Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction and background

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 148–17 March 2016, p. 3990.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 2–31 August 2016, pp. 75–76.

[3]        Journals of the Senate, No. 5–13 September 2016, pp. 176–178.

[4]        Journals of the Senate, No. 23–1 December 2016, p. 753.

[5]        Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania (PWS), World Heritage Values, Flora, http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=639 (accessed 11 November 2016).

[6]        PWS, World Heritage Values, Flora (accessed 11 November 2016).

[7]        PWS, World Heritage Values, Flora (accessed 11 November 2016).

[8]        PWS, World Heritage Values, Flora (accessed 11 November 2016).

[9]        PWS, World Heritage Values, Flora (accessed 11 November 2016).

[10]      PWS, World Heritage Values, Fauna, http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=642 (accessed 11 November 2016).

[11]      PWS, World Heritage Values (Aboriginal Heritage, Historic Heritage, Geoheritage), http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=7450 (accessed 11 November 2016).

[12]      Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 20, p. 2; Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 5.

[13]      Gillespie Economics and BDA Group, Economics and Environment, Economic Activity of Australia's World Heritage Areas, Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Final Report, July 2008, p. 3, https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/c890e9a0-6462-4412-8b74-14054966b8c0/files/economic-activity-summary.pdf (accessed 11 November 2016).

[14]      Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Submission 1, p. 4; Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, Bushfire & Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 20.

[15]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, pp. 7–8.

[16]      Department of the Environment and Energy (DEE), Submission 23, p. 4.

[17]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 5. The submission notes that the burnt area on the Central Plateau also includes vegetation types and soils that are not fire-adapted.

[18]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 5.

[19]      Other 'threatened native vegetation communities' potentially affected by the bushfires include: Highland Poa Grassland (624 ha); Highland Grassy Sedgeland (578 ha); and Sphagnum peatland (80 ha).

[20]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 7. Similarly, the DEE estimated that the impact on Pencil Pines is less than two per cent: Submission 23, p. 4.

[21]      DEE, Submission 23, p. 4.

[22]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 5.

Chapter 2 - Impact of climate change

[1]        Bureau of Meteorology and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), State of the Climate 2016, 2016, http://www.bom.gov.au/state-of-the-climate/State-of-the-Climate-2016.pdf (accessed 14 November 2016).

[2]        CSIRO, Submission 1, p. 6. The Forest Fire Danger Index measures the degree of fire danger in Australian forests.

[3]        Department of the Environment and Energy (DEE), Submission 23, p. 3. Also see: United Firefighters Union of Australia–Tasmania Branch (United Firefighters Union (Tasmania)), Submission 34, p. 6.

[4]        Bushfire and Natural Hazards Co-operative Research Centre (BNH CRC), Submission 4, p. 1. Also see: Friends of the Earth Australia, Submission 19, p. 2.

[5]        CSIRO, Submission 1, p. 6.

[6]        See for example: Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 4; The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace Australia Pacific (Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace), Submission 27, p. 7.

[7]        Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 7.

[8]        BNH CRC, Submission 4, p. 1.

[9]        BNH CRC, Hazard Note, November 2015, Issue 12, http://bnhcrc.com.au/hazardnotes/12 (accessed 14 November 2016).

[10]      Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 20, p. 4.

[11]      Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania (PWS), 'Case study—Fire Management in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area', 26 September 2013, p. 10, http://parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=35224 (accessed 14 November 2016).

[12]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 1.

[13]      D. Bowman, 'Fires in Tasmania's ancient forests are a warning for all of us', The Conversation, 29 January 2016, https://theconversation.com/fires-in-tasmanias-ancient-forests-are-a-warning-for-all-of-us-53806 (accessed 14 November 2016).

[14]      Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 11.

[15]      Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 20, p. 3.

[16]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 3, p. 8. Also see: Rob Blakers, Submission 21, p. 2.

[17]      Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 3. The project is in its early stages, with data analysis yet to commence.

[18]      DEE, Submission 23, p. 2.

[19]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, pp. 16–17.

[20]      The Hon Will Hodgman, Premier, 'Research project to protect wilderness areas', Media Release, 9 March 2016, http://premier-dev.dpac.tas.gov.au/releases/research_project_to_protect_wilderness_areas  (accessed 14 November 2016).

[21]      Dr Tony Press, Chair, Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project (Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 17.

[22]      Dr Tony Press, Chair, Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 17. Also see p. 18.

[23]      Dr Tony Press, Chair, Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 18.

[24]      Dr Tony Press, Chair, Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 17.

[25]      Dr Jonathan Marsden-Smedley, Submission 17, p. 2.

[26]      Dr Jonathan Marsden-Smedley, Submission 17, p. 3.

[27]      Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 20, p. 3.

[28]      D.M. Romps et al (2014), 'Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming', Science, 14 November 2014: Vol. 346, Issue 62111, pp. 851–854, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6211/851.full (accessed 14 November 2016).

[29]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 4.

[30]      Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 10–11.

On the subject of managing expectations, see: Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 12–13; Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, BNH CRC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 21.

[31]      Dr Tony Press, Chair, Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 16.

[32]      See for example: BirdLife Australia, Submission 3, p. 2; Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, pp. 1–2; Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 28.

[33]      Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 6.

[34]      Friends of the Earth Australia, Submission 19, p. 3.

[35]      Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 23. The submission referred to the 2014–2015 Federal Budget, wherein CSIRO's research funding was reduced by $111.4 million over five years: Commonwealth of Australia, Budget Measures: Budget Paper No. 2 2014–15, p. 170, http://www.budget.gov.au/2014-15/content/bp2/download/BP2_consolidated.pdf (accessed 14 November 2016). Also see: Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 20, p. 5.

[36]      Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 31. In 2013, the National Institute of Economic and Industry Research estimated that Tasmania will need to employ an additional 72 career firefighters by 2030: National Institute of Economic and Industry Research, Firefighters and Climate Change, February 2013, p. 26 (accessed 14 November 2016).  Also see: Friends of the Earth Australia, Submission 1, p. 3.

[37]      Landscapes and Policy Hub, Fire danger in Tasmania: the next 100 years, March 2015, p. 3, http://www.nerplandscapes.edu.au/system/files/LaP3%20Future%20fire%20danger%20summary%20-%20singles.pdf (accessed 14 November 2016).

[38]      The Tasmanian fire agencies are: PWS, Tasmania Fire Service, and Forestry Tasmania.

[39]      Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council (AFAC), AFAC Independent Operational Review, A review of the management of the Tasmanian fires of January 2016 (2016 Independent Operational Review), Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, http://www.nerplandscapes.edu.au/system/files/LaP3%20Future%20fire%20danger%20summary%20-%20singles.pdf (accessed 14 November 2016).

[40]      AFAC, 2016 Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 8 (accessed 14 November 2016).

Chapter 3 - Assessment and modelling capacity

[1]        Fire assessment and modelling attempts to predict 'fire behaviour', a descriptive term for various aspects of a bushfire—such as its rate of spread, the fireline intensity, flame height, angle and length, and spotting distance: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Submission 1, p. 10.

[2]        There are four major vegetation types (grassland, native forest, shrubland and plantation) combined with 13 fuel types (for example, buttongrass, temperate shrubland and radiata pine).

[3]        CSIRO, Submission 1, p. 10.

[4]        CSIRO, Submission 1, p. 10.

[5]        CSIRO, Submission 1, p. 12.

[6]        Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 2.

[7]        Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 13.

[8]        Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 7.

[9]        Dr Tony Press, Chair, Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 18; Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, Bushfire and Natural Hazards Co-operative Research Centre (BNH CRC), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 22; Mr Geoff Law, Consultant, The Wilderness Society (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 46. Also see: Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 13, who advised that there is currently some research being undertaken in relation to fire hazard fuel loading in wet eucalypt forests.

[10]      Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 4. Dr Sullivan noted that it would take some time to build a specific fire model for the TWWHA: p. 2.

[11]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 4.

[12]      Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union of Australia–Tasmania Branch, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 29. Also see: Mr Chris Arnol, Chief Officer, Tasmania Fire Service (TFS), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 58.

[13]      K. Tolhurst, 'Predicting the path of bushfires', Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, http://sustainable.unimelb.edu.au/tolhurst (accessed 14 November 2016).

[14]      Phoenix RapidFire is currently used in several jurisdictions other than Tasmania (Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia).

[15]      BNH CRC, Submission 4, p. 2. Also see: CSIRO, Submission 1, p. 11.

[16]      BNH CRC, Submission 4, p. 2.

[17]      BNH CRC, Submission 4, p. 2.

[18]      Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE), TASVEG – The Digital Vegetation Map of Tasmania, http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/conservation/flora-of-tasmania/monitoring-and-mapping-tasmanias-vegetation-(tasveg)/tasveg-the-digital-vegetation-map-of-tasmania (accessed 14 November 2016).

[19]      Tasmanian National Parks Association, Submission 16, p. 3.

[20]      Mr John Whittington, Secretary, DPIPWE, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 58. Also see: Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 6.

[21]      Mr Chris Arnol, Chief Officer, Tasmania Fire Service, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 58.

[22]      Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 2.

[23]      Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 2.

[24]      Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 6. Also see: Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 58.

[25]      Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 5. At present, the CSIRO's Bushfire Behaviour and Risks team is working on four projects: CSIRO, answer to question on notice, received 7 November 2016.

[26]      Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 13–14.

[27]      Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, BNH CRC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 22.

[28]      Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, BNH CRC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 22.

[29]      Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 14.

[30]      Mr Stephen Oxley, First Assistant Secretary, Wildlife, Heritage and Marine, Department of the Environment and Energy (DEE), Estimates Hansard, 8 February 2016, p. 158. The DEE then noted that it has been working with the South Australian and Victorian Governments to conduct a strategic assessment of their fire practices: Mr Dean Knudson, Deputy Secretary, Environment Protection Group, DEE.

[31]      Mr Chris Arnol, Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 58.

[32]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 14. Also see p. 15.

[33]      G. Caccamo, T.D. Penman and R.A. Bradstock, National Fire Danger Rating System Probabilistic Framework Project, Final Report for Year 1, Report for the Attorney-General's Department and the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, October 2012, p. 4, http://bushfirecrc.com/sites/default/files/managed/resource/probabilistic_framework_project_final_report_1112.pdf (accessed 14 November 2016) (emphasis added). The framework includes a range of variables—other than weather elements—such as fuel load and type, the nature of the terrain and housing density in a particular region.

[34]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 15.

[35]      AGD, answer to question on notice, pp. 1–2, received 9 November 2016. The response notes that the development of new fire spread models for Tasmania is out of scope for the prototype phase.

Chapter 4 - Financial, human and mechanical resources

[1]        Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Submission 2, p. 5.

Also see: Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 10.

[2]        Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council (AFAC), AFAC Independent Operational Review, A review of the management of the Tasmanian fires of January 2016 (2016 Independent Operational Review), Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, pp. 17–18, https://www.fire.tas.gov.au/userfiles/tym/file/misc/1604_tasfirereport_final1.pdf (accessed 15 November 2016).

[3]        Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 21. A request for assistance is made to the Commissioners and Chief Officers Strategic Committee, the national body responsible for coordinating operational matters during significant incidents.

[4]        AGD, Submission 2, p. 2. The Australian Government also provides financial assistance to help eligible individuals and communities recover from major disasters (such as Natural Disaster Relief and Recovery Arrangements): pp. 3–4.

[5]        National Aerial Firefighting Centre (NAFC), Submission 18, p. 3.

[6]        NAFC, Submission 18, p. 3; Mr Richard Alder, General Manager, NAFC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 5.

[7]        NAFC, Submission 18, p. 5.

[8]        Mr Richard Alder, General Manager, NAFC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 1, 4–5 and 7; AGD, answer to question on notice, Attachment A, received 9 November 2016; NAFC, answer to question on notice, pp. 6–10, received 11 November 2016.

[9]        NAFC, Submission 18, p. 5.

[10]      See for example: Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union of Australia–Tasmania Branch (United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 25; Mr Vica Bayley, Campaign Manager, The Wilderness Society Tasmania, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 37.

[11]      AGD, Submission 2, p. 5.

[12]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 5. Also see: NAFC, Submission 18, p. 4; McDermott Aviation, Submission 15, p. 1.

[13]      AFAC, 2016 Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 4 (accessed 4 November 2016).

[14]      See for example: Mr Rob Blakers, Submission 21, p. 2; Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 4.

[15]      United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Submission 34, pp. 3, 19 and 28. Also see: Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 26.

[16]      Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre (BNH CRC), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 21.

[17]      Mr Vica Bayley, Campaign Manager, The Wilderness Society Tasmania, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 41.

[18]      Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 27. Also see p. 25. Mr Cooper queried also the number of volunteers, whose physical and mental fitness levels would be comparable to professional firefighters: see p. 29.

[19]      United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Submission 34, pp. 3 and 19.

[20]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 3. The submission noted that training could be provided by the University of Tasmania in partnership with land management agencies, and should include 'vulnerability of the vegetation and soils in the Tasmanian Wilderness'. Also see: Mr Vica Bayley, Campaign Manager, The Wilderness Society (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 41, who suggested that volunteer firefighters could augment the remote area firefighting capability.

[21]      Forico, Submission 14, p. 2.

[22]      Mr Vica Bayley, Campaign Manager, The Wilderness Society (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 42. 

[23]      Friends of the Earth Australia, Submission 19, p. 4.

[24]      AFAC, 2016 Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 47 ( accessed 15 November 2016). Also see p. 36.

[25]      Tasmanian Government, Department of Premier and Cabinet, answer to question on notice, p. 2, received 11 November 2016.           

[26]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, Tasmania Fire Service (TFS), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 63.

[27]      COMDISPLAN provides for non­­‑financial Australian Government assistance, including in the form of Australian Defence Force (ADF) support. ADF support is made available only when civilian resources are inadequate, unavailable or cannot be mobilised in time, and is limited to the current qualifications, skills and resources of the personnel: AGD, Submission 2, p. 2.

[28]      AGD, Submission 2, pp. 2 and 5.

          Also see: AFAC, 2016 Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 38, accessed 15 November 2016, which found that the ADF contribution had been 'appropriate'.

[29]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 16.

[30]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 66.

[31]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 16.

[32]      Dr Tony Press, Chair, Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Bushfire and Climate Change Research Project, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 19.

[33]      Mr Stuart Ellis AM, Chief Executive Officer, Australasian Fire and Emergency Services Authorities Council, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 53. Mr Ellis conceded however that 'it would be fantastic if the ADF could come on board as well', noting that NSW has a full-time employed remote area firefighting capacity.[33]

[34]      NAFC, Submission 18, p. 4; NAFC, answer to question on notice, pp. 6–10, received 11 November 2016.

[35]      Mr Chris Arnol, Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 56.

[36]      Mr Richard Alder, General Manager, NAFC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 1–3.

[37]      NAFC, Submission 18, pp. 4–5. The submission noted that the benefits to Tasmania during the 2015–2016 bushfire season have not yet been formally assessed. Also see: Dr Bob Brown, Submission 8, p. 1, who supported the provision of Canadian-style water bombing aircraft.

[38]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 18.

[39]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace Australia Pacific (The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace), Submission 27, p. 9. Also see: p. 10. The submission noted that these indicators were consistent with predicted effects of climate change.

[40]      Forico, Submission 14, pp. 1–2.

[41]      Mr Rob Blakers, Submission 21, p. 2.

[42]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 15. Also see: Tasmanian National Parks Association, Submission 16, p. 2.

[43]      Mr Richard Alder, General Manager, NAFC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 4.

[44]      McDermott Aviation, Submission 15, pp. 2–3.

[45]      Mr Stuart Ellis AM, Chief Executive Officer, AFAC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 51.

[46]      See for example: Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 3.

[47]      The Hon Will Hodgman, Premier, and The Hon Rene Hidding, Minister for Police and Emergency Management, 'Interstate support to assist Tasmanian fire fighters', joint media release, 21 January 2016, http://www.premier.tas.gov.au/releases/interstate_support_to_assist_tasmanian_fire_fighters (accessed 21 October 2016). Resources were scoped, projected and in principle support given for inter-jurisdictional assistance on 19 January: United Firefighters Union of Australia–Tasmania Branch, Submission 34, pp. 12–13.

[48]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 17. Also see: Friends of the Earth Australia, Submission 19, p. 4.

[49]      Dr Bob Brown, Bob Brown Foundation, Submission 8, p. 1.

[50]      Friends of the Earth Australia, Submission 19, p. 5.

[51]      Mr Stuart Ellis AM, Chief Executive Officer, AFAC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 51 and 55.

[52]      AFAC, Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 35, accessed 15 November 2016.

[53]      AFAC, Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 36 (accessed 15 November 2016).

[54]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 69.

[55]      Mr Chris Arnol, Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 56. Also see: Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 66.

[56]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 67.

[57]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 67.

[58]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 17. Also see p. 11.

[59]      Mr Robert Cameron, Assistant Secretary, Crisis Management Branch, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 14.

[60]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 13.

[61]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, pp. 17–18.

[62]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, pp 18–19.

[63]      See for example: Mr Nicholas Sawyer, Vice President, Tasmania National Parks Association, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 35.

[64]      Mr Geoff Law, Consultant, The Wilderness Society Tasmania, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 39.

[65]      AFAC, Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 40 (accessed 15 November 2016).

[66]      AFAC, AFAC Independent Operational Review, A review of the management of the Tasmanian fires of January 2016, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, pp. 40–41 (accessed 21 October 2016).

[67]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 20.

[68]      Mr Vica Bayley, Campaign Manager, The Wilderness Society (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 37. Also see: Mr Geoff Law, Consultant, The Wilderness Society (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 38 and 44; Mr Rod Blakers, Consultant, The Wilderness Society (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 39–40.

[69]      Cleanairtas, Submission 29, p. 2.

[70]      Dr Nicole Anderson, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 49. Also see p. 50.

[71]      Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, BNH CRC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 21.      Also see: Dr Nicole Anderson, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 47 and 49.

[72]      Dr Nicole Anderson, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 48.

[73]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 60. Also see p. 66.

          Also see: Mr Chris Arnol, Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 66.

[74]      See for example: Mr Nicholas Sawyer, Vice President, Tasmania National Parks Association, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 35.

[75]      Friends of the Earth Australia, Submission 19, p. 1.

[76]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 21.

[77]      Mr Rob Blakers, Submission 21, p. 8.

[78]      Mr Chris Arnol, Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 56.

[79]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 71–72.

[80]      AFAC, Independent Operational Review, Prepared for Tasmania Fire Service, Forestry Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania, April 2016, p. 27 (accessed 15 November 2016).

[81]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 23.

[82]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, pp. 13–14.

[83]      Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre (BNH CRC), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 23. Also see p. 20.

[84]      Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 69.

[85]      Mr Stuart Ellis AM, Chief Executive Officer, AFAC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 52–53.

[86]      Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 27.

[87]      Dr Richard Thornton, Chief Executive Officer, BNH CRC, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 24.

[88]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 3 (emphasis in the original).

[89]      Mr Stephen Oxley, First Assistant Secretary, Wildlife, Heritage and Marine, DEE, Estimates Hansard, 8 February 2016, p. 156.

[90]      Also see: Tasmanian National Parks Association, Submission 16, p. 2; Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 28.

[91]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 20.

[92]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 20.

[93]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, pp. 13–15.

[94]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 12. Also see: BNH CRC, Submission 4, p. 4; Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 5.

[95]      Professor David Bowman, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 10.

[96]      Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 20, p. 2.

[97]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 11.

[98]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 7.

Chapter 5 - World Heritage Convention and remote area fire management

[1]        Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, (23 November 1972) (entry into force 19 December 1975), Article 5, http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/%20-%20Article1 (accessed 30 November 2016). Also see Articles 3 and 4.

[2]        Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, (23 November 1972) (entry into force 19 December 1975), Articles 8 and 11 (accessed 30 November 2016).

[3]        Australian Government, States Parties which have signed the World Heritage Convention, http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/%20-%20Article1 (accessed 30 November 2016).

[4]        United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), The Criteria for Selection, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/ (accessed 30 November 2016).

          The Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA) met criteria (iii), (iv), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) and (x): see UNESCO, New Inscribed Properties (1982), http://whc.unesco.org/en/newproperties/date=1982&mode=list (accessed 30 November 2014).

[5]        Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, pp. 8–9.

[6]        Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 9. This section focuses only on the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan 1999.

[7]        Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania (PWS), Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Management Plan 1999, 1999, p. 6, http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=6364 (accessed 30 November 2016.

[8]        PWS, Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Management Plan 1999, 1999, p. 107 (accessed 30 November 2016).

[9]        PWS, Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Management Plan 1999, 1999, p. 108 (accessed 30 November 2016).

[10]      PWS, Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Management Plan 1999, 1999, p. 106 (accessed 30 November 2016).

[11]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 10. Also see: Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE), Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan Project, http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/conservation/tasmanian-wilderness-world-heritage-area/new-tasmanian-wilderness-world-heritage-area-management-plan (accessed 30 November 2016).

[12]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 10.

[13]      PWS, Draft Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan 2014, p. 155, http://iplan.tas.gov.au/Temp/TrimDownload_774628.PDF (accessed 30 November 2016).

[14]      PWS, Draft Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area Management Plan 2014, p. 155 (accessed 30 November 2016). Also see p. 10.

[15]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 10. Also see: Mr John Whittington, Secretary, DPIPWE, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 61.

[16]      Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 8. The submission notes that the plan focuses only on fuel reduction burns and fuel stove policy.

Also see: Mr Nicholas Sawyer, Vice President, Tasmanian National Parks Association, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 32.

[17]      The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace Australia Pacific, Submission 27, p. 24.

[18]      Mr Nicholas Sawyer, Vice President, Tasmania National Parks Association, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 35. Also see p. 34. Mr Sawyer noted that this result could contribute to species extinction in the TWWHA.

[19]      UNESCO, State of conservation of properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, WHC/16/40.COM/7B.Add, 10 June 2016, p. 81, http://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/40com/documents/ (accessed 30 November 2016).

[20]      Mr Chris Johnston, Assistant Secretary, Heritage Branch, Department of the Environment and Energy (DEE), Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 10.

[21]      Mr John Whittington, Secretary, DPIPWE, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 61. Also see: Ms Joanne Nathan, Director, Natural Heritage, DEE, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 19.

[22]      Sections 321–322 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth).

[23]      DEE, Submission 23, p. 3.

[24]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 24, p. 9.

[25]      DEE, Submission 23, p. 3; DEE, answer to question on notice, pp. 2–3, received 10 November 2016.

[26]      Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 7.

[27]      DEE, Submission 23, p. 4. Also see p. 3.

[28]      DEE, Submission 23, p. 4.

[29]      Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union of Australia–Tasmania Branch (United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, pp. 26 and 29; Mr Mark Bryce, Director (Operations), DPIPWE, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 70.

[30]      Bushfire and Natural Hazards Co-operative Research Centre (BNH CRC), Submission 4, p. 3.

[31]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 10.

[32]      BNH CRC, Submission 4, p. 3. Also see: Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 11.

[33]      BNH CRC, Submission 4, p. 3. The Australian Disaster Resilience Institute aims to deliver improved practices and outcomes through the delivery of a range of education, professional development and information sharing programs and services across Australia.

[34]      See for example: Tasmanian Greens, Submission 22, p. 5; Cleanairtas, Submission 29, p. 3, which referred to real time data provided by Global Position and Tracking System Pty Ltd.

[35]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 2 (emphasis in the original).

[36]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 2. Also see: Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 13; Mr Mark Bryce, Director (Operations), DPIPWE, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 64.

[37]      Mr Mark Crosweller, Director General, Emergency Management Australia, AGD, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 18.

[38]      Mr Mark Bryce, Director (Operations), DPIPWE, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 64. Also see: Mr Gavin Freeman, Deputy Chief Officer, TFS, Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 68.

[39]      See for example: McDermott Aviation, Submission 15, p. 3.

[40]      National Aerial Firefighting Centre, Submission 18, p. 3. Also see: McDermott Aviation, Submission 15, p. 3, which commented on the significant impact of early aerial fire suppression.

[41]      Dr Andrew Sullivan, Principal Research Scientist and Team Leader, Bushfire Behaviour and Risks, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 1 November 2016, p. 8. Also see: Mr Greg Cooper, Branch Secretary, United Firefighters Union (Tasmania), Committee Hansard, Launceston, 2 November 2016, p. 27.

[42]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 3.

[43]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 3. Also see p. 1.

[44]      Professor David Bowman, Submission 13, p. 3. Also see The Wilderness Society (Tasmania) and Greenpeace, Submission 27, p. 25.

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