Footnotes

Executive Summary

[1]        PwC, Women in Work Index: Closing the Gender Pay Gap (Australian edition), February 2017, http://www.pwc.com.au/people-business/assets/pwc-2017-women-in-work-feb17.pdf (accessed 26 May 2017).

[2]        WGEA, Australia's Gender Equality Scorecard, Key findings from the Workplace Gender Equality Agency's 2015 ̶ 16 reporting data, November 2016, p. 11, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/80653_2015-16-gender-equality-scorecard.pdf (accessed 27 April 2017). 

[3]        WGEA, Submission 22, p. 10.

[4]        KPMG, She's Price(d)less, The Economics of the Gender Pay Gap, Update report prepared for Diversity Council Australia and the Workplace Gender Equality Agency, October 2016, p. 11; Diversity Council Australia, Submission 18.1.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 14, 9 November 2016, pp 436 ̶ 437.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 27, 13 February 2017, p. 913.

[3]        Journals of the Senate, No. 39, 9 May 2017, p. 1304.

Chapter 2

[1]        Department of Employment, Submission 15, p. 2.

[2]        Martha Fetherolf Looutfi, ed., What is Equality and How Do We Get There? Women, Gender and Work, International Labour Office, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2001,        p. 129.

[3]        OECD, The Integration of Women into the Economy, 1984, cited in B Pocock, 'All change, still gendered: The Australian labour market in the 1990s', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 40, no. 4, 1998, p. 590.

[4]        Kirsti Rawstron, University of Wollongong, 'Diverging Paths: Occupational Sex Segregation, Australia, and the OECD', The Australian Sociological Association Annual Conference 2012: Emerging and Enduring Equalities, TASA, 2012, p. 1, http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3039&context=artspapers, (accessed 10 May 2017), cited in United Voice, Submission 19, p. 6; WGEA, Gender Segregation in Australia’s Workforce, August 2016, p. 2, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/20160801_Industry_occupational_segregation_factsheet.pdf (accessed 5 June 2017).

[5]        WGEA, Submission 22, p. 6.

[6]        BCEC, Submission 39, p. 22.

[7]        Addison Hanne, Feminist Economics, WFS Publishing, 2015, p. 74.

[8]        WGEA, Submission 22, p. 7.

[9]        Data is based on May as the reference period. Occupations are ranked from the largest proportion of female employees to smallest.

[10]      Katrin Elborgh-Woytek et al, Women, Work and the Economy: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity, IMF Staff Discussion Note, SDN/13/10, September 2013, p. 6, https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/sdn/2013/sdn1310.pdf (accessed 5 June 2017) ; See also Catalyst, Women in Male-Dominated Industries and Occupations, 20 October 2015, http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-male-dominated-industries-and-occupations, (accessed 15 December 2016).

[11]      Elborgh-Woytek et al, Women, Work and the Economy, p. 6.

[12]      ILO, Women at Work: Trends 2016, ILO, Geneva, 2016, p. 25.

[13]      ILO, Women at Work, p. 26.

[14]      Rawstron, 'Diverging Paths', p. 1.

[15]      WGEA, Submission 22, p. 9. Also see WGEA, Gender Segregation in Australia's Workforce, p. 6.

[16]      Leanin.Org and McKinsey & Company, Women in the Workplace, 2016, https://womenintheworkplace.com/ (accessed 27 April 2017); see also WGEA, Submission 22, p. 9.

[17]      BCEC in association with WGEA, Gender Equity Insights 2017, p. 53.

[18]      BCEC, Submission 39, pp. 20 ̶ 21.

[19]      See for example, Associate Professor Rebecca Cassells, Principal Research Fellow, BCEC, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 2; Mrs Jill Allen, Research Manager, Australian Federation of Employers and Industries, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 55.

[20]      Associate Professor Rebecca Cassells, Principal Research Fellow, BCEC, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 2.

[21]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, WiS, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 48.

[22]      Mrs Sandra Buckley, Executive Officer, WiS, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 48.

[23]      Professor Alan Duncan, Director, BCEC, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, pp. 4 ̶ 5.

[24]      Professor Alan Duncan, Director, BCEC, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, pp. 4 ̶ 5; The University of Melbourne, HILDA Survey, http://melbourneinstitute.unimelb.edu.au/hilda; ABS, 4125.0 – Gender Indicators, Australia, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4125.0;  (accessed 28 April 2017).

[25]      Associate Professor Meg Smith, Member, W+FPR, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 4.

[26]      Associate Professor Meg Smith, Member, W+FPR, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 4.

[27]      NFAW, Submission 6, [p. 9].

[28]      NFAW, Submission 6, p. 7.

[29]      Associate Professor Rebecca Cassells, Principal Research Fellow, BCEC, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 4; W+FPR, Submission 33, p. 23; also see United Kingdom Government, Gender pay gap reporting: what employers must publish, 6 March 2017, https://www.gov.uk/guidance/gender-pay-gap-reporting-what-employers-must-publish (accessed 28 April 2017).

[30]      Associate Professor Meg Smith, Member, W+FPR, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p.2.

[31]      Ai Group, Submission 11, p. 7.

[32]      Victorian Women Lawyers, Submission 29, [p. 4].

[33]      Level Medicine, Submission 24, [p. 8].

[34]      SDA, Submission 20, p. 37.

[35]      PROGRAMMED, Submission 31, p. 6.

Chapter 3

Source: WGEA, Agency reporting data.[11]

[1]        Australian Government, Department of Employment, 'Industry outlook', Australian Jobs 2016 https://australianjobs.employment.gov.au/jobs-future/industry-outlook (accessed 31 May 2017).

[2]        Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Gender Segregation in Australia’s Workforce, August 2016, p. 2, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/20160801_Industry_occupational_segregation_factsheet.pdf (accessed 5 June 2017).

[3]        Women in Super, Submission 32, [p. 3].

[4]        Ms Amanda McIntyre, First Assistant Secretary, Office for Women, PM&C, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 60.

[5]        WGEA, Gender workplace statistics at a glance, August 2016, referring to ABS, Characteristics of Employment Australia, August 2014, cat. no 6333.0, 2015.

[6]        PwC, Women in Work Index: Closing the Gender Pay Gap (Australian edition), February 2017, http://www.pwc.com.au/people-business/assets/pwc-2017-women-in-work-feb17.pdf (accessed 26 May 2017).

[7]        ABS, Submission 4, p. 2.

[8]        John Daley, Grattan Institute, Game changers: Economic Reform Priorities for Australia, 15 June 2012, p. 38.

[9]        Ms Melissa Donnelly, Deputy Secretary, CPSU, Proof Hansard 26 April 2017, pp 23 ̶ 24.

[10]      WGEA, Submission 22, p. 10.

[11]      WGEA, Submission 22, p. 10, Table 5.

[12]      Ms Libby Lyons, Director, WGEA, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2016, p. 34.

[13]      Carers Australia NSW, Submission 12, p. 2.

[14]      DoE, Submission 14, p. 23.

[15]      Ms Virginia Jay, Director, Pay Equity and Participation Section, Workplace Relations Policy Group, DoE, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 53. Under section 653, the General Manager must provide a report on 'the extent to which flexibility arrangements under modern awards and enterprise agreements are being agreed to, and the content of those arrangements'. The report for 2009 ̶ 12 was tabled on 13 February 2013 and the report for 2012 ̶ 15 was tabled on 22 February 2016.  See https://www.fwc.gov.au/about-us/reports-publications/general-managers-reports (accessed 1 May 2017).

[16]      Ai Group, Submission 11, p. 6.

[17]      Professor Lisa Heap, Lead Organiser, VTHC, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 3.

[18]      Carers Australia NSW, Submission 12, p. 3.

[19]      AMWU, Submission 37, p. 12

[20]      Ms Robyn Fortescue, Assistant State Secretary, AMWU, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 53. See also AMWU, Submission 37, p. 12.

[21]      Ms Tracy Howe, Chief Executive Officer, NCOSS, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 29.

[22]      See for example, ACCI, Submission 30, p. 5, p. 19 and p. 24; AFEI, Submission 27, p. 6; Ai Group, Submission 11, p. 3.

[23]      Ai Group, Submission 11, p. 3.

[24]      ANMF, Submission 34, p. 7.

[25]      NCOSS, Submission 26, [p. 5]; WiS, Submission 32, [p. 9]; United Voice, Submission 19, p. 5; AMWU, Submission 37, p. 19; ACTU, Submission 38, pp. 9 ̶ 10; see AHRC, Investing in Care: Recognising and Valuing Those Who Care, Vol. 1: Research Report, 2013, http://www.humanrights.gov.au/sites/default/files/document/publication/UnpaidCaringVolume1_2013.pdf (accessed  5 June 2017).

[26]      United Voice, Submission 19, p. 4.

[27]      Research cited in VTHC, Submission 13, p. 10.

[28]      DET, Submission 21, p. 12.

[29]      DET, Submission 21, p. 12.

[30]      Professor Meg Smith, Member, W+FPR, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 1.

[31]      Jerome De Henau, Susan Himmelwelt, Zofia Lapniewska and Diane Perrons, Investing in the Care Economy: A gender analysis of employment stimulus in seven OECD countries, A report by the UK Women's Budget Group for the International Trade Union Confederation, March 2016, p. 31.

[32]      PA, Submission 1, p. 17.

[33]      A Hegewisch and J Gomick, 'The Impact of Work-Family Policies on Women's Employment: A Review of Research From OECD Countries', Community, Work and Family, vol. 14, no. 2, 2011, p. 126. Also see WGEA, Submission 22, p. 10.

[34]      VTHC, Submission 13, p. 11.

[35]      PA, Submission 1, pp. 19-20; WiS, Submission 32, [p. 3].

[36]      VTHC, Submission 13, p. 10.

[37]      PFA, Submission 17, p. 8.

[38]      WiS, Submission 32, [p. 2].

[39]      Ms Alana Matheson, Deputy Director, Workplace Relations, ACCI, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 17.

[40]      Ms Libby Lyons, Director, WGEA, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 35.

[41]      Ms Genevieve Vaccaro, Principal Adviser, Workplace Relations Policy, Ai Group, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2016, p. 44.

[42]      Ms Robyn Fortescue, Assistant State Secretary, AMWU, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 52.

[43]      Associate Professor Rebecca Cassells, Principal Research Fellow, BCEC, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 8.

[44]      Bain and CEW, Advancing women in Australia: Elimination bias in feedback and promotions, http://cew.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/FINAL-Report-Summary-for-CEW-Members_Advancing-Women-in-Australia.pdf (accessed 1 March 2017).

[45]      Ms Genevieve Vaccaro, Principal Adviser, Workplace Relations Policy, Ai Group, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 44.

[46]      ACCI, Submission 30, pp. 23 ̶ 24.

[47]      Ms Stephanie Foster, Deputy Public Service Commissioner, APSC, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, pp 19 ̶ 20.

[48]      VTHC, Submission 13, pp. 7-8.

[49]      ACCI, Submission 30, pp. 23 ̶ 24.

[50]      Diversity Council Australia, 'Gender segregation in the workplace inquiry', 17 February 2017, https://www.dca.org.au/News/News/Gender-segregation-in-the-workplace-inquiry/560 (accessed 2 March 2017).

[51]      Ms Tracy Howe, Chief Executive Officer, NCOSS, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 30.

[52]      Ms Tracy Howe, Chief Executive Officer, NCOSS, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 30.

[53]      economic Security4Women, Women and Girls into Non-Traditional Occupations and Industries: Broadening Career Options for Secondary School Students, Based on research by Elaine Butler, Kira Clarke and Linda Simon, Women in Adult and Vocational Education (WAVE), p. 14, https://www.security4women.org.au/wp-content/uploads/eS4W-Career-Exploration-Project-Report-20140615.pdf (accessed 29 May 2017).

[54]      Ms Tracy Howe, Chief Executive Officer, NCOSS, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 30.

[55]      G Gilmore, 'Fourth industrial revolution: could automation make life worse for women?', The Guardian, 7 December 2016, cited in United Voice, Submission 19, p. 7.

[56]      World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report, 2016, https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-gender-gap-report-2016, (accessed 10 January 2017), p. 29.

[57]      CCIWA and CGE, Submission 28, p. 3; Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), The Gender Pay Gap over the Life Cycle, March 2016, http://www.actu.org.au/media/886499/the-gender-pay-gap-over-the-life-cycle-h2.pdf, p. 4 (accessed 16 December 2016).

[58]      PA, Submission 1, p. 5.

[59]      TWC, Submission 5, p. 4.

[60]      Dr Karen Struthers, Submission 2, p. 3.

[61]      See for example, Ms Frances Davies, Member, Social Policy Committee, National Foundation for Australian Women, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 12. Also see eS4W, Women and Girls into Non-Traditional Occupations and Industries.

[62]      AHRC, Women in male-dominated industries: A toolkit of strategies, 2013, http://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/sex-discrimination/projects/women-male-dominated-industries-toolkit-strategies (accessed 2 March 2017).

[63]      WGEA, Gender Strategy Toolkit: A direction for achieving gender equality in your organisation, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/Gender_Strategy_Toolkit.pdf (accessed 2 March 2017).

[64]      See Girls Can Do Anything website, http://www.togatus.com.au/girls-can-do-anything/ (accessed 7 March 2017); eS4W, Submission 7, p. 4.

[65]      DCA, Submission 18, pp. 11 ̶ 13.

[66]      DoE, Submission 14, p. 21; ACCI, Submission 30, p. 20.

[67]      Dr Karen Struthers, Submission 2, p. 3.

[68]      AFEI, Submission 27, pp. 4 ̶ 5.

[69]      The automotive manufacturing industry in South Australia and Victoria, for example, is set to close by the end of 2017. DoE, Submission 14, p. 22. See DoE, 'Employment projections 2016',   Labour Market Information Portal, http://lmip.gov.au/default.aspx?LMIP/GainInsights/EmploymentProjection (accessed 1 March 2017).

[70]      HealthWorkforce Australia, Australia's Future Health Workforce: Nurses, Detailed Report, August 2014, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/34AA7E6FDB8C16AACA257D9500112F25/$File/AFHW20-%20Nurses%20detailed%20report.pdf (accessed 7 March 2017), p. 3.

[71]      Ms Annie Butler, Assistant Federal Secretary, ANMF, Proof Hansard, Sydney, 26 April 2017, p. 54.

Chapter 4

[1]        KPMG, She's Price(d)less, The Economics of the Gender Pay Gap, Update report prepared  for Diversity Council Australia (DCA) and WGEA, October 2016, p. 11; DCA, Submission 18.1.

[2]        KPMG, She's Price(d)less, p. 8, cited in WGEA, Submission 22, p. 3.

[3]        The 'gender super gap' is currently around 47 per cent (compared to the gender pay gap at 19.3 per cent). By 2030 the retirement income gap is expected to be 39 per cent. WGEA, Submission 22, p. 3; WGEA, Different Genders, Different Lives: Perspective Paper, 2014, p. 6, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/PP_different_genders_different_lives.pdf (accessed 23 February 2017).

[4]        John Burgess, Glenda Strachan, G and Martin J Watts, 'Labour Market Deregulation and Gender Equality in the Australian Workforce: Complementary or Incompatible?', The Economic and Labour Relations Review, vol. 11, 2000, p. 204.

[5]        WGEA, Submission 22, p. 3.

[6]        Unions WA, Submission 23, p. 3.

[7]        Ms Erin McCoy, Industrial Officer, Women, Work and Family, ACTU, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 1.

[8]        The concept of 'emotional labour', established by American sociologist Arlie Hochschild, refers to the process by which workers are expected to manage their feelings as part of the paid work role. See for example, 'The sociology of emotional labour, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 35, 2009, pp. 147 ̶ 65, http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115944 (accessed 12 May 2017).

[9]        NFAW, Submission 6, p. 2; Alfred Michael Dockery and Sandra Buchler, BCEC, Occupational segregation and women's job satisfaction, Working paper series 15/10, December 2015, p. 1, http://business.curtin.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2016/08/bcec-working-paper-1510.pdf (accessed 24 February 2017).

[10]      BCEC, Submission 39, p. 3.

[11]      Robyn Layton, Meg Smith and Andrew Stewart, Equal Remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009: A Report for the Pay Equity Unit of the Fair Work Commission, 2013, https://www.fwc.gov.au/documents/documents/payequity/er-report-6-dec-2013.pdf (accessed 23 February 2017), p. 92.

[12]      Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 11.

[13]      Unions WA, Submission 23, p. 3.

[14]      KPMG, She's Price(d)less, p. 6; DCA, Submission 18.1.

[15]      DCA, Submission 18, p. 6.

[16]      W+FPR, Submission 33, p. 13.

[17]      BCEC, Submission 39, p. 22.

[18]      Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 12. See Joint Working Group on Pay Equity Principles—Recommendations, 7 June 2016, http://www.ssc.govt.nz/pay-equity-working-group (accessed 31 March 2017).

[19]      ASU, Submission 25, pp. 9 ̶ 10.

[20]      ACTU, Submission 38, p. 7.                     

[21]      See for example, W+FPR, Submission 33, pp. 16 ̶ 23; United Voice, Submission 19, p. 5; SDA, Submission 20, p. 6, pp. 26 ̶ 27; UnionsWA, Submission 23, p. 4.

[22]      KPMG, She's Price(d)less, The Economics of the Gender Pay Gap, October 2016, p. 1, in DCA, Submission 18.1. Analysis based on gender pay gap data published by the ABS. The gap between female and male earnings in 2016 was $311 in the private sector and $209.80 in the public sector.

[23]      KPMG, She's Price(d)less, p. 3 in DCA, Submission 18.1. KPMG's analysis drew on data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, ABS Labour Force Survey and WGEA 2016 Gender Pay Gap Statistics.

[24]      UnionsWA, Submission 23, p. 1.

[25]      Department of Education and Training, Submission 21, p. 3.

[26]      WGEA, Different Genders, Different Lives: Perspective Paper, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/PP_different_genders_different_lives.pdf (accessed 9 March 2017).

[27]      KPMG, She's Price(d)less, p. 12, Table 4-2; DCA, Submission 18.1.

[28]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 35, p. 6; WGEA, Gender Segregation in Australia's Workforce, August 2016, p. 2, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/20160801_Industry_occupational_segregation_factsheet.pdf, (accessed 15 December 2016).

[29]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment and Workplace Relations, Making it Fair: Pay Equity and Associated Issues related to Increasing Female Participation in the Workforce, Canberra, November 2009, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=ewr/payequity/report.htm (accessed 22 March 2017).

[30]      Senate Economics References Committee, 'A husband is not a retirement plan': Achieving Economic Security for Women in Retirement, April 2016, p. xi, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Economics/Economic_security_for_women_in_retirement/Report (accessed 1 March 2017). The Australian Government has not yet provided a response to this report.

[31]      Senate Economics References Committee, 'A husband is not a retirement plan', Recommendation 1.

[32]      Gillian Whitehouse, 'A cross-national comparison of gender gaps', in David Peetz and Georgina Murray, eds, Women, Labor Segmentation and Regulation: Varieties of Gender Gaps, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2017, p. 106.

[33]      ILO, Women at Work: Trends 2016, ILO, Geneva, 2016, p. 49.

[34]      Fair Work Commission, Summary of Decision, [2017] FWCFB 1001, 23 February 2017, https://www.fwc.gov.au/documents/sites/awardsmodernfouryr/2017fwcfb1001-summary.pdf (accessed 1 May 2017.

[35]      SDA, Submission 20.1, [p. 1].

[36]      SDA, Submission 20.1, [p. 1]; Ms Katie Biddlestone, National Women's Officer, SDA, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 34.

[37]      ABS, Submission 4, p. 5.

[38]      Professionals Australia, Submission 1, p. 9.

[39]      PA, Submission 1, pp. 9 ̶ 12.

[40]      ABS, Average Weekly Earnings, Australia, May 2015, cat. No. 6302.0.

[41]      ABS, Submission 4, p. 5; PA, Submission 1, pp. 9 ̶ 12.

[42]      See for example, Ms Katie Biddlestone, National Women's Officer, SDA, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 34; Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 12.

[43]      Fair Work Australia, Equal Remuneration Case, [2011] FWAFB 2700, Melbourne, 16 May 2011, https://www.fwc.gov.au/documents/sites/remuneration/decisions/2011fwafb2700.htm (accessed 31 March 2017).

[44]      Fiona MacDonald and Sara Charlesworth, 'Equal Pay under the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth): Mainstreamed or Marginalised?', UNSW Law Journal, vol. 21, 2013, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/UNSWLawJl/2013/21.html (accessed 28 April 2017).

[45]      Ms Linda White, Assistant National Secretary, ASU, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 36.

[46]      See for example, Ms Katie Biddlestone, National Women's Officer, SDA, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 34; Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 12.

[47]      Associate Professor Meg Smith, Member, W+FPR, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, pp. 1 ̶ 2.

[48]      Fair Work Commission, Pay equity research, https://www.fwc.gov.au/resources/research/pay-equity-research (accessed 2 May 2017).

[49]      United Voice, Response to Questions Taken on Notice, 2 May 2017; Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 16.

[50]      See for example, Ms Erin McCoy, Industrial Officer, Women, Work and Family, ACTU, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 1; ASU, Submission 25, pp. 15 ̶ 16; Ms Linda White, Assistant National Secretary, ASU, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 39. The case, relating to Social and Community Sector workers, was the first major test of the equal remuneration order provisions of the Fair Work Act.

[51]      Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 12.

[52]      Ms Frances Davies, NFAW, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 10.

[53]      See for example, ASU, Submission 20, pp. 41 ̶ 43; NFAW, Submission 6, [p.5]; AMWU, Submission 37, p. 23; Ms Katie Biddlestone, SDA, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 34; Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 12.

[54]      Professor Lisa Heap, Lead Organiser, VTHC, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 5.

[55]      W+FPR, Submission 33, p. 17; Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 50.

[56]      W+FPR, Submission 33, p. 20.

[57]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 110.

[58]      Fair Work Australia, Review of equal remuneration principles, Research Report 5/2011, pp. 34 ̶  5.

[59]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 164.

[60]      Professor Lisa Heap, Lead Organiser, VTHC, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 5.

[61]      Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 5.

[62]      ASU, Submission 20, pp. 41 ̶ 43; NFAW, Submission 6, [p.5]; AMWU, Submission 37, p. 23; Ms Katie Biddlestone, National Women's Officer, SDA, Proof Hansard, 10 April 2017, p. 34; Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 12.

Chapter 5

[1]        Australian Federation of Employers and Industries, Submission 27, p. 2.

[2]        Francesca Bettio and Alina Veraschchagina, Gender Segregation in the Labour Market: Root Causes, Implications and Policy Responses in the EU, European Commission, 2009, http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=4028 (accessed 2 March 2017), p. 57.

[3]        Bettio and Veraschchagina, Gender Segregation in the Labour Market, p. 56.

[4]        Council of Europe, 2015, cited in National Foundation for Australian Women (NFAW), Submission 6, [p. 15].

[5]        Redraw the balance (video), Inspiring the future, http://www.inspiringthefuture.org/redraw-the-balance/, 11 August 2016 (accessed 9 March 2017).

[6]        NFAW, Submission 6, [p. 15].

[7]        Ministry for Women, 'Occupational segregation', http://women.govt.nz/work-skills/paid-and-unpaid-work/occupational-segregation (accessed 14 March 2017).

[8]        SJ Ceci, DK Ginther, S Kahn and WM Williams, ‘Women in Academic Science: A Changing Landscape’, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2014, vol. 15, no. 3, pp 75–131.

[9]        EA Johansson, The effect of own and spousal parental leave on earnings, IFAU working paper, 2010(4), Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation, Swedish Ministry of Employment, Sweden, cited in United Voice, Submission 19, p. 17.

[10]      See Richard Orange, 'Paid parental leave: How Swedish mums and dads do it', Sydney Morning Herald, 20 March 2014, http://www.smh.com.au/national/paid-parental-leave-how-swedish-mums-and-dads-do-it-20140319-352gj.html (accessed 9 March 2017).

[11]      OECD, Family Database, Social Policy Division, Directorate of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, p. 6, cited in United Voice, Submission 19, p. 17.

[12]      Bettio and Veraschchagina, Gender Segregation in the Labour Market, p. 57.

[13]      The Grattan Institute, Game-Changers – Economic reform priorities for Australia 2013, p. 45.

[14]      NFAW, Submission 6, [p. 17].

[15]      Robyn Layton, Meg Smith and Andrew Stewart, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, A Report for the Pay Equity Unit of the Fair Work Commission, 2013, pp 20 ̶ 21 and 28, https://www.fwc.gov.au/documents/documents/payequity/er-report-6-dec-2013.pdf (accessed 11 May 2017). See especially Appendix C of the report, 'Equal remuneration in other jurisdictions'. The countries chosen were: Belgium; Canada; Ireland; Finland; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Sweden; the UK; and the US. 

[16]      Paragraph breaks inserted by report editors for clarity. Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 29.

[17]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 29.

[18]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 176.

[19]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, pp 182 ̶ 183.

[20]      As required by Article 157(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

[21]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, pp 183 ̶ 184.

[22]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 189.

[23]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 190.

[24]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, pp 191 ̶ 192.

[25]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 201.

[26]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 202.

[27]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, pp. 205 ̶ 206.

[28]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 207.

[29]      W+FPR, Submission 33, p. 23.

[30]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 206.

[31]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 211.

[32]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 212.

[33]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 220.

[34]      Layton et al, Equal remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009, p. 222.

[35]      Joint Working Group on Pay Equity Principles—Recommendations, 7 June 2016, http://www.ssc.govt.nz/pay-equity-working-group (accessed 31 March 2017). See also VTHC, Submission 13, p. 17.

[36]      Ms Helen Gibbons, Assistant National Secretary, United Voice, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 15.

Government senators' dissenting and additional comments

[1]        'Turnbull Coalition's commitment to supporting Australian women', Liberal Party of Australia, Media release, 11 June 2016, https://www.liberal.org.au/latest-news/2016/06/11/turnbull-coalitions-commitment-supporting-australian-women (accessed 1 June 2017).

[2]        Ms Genevieve Vaccaro, Australian Industry Group, Proof Hansard, 26 April 2017, p. 44; see Office of the Chief Scientist and AiGroup, Stem Programme Index 2016, http://www.chiefscientist.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/SPI2016_release.pdf (accessed 1 June 2017).

[3]        Senate Finance and Public Administration Legislation Committee, Estimates, Proof Hansard, 22 May 2017, pp.  69 ̶ 71.

[4]        Department of Education and Training, Early Childhood and Child Care, https://www.education.gov.au/early-childhood-and-child-care (accessed 1 June 2017).

[5]        Department of Education and Training, Jobs for Families Child Care Package, https://www.education.gov.au/jobsforfamilies (accessed 1 June 2017).

[6]        Australian Government, National Innovation and Science Agenda, http://www.innovation.gov.au/page/agenda (accessed 1 June 2017).

[7]        Department of Education and Training, Submission 21, pp. 13 ̶14; also see Australian Department of Innovation, The National Innovation and Science Agenda: engaging more women in STEM, http://science.gov.au/scienceGov/news/Pages/The-National-Innovation-and-Science-Agenda-engaging-more-women-in-STEM-.aspx (accessed 1 June 2017).

[8]        Department of Education and Training, Inspiring all Australian in Digital Literacy and STEM, https://www.education.gov.au/inspiring-all-australians-digital-literacy-and-stem (accessed 1 June 2017).

[9]        Department of Education and Training, Submission 21, pp. 13 ̶ 14.

[10]      Australian Government, BoardLinks, https://www.boardlinks.gov.au/ (accessed 1 June 2017).

[11]      Australian Government, BoardLinks, https://www.boardlinks.gov.au/; Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, International Women's Day 2016, Media release, 8 March 2016, https://ministers.employment.gov.au/cash/international-womens-day-2016 (all accessed 1 June 2017).

[12]      FWC, Pay equity research, https://www.fwc.gov.au/resources/research/pay-equity-research; FWC, Gender pay equity, https://www.fairwork.gov.au/how-we-will-help/templates-and-guides/best-practice-guides/gender-pay-equity (all accessed 1 June 2017).

[13]      Ai Group, Submission 11, p. 9.

[14]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment and Workplace Relations, Making it Fair: Pay Equity and Associated Issues related to Increasing Female Participation in the Workforce, Canberra, November 2009, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=ewr/payequity/report.htm (accessed 1 June 2017).

[15]      FWC, Pay equity research, https://www.fwc.gov.au/resources/research/pay-equity-research (accessed 1 June 2017).

Appendix 3

[1]        Information provided by Australian Parliamentary Library.

[2]        APSC, Submission 3, [p. 1].

[3]        APSC, Balancing the Future: The Australian Public Service Gender Equality Strategy 2016 ̶ 19, 2016, p. 4, http://www.apsc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/80117/FINAL-Balancing-the-future-the-Australian-Public-Service-gender-equality-strategy-2016-19.pdf (accessed 8 March 2017).

[4]        APSC, Submission 3, [p. 2].

[5]        Robyn Layton, Meg Smith and Andrew Stewart, Equal Remuneration under the Fair Work Act 2009: A Report for the Pay Equity Unit of the Fair Work Commission, 2013, https://www.fwc.gov.au/documents/documents/payequity/er-report-6-dec-2013.pdf (accessed 23 February 2017), pp. 91 ̶ 3.

[6]        CPSU, Submission 10, pp. 2-3.

[7]        APSC, Balancing the Future, p. 3.

[8]        AICD, Submission 14, p. 1.

[9]        AICD, Submission 14, p. 3.

[10]      WGEA, 6 Ways Employers are Raising the Bar on Gender Equality, cited in Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Submission 30, p. 22.

[11]      Ai Group, Submission 11, p. 8.

[12]      Natalie Galea, Adam Rogan, Abigail Powell, Louise Chappell and Martin Loosemore, Construction Industry: Demolishing Gender Structures, UNSW, December 2016.

[13]      Melanie Pearce with Gavin Coote and Julie Clift, 'Female tradies giving women and girls confidence with skills and broadening career horizons', ABC News online, 30 March 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-03-30/female-tradies-giving-women-and-girls-confidence-with-skills/7284616 (accessed 2 March 2017).

[14]      Economic Security4Women, Submission 7, pp. 4 ̶ 5.

[15]      Dell's Women in IT Executive Mentoring (WITEM) program, http://www.dell.com/learn/au/en/aucorp1/corp-comm/witem-au (accessed 2 March 2017).

[16]      Economic Security4Women, Submission 7, p. 5.

[17]      Economic Security4Women, Submission 7, p. 5.

[18]      PROGRAMMED, Submission 31, p. 7.

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