Footnotes

Footnotes

Terms of Reference

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 12 December 2013, pp 370–371.

Executive Summary

[2]        See paragraph 9.1.

[3]        Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 83.

Chapter 1 -                                Conduct of the inquiry                              

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 27 March 2014, p. 746.

[2]        Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, p. 3.

[3]        Terms of reference: www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/School_Funding/School_Funding/Terms_of_Reference.

Chapter 2 - History of Australian Government funding of schools

[1]        Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Budget Review 2014-15, May 2014, p. [1], www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/BudgetReview201415/School, (accessed on 9 June 2014).

[2]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xiv.

[3]        Mr Chris Bonnor, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2014, p. 35.

[4]        Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update March 2013, pp 2–3, http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/366868/upload_binary/366868.pdf;fileType=application/pdf#search=%222010s%22, (accessed on 9 June 2014).

[5]        Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update March 2013, p. 3.

[6]        Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update March 2013, pp 3–4.

[7]        Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update March 2013, p. 4.

[8]        Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update March 2013, p. 4.

[9]        Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, pp 4–5.

[10]      Enrolment data taken from Australian Bureau of Statistics, Publication 4221.0 – Schools Australia 2013, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4221.0Main%20Features42013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4221.0&issue=2013&num=&view, (accessed on 20 June 2014).

[11]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 5.

[12]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 6.

[13]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, pp 7–8.

[14]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 10.

[15]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 10.

[16]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 11.

[17]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, pp 8–12.

[18]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, pp 15–16.

[19]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 17.

[20]      Schools Assistance Regulations 2009, p. 15.

[21]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, pp 17–18.

[22]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, pp 18–19.

[23]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 35.

[24]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), Appendix B – Review process and consultation, December 2011, pp 228–229.

[25]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xiii.

[26]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, pp xiv–xv.

[27]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 20.

[28]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xiii.

[29]      At 2009 prices.

[30]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 36.

[31]      The five areas of reform are: Quality Teaching; Quality Learning; Empowered School Leadership; Meeting Student Need; Transparency and Accountability. For further information see: Australian Government, National Plan for School Improvement, May 2013, p. 8, www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/glossy/gonski_policy/download/NPSI.pdf, (accessed on 9 June 2014).

[32]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Australian Government Funding for Schools Explained: 2013 Update, March 2013, p. 37.

[33]      National Commission of Audit, Appendix to the National Commission of Audit Report, Volume 1, February 2014, p. 262, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/appendix-vol-1/9-7-schools-funding.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[34]      National Commission of Audit, Appendix to the National Commission of Audit Report, Volume 1, February 2014, p. 262, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/appendix-vol-1/9-7-schools-funding.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[35]      For further discussion of the findings of the NCOA, including the link between improved educational outcomes and funding and indexation of school funding see Chapters 4 and 7 respectively.

[36]      National Commission of Audit, Appendix to the National Commission of Audit Report, Volume 1, February 2014, p. 265, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/appendix-vol-1/9-7-schools-funding.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[37]      National Commission of Audit, Appendix to the National Commission of Audit Report, Volume 1, February 2014, p. 265, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/appendix-vol-1/9-7-schools-funding.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[38]      National Commission of Audit, Phase One Report, February 2014, p. 127, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/phase-one/, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[39]      National Commission of Audit, Appendix to the National Commission of Audit Report, Volume 1, February 2014, p. 267, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/appendix-vol-1/9-7-schools-funding.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[40]      National Commission of Audit, Appendix to the National Commission of Audit Report, Volume 1, February 2014, p. 268, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/appendix-vol-1/9-7-schools-funding.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[41]      'Our response to the National Commission of Audit report', Joint Media Release the Hon J.B. Hockey, Treasurer, and Senator the Hon Mathias Cormann, Minister for Finance, 13 May 2014, www.financeminister.gov.au/media/2014/mr_2014-46.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[42]      The measures in the 2014-15 Budget and the initiatives in the Abbott Government's Students First policy are discussed in detail in Chapter 6.

[43]      National Commission of Audit Recommendations, Recommendation 23, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/phase-one/recommendations.html, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[44]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 37.

[45]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 37.

[46]      'Our response to the National Commission of Audit report', Joint Media Release the Hon J.B. Hockey, Treasurer, and Senator the Hon Mathias Cormann, Minister for Finance, 13 May 2014 www.financeminister.gov.au/media/2014/mr_2014-46.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[47]      'Our response to the National Commission of Audit report', Joint Media Release the Hon J.B. Hockey, Treasurer, and Senator the Hon Mathias Cormann, Minister for Finance, 13 May 2014 www.financeminister.gov.au/media/2014/mr_2014-46.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[48]      Prime Minister, the Hon Tony Abbott MP, 'White Paper on Reform of the Federation', media release, 28 June 2014, www.pm.gov.au/media/2014-06-28/white-paper-reform-federation.

[49]      Prime Minister, the Hon Tony Abbott MP, 'White Paper on Reform of the Federation', media release, 28 June 2014.

[50]      Prime Minister, the Hon Tony Abbott MP, 'White Paper on Reform of the Federation', media release, 28 June 2014.

Chapter 3 - States and territories and school funding

[1]        Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, p. 4.4, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[2]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xv.

[3]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xv.

[4]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xv.

[5]        Mr Chris Bonnor, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May, Sydney, p. 35.

[6]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Publication 4221.0 – Schools Australia 2013, www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4221.0Main%20Features42013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4221.0&issue=2013&num=&view, (accessed on 20 June 2014).

[7]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Publication 4221.0 – Schools Australia 2013, www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4221.0Main%20Features42013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4221.0&issue=2013&num=&view, (accessed on 20 June 2014).

[8]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Publication 4221.0 – Schools Australia 2013, www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4221.0Main%20Features42013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4221.0&issue=2013&num=&view, (accessed on 20 June 2014).

[9]        Please note that the question of capital funding is not the focus of this inquiry and therefore it has not been discussed in this report.

[10]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, p. 4.4, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[11]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, p. 4.4, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[12]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, p. 4.4, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[13]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 15.

[14]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 15.

[15]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, p. 4.38, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[16]      Mr David Gillespie, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May, Sydney, p. 13.

[17]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, Table 4A.18, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[18]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, Table 4A.18, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[19]      Commonwealth Grants Commission, Schools Education (2013), p. 1.

[20]      Commonwealth Grants Commission, Schools Education (2013), p. 1.

[21]      New South Wales Government, Department of Education and Communities, 'Saving measures to meet our budget', www.det.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/about-us/news-at-det/media-centre/media-releases/yr2012/savingmeasurestomeetbudget.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[22]      Mark Kenny, Josephine Tovey, Daniel Hurst, 'Gonski reforms O'Farrell secures extra $3.3b – NSW leads the way', Sydney Morning Herald, 24 April 2013.

[23]      See Appendix 4.

[24]      New South Wales Government, Department of Education and Communities, 'Resource allocation model', http://www.dec.nsw.gov.au/about-the-department/our-reforms/local-schools-local-decisions/reform-agenda/resource-allocation-model (accessed 20 June 2014).

[25]      Alexandra Smith, 'Mike Baird to maintain push for full Gonski funding', Sydney Morning Herald, 29 April 2014, www.smh.com.au/national/education/mike-baird-to-maintain-push-for-full-gonski-funding-20140429-zr1at.html (accessed 20 June 2014).

[26]      A copy of the breakdown information is at Appendix 4.

[27]      Evonne Barry, 'State schools take a hit', Herald Sun, 2 May 2012, p. 6; Evonne Barry, 'Students face cuts', Herald Sun, 25 May 2012, p. 10, Jewel Topsfield, 'Schools set to suffer as budget cuts hit hard', The Age, 30 January 2013, p. 3.

[28]      Emma Griffiths, 'Budget 2014: States accuse Federal Government of forcing them to push for GST hike', ABC News Online, 15 May 2014, www.abc.net.au/news/2014-05-14/budget-2014-states-react-to-health-and-education-cuts/5452234 (accessed 20 June 2014).

[29]      The Hon Mr Martin Dixon MP, Minister for Education, Parliament of Victoria Public Accounts and Estimates Committee Hansard, 13 May 2014, p. 5.

[30]      The Hon Mr Martin Dixon MP, Minister for Education, Parliament of Victoria Public Accounts and Estimates Committee Hansard, 13 May 2014, pp 5–6.

[31]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education' South Australia's education cuts expose Labor hypocrisy', media release, 2 December 2013; Tory Shepherd, 'Ministers bicker over education cuts claim', Adelaide Advertiser, 4 December 2013, p. 2.

[32]      Mr Tony Harrison, South Australian Department of Education and Child Development, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 6.

[33]      Mr Tony Harrison, South Australian Department of Education and Child Development, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 7.

[34]      Mr Tony Harrison, South Australian Department of Education and Child Development, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 7.

[35]      Mr Tony Harrison, South Australian Department of Education and Child Development, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 9.

[36]      Tasmanian Government, Budget Paper No 2, 2011-12, Government Services, Volume 1, p. 3.5, www.treasury.tas.gov.au/domino/dtf/dtf.nsf/LookupFiles/2011-12_BP2_Volume_1.pdf/$file/2011-12_BP2_Volume_1.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[37]      Mr Colin Pettit, Secretary Department of Education Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 29.

[38]      Australian Government, Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook 2013-14, December 2013, www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/myefo/html/08_attachment_e.htm (accessed 20 June 2014).

[39]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation. Table is reproduced from the table in each letter.

[40]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation.

[41]      Queensland Government, State budget 2012–13: budget measures: budget paper no. 4, http://budget.qld.gov.au/budget-papers/2012-13/bp4-2012-13.pdf, (accessed 18 June 2014),        p. 5.

[42]      Queensland Government, State budget 2012–13: budget measures: budget paper no. 4, http://budget.qld.gov.au/budget-papers/2012-13/bp4-2012-13.pdf, (accessed 18 June 2014),          p. 40.

[43]      Justine Ferrari, 'Do the maths: states cut as Gonski gives', The Australian, 13 September 2013.

[44]      Queensland Teacher' Union, Devils emerge from education budget detail, Media Release, 12 September 2012.

[45]      Western Australian Government, Department of Education, Changes to public school funding frequently asked questions, http://det.wa.edu.au/schoolsandyou/detcms/schoolsandyou/schools-and-you/news/facts-on-changes-to-education-assistants-in-public-schools.en (accessed 18 June 2014).

[46]      The Hon. Peter Collier, Minister for Education Western Australia, 'School reforms to deliver equity and efficiency', Media release, 20 August 2013.

[47]      Mr Gareth Parker, ' School Axe: Teacher freeze and less help in education squeeze', West Australian, 21 August 2013; Bethany Hiatt, 'Schools warn of savage cuts', West Australian, 23 August 2013.

[48]      Document tabled by the Senate Select Committee on School Funding, at the public hearing in Perth on 29 April 2014: Correspondence from the Western Australian Department of Education regarding the Senate Select Committee on School Funding's public hearing on 29 April 2014.

[49]      Ms Nicole Mills, 'Teachers protest at student ration move', Northern Territory News, 4 May 2013.

[50]      Northern Territory Government, 2013–14 Northern Territory budget: budget paper no. 3: agency budget statements, www.treasury.nt.gov.au/PMS/Publications/BudgetFinance/BudgetPapers/I-BP03-1314.pdf (accessed 18 June 2014), p. 191.

Chapter 4 - The economic effect of school funding policy

[1]        David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, p. 10.

[2]        David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, pp. 11-12.

[3]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xxix.

[4]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, Recommendations and Findings.

[5]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 19.

[6]        OECD, 'Education: crisis reinforces importance of a good education, says OECD', media release, 13 September 2011, www.oecd.org/newsroom/educationcrisisreinforcesimportanceofagoodeducationsaysoecd.htm.

[7]        OECD, 'Education: crisis reinforces importance of a good education, says OECD', media release, 13 September 2011.

[8]        OECD, 'Education: crisis reinforces importance of a good education, says OECD', media release, 13 September 2011.

[9]        OECD, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation – CERI, Improving Health and Social Cohesion through Education, www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/improvinghealthandsocialcohesionthrougheducation.htm.

[10]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 105.

[11]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 105.

[12]      David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, p.19.

[13]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011,            p. 108.

[14]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011,               p. xiv.

[15]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xv.

[16]      Professor Henry Ergas, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2014, p. 58.

[17]      Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, answer to question on notice, 16 May 2014, p. 1.

[18]      Jennifer Buckingham, 'School Funding on a Budget (T30.09), Centre for Independent Studies, p. 11, www.cis.org.au/images/stories/target30/t30.09.pdf.

[19]      Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, answer to question on notice, 16 May 2014, pp 4–5.

[20]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 13.

[21]      David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, pp. 11-12.

[22]      National Commission of Audit, Appendix to the National Commission of Audit Report, Volume 1, February 2014, p. 262, www.ncoa.gov.au/report/appendix-vol-1/9-7-schools-funding.html, (accessed 9 June 2014).

[23]      OECD (2013), Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2013-en

[24]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 109.

[25]      Mr David Adamson, Principal of the Essendon Keilor College, Melbourne Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 53.

[26]      Ms Karen Money, Principal of William Ruthven Secondary College, Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 54.

[27]      Mr Kevin Bates, President, Queensland Teachers' Union, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2014,       p. l.

[28]      Mrs Gail McHardy, Executive Officer, Parents Victoria Inc, Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 38.

[29]      Mr Rob Nairn, Executive Director, Australian Secondary Principals Association, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, pp 22–23.

[30]      Mr Wayne Bull, Principal, La Salle College, Western Australia, Committee Hansard,                  29 April 2014, p. 25.

[31]      Mr Warwick Dean, Principal, Hutchins School, Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 4 April 2014, pp 41–42.

[32]      Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 5.

Chapter 5 - Rudd/Gillard Governments' school funding reforms

[1]        Commonwealth of Australia, National Plan for School Improvement, May 2013, p. 3.

[2]        Australian Government, Better Schools: A National Plan for School Improvement, p. 1.

[3]        Australian Government, Better Schools: A National Plan for School Improvement, pp 1–2.

[4]        Australian Government, Better Schools: A National Plan for School Improvement, p. 3.

[5]        Australian Government, Better Schools: A National Plan for School Improvement, p. 4.

[6]        Australian Government, Better Schools: A National Plan for School Improvement, p. 5.

[7]        Australian Government, Better Schools: A National Plan for School Improvement, p. 13.

[8]        Australian Education Bill 2013, Revised Explanatory Memorandum, p. 2.

[9]        A copy of the Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement (NERA) is included at Appendix 5.

[10]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 2.

[11]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 35.

[12]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 35.

[13]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 2.

[14]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 36.

[15]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, former Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 34.

[16]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xiv.

[17]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xvi.

[18]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, former Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 6.

[19]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 157.

[20]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xxii.

[21]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 3.

[22]      Department of Education, Submission 43, p. 6

[23]      Department of Education, Submission  43, p. 7

[24]      Australian Education Act 2013, s. 32 and Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, provisions 10 and 105 (Appendix 5).

[25]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, p. 2.

[26]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 3.

[27]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 2.

[28]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, pp 3–4.

[29]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, former Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 6.

[30]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 4.

[31]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, pp 4–5.

[32]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, p. 27          (Appendix 5). For further information on the Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage (ICSEA) see the 'MySchool Fact Sheet', www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Fact_Sheet_-_About_ICSEA.pdf or the 'MySchool Guide to Understanding ICSEA' www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Guide_to_understanding_ICSEA.pdf. See also Australian Education Act 2013, s. 38.

[33]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, former Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 13.

[34]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, p. 27               (Appendix 5). See also Australian Education Act 2013, s. 37.

[35]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, former Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 15.

[36]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, p. 27               (Appendix 5). See also Australian Education Act 2013, s. 39.

[37]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, p. 27            (Appendix 5). See also Australian Education Act 2013, s. 36.

[38]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, p. 28               (Appendix 5). See also Australian Education Act 2013, ss 42–51.

[39]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 6.

[40]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, p. 28          (Appendix 5). See also Australian Education Act 2013, ss 40–41. Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 10.

[41]      Ms Louise Hanlon, Group Manager, Commonwealth Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, National Plan for School Improvement and school funding reform, Presentation to Parents Forum, 17 June 2013, p. 11.

[42]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, provisions 63–65 (Appendix 5). In this context and throughout this section, 'indexed' means that the funding is nominally increased at the agreed percentage each year.

[43]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, pp 5–6.

[44]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 6.

[45]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, clauses 66–67 (Appendix 5).

[46]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, pp 6–7.

[47]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 7.

[48]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 9.

[49]      National Catholic Education Commission, Agreement on Commonwealth Government funding for Catholic schools, Media Release, 23 July 2013.

[50]      The Hon Kevin Rudd MP, Prime Minister, Catholic systemic schools to benefit from Better Schools Plan, Media Release, 23 July 2013.

[51]      Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese, Catholic school sector signs onto Gonski and keeps autonomy, Media Release, 23 July 2013.

[52]      Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese, Catholic school sector signs onto Gonski and keeps autonomy, Media Release, 23 July 2013.

[53]      Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese, Catholic school sector signs onto Gonski and keeps autonomy, Media Release, 23 July 2013.

[54]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, Shorten's shocker of a school funding mess, Media Release, 25 November 2013.

[55]      National Catholic Education Commission, Agreement on Commonwealth Government funding for Catholic schools, Media Release, 23 July 2013, p. 2.

[56]      Independent Schools Council of Australia, Independent Schools Council welcomes agreement on Better Schools, Media Release, 10 July 2013.

[57]      The Hon Kevin Rudd MP, Prime Minister, Historic agreement reached with independent schools, Media Release, 10 July 2013.

[58]      Independent Schools Council of Australia, Independent Schools Council welcomes agreement on Better Schools, Media Release, 10 July 2013.

[59]      Independent Schools Victoria, School funding — progress but schools have not signed, Media Release, 10 July 2013.

[60]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 4.

[61]      Commonwealth Department of Education, Guide to the Australian Education Act 2013, 'For government schools in non-participating states or territories', https://aeaguide.education.gov.au/content/b22-government-schools-non-participating-states-or-territories.

[62]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, pp 10–11.

[63]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. xxi.

[64]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Plan for School Improvement, May 2013, p. 8.

[65]      Australian Education Act 2013, ss. 22, 77.

[66]      Ms Marilyn Harrington, Parliamentary Library, Funding the National Plan for School Improvement: An Explanation, June 2013, p. 9.

[67]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, clause 97 (Appendix 5).

[68]      New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, 2014 Resource Allocation Model equity loadings for aboriginal and socio-economic backgrounds, Version 2, October 2013, www.det.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/about-us/plans-reports-and-statistics/key-statistics-and-report/lsld-ram-stats.pdf.

[69]      Australian Education Act 2013, ss. 22, 77.

[70]      An 'approved authority' is a legal entity that the Australian Government has approved to administer funding for a school. Generally, an approved authority will have management and operational authority over the school and its administration.  The approved authority for a government school is its relevant State or Territory. The approved authority for a non‑government school is the body corporate approved by the Minister for that school. An approved authority can represent one or more schools.

[71]      Commonwealth Department of Education, Guide to the Australian Education Act 2013, http://aeaguide.education.gov.au/content/d31-school-improvement-plans

[72]      Commonwealth Department of Education, Guide to the Australian Education Act 2013, http://aeaguide.education.gov.au/content/a313-information

[73]      Commonwealth Department of Education, Guide to the Australian Education Act 2013, http://aeaguide.education.gov.au/content/a312-ongoing-policy-requirements.

[74]      Commonwealth Department of Education, Guide to the Australian Education Act 2013, http://aeaguide.education.gov.au/content/e1-failure-comply-act.

[75]      Commonwealth Department of Education, Guide to the Australian Education Act 2013, http://aeaguide.education.gov.au/content/e11-actions-minister-may-take-result-breaching-act.

[76]      Commonwealth Department of Education, Guide to the Australian Education Act 2013, http://aeaguide.education.gov.au/content/e121-overpayments-and-recoverable-payments.

[77]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Plan for School Improvement, May 2013, p. 3.

[78]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, p. 21             (Appendix 5).

[79]      The New South Wales Government has developed a fact sheet in relation to the school funding agreement, 'Gonski Funding Agreement Frequently Asked Questions', www.det.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/about-us/news-at-det/announcements/yr2013/agreement-on-gonski/factsheet_FAQ.pdf. Further information about the NSW Department of Education and Communities' position on school funding can be found in the 'NSW Department of Education and Communities Discussion paper: Australian School Funding Arrangements', www.det.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/about-us/news-at-det/announcements/discussion-paper.pdf. See also Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement (Appendix 5).

[80]      The Hon Julia Gillard MP, Prime Minister, and the Hon Barry O'Farrell MP, Premier of New South Wales, NSW first to sign up to national education reforms, Media Release, 23 April 2013. See also the Hon Barry O'Farrell MP, Premier of New South Wales, NSW to implement Gonski school funding reforms, Media Release, 23 April 2013.

[81]      Heads of Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of New South Wales on National Education Reform, April 2013, http://dpl/Books/2013/AUS_NationalEducationReformAgreementNSW.pdf.

[82]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 18), February 2014, p. 2.

[83]      Education Amendment (Non-Government School Funding) Bill 2013 (NSW), Explanatory note, p. 1.

[84]      The Hon Adrian Piccolo MP, New South Wales Minister for Education, Hansard, Legislative Assembly (New South Wales), 29 October 2013, p. 24892.

[85]      The Hon Adrian Piccolo MP, New South Wales Minister for Education, Hansard, Legislative Assembly (New South Wales), 29 October 2013, p. 24892.

[86]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, (Appendix 5).

[87]      The Hon Julia Gillard MP, Prime Minister, and Ms Katy Gallagher MLA, Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, ACT signs up to national education reforms, Media Release, 30 May 2013.

[88]      Heads of Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the Australian Capital Territory on National Education Reform, 30 May 2013, http://dpl/Books/2013/AUS_NationalEducationReformAgreementACT.pdf.

[89]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 18), February 2014, p. 2.

[90]      Council of Australian Governments, National Education Reform Agreement, (Appendix 5).

[91]      The Hon Julia Gillard MP, Prime Minister, and the Hon Jay Weatherill MP, Premier of South Australia, South Australia agrees to national education reform, Media Release, 14 June 2013. See also the Hon Jay Weatherhill MP, Premier of South Australia, and the Hon Jennifer Rankine MP, South Australian Minister for Education and Child Development, South Australia signs up to historic Gonksi education reforms, Media Release, 14 June 2013.

[92]      Heads of Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of South Australia on National Education Reform, June 2013, http://dpl/Books/2013/AUS_NationalEducationReformAgreementSA.pdf.

[93]      South Australian Department for Education and Child Development, SA implementation of national plan, 13 August 2013, www.decd.sa.gov.au/mediacentre/a8_publish/modules/news_64_new/details.asp?ID=1526&.

[94]      The Hon Kevin Rudd MP, Prime Minister, and the Hon Lara Giddings MP, Premier of Tasmania, Tasmania signs up to national education reforms, Media Release, 9 July 2013. The Hon Lara Giddings MP, Premier of Tasmania and the Hon Nick McKim MP, Tasmanian Minister for Education, Tasmania to sign up to Better Schools Plan, Media Release, 9 July 2013.

[95]      The Hon Nick McKim MP, Tasmanian Minister for Education and Skills, Better Schools for Tasmania, Media Release, 12 August 2013. See also 'Better Schools Tasmania with Fairer Funding for all students – Fact Sheet', www.education.tas.gov.au/documentcentre/Documents/Better-Schools-Tasmania-Fact-Sheet.pdf and 'Better Schools Tasmania – with fairer funding for all students: Frequently Asked Questions', www.education.tas.gov.au/documentcentre/Documents/Better-Schools-Tasmania-FAQ.pdf.

[96]      Heads of Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of Tasmania on National Education Reform, July 2013, http://dpl/Books/2013/AUS_NationalEducationReformAgreementTAS.pdf.

[97]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 1), 18 February 2014.

[98]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation.

[99]      Victorian Government, 'Victoria's Plan for School Funding Reform – the next step in raising student performance', www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/department/fundingreform.pdf.

[100]    The Victorian Government has developed two fact sheets in relation to the school funding agreement: 'School Funding – Information about school funding as a result of the School Reform Agreement made between the Victorian Government and the Commonwealth Government', www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/department/vlc_fundingfact.pdf and 'School Funding Reform – Information about the Agreement between the Victorian and Commonwealth Governments', www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/department/vlcfunding.pdf.

[101]    The Hon Kevin Rudd MP, Prime Minister, and the Hon Dr Denis Napthine MP, Premier of Victoria, Victoria signs up to the Better Schools Plan, Media Release, 4 August 2013.

[102]    Heads of Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of Victoria on National Education Reform, August 2013, www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/department/vlcfunding.pdf, clauses 39, 40.

[103]    The Hon Dr Denis Napthine MP, Premier of Victoria, and the Hon Martin Dixon MP, Victorian Minister for Education, $12.2 billion win for Victorian schools, Media Release, 4 August 2013.

[104]    Heads of Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the State of Victoria on National Education Reform, August 2013, http://dpl/Books/2013/AUS_NationalEducationReformAgreementVIC.pdf.

[105]    The Hon Campbell Newman MP, Premier of Queensland, Submission 3, Senate Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Legislation Committee inquiry into the provisions of the Australian Education Bill 2013 and the Australian Education (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Bill 2013, 21 June 2013, p. 1.

[106]    See Chapters 3 and 6 for further discussion.

[107]    The Hon Colin Barnett MLA, Premier of Western Australia, Hansard, Legislative Assembly (Western Australia), 10 September 2013, p. 3690.

[108]    The Hon Colin Barnett MLA, Premier of Western Australia, Hansard, Legislative Assembly (Western Australia), 16 April 2013, p. 29.

[109]    See Chapters 3 and 6 for further discussion.

[110]    AAP, 'NT rejects federal schools deal', The Australian, 26 July 2013, www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/policy/nt-rejects-federal-schools-deal/story-fn59nlz9-1226686542820.

[111]    The Hon Adam Giles MLA, Chief Minister of the Northern Territory, Territory rejects Rudd's Gonski con, Media Release, 26 July 2013, p 1.

[112]    The Hon Adam Giles MLA, Chief Minister of the Northern Territory, Territory rejects Rudd's Gonski con, Media Release, 26 July 2013, p 2.

[113]    See Chapters 3 and 6 for further discussion.

                                   Chapter 6                                  

[1]        Commonwealth Department of Education, Students First, http://www.studentsfirst.gov.au/.

[2]        'The Coalition's Policy for Schools: Students First' p. 2.

[3]        'The Coalition's Policy for Schools: Students First' p. 2.

[4]        The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Leader of the Opposition, Transcript of press conference, 2 August 2013.

[5]        The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Leader of the Opposition, Transcript of press conference, 2 August 2013.

[6]        The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Shadow Minister for Education, Transcript of press conference, 2 August 2013.

[7]        The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, 'Sky News – interview with Peter Van Onselen and Paul Kelly', transcript, 17 November 2013 http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressrel/2848533/upload_binary/2848533.pdf;fileType=application/pdf#search=%22pyne%22 (accessed 5 February 2014).

[8]        The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, 'Coalition to put more funding into schools', Media Release, 27 November 2013.

[9]        'School funding: Education Minister Christopher Pyne defends handing of Gonski policy', ABC news, 3 December 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-02/pyne-defends-handling-of-gonski-school-funding-policy/5130148.

[10]      The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Prime Minister, and the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, 'A fairer funding agreement for schools', Media Release, 2 December 2013.

[11]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation.

[12]      The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Prime Minister, answer to question without notice, 3 December 2013.

[13]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, Transcript – Press Conference, Adelaide, 28 November 2013.

[14]      The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Prime Minister, and the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, 'A fairer funding agreement for schools', Media Release, 2 December 2013.

[15]      Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment, Answers to Questions on Notice, Education Portfolio, Supplementary Budget Estimates 2013-14, Department of Education, Question ED0020_14 http://www.aph.gov.au/~/media/Estimates/Live/eet_ctte/estimates/supp_1314/answers/ED0020_14.ashx.

[16]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, pp 16–17.

[17]      See attachment A to Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 5),             13 March 2014.

[18]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, pp 16–17.

[19]      Australian Education Union, Submission 25, p. 6.

[20]      Jonathan Swan, 'Gonski reversal: Tony Abbott backflips, puts $1.2b into schools', The Sydney Morning Herald, 2 December 2013, http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/gonski-reversal-tony-abbott-backflips-puts-12b-into-schools-20131202-2yl79.html.

[21]      The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Prime Minister, and the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, 'A fairer funding agreement for schools', Media Release, 2 December 2013.

[22]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation. Emphasis added.

[23]      'States say Christopher Pyne has dropped public schools bombshell in heated education meeting', ABC news, 29 November 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-29/pyne-drops-education-overhaul-bombshell-on-states-during-heated/5124968.

[24]      'States say Christopher Pyne has dropped public schools bombshell in heated education meeting', ABC news, 29 November 2013.

[25]      'States say Christopher Pyne has dropped public schools bombshell in heated education meeting', ABC news, 29 November 2013.

[26]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 96.

[27]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 97.

[28]      Budget 2014-15, Budget Paper 3, Part 2: Payments for Specific Purposes, Education. www.budget.gov.au/2014-15/content/bp3/html/bp3_03_part_2c.htm

[29]      Department of Education, Answer to question in writing No. 8, public hearing 16 May 2014.

[30]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 97.

[31]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 97.

[32]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 6), Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates, 4 June 2014.

[33]      NSW Budget, Budget Paper 2 – Budget Statement, Chapter 6, p. 7-9 http://www.budget.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/124315/Ch_7.pdf

[34]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, Sky News interview with David Speers PM Agenda: national funding agreement for schools, transcript, 2 December 2013, http://ministers.education.gov.au/pyne/interview-david-speers-sky-news-pm-agenda-national-funding-agreement-schools.

[35]      The Hon Campbell Newman MP, Premier of Queensland, and the Hon John-Paul Langbroek MP, Queensland Minister for Education, Training and Employment, 'Great Results a guarantee for Queensland students', Media Release, 28 January 2014.

[36]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, 'Targeting school funding where it counts', Media Release, 28 January 2014.

[37]      Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment, Great Results Guarantee, http://education.qld.gov.au/schools/grants/state/targeted/great-results.html. See also 'Great Results Guarantee' http://education.qld.gov.au/schools/grants/resources/great-results-guarantee.pdf and 'Great Results Guarantee Fact Sheet' http://education.qld.gov.au/schools/grants/resources/great-results-factsheet.pdf .

[38]      Department of Education, Training and Employment, Queensland Government, 'Great Results Guarantee 2014 School Funding', http://education.qld.gov.au/schools/grants/resources/2014-school-funding-allocation.pdf.

[39]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, Sky News interview with David Speers PM Agenda: national funding agreement for schools, transcript, 2 December 2013.

[40]      Queensland State Budget 2014-15, p. 19, Budget Paper 4 – Budget Measures www.budget.qld.gov.au/budget-papers/2014-15/bp4-2014-15.pdf.

[41]      ABC News, 'States put pressure on Coalition to honour original education funding model', 3 December 2013. See also 'Student-centred funding model: Frequently Asked Questions', Department of Education, Western Australian Government, http://www.det.wa.edu.au/schoolsandyou/detcms/schoolsandyou/schools-and-you/news/student-centred-funding-model-frequently-asked-questions.en.

[42]      Mr Lincoln Rose, Senior Vice President State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, p. 10.

[43]      Miss Samantha Schofield, Vice President, State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, p. 11.

[44]      Mr Lincoln Rose, Senior Vice President State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, pp. 11-12.

[45]      Mr Lincoln Rose, Senior Vice President State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, p. 12.

[46]      Mr Lincoln Rose, Senior Vice President State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April, pp. 12-13.

[47]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, Sky News interview with David Speers PM Agenda: national funding agreement for schools, transcript, 2 December 2013.

[48]      Western Australian State Government Budget 2014-15, Budget Paper 3 – Economic and Fiscal Outlook, p. 110, www.treasury.wa.gov.au/cms/uploadedFiles/State_Budget/Budget_2014_15/2014-15_bp3.pdf

[49]      Mr Ken Davies, Chief Executive, Department of Education, Northern Territory Government, Committee Hansard, 4 April, p. 3.

[50]      See Chapter 8 for further discussion on this issue.

[51]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 46.

[52]      The Hon Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Education, Sky News interview with David Speers PM Agenda: national funding agreement for schools, transcript, 2 December 2013.

[53]      Northern Territory 2014-15 Budget, Budget Strategy and Outlook 2014-15, p. 54. www.treasury.nt.gov.au/PMS/Publications/BudgetFinance/BudgetPapers/I-BP02-1415.pdf

[54]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation.

[55]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation.

[56]      Also reproduced in Table 6, Chapter 5.

[57]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 1), 18 February 2014.

[58]      The Hon Mr Martin Dixon MP, Minister for Education, Parliament of Victoria Public Accounts and Estimates Committee Hansard, 13 May 2014, p. 5.

[59]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 34.

Chapter 7 - Comparing school funding policy arrangements

[1]        'Coalition joints Labor's Gonski 'unity ticket'', The Australian, Justine Ferrari, 3 August 2013. www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/coalition-joins-labors-gonski-unity-ticket/story-fn59niix-1226690519042#

[2]        'Coalition joints Labor's Gonski 'unity ticket'', The Australian, Justine Ferrari, 3 August 2013.

[3]        'Coalition to ditch Gonski model and renegotiate school funding agreements, says Education Minister Christopher Pyne', ABC news, 27 November 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-26/pyne-adamant-gonski-school-funding-needs-overhaul2c-despite-st/5116978.

[4]        'Coalition to ditch Gonski model and renegotiate school funding agreements, says Education Minister Christopher Pyne', ABC news, 27 November 2013.

[5]        'PM Tony Abbott says Coalition never promised to keep Labor's Gonski school funding plan', ABC news, 2 December 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-01/abbott-on-gonski/5127330.

[6]        'PM Tony Abbott says Coalition never promised to keep Labor's Gonski school funding plan', ABC news, 2 December 2013.

[7]        Prime Minister, the Hon Tony Abbott MP, Minister for Education, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, joint press conference transcript, 2 December 2013, www.pm.gov.au/media/2013-12-02/joint-press-conference.

[8]        Jonathan Swan, 'Gonski reversal: Tony Abbott backflips, puts $1.2b into schools', The Sydney Morning Herald, 2 December 2013, www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/gonski-reversal-tony-abbott-backflips-puts-12b-into-schools-20131202-2yl79.html.

[9]        Matthew Denholm, Lauren Wilson, 'Tony Abbott urged to overrule Christopher Pyne on Gonski switch', The Australian, 27 November 2013, www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/policy/tony-abbott-urged-to-overrule-christopher-pyne-on-gonski-switch/story-fn59nlz9-1226769119215#.

[10]      The Budget 2013-14 shows expenditure on NPSI from 2013-14 to 2016-17 as being $2966.8 million, out of the $9.8 billion over six years specified in the National Plan for School Improvement Budget May 2013 document ( see Australian Government, National Plan for School Improvement, May 2013, www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/glossy/gonski_policy/download/NPSI.pdf).

[11]      Australian Government, MYEFO 2013-14 Part 3: Fiscal Outlook, p. 21, http://budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/myefo/download/2013_14_MYEFO.pdf.

[12]      It should be noted that in the MYEFO 2013-14, the funding for Students First is also the funding which would have been allocated under NPSI. Australian Government, MYEFO 2013-14, Chart 3.1, www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/myefo/html/chart_data.htm#chart3.1.

[13]      Australian Government, MYEFO 2013-14, Chart 3.1www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/myefo/html/chart_data.htm#chart3.1.

[14]      Australian Government, MYEFO 2013-14, Chart 3.1www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/myefo/html/chart_data.htm#chart3.1.

[15]      See Appendix 4, National Education Reform Agreement – NSW Budget 2013-14, Additional Funding Breakdown and Department of Education and Child Development, South Australian Government, answers to questions on notice, 30 April 2014.

[16]      Prime Minister, the Hon Tony Abbott MP, Minister for Education, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, joint press conference transcript, 2 December 2013, www.pm.gov.au/media/2013-12-02/joint-press-conference.

[17]      Australian Government, Budget 2014-15, Part 2: Expense Measures, Education, www.budget.gov.au/2014-15/content/bp2/html/bp2_expense-09.htm.

[18]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 37.

[19]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Publication 4221.0 – Schools Australia 2013, www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4221.0Main%20Features42013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4221.0&issue=2013&num=&view

[20]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Publication 4221.0 – Schools Australia 2013, www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4221.0Main%20Features42013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4221.0&issue=2013&num=&view

[21]      Australian Government, Budget 2014-15, Overview, p. 7, www.budget.gov.au/2014-15/content/overview/download/Budget_Overview.pdf.

[22]      Australian Government, Budget 2014-15, Overview, p. 7, www.budget.gov.au/2014-15/content/overview/download/Budget_Overview.pdf.

[23]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 6) and question in writing (no. 13), 16 May 2014.

[24]      Mr Nigel Ray, Executive Director, Department of Treasury, Senate Economics Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 134.

[25]      Ms Lisa Paul AO PSM, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 82.

[26]      Ms Lisa Paul AP PSM, Secretary, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 82.

[27]      Department of Education, answers to questions on notice (no. 1, no. 2), 16 May 2014.

[28]      Mr Chris Bonnor, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2014, p. 35.

[29]      Mrs Carolyn Grantskalns, Chief Executive, Association of Independent Schools of South Australia, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 18.

[30]      Alicia Wood, 'How Abbott reneging on school funding leaves NSW in a hole', The Sunday Telegraph, 21 June 2014, www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/how-abbott-reneging-on-school-funding-leaves-nsw-in-a-hole/story-fni0cx12-1226961266248.

[31]      New South Wales Teachers Federation, 'Abbott's cuts to Gonski funding will rip $2.67 billion away from public schools', media release, 16 June 2014, www.nswtf.org.au/news/2014/06/16/abbott%E2%80%99s-cuts-to-gonski-funding-will-rip-267-billion-away-public-schools.html

[32]      See Appendix 4, National Education Reform Agreement – NSW Budget 2013-14, Additional Funding Breakdown.

[33]      NSW Treasurer, the Hon Andrew Constance, ABC Radio National, Breakfast, 14 May 2014, www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/breakfast/80-billion-cut-from-state-health-and-education/5451532.

[34]      Mark Coultan, 'NSW Nationals call for full Gonski funding', The Australian, 14 June 2014, www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/policy/nsw-nationals-call-for-full-gonski-funding/story-fn59nlz9-1226953844158#.

[35]      The Hon Mr Martin Dixon MP, Minister for Education, Parliament of Victoria Public Accounts and Estimates Committee Hansard, 13 May 2014, p. 7.

[36]      Victorian Treasurer, the Hon Michael O'Brien, ABC Radio National, Breakfast, 14 May 2014, www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/breakfast/80-billion-cut-from-state-health-and-education/5451532.

[37]      Professor Louise Watson, 'Gonski is gone by can anything be salvaged?', The Conversation, 27 November 2013, http://theconversation.com/gonski-is-gone-but-can-anything-be-salvaged-20704.

[38]      Queensland, Western Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and the Australian Capital Territory governments all declined to participate in the committee's inquiry.

[39]      Alexandra Smith, 'Mike Baird to maintain push for full Gonski funding', Sydney Morning Herald, 29 April 2014, www.smh.com.au/national/education/mike-baird-to-maintain-push-for-full-gonski-funding-20140429-zr1at.html.

[40]      David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, p. 17.

[41]      Tabled document, letter from the Minister for Education NSW, the Hon Adrian Piccoli MP, dated 17 June 2014.

Chapter 8 - The effect of changes to school funding arrangements

[1]        Mr Tony Harrison, Chief Executive, Department for Education and Child Development South Australia, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 7.

[2]        Mr Tony Harrison, Chief Executive, Department for Education and Child Development South Australia, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 6.

[3]        Mr Rob Nairn, Executive Director, Australian Secondary Principals Association, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, p. 17.

[4]        Ms Meredith Peace, President, Australian Education Union Victoria Branch, Committee Hansard, 3 April Melbourne, p. 22.

[5]        Jamie Walker, 'Pyne eyes national Direct Instruction rollout', The Australian, 2 July 2014, www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/pyne-eyes-national-direct-instruction-rollout/story-fn59niix-1226974451763#mm-premium

[6]        Dr Ken Boston, answers to questions on notice, 16 May 2014, p. 6.

[7]        Dr Ken Boston, Students with Disability Canberra Forum, 12 May 2014, p. 7, www.aeufederal.org.au/Media/President/KBoston120514.pdf.

[8]        Dr Ken Boston, Students with Disability Canberra Forum, 12 May 2014, p. 7, www.aeufederal.org.au/Media/President/KBoston120514.pdf.

[9]        Mr Martin Hehir, Deputy Secretary Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 43.

[10]      Ms Stephanie Gotlib, Executive Officer, Children with Disability Australia, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2014, p. 42.

[11]      A copy of the table is at Appendix 6.

[12]      Mr Glenn Rappensberg, Chief Executive, Novita Children's Services, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 2.

[13]      Ms Julie Astley, Director Operations (Client Services), Novita Children's Services, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 2.

[14]      Mr Tony Harrison, Chief Executive, Department for Education and Child Development South Australia, Committee Hansard, 30 April 2014, p. 8.

[15]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, p. 18.

[16]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 33.

[17]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 6), Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates, 4 June 2014.

[18]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 6), Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates, 4 June 2014.

[19]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education and Mr Martin Hehir, Deputy Secretary Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 33.

[20]      Australian Secondary Principals' Association, Submission 35, p. 5.

[21]      Department of Education, Submission 43, p. 7

[22]      Department of Education, Submission 43, p. 7.

[23]      The Hon Mr Martin Dixon MP, Minister for Education, Parliament of Victoria Public Accounts and Estimates Committee Hansard, 13 May 2014, p. 5.

[24]      Document tabled by Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary, Department of Education at the public hearing in Canberra on 16 May 2014: Minister Pyne's letters to states and the Northern Territory in regards to school funding allocation. Emphasis added.

[25]      Ms Lisa Paul AO PSM, Secretary, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee,  Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 93.

[26]      Mr Lincoln Rose, Senior Vice President, State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, p. 10.

[27]      See Chapter 6 for further discussion.

[28]      The Hon Mr Martin Dixon MP, Minister for Education, Parliament of Victoria Public Accounts and Estimates Committee Hansard, 13 May 2014, p. 6.

[29]      Mr Rob Nairn, Executive Director, Australian Secondary Principals Association, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 April 2014, p. 18.

[30]      Ms Lisa Paul AO PSM, Secretary, Department of Education and Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 91.

[31]      Department of Education, answer to question on notice (no. 6), Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates, 4 June 2014, p. 1.

[32]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 164.

[33]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 164.

[34]      Department for Education and Child Development, South Australian Government, answers to questions on notice, 30 April 2014, p. 5.

[35]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 38.

[36]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 38.

[37]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 39.

[38]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 114.

[39]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 39.

[40]      Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 164.

[41]      Ms Lisa Paul AO PSM, Secretary, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 82.

[42]      Ms Lisa Paul AO PSM, Secretary, Department of Education and Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 85.

[43]      Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, Table A4.18, available at www.pc.gov.au/gsp/rogs/childcare-education-training

[44]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Publication 6401.0 – Consumer Price Index, Australia, Mar 2014, 'March Key Figures', www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6401.0Main+Features1Mar%202014?OpenDocument

[45]      Mr Martin Hanscamp, Executive Officer, Australian Association of Christian Schools, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 10.

[46]      Mr Colin Pettit, Secretary, Department of Education Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 32.

[47]      Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 34.

[48]      Budget 2014-15, Budget Strategy and Outlook, Budget Paper No. 1, May 2014, pp. 7-23.

[49]      See paragraph 2.7.

[50]      David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, p. 23.

Chapter 9 - Conclusion

[1]        The 80 per cent figure is calculated using figures from Table 4.3 in Volume B of the Productivity Commission's Report on Government Services 2014. As a proportion of the national total, students in NSW, Victoria, South Australia, the ACT and Tasmania amounts to 67.42 per cent. When the students in Catholic and Independent Schools in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory are added, this figure is 80.41 per cent. The Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2014, Volume B: Child care, education and training, Chapter 4 School education, Table 4.3 FTE student enrolments, August 2012, p. 4.9, www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/132306/rogs-2014-volumeb-chapter4.pdf, (accessed 20 June 2014).

[2]        David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, p. 13.

[3]        Review of Funding for Schooling Final Report (Gonski Review Report), December 2011, p. 105.

[4]        Dr David Zyngier, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 42.

[5]        Dr David Zyngier, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 47.

[6]        Bianca Hall, 'Government backflip on Gonski reforms puts school funding in chaos', The Age, 1 December 2013, www.theage.com.au/comment/government-backflip-on-gonski-reforms-puts-school-funding-in-chaos-20131130-2yij3.html.

[7]        Stephen Dinham, 'Why free market will not fix problems with teachers and teaching', The Sydney Morning Herald, 2 April 2014, http://www.smh.com.au/comment/why-free-market-will-not-fix-problems-with-teachers-and-teaching-20140402-zqpo2.html.

[8]        Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, pp 1–2.

Australian Greens Additional Comments

[1]        Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 7.

[2]        Dr Ken Boston, Submission 29, p. 2

[3]        Aleisha Orr, ‘WA offered $620m sweetener to sign up to Gonski deal’, WA Today, 12 June 2013, http://www.watoday.com.au/wa-news/wa-offered-620m-sweetener-to-sign-up-to-gonski-deal-20130612-2o3ta.html#ixzz36IXcJ6TD (accessed 4 July 2014).

[4]        Tory Shepherd and Sheradyn Holderhead, ‘Julia Gillard signs Gonski deal with Jay Weatherill, delivering extra $656m for SA students’, The Advertiser, 14 June 2013, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/south-australia/julia-gillard-signs-gonski-deal-with-jay-weatherill-delivering-extra-656m-for-sa-students/story-e6frea83-1226663709829 (accessed 4 July 2014).

[5]        Sheradyn Holderhead, ‘Why Gonski education funding numbers don't add up for South Australia’, The Advertiser, 18 April 2013, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/why-gonski-education-funding-numbers-dont-add-up-for-south-australia/story-fn3o6nna-1226623861667 (accessed 4 July 2014).

[6]        Mr Martin Hanscamp, Executive Officer, Australian Association of Christian Schools, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 10.

[7]        Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 7.

[8]        Australian Association of Christian Schools, submission 48, p. 1.

[9]        For example, see South Australian Primary Principals Association, Submission 45, and Victorian Principals Association, Submission 46.

[10]      Mr Ross Fox, Executive Director, National Catholic Education Commission, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, pp. 28-9.

[11]      Mr Richard Shearman, Federal President, Independent Education Union of Australia, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, pp. 57.

[12]      Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 2-3.

[13]      Mr Peter Garrigan, President, Australian Council of State School Organisations, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, p. 64.

[14]      Shadow Minister for Education, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, press conference transcript, 26 November 2013, http://www.pyneonline.com.au/media/transcripts/press-conference-parliament-house

[15]      Shadow Minister for Education, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, 'Gillards Conski Not Gonski', media release, 14 April 2013, http://www.pyneonline.com.au/media/media-releases/gillards-conski-not-gonksi

[16]      Shadow Minister for Education, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, ABC Lateline, interview transcript, 16 July 2012, http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2012/s3547117.htm

[17]      Australian Education Union, 'Pyne must show his hand on Gonski – AEU', media release, 6 November 2013, http://www.aeunt.org.au/images/mediarelease/media_release_6_november_2013.pdf

[18]      Shadow Minister for Education, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, ABC Lateline, interview transcript, 19 February 2014, http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2013/s3948371.htm

[19]      Mr Angelo Gavrielatos, Federal President, Australian Education Union, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, p. 47.

[20]      Dr Ken Boston, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 2.

[21]      St Vincent de Paul National Council, Submission 36, p. 4.

Government Senators' Dissenting Report

[1]        Ms Michelle Green, Chief Executive, Independent Schools Victoria, Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 10.

[2]        Mr Tony Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education and Mr Martin Hehir, Deputy Secretary Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 33.

[3]        OECD 2012, Public and Private Schools: How Management and Funding Relate to their Socio-Economic Profile, Paris: OECD

[4]        UK Department for Education, 2010, The Importance of Teaching, The Schools White Paper 2010, London: UK Government

[5]        Justman, M., and Ryan, C., 2013, "What’s wrong with the Gonski report: Funding Reform and Student Achievement", Melbourne Institute for Applied Economic and Social Research, Policy Brief No 1/13, 7

[6]        Professor Henry Ergas, private capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2014, p. 61.

[7]        Ms Judith Sloan, 'Why I don't give a Gonski for more school spending', The Australian, 28 August 2012, www.theaustralian.com.au/opinion/columnists/why-i-dont-give-a-gonski-for-more-school-spending/story-fnbkvnk7-1226459316708

[8]        Professor Henry Ergas, Private Capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2014, p. 58.

[9]        Professor Henry Ergas, Private Capacity, Committee Hansard, 1 May 2014, p. 58.

[10]      Dr Ken Boston, Private Capacity, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 3.

[11]      Independent Schools Victoria, Submission 59, pp. 5-10.

[12]      Mr Ross Fox, Executive Director, National Catholic Education Commission, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, p. 26.

[13]      See for example Dr David Zyngier writing in The Conversation on 27 November 2013 on 'Ditching Gonski: what's so unfair about funding based on need?', https://theconversation.com/ditching-gonski-whats-so-unfair-about-funding-based-on-need-20795

[14]      Mr Bill Daniels, Chief Executive Officer, Independent Schools Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 13 March 2014, p34.

[15]      Justman and Ryan, op cit., pp4-5. Caldwell, B., 2014, Realigning the governance of schools in Australia: Energising an experimentalists approach, Centre for Strategic Education, Seminar Series 233, April.

[16]      Professor Cheryl Saunders, Professor Anne Twomey, 'FactCheck: are the Gonski school reforms a federal power grab?', The Conversation, 11 July 2013, http://theconversation.com/factcheck-are-the-gonski-school-reforms-a-federal-power-grab-15458

[17]      Professor Cheryl Saunders, Professor Anne Twomey, 'FactCheck: are the Gonski school reforms a federal power grab?', The Conversation, 11 July 2013, http://theconversation.com/factcheck-are-the-gonski-school-reforms-a-federal-power-grab-15458

[18]      Professor Cheryl Saunders, Professor Anne Twomey, 'FactCheck: are the Gonski school reforms a federal power grab?', The Conversation, 11 July 2013, http://theconversation.com/factcheck-are-the-gonski-school-reforms-a-federal-power-grab-15458

[19]      Mr Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, pp. 47-48.

[20]      Mr Cook, Associate Secretary Early Childhood, Schools and Youth, and Mr Martin Hehir, Deputy Secretary Schools and Youth, Department of Education, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 34.

[21]      Mr John Doyle, Victorian Auditor-General, Committee Hansard, 16 May 2014, p. 20.

[22]      Dr Jennifer Buckingham, School Funding on a Budget (published as part of the TARGET30 Reducing the Burden for Future Generations paper series), Centre for Independent Studies, T30.09, www.cis.org.au/images/stories/target30/t30.09.pdf, p. 11.

[23]      Ms Charis Palmer, 'Australia closing equity gap, but education performance slipping: OECD', The Conversation, 13 February 2013, http://theconversation.com/australia-closing-equity-gap-but-education-performance-slipping-oecd-12195

[24]      Australian Education Act 2013, subparagraphs 3(1)(a)(i) and (ii).

[25]      Dr Jennifer Buckingham, 'Don't panic about PISA', ABC Online The Drum, 4 December 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-04/buckingham-pisa-panic/5133364

[26]      Mr Stewart Riddle, Professor Bob Lingard, Mr Sam Sellar, 'Australia's PISA slump is big news but what's the real story?', The Conversation, 3 December 2013, http://theconversation.com/australias-pisa-slump-is-big-news-but-whats-the-real-story-20964

[27]      Sahlberg, P. ,“Education policies for raising student learning: The Finnish approach,” Journal of Education Policy, Vol 22, No 2, March 2007, pp147-171.

[28]      Dr Ken Boston, Submission 29, p. 1.

[29]      Mr David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014, p. 10.

[30]      Mr David Gonski AC, Jean Blackburn Oration, University of Melbourne, 21 May 2014,           pp 11–12.

[31]      Ms Justine Ferrari, 'Implement the Gonski model as the fairest way of funding schools', The Australian, 29 November 2013, www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/opinion/implement-the-gonski-model-as-the-fairest-way-of-funding-schools/story-e6frgd0x-1226770833511.

[32]      Gonski, D. ,‘David Gonski speaks out on implementation of education reforms,’ Transcript, ABC, 22 May 2014.

[33]      Thomson, S., et al, 2013, PISA 2012: How Australia measures up, Melbourne, ACER, p263.

[34]      Productivity Commission, 2012, Schools Workforce, Canberra: Commonwealth Government.

[35]      Thomson, op cit., pp264-265.

[36]      OECD, Education at a Glance 2013, Paris: OECD.

[37]      Dr Jennifer Buckingham, 'Don't panic about PISA', ABC Online The Drum, 4 December 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-04/buckingham-pisa-panic/5133364

[38]      For example see discussion regarding the need for using funding strategically to improve teacher quality: Mr David Adamson, Principal of the Essendon Keilor College, Melbourne Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 53 and Ms Karen Money, Principal of William Ruthven Secondary College, Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 3 April 2014, p. 54.

[39]      'Tony Abbott rejects claims of broken election promise on Gonski school funding', ABC News, 27 November 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-27/government-denies-breaking-election-promise-on-school-funding/5119204

[40]      2014-15 Budget, Budget Paper 3, Federal Financial Relations, pp 34–37.

[41]      Australian Liberal Party, 'The Coalition's Policy for Schools: Students First', August 2013, http://lpaweb-static.s3.amazonaws.com/13-08-29%20The%20Coalition%27s%20Policy%20for%20Schools%20-%20policy%20document.pdf p. 4.

[42]      Senate Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Legislation Committee Report 'Australian Education Bill 2013' p, 1; Senate Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Legislation Committee Report 'Australian Education Bill 2012 [Provisions]' p. 8.

[43]      Ms Lisa Paul AO PSM, Secretary, Department of Education, Senate Education and Employment Legislation Committee, Budget Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 86.

[44]      'States furious about Gonski funding changes', ABC Radio – PM Program, 26 November 2013, www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2013/s3899480.htm

[45]      Budget Estimates Committee Hansard, 4 June 2014, p. 94.

[46]      Queensland Government, Great Results Guarantee School Funding Fact Sheet, http://education.qld.gov.au/schools/grants/resources/great-results-guarantee.pdf

[47]      New South Wales Government, School Funding Resource Allocation Model, www.dec.nsw.gov.au/about-the-department/our-reforms/local-schools-local-decisions/reform-agenda/resource-allocation-model

[48]      ACT Government, Submission 78.

[49]      Victorian Government, Schools Funding Reform Fact Sheet, www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/department/vlc_fundingfact.pdf

[50]      South Australian Government, School Funding Reform, www.decd.sa.gov.au/SchoolFundingReform/

[51]      Tasmania Government, Schools Funding Model, www.education.tas.gov.au/documentcentre/Documents/Better-Schools-Tasmania-Funding-Model.pdf

[52]      Western Australian Government, Strategic Directions, www.education.wa.edu.au/home/detcms/navigation/about-us/public-education-at-a-glance/our-strategic-directions/

[53]      Northern Territory Government, Submission 31. The submission notes that 'Strategic priorities include improving educational outcomes for Indigenous students, increasing autonomy in schools to enable greater local decision making about how resources are allocated to respond to local needs, and greater community involvement in the management of schools.'

[54]      All figures based on Budget Paper 3, p36.

[55]      ABC Fact Check, 'Is the Abbott Government cutting $30 billion from school funding?',            2 July 2014.

[56]      Budget Paper 3, p36.

[57]      Dr Jennifer Buckingham, 'Gonski reforms at risk of failure to launch', The Australian, 5 April 2013, www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/opinion/gonski-reforms-at-risk-of-failure-to-launch/story-e6frgd0x-1226612773677

[58]      Ms Judith Sloan, 'Why I don't give a Gonski for more school spending', The Australian, 28 August 2012, www.theaustralian.com.au/opinion/columnists/why-i-dont-give-a-gonski-for-more-school-spending/story-fnbkvnk7-1226459316708

[59]      Dr Jennifer Buckingham, School Funding on a Budget (published as part of the TARGET30 Reducing the Burden for Future Generations paper series), Centre for Independent Studies, T30.09, www.cis.org.au/images/stories/target30/t30.09.pdf, p. 11.

[60]      Australian Education Union Federal Office, answer to question on notice, 13 March 2014, p. 1.

[61]      State School Teachers' Union of Western Australia, answer to question on notice, 29 April 2014, p. 1.

[62]      Queensland Teachers' Union, answer to question on notice, 1 April 2014, p. 2.

[63]      NSW Teachers' Federation, answer to question on notice, 1 May 2014, p. 1.

[64]      Australian Education Union Victorian Branch, answer to question on notice, 3 April 2014, p. 1.

[65]      Kym Agius, 'Gonski ad campaign launched', The Australian, 3 February 2013, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/latest-news/more-action-on-gonski-needed-poll/story-fn3dxiwe-1226567572494

Appendix 1 - Submissions received by the committee[1]

[1]        Submission can be found here: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/School_Funding/School_Funding/Submissions

Appendix 2 - Additional information and answers to questions on notice received by the committee[1]

[1]        Additional information and answers to questions on notice received by the committee can be found here: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/School_Funding/School_Funding/Additional_Documents

Appendix 3 - Witnesses who appeared before the committee[1]

[1]        Hearings webpage: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/School_Funding/School_Funding/Public_Hearings

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