Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1

[1]        Australian Government, Energy White Paper: Increasing competition to keep prices down, Department of Industry and Science, April 2015, p. 27.

[2]        International Energy Agency, Closing Oil Stock Levels in Days of Net Imports, January 2015, https://www.iea.org/netimports/ (accessed 5 May 2015).

[3]        International Energy Agency, Closing Oil Stock Levels in Days of Net Imports, January 2015, https://www.iea.org/netimports/ (accessed 5 May 2015).

[4]        International Energy Agency, Closing Oil Stock Levels in Days of Net Imports, April 2012, http://www.iea.org/netimports/?y=2012&m=04 (accessed 5 March 2015).

[5]        University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 4.

[6]        Australian Government, Energy White Paper: Increasing competition to keep prices down,  Department of Industry and Science, April 2015, p. 27.

Chapter 2 - Australia's energy consumption, production, imports and exports

[1]        Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 2.

[2]        Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 26.

[3]        Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 24.

[4]        Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 26.

[5]        Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 3.

[6]        Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 30.

[7]        Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 30.

[8]        Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 31.

[9]        Department of Industry and Science, Transport fuels, http://www.industry.gov.au/Energy/EnergySecurity/fuels/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 5 March 2015).

[10]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 4; National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[11]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p.8; Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2012, p. 99.

[12]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 119.

[13]      Department of Industry and Science, Transport fuels, http://www.industry.gov.au/Energy/EnergySecurity/fuels/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 5 March 2015).

[14]      AGL Energy Limited, Submission 8, p. 1.

[15]      Associate Professor Philip Laird, Submission 3, p. 1.

[16]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 6.

[17]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 4.

[18]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 37.

[19]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 120.

[20]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 5. In 2012, Australia imported 83 per cent of its crude oil and other refinery feedstock as well as 43 per cent of its refined petroleum products.

[21]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 3.

[22]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7; Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1; Mr David G. Lamb, Submission 4.

[23]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 2, p. 3; Heath Aston, Al Qaeda threatens Australian fuel supply, Sydney Morning Herald, 1 November 2014, http://www.smh.com.au/national/al-qaeda-threatens-australian-fuel-supplies-20141031-11f4t2.html (accessed 4 December 2014). The Department of Industry defines transport fuels as fuels used to power cars, heavy machinery, aircraft, trains and marine vessels and can come from conventional sources including petrol, diesel and jet fuel or alternative transport fuels including biofuels, gaseous fuels and synthetic fuels. Department of Industry, Transport fuels, http://www.industry.gov.au/Energy/EnergySecurity/fuels/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 4 December 2014).

[24]      Qantas Airways Limited, Submission 25, p. 1.

[25]      Department of Industry and Science, Australian Petroleum Statistics, December 2014 and December 2013, Table 4BB: Origin of petroleum imports, by product, by value, by financial year, Australia.

[26]      Department of Industry and Science, Australian Petroleum Statistics, Table 4: Imports of petroleum by product, Australia, Issue 221, December 2014. ML refers to megalitres.

[27]      Total petroleum imports includes LPG, natural gas originating from International Waters exclusively from the Bayu-Undan field, automotive gasoline, aviation gasoline, aviation turbine fuel, kerosene and heating oil, fuel oil, lubricating oils, greases and basestocks, bitumen and 'other products'. Department of Industry and Science, Australian Petroleum Statistics, Table 4: Imports of petroleum by product, Australia, Issue 221, December 2014.

[28]      AGL Energy Limited, Submission 8, p. 2.

[29]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 111.

[30]      According to the 2014 Green Paper, the figure was 53 per cent. See Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper 2014, p. 52. AIP informed the committee that it was 58 per cent. Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 16.

[31]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 109.

[32]      Mr Andrew Warrell, ExxonMobil Australia and Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, pp 21–22.

[33]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 6; Australian Government, Energy White Paper: Increasing competition to keep prices down, April 2015, p. 26.

[34]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 8.

[35]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 5.

[36]      Crude oil and condensate accounted for 4.1 per cent and LPG 0.5 per cent. Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2012, pp 1­–3. 

[37]      Department of Industry and Science, Australian Petroleum Statistics, Issue 221, December 2014, Table 1A: Petroleum production, Australia.

[38]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, pp 6 & 100.

[39]      Australian Coal to Liquids Association, Submission 33, p. 13.

[40]      Department of Industry and Science, Australian Petroleum Statistics, Issue 221, December 2014, Table 1A: Petroleum production, Australia.

[41]      International Energy Agency, Oil and Gas Security – Australia, 2011, p. 15.

[42]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 82.

[43]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 82.

[44]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 85.

[45]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 85.

[46]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, pp 82 & 91.

[47]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 91.

[48]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 91.

[49]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 104.

[50]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 104.

[51]      International Energy Agency, Oil and Gas Security – Australia, 2011, p. 8.

[52]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 100.

[53]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 105.

[54]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 2.

[55]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 12.

[56]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 2.

[57]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 3.

[58]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics cited in AGL Energy Limited, Submission 8, p. 2. 

[59]      International Energy Agency, Energy Policies in IEA Countries – Australia 2012 Review, p. 145.

[60]      Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Submission 37, p. 3.

[61]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 29.

[62]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 6.

[63]      ACIL Tasman, Petroleum Import Infrastructure in Australia, prepared for the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism, August 2009, cited in International Energy Agency, Oil and Gas Security – Australia, 2011, p. 10.

Chapter 3

[1]        Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper, 2014, p. iv.

[2]        Department of Industry and Science, Answer to question on notice at 2 February 2015 hearing, (answer received 24 February 2015).

[3]        Department of Industry and Science, Answer to question on notice at 2 February 2015 hearing, (answer received 24 February 2015).

[4]        Dr Gino Grassia, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 96.

[5]        Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 11.

[6]        Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 13.

[7]        Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1.

[8]        Australian Petroleum Statistics, Issue 221, December 2014, Office of the Chief Economist, table 7.

[9]        National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 6.

[10]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 6; Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 1.

[11]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 70.

[12]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Benchmarking Australia's Transport Energy Policies, December 2014, p. 2, Document tabled at 2 February 2015 public hearing.

[13]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[14]      Australian Pipeline Trust Group, Submission 10, p. 2.

[15]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 71.

[16]      Dr Gino Grassia, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 90.

[17]      Dr Gino Grassia, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 92.

[18]      Dr Gino Grassia, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 91.

[19]      International Energy Agency, February 2011 cited in ACIL Tasman, Liquid Fuel Vulnerability Assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, 2011, p. 122.

[20]      ACIL Tasman, Liquid Fuel Vulnerability Assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, 2011, p. 122;

[21]      International Energy Agency, Energy Policies of IEA Countries – Australia 2012 Review, p. 151, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Australia2012_free.pdf (accessed 5 March 2015).

[22]      BP Australia, Submission 30, p. 12.

[23]      Dr Gino Grassia, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 91; Department of Industry and Science, Answer to question on notice at 2 February 2015 hearing, (answer received 24 February 2015).

[24]      Department of Industry and Science, Answer to question on notice at 2 February 2015 hearing, (answer received 24 February 2015). 

[25]      Dr Gino Grassia, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 64.

[26]      Dr Ross Lambie, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 61.

[27]      Dr John Ryan, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 61.

[28]      International Energy Agency, 'How does the IEA respond to major disruptions in the supply of oil?', http://www.iea.org/topics/energysecurity/respondingtomajorsupplydisruptions/ (accessed 20 January 2015).

[29]      International Energy Agency, How does the IEA respond to major disruptions in the supply of oil?, http://www.iea.org/topics/energysecurity/respondingtomajorsupplydisruptions/ (accessed 20 January 2015).

[30]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 9.

[31]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 3.

[32]      APEC Energy Ministerial Meeting cited in National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 3.

[33]      International Energy Agency, Explanation of the Closing Oil Stock Levels in Days and Net Imports Table, http://www.iea.org/topics/oil/oilstocks/ (accessed 4 December 2014).

[34]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper 2014, September 2014, p. 54, http://ewp.industry.gov.au/files/egp/energy_green_paper.pdf  (accessed 4 December 2014).

[35]      Department of Industry and Science, Answer to question on notice at 2 February 2015 hearing, (answer received 24 February 2015).

[36]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 7; Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 12.

[37]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 7.

[38]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 6; National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7; APA Group, Submission 10, p. 3; University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 2; Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 4; Mr Christopher Blackburn, Submission 24.

[39]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7; University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 4.

[40]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7.

[41]      International Energy Agency, Energy Supply Security 2014: Australia, p. 70, http://www.iea.org/media/freepublications/security/EnergySupplySecurity2014_Australia.pdf   (accessed 8 December 2014).

[42]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 10.

[43]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 18.

[44]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 27.

[45]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 27.

[46]      Mr Nathan Dickens, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 28.

[47]      ACIL Tasman, Liquid fuels vulnerability assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, October 2011, p. 121.

[48]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 71.

[49]      ACIL Tasman, Liquid fuels vulnerability assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, October 2011, p. 121.

[50]      Australian Trucking Association, Submission 7, p. 3; Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 18.

[51]      Mr Nathan Dickens, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 28;  Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 19.

[52]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 3.

[53]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 8.

[54]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 12.

[55]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 12.

[56]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, pp 25–26.

[57]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 25.

[58]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 2.

[59]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 12.

[60]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 9.

[61]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 9.

[62]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 2.

[63]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 10; Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 2; Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 3.

[64]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 70.

[65]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 26.

[66]      Mr Nathan Dickens, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 26.

[67]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 18.

[68]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 12.

[69]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 12.

[70]      National Roads & Motorists' Association, Benchmarking Australia's Transport Energy Policies, December 2014, p. 3, Document tabled at 2 February 2015 public hearing.

[71]      International Energy Agency, Energy Supply Security 2014, pp 508–509.

[72]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 13.

[73]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 14.

[74]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 9.

[75]      Queensland Government, Submission 22, p. 3.

[76]      Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 6.

[77]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Benchmarking Australia's Transport Energy Policies, December 2014, p. 3, Document tabled at 2 February 2015 public hearing; Mr Graham Blight, National Roads & Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 20.

[78]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Benchmarking Australia's Transport Energy Policies, December 2014, p. 2, Document tabled at 2 February 2015 public hearing.

[79]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 8; Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 6; Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 3.

[80]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 6.

[81]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 7.

[82]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 7.

[83]      Queensland Government, Submission 22, p. 1.

[84]      Mobil Oil Australia, Submission 27, p. 5.

[85]      Viva Energy Australia, Submission 34, p. 4.

[86]      Qantas Airways Ltd, Submission 25, p. 2.

[87]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1.

[88]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1; National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[89]      Australian Automobile Association, Submission 14, p. 1.

[90]      Fusion Australia, Submission 19, p. 2; National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 2.

[91]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2.

[92]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[93]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 7.

[94]      Mr Ken Grundy, Submission 1.

[95]      Mr David G. Lamb, Submission 4.

[96]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 26.

[97]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 2.

[98]      ACIL Tasman, Liquid fuels vulnerability assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, October 2011, p. 120.

[99]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 31.

[100]    ACIL Tasman, Liquid fuels vulnerability assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, October 2011, p. 120.

[101]    Mr John Ryan, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 89.

[102]    Dr Gino Grassia, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 91.

Chapter 4

[1]        Caltex, Submission 26, p. 5; Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 7.

[2]        Caltex, Submission 26, p. 5.

[3]        Caltex, Submission 26, p. 5.

[4]        Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism, National Energy Security Assessment 2011, p. vii.

[5]        ACIL Tasman, Liquid fuels vulnerability assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, October 2011, p. 119.

[6]        ACIL Tasman, Liquid fuels vulnerability assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, October 2011, p. 120.

[7]        National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7; Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 73.

[8]        National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7.

[9]        Australian Workers' Union, Submission 20, p. 2; Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2.

[10]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1; Mr David G. Lamb, Submission 4; Queensland Resources Council, Submission 15, p. [2].

[11]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2.

[12]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 2.

[13]      Michael Brooke, 'Energy security fuel for thought', Defence Magazine, Issue 114, 2014, pp 3-4.

[14]      National Roads & Motorists' Association, Benchmarking Australia's Transport Energy Policies, December 2014, p. 2, Document tabled at 2 February 2015 public hearing.

[15]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 3.

[16]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1.

[17]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 2.

[18]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 2.

[19]      'Short term diesel fuel shortage in Perth after BP import query, Perth Now, 30 May 2014.

[20]      Mr Graham Blight, National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 70.

[21]      Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 2.

[22]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2.

[23]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2.

[24]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 14.

[25]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 73.

[26]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 73.

[27]      Mr Mark McKenzie, Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 33.

[28]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 4.

[29]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 4.

[30]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 5.

[31]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 71.

[32]      Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Submission 37, pp 1–2.

[33]      Mr Mark McKenzie, Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 30.

[34]      Mr Mark McKenzie, Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 29.

[35]      Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Submission 37, pp 3–4.

[36]      Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Submission 37, p. 4.

[37]      Australasian Convenience and Petroleum Marketers Association, Submission 37, p. 5.

[38]      Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism, National Energy Security Assessment 2011, p. 25.

[39]      Department of Resources and Energy, Energy White Paper 2012, p. 43.

[40]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 5.

[41]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 9.

[42]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 10.

[43]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper 2014, p. 52.

[44]      Viva Energy Australia, Submission 34, p. 9.

[45]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 2.

[46]      Caltex, Submission 26, p. 11.

[47]      Mobil Oil Australia, Submission 27, p. 3.

[48]      Mobil Oil Australia, Submission 27, p. 5.

[49]      ACIL Tasman, Liquid fuels vulnerability assessment, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, October 2011, p. 120.

[50]      Viva Energy Australia, Submission 34, p. 11.

[51]      Mr John Ryan, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 89.

[52]      Department of Industry and Science, Answer to question on notice at 2 February 2015 hearing (answer received 24 February 2015).

[53]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 12.

[54]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 10.

[55]      National Farmers' Federation, Submission 9, p. 2.

[56]      Southern Oil Refining, Submission 28, p. [3].

[57]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Australian Energy Resource Assessment, 2014, p. 328, http://www.industry.gov.au/industry/Office-of-the-Chief-Economist/Publications/Documents/GA21797.pdf (accessed 5 March 2015).

[58]      Southern Oil Refining, Submission 28, p. [3].

[59]      Queensland Government, Submission 22, p. 1.

[60]      Queensland Government, Submission 22, p. iv.

[61]      Australian Workers' Union, Submission 20, p. 6; Dr Brent Jackson, Engineers Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 2.

[62]      Australian Workers' Union, Submission 20, p. 6.

[63]      Mr Neil Greet, Engineers Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 2.

[64]      Australian Workers' Union, Submission 20, p. 6.

[65]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 3.

[66]      APA Group, Submission 10, p. 2.

[67]      Australian Workers' Union, Submission 20, p. 8.

[68]      Mobil Oil Australia, Submission 27, p. 3.

[69]      Queensland Government, Submission 22, p. 1.

[70]      Queensland Government, Submission 22, p. 1.

[71]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 15.

[72]      Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 4.

[73]      Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 4.

[74]      Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 10.

[75]      Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 7.

[76]      Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 7.

[77]      Mr Ian Bray, Maritime Union of Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 38.

[78]      Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 10.

[79]      Maritime Union of Australia, Submission 21, p. 16.

[80]      Dr Penny Howard, Maritime Union of Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 43.

[81]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 3.

[82]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 13.

[83]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 13.

[84]      Section 4(4), Liquid Fuel Emergency (Activities – Essential Users) Determination 2008; Department of Industry, Essential Users under the Liquid Fuel Emergency Act, http://www.industry.gov.au/Energy/EnergySecurity/Liquid-fuels-security/Liquid-Fuel-Emergency-Act/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 12 February 2015).

[85]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 13.

[86]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 14. 

[87]      Mr Andew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p.33.

[88]      Mr AJ White, AUSVEG, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 15.

[89]      AUSVEG, Answer to question on notice taken at 2 February 2015 hearing, (received 13 February 2015).

[90]      Mr AJ White, AUSVEG, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 15.

[91]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p.19.

[92]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 77.

[93]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 77.

[94]      Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 6.

[95]      Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 2.

[96]      Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 2; National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 8.

[97]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1.

[98]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2; National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7; Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 6.

[99]      Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 6.

[100]    National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 7.

[101]    Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper, 2014, p. 53.

[102]    National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 2, p. 6.

[103]    National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 8.

[104]    Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 2.

[105]    Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 19.

Chapter 5 - Role of Government in fuel security

[1]        Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism, National Energy Security Assessment, 2011, http://www.industry.gov.au/energy/Documents/Energy-Security/nesa/National-Energy-Security-Assessment-2011.pdf (accessed 9 December 2014).

[2]        Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 3; University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 7.

[3]        Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 4.

[4]        International Energy Agency, Oil and Gas Security – Australia, 2011, p. 13.

[5]        National Energy Security Assessment 2011 cited in Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper, September 2014, p. 48.

[6]        Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 7.

[7]        Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 11.

[8]        Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 8.

[9]        Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 8.

[10]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 8.

[11]      Australian Institute of Petroleum, Submission 17, p. 9.

[12]      Australian Coal to Liquids Association, Submission 33, p. 24.

[13]      Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 2.

[14]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 7.

[15]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 7

[16]      Australian Automobile Association, Submission 14, p. [2].

[17]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, p. 15.

[18]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 6.

[19]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, pp 4–5.

[20]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 2.

[21]      Engineers Australia, Submission 2, pp 4–5.

[22]      University of Queensland, Submission 22, p. iv.

[23]      Mr Graham Blight, National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 20; Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 5; Australian Automobile Association, Submission 14, p. [2].

[24]      Fusion Australia, Submission 19, p. 5; Engineers Australia, Submission 2, p. 1.

[25]      University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 6.

[26]      AUSVEG, Submission 11, p. 2; National Farmers' Federation, Submission 9, p. 2.

[27]      APA Group, Submission 10, p. 2.

[28]      APA Group, Submission 10, p. 4.

[29]      AGL Energy Limited, Submission 8, p. 3.

[30]      Mr Graham Blight, National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 68.

[31]      Mr Graham Blight, National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 9 April 2015, p. 20.

[32]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 2, p. 16.

[33]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 20.

[34]      Department of Industry and Science, Strategic Framework for Alternative Transport Fuels, December 2011, p. 21.

[35]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper 2014, p. 3.

[36]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper 2014, p. 52.

[37]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 8; Australian Trucking Association, Submission 7, p. 3; AGL Energy Limited, Submission 8, p. 3; University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 6; Queensland Resources Council, Submission 15, p. [2]; Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2; National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18, Attachment 1, p. 3; Truck Industry Council, Submission 23, p. 4; Qantas Airways Limited, Submission 25, p. 2; Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 11.

[38]      Mr Neil Greet, Engineers Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 3.

[39]      Mr Neil Greet, Engineers Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 3.

[40]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper 2014, p. 54.

[41]      BREE cited in Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 6.

[42]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 27.

[43]      Australian Coal to Liquids Association, Supplementary Submission 33, p. 2.

[44]      Mr Andrew White, Mobile LNG, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 79.

[45]      Qantas Airways Limited, Submission 25, p. 1.

[46]      Qantas Airways Limited, Submission 25, p. 2.

[47]      Energy Supply Association of Australia, Submission 29, p. 1.

[48]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2014, p. 114.

[49]      Australian Consumer and

[50]      Mr Adam Pegg, APA Group, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 53.

[51]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 4.

[52]      Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Green Paper 2014, p. 52.

[53]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 4.

[54]      Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics, Energy in Australia 2012, p. 79.

[55]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 8.

[56]      Department of Industry and Science, Strategic Framework for Alternative Transport Fuels, December 2011, p. 15; Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 8.

[57]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 8.

[58]      Gas Energy Australia, Submission 6, p. 9.

[59]      APA Group, Submission 10, p. 3; Mr Andrew White, Mobile LNG, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 84.

[60]      Mr Michael Carmody, Gas Energy Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 52.

[61]      Mr Michael Carmody, Gas Energy Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 52.

[62]      Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 6.

[63]      Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 1.

[64]      Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 2.

[65]      Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 6.

[66]      Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 8.

[67]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 4.

[68]      Mr Graham Blight, National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 69.

[69]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 5; Mr Michael Carmody, Gas Energy Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 53; Mr David Moore, Gas Energy Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 54; Qantas Airways Ltd, Submission 25, p. 2.

[70]      Mr David Moore, Gas Energy Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 54.

[71]      Energy Supply Association of Australia, Submission 29, p. 2.

[72]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, p.1.

[73]      Biofuels Association of Australia, Submission 32, pp 1 and 5.

[74]      Biosecurity Association of Australia, Submission 32, p. 5.

[75]      Mr Michael Carmody, Gas Energy Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 52.

[76]      National Roads and Motorists' Association, Submission 18

[77]      Mobile LNG, Submission 31, p. 6.

[78]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 20.

[79]      BP Australia, Submission 30, p. 11.

[80]      Viva Energy Australia, Submission 34, p. 4.

[81]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 70.

[82]      Air Vice Marshal Blackburn (Retired), National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 70.

[83]      Mr John Ryan, Department of Industry and Science, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 94.

[84]      Department of Industry and Science, Answer to question on notice at 2 February 2015 hearing, Answer provided

[85]      Mr Andrew Warrell, Australian Institute of Petroleum, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 19.

Chapter 6

[1]        University of Queensland, Submission 12, p. 7.

[2]        Australian Workers' Union, Submission 20, p. 8.

[3]        Department of Industry and Science, Strategic Framework for Alternative Transport Fuels, December 2011, p. 21.

[4]        Caltex, Submission 26, p. 12.

[5]        Dr Brent Jackson, Engineers Australia, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 4.

[6]        Department of Industry and Science, Submission 41, p. 7; Department of Industry, Energy White Paper – Issues Paper, December 2013, p. 12.

[7]        Mr Graham Blight, National Roads and Motorists' Association, Committee Hansard, 2 February 2015, p. 76.

Australian Greens' Additional Comments

[1]        Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, Submission 5, November 2014, p1.

Top