House standing committees
General purpose standing committees
In 1987 the House established a comprehensive committee system by setting up eight general purpose standing committees. At the same time, the functions of the Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence were extended, thus giving the House the capacity to monitor or to ‘shadow’ the work of all federal government departments and instrumentalities.
The committees are appointed at the beginning of each Parliament pursuant to standing order 215. The numbers, names and subject areas of the committees have varied. In the 45th Parliament the following were appointed:
Standing Committee on Agriculture and Water Resources;
Standing Committee on Communications and the Arts;
Standing Committee on Economics;
Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Training;
Standing Committee on the Environment and Energy;
Standing Committee on Health, Aged Care and Sport;
Standing Committee on Indigenous Affairs;
Standing Committee on Industry, Innovation, Science and Resources
Standing Committee on Infrastructure, Transport and Cities;
Standing Committee on Social Policy and Legal Affairs; and
Standing Committee on Tax and Revenue.
The general purpose standing committees are so called because they are established (or stand) for the duration of the Parliament and have the power to inquire into and report on any matter referred to them by the House or a Minister. Matters referred may include any pre-legislation proposal, bill, motion, petition, vote or expenditure, other financial matter, report or document.
In addition, annual reports of government departments and authorities and reports of the Auditor-General presented to the House are automatically referred to the committees for any inquiry they may wish to make. Reports are referred to particular committees in accordance with a schedule presented by the Speaker recording the areas of responsibilities of each committee. The Speaker is empowered to determine any question should responsibility be unclear or disputed in respect of a report or a part of a report. The period during which an inquiry concerning an annual report can be commenced ends on the day on which the next annual report of the department or authority is presented to the House.
Committees concerned with the operations of the House
The standing orders provide for the appointment of the following committees at the beginning of each Parliament:
Committee of Privileges and Members’ Interests (S.O. 216)
The formerly separate Committee of Privileges and Committee of Members’ Interests were amalgamated in 2008.
The Committee of Privileges and Members’ Interests is appointed to inquire into and report on complaints of breach of privilege or contempt or on any other matters which may be referred to it. The committee has no power to initiate inquiries. The House has referred to the committee matters of a general nature, such as the use of House records in the courts, the issue of public interest immunity, and the legal status of the records and correspondence of Members. The committee also considers applications from citizens for the publication of responses to statements in the House referring to them.
The procedure for raising and dealing with questions of privilege and details of the functions and procedures of the committee are discussed in detail in the Chapter on ‘Parliamentary privilege’.
The other function of the committee concerns the arrangements for the compilation, maintenance and accessibility of a Register of Members’ Interests, and various related matters. In 2017 the committee was given responsibility for a Members’ Citizenship Register. These functions are discussed in more detail in the Chapter on ‘Members’.
House Committee (S.O. 218)
The House Committee is concerned with the provision of services and amenities to Members in Parliament House. The Speaker is a member of the committee. This committee has an advisory role only—executive responsibility rests with the Speaker and the President, who have not been bound by the decisions of their respective committees.
The House Committee usually deliberates by conferring with the similar committee of the Senate. When the two House committees are sitting together as the Joint House Committee, they should, generally speaking, only consider those matters which affect joint services, as each House is responsible for its own affairs. Recommendations affecting only one House should properly be made by the appropriate House Committee independently. In 1956 and in 1959 the House of Representatives House Committee considered and reported informally on Members’ accommodation. Reports are seldom made to the House.
Publications Committee (S.O. 219)
The Publications Committee of each House when conferring together form the Joint Committee on Publications which has the dual role:
to recommend to the Houses from time to time as to which documents presented, that have not been ordered to be made a Parliamentary Paper by either House, ought to be made a Parliamentary Paper; and
to inquire into and report on the publication and distribution of parliamentary and government publications, and on matters referred to it by a Minister.
The committee is discussed in more detail in the Chapter on ‘Documents’.
Petitions Committee (S.O. 220)
The Standing Committee on Petitions is appointed to receive and process petitions and to inquire into and report to the House on any matter relating to petitions and the petitions system. The committee’s functions are discussed in more detail under ‘Petitions’ in the Chapter on ‘Documents’.
Procedure Committee (S.O. 221)
The Standing Committee on Procedure is appointed to inquire into and report on the practices and procedures of the House and its committees. As a result of reports of the Procedure Committee a number of initiatives have been taken relating to the business of the House, including significant developments relating to private Members’ business and procedures for the consideration of legislation, including the establishment of the Main Committee (renamed Federation Chamber in 2012). In 1998 the committee undertook a review of the House of Representatives committee system, resulting in extensive changes to the standing orders relating to committees. In the 40th Parliament the committee undertook a complete review of House standing orders with a view to making them more logical, intelligible and readable. The committee’s recommendations for revised standing orders were adopted by the House with effect from the first day of the 41st Parliament.
Selection Committee (S.O. 222)
The Selection Committee arranges the timetable and order of committee and delegation and private Members’ business on Mondays; selects private Members’ and committee and delegation business for referral to the Federation Chamber or return to the House, and selects bills for referral to committees. The committee’s functions are discussed in detail in the Chapter on ‘Non-government business’.
House Appropriations and Administration Committee (S.O. 222A)
The committee considers estimates of the funding required for the Department of the House of Representatives and reports to the Speaker or the House on matters referred to it. It also considers proposals for works in the parliamentary precincts that are subject to parliamentary approval. The committee’s functions are discussed in detail in the Chapter on ‘The Speaker, Deputy Speaker and officers’.