538] Submission 355, p.1 (Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse Trust).

[539] Submission 355, p.1 (Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse Trust).

[540] Submission 144, p.2. See also Submission 288, p.1.

[541] Submission 40, pp.27-28 (Dr Coldrey).

[542] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.2 (Dr Coldrey). See also Submission 40, pp.47-50 (Dr Coldrey).

[543] Submission 79, p.8 (Broken Rites).

[544] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.3 (Dr Coldrey). See also Submission 40, pp.50-52 (Dr Coldrey).

[545] Confidential Submission 32.

[546] Submissions 33, 68, p.3 (Association of Childrens Welfare Agencies).

[547] Submission 50, p.8 (MacKillop Family Services).

[548] See also Lost Innocents, p.137 and Bringing them home, p. 203.

[549] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.6.

[550] Submission 50, p.4 (MacKillop Family Services).

[551] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.31.

[552] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.99.

[553] Submission 50, p.7 (MacKillop Family Services).

[554] Committee Hansard 13.11.03, p.25.

[555] Boyce J, For the Record: Background Information on the Work of the Anglican Church with Aboriginal Children and Directory of Anglican Agencies providing residential care to children from 1830 to 1980, Anglicare, p.12.

[556] Submission 18, p.38.

[557] Submission 50, p.5 (MacKillop Family Services).

[558] Submission 61, p.11 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[559] For the Record, p. 15.

[560] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.46 (UnitingCare).

[561] Submission 207, p.5 (Ms Gaffney).

[562] Submission 22, p.11 (CLAN).

[563] For the Record, p.11.

[564] Personal communication, Campsie Central Library.

[565] Submission 71, pp.21-22 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[566] Public Record Office Victoria, Additional Information, 15.7.04.

[567] Submission 63, Orphans of the Living, p.58 (Dr Penglase).

[568] Submission 55, Additional Information 18.4.04 (WA Department for Community Development).

[569] Committee Hansard 9.12.04, pp.2-3 (WA Department for Community Development).

[570] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.7-8 (WA Department for Community Development).

[571] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.26 (MacKillop Family Services).

[572] Submission 61, p.11; Committee Hansard 9.12.04, p.25 (Mercy Community Services).

[573] Submission 338, Attachment 14.3.04.

[574] Submission 66, Attachment 4 (WA Department for Community Development).

[575] Committee Hansard 9.12.04, p.6 (WA Department for Community Development).

[576] The Advertiser, 'Lost hopes: adoption papers destroyed', 12.7.04, Submission 22, Additional Information 13.7.04 (CLAN).

[577] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.49 (CLAN).

[578] For the Record, p.18.

[579] Submission 22, p.11 (CLAN).

[580] Committee Hansard 13.11.03, p.21.

[581] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.46 (UnitingCare).

[582] Submission 22, p.11 (CLAN).

[583] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.48 (CLAN).

[584] Submission 22, p.12 (CLAN).

[585] Submission 61, p.11 (Mercy Community Services).

[586] Submission 30, p.1 (UPA).

[587] For the Record, pp.17-18.

[588] Submission 71, p.17 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[589] Submission 61, p.10 (Mercy Community Services).

[590] Submission 22, Additional Information, 22.1.04 (CLAN).

[591] Submission 22, p.11 (CLAN).

[592] Submission 50, p.11 (MacKillop Family Services).

[593] Submission 22, Additional Information 4.7.04 (CLAN).

[594] Submission 50, p.8 (MacKillop Family Services).

[595] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.11 (Wesley Mission Dalmar).

[596] Submission 61, p.4 (Mercy Community Services).

[597] Submission 33, Supplementary Submission, p.3.

[598] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.41 (Broken Rites).

[599] Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.48.

[600] Submission 22, Additional Information 24.6.04 (CLAN).

[601] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.47.

[602] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.33.

[603] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.4.

[604] Bringing them home, pp.332-33.

[605] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.8.

[606] Submission 22, Additional Information 31.7.04 (CLAN).

[607] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, pp.15-16.

[608] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.29 (MacKillop Family Services).

[609] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.31 (MacKillop Family Services).

[610] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.29 (MacKillop Family Services).

[611] Submission 167, p.7 (VANISH).

[612] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.106.

[613] Bringing them home, p.341.

[614] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.56 (Relationships Australia).

[615] Submission 22, Additional Information 22.1.04 (CLAN).

[616] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.41.

[617] Submission 22, Additional Information 3.8.04 (CLAN).

[618] Submission 53, p.6 (Post Adoption Resource Centre - The Benevolent Society).

[619] Submission 49, p.19 (CBERSS).

[620] Submission 22, p.27 (CLAN).

[621] Submissions 68, p.12 (Association of Child Welfare Agencies); 52, p.13 (UnitingCare Victoria and Tasmania).

[622] Submission 22, p.28 (CLAN).

[623] Submissions 68, p.12 (Association of Child Welfare Agencies); 52, p.13 (UnitingCare Victoria and Tasmania).

[624] Submission 61, p.1 (Mercy Community Services).

[625] Lost innocents, pp.170-72.

[626] Bringing them home, pp.351-52.

[627] Submission 260, p.6.

[628] Submission 159, pp.1-5 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[629] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.99-100 (Forde Foundation).

[630] Submission 159, Supplementary Information, 10.6.04 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[631] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.90; Submission 159, Appendix 3 (Forde Foundation).

[632] Submission 31, p.1 (Relationships Australia - Queensland).

[633] Submission 173, p.20 (Victorian Government).

[634] Submission 158, p.3; Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.54-55 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[635] Submission 55, Additional Information, 13.8.04. See also Submission 55, p.35 (WA Department for Community Development).

[636] For example, the Catholic Church has initiated the Towards Healing protocol to deal with abuse complaints in institutional care and other settings and has published A Piece of the Story, which is a national directory of records of Catholic organisations caring for children in out-of-home care situations.

[637] Submission 49, pp.19-20 (CBERSS).

[638] Submission 178, p.12; Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.4 (Wesley Mission-Dalmar);

[639] Submission 59, p.9 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[640] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.10 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[641] Submission 37, p.4; Additional Information 17.6.04 (Barnardos).

[642] Submission 46, p.1 (Salvation Army).

[643] Submission 30, p.2 (UPA).

[644] The age restriction of 25 years was adopted as in most States there are services for care leavers up to the age of 25 years and an organisation - the CREATE Foundation - has been established as a support group for younger care leavers.

[645] Submission 22, p.6 (CLAN).

[646] Submission 22, p.4 (CLAN).

[647] Submission 22, pp.2-8 (CLAN).

[648] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.49 (CLAN).

[649] Submission 55, Additional Information, 13.8.04 (WA Department for Community Development).

[650] Submission 22, pp.3-4 (CLAN); Additional Information, 8.7.04 & 9.7.04. See also Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.43 (CLAN).

[651] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.45 (CLAN).

[652] Submission 22, pp.29-30; Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.46 (CLAN).

[653] Submission 30, p.2 (UPA).

[654] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.7 (UPA).

[655] Submission 158, pp.11-12 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[656] The Child Migrants Trust is an example of a specialist social work agency that provides professional services for its unique client group and has developed considerable knowledge, skill and expertise in the areas of childhood abuse and its impact on adult life and relationships. See Lost Innocents, pp.129-32 and Submission 252 (Child Migrants Trust).

[657] Submission 167, p.3; Committee Hansard 11.11.03, pp.48-49 (VANISH).

[658] Submission 259, p.1; Committee Hansard 8.12.03, pp.60-100 (WINGS).

[659] Submission 50, pp.2-9 (MacKillop Family Services).

[660] Submission 49, pp.4-6 (CBERSS).

[661] Submission 61, pp.10-12 (Mercy Community Services).

[662] Submission 79, pp.1-2, 6 (Broken Rites).

[663] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.77-78 (Bravehearts); www.bravehearts.org.au

[664] Submission 305, p.1 (Abused Child Trust); www.abusedchildtrust.com.au

[665] Submission 69, p.8; Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.57-58 (CREATE); www.create.org.au

[666] Submission 22, p.5 (CLAN).

[667] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.30 (Positive Justice Centre).

[668] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.31 (Positive Justice Centre).

[669] Submission 71, p.24 (CWA).

[670] Submission 159, p.5 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation). See also Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.88-91 (Forde Foundation).

[671] Cited in Submission 159, p.6 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[672] Submission 22, p.5 (CLAN).

[673] Esther Centre, Supplementary Information, 12.3.04.

[674] Submission 22, p.5 (CLAN).

[675] Submission 65, p.6 (Christian Brothers).

[676] Submission 22, p.5 (CLAN).

[677] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.49 (VANISH).

[678] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.44 (CLAN).

[679] Submission 158, p.9; Additional Information, 22.7.04 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[680] Submission 178, Additional Information, 5.8.04 (Wesley Mission-Dalmar). See also Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.11-12 (Wesley Mission-Dalmar).

[681] Barnardos, personal communication, 29.7.04.

[682] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.10-12.

[683] Submission 172, p.6.

[684] Submission 282, p.26.

[685] Submission 68, p.12 (ACWA).

[686] Submission 50, pp.10-11 (MacKillop Family Services).

[687] Submission 49, p.20 (CBERSS).

[688] Submissions 22, p.30 (CLAN); 167, p.5 (VANISH).

[689] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.56-57 (Relationships Australia - NSW); Submission 22, p.30 (CLAN).

[690] Submission 158, p.9 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[691] Submission 158, p.9 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[692] Submission 395, p.7.

[693] AIHW, Australia's Health 2004, p.312. See also Submission 22, Supplementary Information, 24.5.04 (CLAN).

[694] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.59 (Centacare). See also Submission 158, p.9 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[695] Submission 118, p.2 (Broadening Horizons).

[696] Submission 68, p.12 (ACWA).

[697] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.95-96 (Forde Foundation).

[698] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.96 (Forde Foundation).

[699] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.41 (Broken Rites).

[700] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.50 (CLAN).

[701] Submission 158, p.9 (Relationships Australia - NSW).

[702] Submission 159, p.5; Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.97-98 (Forde Foundation).

[703] Submission 158, p.9 (Relationships Australia - NSW). See also Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.97 (Forde Foundation).

[704] Submission 260, p.5.

[705] Submission 22, p.30 (CLAN).

[706] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.52; Submission 22, p.30 (CLAN).

[707] Submission 122, p.40 (Positive Justice Centre).

[708] AIHW, Australia's Health 2002, pp.212-13. See also Submission 159, pp.3-4 (Board of Advice of the Forde Foundation).

[709] Submission 260, pp.1-6.

[710] Submission 67, pp.7-8 (AIFS). See also Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.89-90, 100-01.

[711] Submission 67, p.7 (AIFS). See also Submission 68, pp.6-7 (ACWA).

[712] Submission 62, p.1 (Child Abuse & Adult Mental Health Action Group). See also Submission 122, pp.42-48 (Positive Justice Centre).

[713] www.mentalhealth.gov.au

[714] AIHW, pp.298-99.

[715] Beyondblue, Supplementary Information, 21.6.04.

[716] www.mentalhealth.gov.au

[717] Submission 22, p.7.

[718] Submission 403, p.1 (Ms Heycox).

[719] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.53 (CLAN).

[720] DoHA, Annual Report 2002-03, p.118.

[721] DoHA, Annual Report 2002-03, pp.115-16.

[722] Submission 167, p.4 (VANISH).

[723] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, pp.45-46 (Fr Dethlefs).

[724] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.30 (Positive Justice Centre).

[725] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.30 (Positive Justice Centre).

[726] www.detya.gov.au

[727] Submission 138, p.7.

[728] www.qstep.qut.edu.au and Submission 22, Additional information 21.6.04, 29.7.04 (CLAN)

[729] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.31 (Positive Justice Centre).

[730] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.34 (Positive Justice Centre).

[731] Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.30.

[732] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.47 (CLAN).

[733] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.69 (VANISH).

[734] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.36 (Broken Rites).

[735] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.68 (Relationships Australia (NSW).

[736] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.40 (Broken Rites).

[737] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.30-31 (Positive Justice Centre).

[738] Submission 49, p.19 (CBERSS).

[739] Submissions 175, pp.3-5 (Families Australia); 31, p.4 (Relationships Australia - Queensland).

[740] Submission 246, p.21.

[741] Submission 22, p.32 (CLAN). See also Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.48 (CLAN).

[742] Submissions 18, p.37; 359, p.13.

[743] Submission 50, p.6 (MacKillop Family Services).

[744] Submission 89, Additional Information, 22.7.04.

[745] Submission 359, p.13.

[746] Submission 18, p.37.

[747] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.12 (Ms Gandolfo).

[748] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.49; and Submission 22, p.31 (CLAN).

[749] Submission 89, Additional Information, 22.7.04.

[750] Submission 71, p.22 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[751] Submission 37, p.4 (Barnardos).

[752] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.10 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[753] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.13.

[754] Committee Hansard 3.2.04, p.44.

[755] Submission 50, pp.5-7 (MacKillop Family Services).

[756] See, for example, Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.23.

[757] Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.23.

[758] Submission 283, p.3.

[759] Committee Hansard 8.12.03, p.58.

[760] Submissions 61, p.12 (Mercy Community Services); 50, p.7 (MacKillop Family Services).

[761] Submission 59, p.9; Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.10-11 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[762] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.52-53 (CLAN).

[763] Submission 50, p.5 (MacKillop Family Services).

[764] Submission 47, p.9 (Mr McIntosh). The study interviewed former residents of three orphanages in Melbourne. The former residents were aged in their middle thirties and were asked to remember their lives as children in these institutions.

[765] Submission 47, p.15 (Mr McIntosh).

[766] www.nla.gov.au

[767] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.48 (CLAN).

[768] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.48 (CLAN). See also Committee Hansard 12.11.03 (Broken Rites).

[769] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.22-23 (Ms Gaffney).

[770] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.24 (Mr McIntosh).

[771] Submission 79, p.19; Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.36 (Broken Rites).

[772] Submission 67, pp.2-4; Supplementary Information, 2.6.04 (AIFS); AIFS, Annual Report 2002-2003, pp.45-49.

[773] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.34 (CBERSS).

[774] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.29 (ACWA).

[775] Minister for Education, Science & Training, '$10 million for new university chair boosts national focus on child protection issues', Media Release, 11.5.04.

[776] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.44 (CBERSS).

[777] Submission 67, p.4 (AIFS).

[778] Submission 66, p.1 (Dr Una McCluskey).

[779] Submission 22, p.31 (CLAN). See also Submission 167, p.5 (VANISH).

[780] Submission 22, p.20 (CLAN).

[781] The submission noted that the figure of 48 000 is not exact because data for the years 1993-96 are incomplete. Some children may also have been double counted, by being received into care more than once. However, the Department noted that, with these reservations, the figure of 48 000 is probably 'fairly accurate'. Submission 173, pp.11-13 (Victorian Government).

[782] Submission 22, p.20 (CLAN).

[783] Victorian Legislative Assembly, Report of the committee of enquiry into child care services in Victoria (Norgard Report), Melbourne, 1976.

[784] Submission 55, Supplementary Information, 13.4.04, 18.6.04 (WA Department for Community Development).

[785] Submission 22, p.20 (CLAN).

[786] Submission 22, pp.20-21 (CLAN).

[787] Submission 22, Additional Information, 23.7.04 (CLAN).

[788] Submission 173, p.11 (Victorian Government).

[789] Figures include any combination of state ward and non-ward children in institutions and may include various types of out-of-home care. There would also be a degree of double counting.

[790] Does not include children who went into privately arranged placements.

[791] Submission 50, Supplementary Information, 22.6.04 (MacKillop Family Services). See also Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.26-29 (MacKillop Family Services). The figure of 63 157 includes 20 000 babies. Some of these babies were adopted out while others went into institutions. There is also some double counting among the babies who later went directly from foundling homes into orphanages.

[792] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.30-31 (MacKillop Family Services).

[793] Overall numbers of children in institutions operated by the Catholic Church are not available as institutions were run by many different Catholic orders. As well, no centralised record keeping of such numbers exists - Catholic Welfare Australia, personal communication, 2.8.04. Numbers of children from various Catholic children's institutions are included in Tables 5.9 & 5.11.

[794] Submission 160 (Mofflyn).

[795] Swain S, 'Derivative and indigenous in the history and historiography of child welfare in Australia - part one', Children Australia, vol 26, (4), 2001, p.6.

[796] Submission 22, p.22 (CLAN).

[797] Forde Report, 1999, p.i.

[798] Submission 173, pp.14-15 (Victorian Government).

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