No Time To Waste

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No Time To Waste

April 1996

© Commonwealth of Australia 1996
ISBN 0 642 24872 9

View the report as a single document - (PDF 6443KB)

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Opening Pages (PDF 333KB)
Membership of the Committee
Terms of Reference
Conduct of the Inquiry
Cooperation by Commonwealth Bodies
Commonwealth Bodies
Department of Industry, Science and Technology
Australian Federal Police
Chapter 1 - Introduction (PDF 167KB)
Biological Effects of Radiation
Background to the Inquiry
Scope of the Inquiry
The Report
Chapter 2 - Regulation of Radioactive Waste Management (PDF 1099KB)
National Codes on Radioactive Waste
Codes under the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act l978
Codes of the National Health and Medical Research Council
Comments on the National Codes
Need for Plain English
Compliance and Enforcement
Need for Update to New International Standards
Problems of Large Hospitals
International treaties, agreements, codes of practice
Arrangements of Less Than Treaty Status
The IAEA Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Program
Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
StateITerritory Radiation Control Legislation
The Role of ANSTO in Dealing with Radioactive Waste
ANSTO's Power to Deal with Radioactive Materials Owned by Others
ANSTO 's Immunity Ji-om State Law
The 'Regulatory Gap'
The Proposed Australian Institute of Radiation Protection
An Independent Regulator
Community Participation
A National Approach
Compliance and Enforcement of Regulations
Chapter 3 - Existing quantities and future creation of radioactive waste (PDF 398KB)
Sources of Radioactive Waste
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation
Other Commonwealth Bodies
Medical Sources
Industrial Sources
Future Generation of Radioactive Waste
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation
WasteJi-om the Research Reactor Operations
Reprocessing of Spent Fuel Rods
Decommissioning of Reactors
Emissions to Air and Sewers
Remediation of the Little Forest Burial Ground
Rhone Poulenc Rare Earth Project
Smoke Detectors
Other Future Waste Generation
Radioactive Waste Held in the States and Territories
A National Inventory of Radioactive Waste
Chapter 4 - Avoidance and Minimisation (PDF 711KB)
Justifying the Use of Radioactive Materials
Strategies for Avoiding the Use of Radioactive Materials
Strategies for Reducing the Volume of Radioactive Waste
Strategies to Minimise the Quantity of Radioactive Waste Created
Strategies for Return and Reuse of Radioactive Materials
Incentives for Avoiding and Minimising the Creation of Radioactive Waste
On-site Management and Storage
User Pays Principle for Radioactive Waste Storage
An Up Front Levy for Storage and Disposal Costs
Chapter 5 - Transportation (PDF 291KB)
Current Transport Regulations
Incidents Involving the Transport of Radioactive Materials
Transport Risks
Chapter 6 - Storage and disposal of radioactive waste (PDF 1257KB)
Short Term Storage
Commonwealth Storage Facilities
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation
State Storage Facilities
Esk Storage Facility
Other State Facilities
Individuals and Organisations
One Site or a Number of Storage Sites
Above Ground Storage Versus Underground Disposal
Above Ground Storage
Below Ground Storage
Disposal Options
Near Surface Disposal
Mt Walton Intractable Waste Disposal Facility
Rhone Poulenc Rare Earth Project
Deep Burial
Coal Mines
Uranium Mines
Other Burial Options
Other Methods of Disposal
Sending Radioactive Waste Overseas
Discharge to Normal Waste Stream
Discharge to Sewers
Disposal in Landfill
Immobilisation in other Materials
Putrescible Waste
Chapter 7 - A national facility for radioactive waste (PDF 519KB)
Australia's Approach
Design of a National Repository
Site Selection Process
Control of Land
Climatic Conditions
Geological Stability
Institutional Arrangements for Managing a National Store
State Facilities
Types of Conditioning
A User Pays System
Chapter 8 - Risk management and community concerns (PDF 692KB)
Risk Management
Community Perceptions of Risk
Community Concerns
Transport of Radioactive Waste
Lucas Heights Research Laboratories
Mt Walton East
Esk Facility
Community Consultations
Community Confidence
The Role of the Media in Enhancing Community Concerns
Public Education
Ethical Considerations
Chapter 9 - Summary and Conclusions (PDF 240KB)
A National Repository for Radioactive Waste
Community Concerns
Need for Independent Audit
A Nationally Agreed Regulatory Scheme
The Role of ANSTO in Managing Waste
Research and Training
Whether User Pays is Appropriate
Avoiding and Minimising Creation of Radioactive Waste
Concluding Comments
Dissenting Report by Senators Margetts and Bell (PDF 251KB)
Glossary and Appendicies (PDF 521KB)
Appendix 1 - List of Submissions
Appendix 2 - List Of Witnesses
Appendix 3 - Commonwealth Bodies Involved with Radiation
Appendix 4 - National Health and Medical Research Council Codes
Appendix 5 - Commonwealth and State Radiation Control Legislation