Footnotes

Chapter 1

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 129—25 November 2015, pp 3477-3478.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No.7—15 September 2016, p. 225.

[3]        See Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee, Domestic Violence in Australia, August 2015, available at http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Finance_and_Public_Administration/Domestic_Violence.

Chapter 2 - Gender inequality and domestic violence

[1]        Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee, Domestic Violence in Australia, August 2015, pp 2-3.

[2]        Submission 66, p. 10. Our Watch is an independent, not-for-profit organisation established by the Victorian and Australian Governments to focus on the prevention of violence against women and their children. Since its establishment the South Australian, Northern Territory, Tasmanian and Queensland Governments have also become members.

[3]        Submission 6, p. 2.

[4]        Victorian Council of Social Service, Submission 27, p. 2. See also: Women's Health Victoria, Submission 38, pp 9-10.

[5]        Submission 41, p. 4.

[6]        Submission 41, pp 4-5, quoting from the United Nations' Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993).

[7]        See Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth) Submission 16, pp 3 and 8-13; ANROWS, Submission 24, pp 2-4; Our Watch, Submission 66, pp 9- 12. See also Our Watch, Australia's National Research Organisation for Women's Safety (ANROWS) and VicHealth, Change the story: A shared framework for the primary prevention of violence against women and their children in Australia (2015) (Change the story), pp 22-31. Our Watch explains 'Change the story brings together international research, and nationwide experience, on what drives violence against women and their children and what works to prevent it. It establishes a shared understanding of the evidence and principles of effective prevention, and presents a way forward for a coordinated national approach', see http://www.ourwatch.org.au/What-We-Do/National-Primary-Prevention-Framework. Change the Story is discussed further later in this chapter.

[8]        Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 22.

[9]        Submission 1, p. 1.

[10]      Submission 16, pp 10-11.

[11]      VicHealth, Submission 16, p. 11, from United Nations Development Fund for Women, Investing in Gender Equality: Ending Violence against Women and Girls, 2010, p. 3.

[12]      VicHealth, Submission 16, p. 11.

[13]      VicHealth, Submission 16, p. 12.

[14]      Submission 6, p. 2.

[15]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 23.

[16]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 23.

[17]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 23.

[18]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 26.

[19]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 26.

[20]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 25.

[21]      Submission 10, pp 6-7, referring to the World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Report 2015. See also Victorian Council of Social Service, Submission 27, p. 7; Women's Health Victoria, Submission 38, p. 15.

[22]      See Women's Health West, Submission 10, pp 6-7; Victorian Council of Social Service, Submission 27, p. 7; Women's Health Victoria, Submission 38, p. 15; Fighting for Justice Foundation, Submission 47, p. 3; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 54, p. 5.

[23]      Submission 27, p. 7.

[24]      Submission 27, p. 8.

[25]      Submission 1, p. 2.

[26]      Submission 41, p. 5.

[27]      Submission 10, p. 7. Note: as at 15 September 2016, six of the 23 cabinet ministers are women. See https://www.pm.gov.au/your-government/cabinet (accessed 15 September 2016).

[28]      National Family Violence Prevention Legal Services, Submission 21, p. 9.

[29]      Submission 52, pp 8-9.

[30]      Submission 52, p. 4.

[31]      Submission 58, p. 26.

[32]      Submission 16, p. 15. The 2013 National Community Attitudes towards violence against Women Survey (2013 NCAS) is one of the studies designed to monitor the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children 2010-2022. The 2013 NCAS was carried out by VicHealth in collaboration with the Social Research Centre and The University of Melbourne. The 2013 NCAS involved more than 17 500 twenty minute phone interviews with a cross-section of Australians aged 16 years or older. The aims and areas of investigation of the 2013 NCAS were discussed in the committee's previous report, see Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee, Domestic Violence in Australia, August 2015, pp 45-46.

[33]      VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 6, available at: https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/media-and-resources/publications/2013-national-community-attitudes-towards-violence-against-women-survey.

[34]      VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 6.

[35]      Source: VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 6, available at: https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/media-and-resources/publications/2013-national-community-attitudes-towards-violence-against-women-survey. (** indicates that a the difference between 2009 and 2013 is statistically significant).

[36]      VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 5.

[37]      VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 5.

[38]      VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 7.

[39]      VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 7.

[40]      Submission 16, p. 15.

[41]      Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee, Domestic Violence in Australia, August 2015, pp 19-21.

[42]      Department of Social Services, Submission 3, p. 1.

[43]      Department of Social Services, Submission 3, p. 2.

[44]      Submission 3, p. 3. Note: The Third Action Plan 2016-19 was launched on 28 October 2016, see http://plan4womenssafety.dss.gov.au/the-national-plan/third-action-plan/ (accessed 3 November 2016).

[45]      Submission 3, p. 3.

[46]      Submission 3, p. 3.

[47]      Submission 3, p. 3.

[48]      Submission 66, p. 27.

[49]      See para 2.9.

[50]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 7.

[51]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 33.

[52]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 34.

[53]      Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 3.

Chapter 3 - Gender stereotypes, government initiatives, and other related matters

[1]        Our Watch, ANROWS and VicHealth, Change the story, 2015, p. 37.

[2]        Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee, Domestic Violence in Australia, August 2015, pp 71, 73-75, 80.

[3]        Second Action Plan 2013-2016 of the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children, p. 22.

[4]        Second Action Plan 2013-2016 of the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children, p. 23.

[5]        Second Action Plan 2013-2016 of the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children, p. 23.

[6]        Second Action Plan 2013-2016 of the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children, p. 23.

[7]        Submission 66, p. 37.

[8]        Submission 65, White Ribbon Australia Annual Report 2014-15, p. 7.

[9]        Breaking the Silence Schools Program, Strengthening the culture of respectful relationships through Australian Schools, http://www.whiteribbon.org.au/schools (accessed 23 August 2016).

[10]      Submission 65, p. 25.

[11]      The Senate Finance and Public Administration References Committee, Domestic Violence in Australia, August 2015, p. 83.

[12]      Submission 66, p. 7. Note: In April 2015, COAG agreed to take collective action to reduce the level of violence against women and their children. The COAG Campaign is a national campaign to encourage the community to change the attitudes of young people to violence. The campaign builds on the latest research and efforts already underway by states and territories. For more information, see Council of Australian Governments at http://www.coag.gov.au/node/535 (accessed 26 August 2016).

[13]      Submission 13, p. 5.

[14]      Submission 13, p. 5.

[15]      Submission 51, pp 2-3.

[16]      Submission 51, p. 2.

[17]      See https://www.wgea.gov.au/addressing-pay-equity/what-gender-pay-gap (accessed 19 September 2016).

[18]      Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Gender Pay Gap Statistics Fact Sheet, https://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/Gender_Pay_Gap_Factsheet.pdf, p. 3 (accessed 25 August 2016).

[19]      Commonwealth of Australia, 2015 Intergenerational Report Australia in 2055, p. 138.

[20]      Commonwealth of Australia, 2015 Intergenerational Report Australia in 2055, pp 20-21.

[21]      Commonwealth of Australia, 2015 Intergenerational Report Australia in 2055, p. 21.

[22]      Commonwealth of Australia, 2015 Intergenerational Report Australia in 2055, p. 99.

[23]      Commonwealth of Australia, 2015 Intergenerational Report Australia in 2055, p. 138.

[24]      Commonwealth of Australia, 2015 Intergenerational Report Australia in 2055, p. 19.

[25]      Submission 15, p. 21.

[26]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Labour Force Participation- an International Comparison, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/0CBA37179F1B71BACA25732C00207901?opendocument (accessed 25 August 2016).

[27]      Submission 38, p. 40.

[28]      Submission 15, p. 23.

[29]      Submission 1, p. 2. See also Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, How Australians Use Their Time, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4153.0 (accessed 25 August 2016).

[30]      Submission 10, p. 1. See also WIRE, Submission 15, p. 11.

[31]      Productivity Commission, Childcare and Early Childhood Learning, 31 October 2014 available at http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/childcare#report (accessed 25 August 2016).

[32]      For example see: Senate Education and Employment References Committee, The immediate future of the childcare sector in Australia, 16 July 2014; Senate Education and Employment References Committee, The delivery of quality and affordable early childhood education and care services, 16 July 2014.

[33]      Australian Government Office for women, The Leadership Challenge, Women in Management, 2008, p. 10.

[34]      The Australian Public Service Gender Equality Strategy 2016-2019 (the Gender Equality Strategy) p. 4.

[35]      Cultural Change: Gender Diversity and Inclusion in the Australian Federal Police, Elizabeth Broderick & Co, 2016, p. 67.

[36]      Submission 15, p. 24.

[37]      Australian Public Service Commission, Balancing the Future: The Australian Public Service gender equality strategy 2016-2019, p. 3.

[38]      Submission 15, p. 24.

[39]      Submission 15, p. 21.

[40]      Fair Work Ombudsman, Equal Remuneration Order, https://www.fairwork.gov.au/pay/minimum-wages/social-and-community-services-industry-pay-rates, (accessed 26 August 2016), ABC, The World Today, 1 February 2012, http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2012/s3420387.htm, (accessed 26 August 2016).

[41]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 1, p. 3. See also Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Australian Census of Women in Leadership, https://www.wgea.gov.au/fact-sheets-and-research-reports/australian-census-women-leadership (accessed 25 August 2016).

[42]      Australian Public Service Commission, Balancing the Future: The Australian Public Service gender equality strategy 2016-2019, http://www.apsc.gov.au/publications-and-media/current-publications/gender-equality-strategy, (accessed 25 August 2016).

[43]      Catalyst CSR Dashboard, Gender Equality at work, March 2016, http://catalyst.org.au/documents/Gender-dashboard/Gender_Equality_at_Work_-_Report.pdf (accessed 25 August 2016).

[44]      Explanatory Memorandum (EM), p. 1.

[45]      Senate Finance and Public Administration Legislation Committee, Australian Government Boards (Gender Balanced Representation) Bill 2015, 10 November 2015.

[46]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Gender Balance on Australian Government Boards, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/leadership/gender-balance-australian-government-boards, (accessed 25 August 2016). Note: The Australian Government Office for Women prepares the annual Gender Balance on Australian Government Boards Report.

[47]      Women's Health Victoria, Submission 38, p. 32, Government of South Australia Office for Women, Boards and Committees , https://www.officeforwomen.sa.gov.au/womens-policy/womens-leadership/women-on-boards-and-committees (accessed 25 August 2016), Tasmanian Government, Tasmanian Government Committed to 50% representation of women on boards, http://www.premier.tas.gov.au/releases/tasmanian_government_committed_to_50_representation_of_women_on_boards (accessed 25 August 2016), ABC News, Women to make up half of judiciary, government board appointments, under new Victorian rules, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-03-28/women-to-make-up-50-pc-of-vic-boards-under-new-rules/6355282, (accessed 25 August 2016).

[49]      Submission 26, p. 9.

[50]      Male Champions of Change, A message from Elizabeth Broderick, http://malechampionsofchange.com/message-from-elizabeth-broderick/ (accessed 26 August 2016).

[51]      Senate Economics References Committee, Economic security for women in retirement, 'A husband is not a retirement plan', 29 April 2016.

[52]      Submission 35, quoting Dr Wendy Varney, pp 1-2.

[53]      Submission 49, p. 1. The evidence referred to is Flood, Michael and Pease, Bob (2009), 'Factors influencing attitudes to violence against women', Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 10(2): 125-142.

[54]      Submission 49, p. 2.

[55]      Submission 49, p. 2.

[56]      Submission 42, pp 4-5.

[57]      Submission 25, p. 2.

[58]      Submission 60, p. 4.

[59]      See research cited by The Australian Women Against Violence Alliance, Submission 60, p. 4; The Victorian Women's Trust Limited, Submission 26, p. 5.

[60]      Women Everywhere Advocating Violence Elimination, Submission 14, p. 13.

[61]      The Victorian Women's Trust Limited, Submission 26, p. 5.

[62]      ANROWS, Submission 24, p. 4. Citing research from Webster. K. & Flood. M (2015), Framework Foundations 1: A review of the evidence on correlates of violence against women and what works to prevent it, p. 25.

[63]      Australian Council on Children and the Media, Submission 33, p. 5.

[64]      Submission 22, p. 12.

[65]      Submission 33, p. 6.

[66]      National Media Engagement Project (National), http://www.ourwatch.org.au/What-We-Do/National-Media-Engagement-Project (accessed 23 August 2016).

[67]      National Media Engagement Project (National), http://www.ourwatch.org.au/What-We-Do/National-Media-Engagement-Project (accessed 23 August 2016).

[68]      See http://www.ourwatch.org.au/What-We-Do/National-Media-Engagement-Project (accessed 19 September 2016).

[69]      Submission 60, p. 5.

Chapter 4 - Committee view

[1]        Note: In 2015 Australia was ranked 36th out 145 countries. See http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2015/rankings/ (accessed 7 November 2016)

Government Senators' additional comments

[1]        The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister, 'Transcript of Joint Press Conference: Women's Safety Package to Stop the Violence', 24 September 2015.

[2]        The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister, 'Transcript of Joint Press Conference: Women's Safety Package to Stop the Violence', 24 September 2015.

[3]        South Australian Premier's Council for Women, Submission 6, p. 2.

[4]        VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, p. 5.

[5]        Second Action Plan 2013-2016 of the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children, p. 22.

[6]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Perspectives on Education and Training: Australians with qualifications in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), 2010–11, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4250.0.55.005~2010%E2%80%9311~Main%20Features~Demographic%20characteristics~5 (accessed on 6 October 2016), See also Australian Bureau of Statistics, Gender Equality, Are we there yet? http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4125.0~Feb%202016~Media%20Release~Gender%20equality%20--%20are%20we%20there%20yet%3F%20(Media%20Release)~1, (accessed 6 October 2016).

[7]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, Perspectives on Education and Training: Australians with qualifications in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), 2010–11, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4250.0.55.005~2010%E2%80%9311~Main%20Features~Demographic%20characteristics~5 (accessed on 24 August 2016).

[8]        The Australian National Innovation and Science Agenda, Opportunities for women in science, technology, engineering and maths, http://www.innovation.gov.au/page/opportunities-women-stem, (accessed 6 October 2016).

[9]        Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, Minister for Women, 'Turnbull Government supporting women to succeed in STEM', Media Release, 19 August 2016.

[10]      Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, Minister for Women, 'Turnbull Government supporting women to succeed in STEM', Media Release, 19 August 2016.

[11]      The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister, 'Supporting more women and girls into STEM careers', Media Release, 26 June 2016.

[12]      Australian Government Department of Education and Training, Australian Maths Sciences Institute (AMSI), https://education.gov.au/australian-mathematical-sciences-institute-project, (accessed 6 October 2016).

[13]      SAGE, Funding boost to make a difference for women in science, 9 December 2015, http://www.sciencegenderequity.org.au/sage-pilot/funding-boost-women-in-science/, (accessed 6 October 2016).  

[14]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Plan to Reduce Violence Against Women and Their Children, Third Action Plan 2016-19, 28 October 2016. See also Prime Minister, the Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP and Minister for Social Services, the Hon Christian Porter MP, 'Government strengthens investment to reduce violence against women and children', Media Release, 28 October 2016.

[15]      Australian Government, Balancing the Future: The Australian Public Service Gender Equality Strategy 2016-19.

[16]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Secretaries Equality and Diversity Council, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/secretaries-equality-and-diversity-council, (accessed 7 October 2016).

[17]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Secretaries Equality and Diversity Council, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/secretaries-equality-and-diversity-council, (accessed 7 October 2016).

[18]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Communique – 21 July 2016, 6 September 2016, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/news-centre/government/secretaries-equality-diversity-council-communique-july-2016, (accessed 7 October 2016). The Panel Pledge is a Male Champions of Change initiative that asks men, who are invited to speak at or participate in a professional forum to make a proactive effort to include women on the panel. Further information can be found at: http://malechampionsofchange.com/commit-to-the-panel-pledge/.

[19]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Office for Women, Grants and Funding, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/grants-and-funding, (accessed 10 October 2016).

[20]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Office for Women, National Women's Alliances, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/grants-and-funding/national-womens-alliances, (accessed 10 October 2016).

[21]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Office For Women, Office for Women: reflecting on the year that was, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/news-centre/office-women/office-women-reflecting-year-was, (accessed 10 October 2016). See:  https://www.supportingworkingparents.gov.au/.

[22]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Financial Literacy, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/economic-security/financial-literacy, (accessed 7 October 2016).

[23]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Financial Literacy, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/economic-security/financial-literacy, (accessed 7 October 2016). The Women's Money Toolkit can be found at https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/life-events-and-you/women/womens-money-toolkit.

[24]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Financial Literacy, https://www.dpmc.gov.au/office-women/economic-security/financial-literacy, (accessed 7 October 2016).

[25]      As at 30 June 2016, there were 332 boards with a total of 2,351 members, 953 (40.5 per cent) women. Gender Balance on Australian Government Boards Report 2015-2016, p. 5.

[26]      Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, Minister for Women,' Coalition meets target for women on Government boards', Media Release, 29 September 2016.

[27]      Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, Minister for Women, 'Address to the National Press Club- International Women's Day', 8 March 2016.

[28]      Board:links, Opportunity across the Board, https://www.boardlinks.gov.au/, (accessed 6 October 2016).

[29]      Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, Minister for Women, 'Coalition meets target for women on government boards', Media Release, 29 September 2016.

[30]      Jessica Irvine, 'Minister for Women Michaelia Cash oversees department with lowest female representation on government boards', Sydney Morning Herald, 29 September 2016.

[31]      Jessica Irvine, 'Minister for Women Michaelia Cash oversees department with lowest female representation on government boards', Sydney Morning Herald, 29 September 2016.

[32]      Jessica Irvine, 'Minister for Women Michaelia Cash oversees department with lowest female representation on government boards', Sydney Morning Herald, 29 September 2016.

[33]      Jenna Price, 'Federal Coalition failing to walk the walk on pay equity', Sydney Morning Herald, 12 September 2016.

[34]      Australian Government, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Statement from Martin Parkinson – Gender equality and the office for Women, 12 September 2016.

[35]      See: https://www.liberal.org.au/latest-news/2016/06/11/turnbull-coalitions-commitment-supporting-australian-women, (accessed 10 October 2016).

[36]      Mr Wilhelm Harnisch, Chief Executive Officer, Master Builders Australia, Boosting Women's Participation in Building Top Priority For Master Builders, http://www.masterbuilders.com.au/newsarticles/boosting-womens-participation-in-buildingtop-priority-for-master-builders- (accessed 7 October 2016).   

[37]      The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister, 'Doorstop with Employment Minister Cash, Bert Van Manen MP, Senator Jo Lindgren', 27 April 2016.

[38]      The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister, 'Supporting Women in Building and Construction', Media Release, 27 April 2016.

[39]      Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Gender equality and women's empowerment strategy, February 2016.

[40]      The Hon Julie Bishop MP, Minister for Foreign Affairs, 'Gender equality and women's empowerment strategy', Media Release, 29 February 2016.

[41]      Since 2014, the government has established a $50 million Gender Equality Fund with a target requiring 80 per cent of Australian aid perform effectively in promoting gender equality. See also the Hon Julie Bishop MP, 'Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment Strategy', Media Release, 29 February 2016.

[42]      Senator the Hon Concetta Fieravanti-Wells, Minister for International Development and the Pacific, 'Launch of the Gender Action Platform', Media Release, 5 September 2016.

Appendix 2 - Findings of the 2013 NCAS on attitudes towards violence against women

[1]        Source: VicHealth, Australians' attitudes to violence against women: 2013 National Community Attitudes Towards Violence against Women Survey – Research Summary, September 2014, pp 4-5, available at: https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/media-and-resources/publications/2013-national-community-attitudes-towards-violence-against-women-survey. (** indicates that the difference between 2009 and 2013 is statistically significant, # indicates that the difference between 1995 and 2013 is statistically significant).

Top