Lost Innocents: Righting the Record - Report on child migration

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Lost Innocents: Righting the Record - Report on child migration

30 August 2001

© Commonwealth of Australia 2001
ISBN 0 642 71102 X

Download this report as a single file (PDF 7190KB)

Download this report as individual sections

Membership of the Committee (PDF 50KB)
Acronyms PDF 42KB)
Prologue PDF 40KB)
Recommendations (PDF 86KB)
Chapter 1 - Introduction (PDF 127KB)

Terms of reference
Background to the inquiry
Conduct of the inquiry
Perspectives of child migration
Delegation to the United Kingdom and Canada
Australian children in institutional care

Chapter 2 - Child migration to australia during the 20th century (PDF 282KB)

Defining ‘child migration’
British child migration – an historical overview
Child migration to Canada, Rhodesia and New Zealand
Factors influencing child migration in the 19th and early 20th century
Child migration to Australia
Commonwealth-State responsibilities
Pre-World War II migration
Post-World War II migration
Legislative basis for post-war child migration
Financial arrangements
The Catholic Church and post-war migration
Role of the United Kingdom and Australian Governments
Changing UK attitudes to the care of children
The Moss and Ross reports
Child migration from Malta

Chapter 3 - The sending to Australia (PDF 582KB)

Agencies involved in child emigration
Catholic Church agencies
Church of England
Methodist and Presbyterian Churches
Salvation Army
Institutions receiving child migrants
Consent to migration
Deception of parents and children
Children placed in care
Regulation of migration
Consent to migrate
Numbers of child migrants sent to Australia
Numbers during the 20th century
Numbers of post-World War II arrivals
Numbers of child migrants by receiving agencies
Catholic religious orders
Other organisations
Data on numbers by State

Chapter 4 - Institutional care and treatment (PDF 272KB)

Abuse in institutions
Sexual assault
The Christian Brothers: Bindoon, Castledare, Clontarf and Tardun
Other Institutions
Physical assault
Psychological abuse
Bed wetting
Secondary abuse
Food and clothing
Working conditions
Types of work performed by child migrants
Government financing of capital work - Bindoon
Wages while training at institutions
Work to financially support institutions
Outside employment, wages and trust monies
Exploitation of children in work
Deaths at institutions
Long-term effects of abuse
Factors contributing to neglect and abuse
Prevailing norms

Chapter 5 - Responsiblity and reparations (PDF 687KB)

Role and responsibility of governments and non-government bodies
Visits and inspections
Adequacy of institutional funding
Duty of care
Western Australia – Christian Brothers and the Catholic Church
Brother Keaney
The Catholic Church
Queensland - Neerkol
Measures of reparation
Providing measures of reparation
Funding measures of reparation
Child Migrants Trust and other support groups
The Child Migrants Trust
The Trust’s work in Australia
Funding of the Trust
C-BERS and other Church services
International Association of Former Child Migrants and Their Families
Child Migrant Friendship Society of Western Australia

Chapter 6 - The search for identity (PDF 977KB)

Attitudes to family contact
Record keeping practices
Attitudes to the release of information and impact on tracing
Restricting access to records and information
Changing attitudes to information release
Falsification of information
Access to records
Records held in Britain
Australian records
State Government Records
Non-government Organisations
The Child Migrants Trust
Catholic Church Organisations
Outstanding access and tracing issues
Additional funding
Sharing information
Access to records by families of child migrants
National Archives of Canada

Chapter 7 - Travel and reunions (PDF 1754KB)

Benefit of reunions
Current travel assistance arrangements
Child Migrant Support Fund
C-BERS Services – travel assistance
Numbers assisted
Limitations of the UK scheme
Unmet need for travel assistance
An Australian travel fund
Supplementation for the UK scheme
Improving coordination

Chapter 8 - Services required by former child migrants (PDF 320KB)

Need for counselling
Specialised counselling services
Counselling services provided to former child migrants
Accommodation and aged care – now and in the future
Accommodation needs
Future aged care needs
Social security entitlements
Temporary absences
Other issues
Remedial education

Chapter 9 - Legal actions and limitation periods (PDF 330KB)

Legal options open to former child migrants
Civil proceedings
Criminal proceedings
Impact on actions
Criminal proceedings
Civil proceedings
Settlements received by former child migrants from receiving agencies
Christian Brothers’ settlement
Other settlements

Chapter 10 - Recognition of child migrants (PDF 650KB)

The need for recognition
Defining acknowledgment and apology
Apologies/acknowledgments to former child migrants
Views on the need for an apology
Views on an acknowledgment
Recognition of the child migrant schemes and the role of child migrants in Australia

Appendix 1 (PDF 105KB)

List of public submissions, tabled documents and other additional information authorised for publication by the committee

Appendix 2 (PDF 109KB)

Witnesses who appeared before the committee at public hearing
Meetings by members of the committee as a delegation to London and Ottawa

Appendix 3 (PDF 97KB)

List of i4 institutions receiving child migrants

Appendix 4 (PDF 143KB)

Figures on child migration during the twentieth century

Appendix 5 (PDF 196KB)

Information about and access to records of former child migrants

Appendix 6 (PDF 139KB)

The statute of limitation

Appendix 7 (PDF 200KB)

Text of apologies

Appendix 8 (PDF 81KB)