Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 104—27 June 2018, pp. 3336–3337.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 104—27 June 2018, pp. 3336–3337.

[3]        Journals of the Senate, No. 110—20 August 2018, p. 3534.

[4]        Journals of the Senate, No. 135—4 December 2018, p. 4397.

Chapter 2 - Electric vehicles—Definitions, background and projections

[1]        Dr Jake Whitehead, Submission 49, p. 5. See also: Royal Automobile Club of WA, Submission 117, p. [3].

[2]        Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into electric vehicles, May 2018, p. 3.

[3]        Dr Jake Whitehead, Submission 49, p. 5.

[4]        Hyundai Australia, Submission 103, p. [3].

[5]        NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric Vehicles in NSW, May 2018, pp. 1–2, https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/researchpapers/Documents/electric%20vehicles%20in%20NSW.pdf (accessed 15 August 2018).

[6]        Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission 72, p. 2. See also: Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Submission 111, pp. 3–4.

[7]        International Energy Agency, 'Global EV Outlook 2018', May 2018, pp. 20–21, https://webstore.iea.org/global-ev-outlook-2018 (accessed 24 September 2018).

[8]        International Energy Agency, 'Global EV Outlook 2018', May 2018, p. 21.

[9]        Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission 72, p. 3.

[10]      Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 14.

[11]      Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 14.

[12]      Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 13.

[13]      Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, pp. 8–9.

[14]      Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 1.

[15]      VACC, Submission 26, p. 12.

[16]      Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, p. 6.

[17]      Mr Steve Bletsos, Senior Research Analyst, VACC, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 77.

[18]      Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, p. 6.

[19]      ClimateWorks Australia and Electric Vehicle Council, The state of electric vehicles in Australia, Second Report: Driving Momentum in Electric Mobility, (ClimateWorks Submission 46.1), June 2018, p. 6, https://www.climateworksaustralia.org/story/media-release/australias-electric-vehicle-industry-gains-momentum-report (accessed 25 July 2018).

[20]      Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries (FCAI), Submission 119, p. 4 & ClimateWorks, Submission 46.1, p. 6. See also: Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 13; Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Submission 111, p. 5.

[21]      ClimateWorks, Submission 46.1, p. 7.

[22]      ClimateWorks, Submission 46.1, p. 7. See also: Mr Sam McLean, Senior Manager, Tesla, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 3. Tesla do not provide annual sales figures to the FCAI Vendor Field Analytical and Characterization Technologies System (VFACTS) database.

[23]      Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Submission 111, p. 5. See also, for example: Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 11. Ms Sarah Fumei, Project Manager, ClimateWorks Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 59; The Australia Institute, Submission 1.1, p. 6.

[24]      Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 11.

[25]      Mr David Magill, Director, Government Relations and Public Policy, GM Holden, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 65.

[26]      Australian Electric Vehicle Association, Submission 8, p. 2.

[27]      Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Submission 111, p. 6.

[28]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission, 72, p. 7.

[29]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission, 72, p. 6.

[30]      ClimateWorks, Submission 46.1, p. 25. The NSW Government's released its Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Plan on 21 January 2019, see: NSW Government, Future Transport 2056: Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Plan, January 2019, available at: https://www.future.transport.nsw.gov.au/sites/default/files/media/documents/2019/Future_Transport_NSW_Electric_and_Hybrid_vehicle_plan.pdf (accessed 21 January 2019).

[31]      Mr Shane Rattenbury, MLA, ACT Minister for Climate Change and Sustainability, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, pp. 1–2.

[32]      Mr Shane Rattenbury, MLA, ACT Minister for Climate Change and Sustainability, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 3.

[33]      Ms Sally Noonan, Chief Economist, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 31.

[34]      Ms Sally Noonan, Chief Economist, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 31.

[35]      Climateworks, Submission 46.1, p. 26.

[36]      The Australia Institute, Submission 1.1, p. 1.

[37]      Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, p. 17.

[38]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission 72, p. 3.

[39]      Energeia defines a PEV or plug-in electric vehicle as either a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle (BEV).

[40]      Energeia, Australian Electric Vehicle Market Study, May 2018, p. 6.

[41]      Energeia, Australian Electric Vehicle Market Study, May 2018, p. 70, prepared for Australian Renewable Energy Agency and Clean Energy Finance Corporation.

[42]      Energeia, Australian Electric Vehicle Market Study, May 2018, p. 70.

[43]      FCAI, Submission 119, p. 8.

[44]      FCAI, Submission 119, pp. 4 & 6.

[45]      International Energy Agency, 'Global EV Outlook 2018', May 2018, p. 42.

[46]      International Energy Agency, 'Global EV Outlook 2018', May 2018, p. 42. See also: Mark Kane, 'Chargefox launches first ABB Ultra-Fast Chargers in Australia', InsideEVs, 25 October 2018, https://insideevs.com/chargefox-abb-ultra-fast-chargers-australia/ (accessed 26 November 2018).

[47]      See, for example: Dr Paul Sernia, Chief Product Officer, Tritium, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 8; Tritium, https://www.tritium.com.au/veefillpk (accessed 26 November 2018).

[48]      ClimateWorks, Submission 46.1, p. 13.

[49]      ClimateWorks, Submission 46.1, p. 13.

[50]      International Energy Agency, 'Global EV Outlook 2018', May 2018, p. 46.

[51]      International Energy Agency, 'Global EV Outlook 2018', May 2018, p. 47.

[52]      Ms Claire Johnson, Chief Executive Officer, Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 26.

[53]      Ms Claire Johnson, Chief Executive Officer, Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 26.

[54]      Associate Professor Nerimi Ertugrul, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 44.

[55]      Dr Jake Whitehead, Research Fellow, School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 53.

[56]      Hydrogen Mobility Australia - answers to questions on notice from public hearing in Adelaide on 10 August 2018 (received 11 September 2018).

[57]      Ms Claire Johnson, Chief Executive Officer, Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 28.

[58]      Dr Jake Whitehead, Research Fellow, School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 51.

[59]      Dr Jake Whitehead, Research Fellow, School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 51.

[60]      Ms Claire Johnson, Chief Executive Officer, Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 29.

[61]      Energeia, Australian Electric Vehicle Market Study, May 2018, p. 47, https://arena.gov.au/assets/2018/06/australian-ev-market-study-report.pdf (accessed 29 November 2018).

[62]      Energeia, Australian Electric Vehicle Market Study, May 2018, p. 48.

[63]      Energeia, Australian Electric Vehicle Market Study, May 2018, p. 48.

[64]      Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Submission 73, p. [5].

[65]      Woodside Energy, Submission 42, p. [2].

[66]      See, for example: Mr Craig Norris, National PHEV Sales Manager, Fleet, Mitsubishi Motors Australia Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 2.

[67]      Mr David Magill, Director of Government Relations and Policy at GM Holden, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 62.

[68]      Mr Bernard Nadal, Senior Manager, Product Planning and Pricing, Toyota Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 66.

[69]      La Trobe University, Submission 18, p. 1.

[70]      Mr Daniel Hilson, Founder and Managing Director, Evenergi, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 57.

[71]      Mr Tony Wood, Director, Energy Program, Grattan Institute, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 13.

[72]      Mr Tony Wood, Director, Energy Program, Grattan Institute, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 15.

[73]      Mr Simon Pearce, Head, EasyMile Asia-Pacific, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 12.

[74]      Mr Simon Pearce, Head, EasyMile Asia-Pacific, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 13.

[75]      Mr Adrian Fahey, Chief Executive Officer, SAGE Automation & Mr Roger Van der Lee, Director, Autonomous Programs, Aurrigo Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 14.

[76]      Mr Christian Reynolds, Director, Fusion Capital and Director, Precision Buses, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 25. See also: Associate Professor Jeremy Wooley, Director, Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 41.

[77]      Mr Simon Pearce, Head, EasyMile Asia-Pacific, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 15.

[78]      Sage Automation, Submission 84, p. [6].

[79]      La Trobe University, Submission 18, p. 3.

[80]      Bus Industry Confederation, Submission 68, pp. 3–5. See also: Queensland Conservation Council, Submission 83, p. 1.

[81]      Doctors for the Environment, Submission 50, p. 5. See also: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, E-buses to surge even faster than EVs as conventional vehicles fade, 12 July 2018, https://www.bloomberg.com/professional/blog/e-buses-surge-even-faster-evs-conventional-vehicles-fade/ (accessed 10 October 2018).

[82]      See, for example: Dr Ingrid Johnston, Senior Policy Officer, Public Health Association of Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 40. Mr Shane Rattenbury, Minister for Climate Change and Sustainability, Australian Capital Territory Parliament, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 2; Ms Michelle English, Associate Director, Sustainability, City of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 48.

[83]      Public Transport User Association, Submission 45, p. 1.

[84]      Public Transport User Association, Submission 45, pp. 4 & 5.

[85]      Public Transport User Association, Submission 45, p. 13. Emphasis in original.

[86]      Mr Shane Rattenbury, Minister for Climate Change and Sustainability, Australian Capital Territory Parliament, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 2.

[87]      Ms Sally Noonan, Chief Economist, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, pp. 34–35.

[88]      Mr Christian Reynolds, Director, Precision Buses, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 20.

[89]      Mr Shane Rattenbury, Minister for Climate Change and Sustainability, Australian Capital Territory Parliament, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 3.

[90]      Bus Industry Confederation, Submission 68, p. 4. See also: Volvo, Submission 70, p. 1.

[91]      Ms Sally Noonan, Chief Economist, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 35.

[92]      Sassafras Group, Submission 106, p. 6.

[93]      Mr Christian Reynolds, Director, Precision Buses, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 25.

[94]      NHP, Submission 95, p. [5].

[95]      Public Transport User Association, Submission 45, pp. 4–6.

[96]      Bus Industry Confederation, Submission 68, p. 5.

[97]      Volvo, Submission 70, p. 1.

[98]      Volvo, Submission 70, p. 1.

[99]      Professor Peter Newman, 'Forget light rail, Perth: it's time to look at trackless trams', WA Today, 29 September 2018, https://www.watoday.com.au/national/western-australia/forget-light-rail-perth-it-s-time-to-look-at-trackless-trams-20180928-p506qj.html (accessed 15 October 2018).

[100]    Professor Peter Newman, 'Forget light rail, Perth: it's time to look at trackless trams', WA Today, 29 September 2018.

[101]    Professor Peter Newman, 'Forget light rail, Perth: it's time to look at trackless trams', WA Today, 29 September 2018.

Chapter 3 - Increased EV uptake and use—benefits and challenges

[2]        For example: Associate Professor Tim Nelson, Chief Economist, AGL Energy Ltd, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 79; Ms Sarah Fumei, Project Manager, ClimateWorks Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, pp. 60–61.

[3]        PwC, 'Recharging the economy', March 2018, p. 6. See also: AGL Energy, Submission 55, p. 3.

[4]        PwC, 'Recharging the economy', March 2018. See also: AEVA (Victoria), Submission 9, p. 2.

[5]        PwC, 'Recharging the economy', March 2018, p. 4.

[6]        Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Submission 43, p. [2].

[7]        Victorian Government Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Submission 129, p. 7. See also: Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Submission 43, p. [2].

[8]        Mr Daniel Hilson, Founder and Managing Director, Evenergi, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 57.

[9]        Dr Jacek Jasieniak and Prof. Mainak Majumder, Monash Energy Materials and Systems Institute, Monash University, Submission 128, p. 2.

[10]      VACC, Submission 26, p. 9.

[11]      Victorian Government Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Submission 129, p. 7.

[12]      Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, p. 5.

[13]      PwC, 'Recharging the economy', March 2018, p. 10.

[14]      See, for example: Bus Industry Confederation, Submission 68, p. 3. Professor Mainak Majumder, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 41.

[15]      Mr Behyad Jafari, Chief Executive Officer, Electric Vehicle Council, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 21.

[16]      Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 4. See also: Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission 72, p. 3.

[17]      Associate Professor Tim Nelson, Chief Economist, AGL Energy Ltd, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 79.

[18]      Associate Professor Tim Nelson, Chief Economist, AGL Energy Ltd, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 79.

[19]      Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Submission 43, p. 2. See also: NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric Vehicles in NSW, May 2018, p. 5, https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/researchpapers/Documents/electric%20vehicles%20in%20NSW.pdf (accessed 15 August 2018).

[20]      Resonant Solutions, Submission 61, p. 4.

[21]      Mr Karl Gehling, Head of Corporate Communications and Government Relations, Mitsubishi Motors Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 3.

[22]      Mr Rodger Whitby, Chief Executive Officer, St Baker Energy Innovation Fund, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 28.

[23]      Fast Cities - answers to questions taken on notice from public hearing in Brisbane on 27 September 2018 (received 19 October 2018).

[24]      PwC, 'Recharging the economy', March 2018, p. 5.

[25]      AMEC, Submission 20, p. [1].

[26]      Professor Peter Newman AO, Submission 23, p. 1. See also: Regional Development Australia Perth, Lithium Valley: Establishing the Case for Energy Metals and Battery Manufacturing in Western Australia, 2018, https://www.rdaperth.org/rda-projects/lithium-valley/ (accessed 15 October 2018).

[27]      Mr Brian Craighead, Director, Energy Renaissance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, pp. 11 & 13.

[28]      Mr Brian Craighead, Director, Energy Renaissance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, pp. 11.

[29]      See, for example: Mr Tony Wood, Director, Energy Program, Grattan Institute, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 13; Australian Productivity Council, Submission 7.

[30]      Professor Mainak Majumder, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 39.

[31]      Australian Electric Vehicle Association—Victoria, Submission 9, p. 2.

[32]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission 72, p. 5. See also: Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, Quarterly update of Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory: September 2017 p. 14.

[33]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission 72, p. 5.

[34]      ABS 9208.0, Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia, 12 months ended 30 June 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/9208.0Main+Features112%20months%20ended%2030%20June%202016?OpenDocument (accessed 16 July 2018).

[35]      PwC, 'Recharging the economy', March 2018, p. 7.  See also: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, The Paris Agreement, https://unfccc.int/process#:a0659cbd-3b30-4c05-a4f9-268f16e5dd6b (accessed 6 November 2018).

[36]      PwC, 'Recharging the economy', March 2018, p. 6, http://electricvehiclecouncil.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Recharging-the-economy.pdf (accessed 26 November 2018). See also: St Baker Energy Innovation Fund, Submission 59, p. 2.

[37]      International Energy Agency, 'Global EV Outlook 2018', May 2018, p. 58.

[38]      Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Submission 43, p. [2].

[39]      NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric Vehicles in NSW, May 2018, pp. 7–8.

[40]      NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric Vehicles in NSW, May 2018, pp. 7–8.

[41]      NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric Vehicles in NSW, May 2018, pp. 7–8. See also: Australian Productivity Council, Submission 7, p. 3.

[42]      ClimateWorks, Submission 46.1, p. 26.

[43]      TAI, Supplementary Submission 1, pp. 15–16.

[44]      TAI, Submission 1, p. 2.

[45]      Hobsons Bay Council, Submission 52, p. 3.

[46]      Centre for Air pollution, energy and health Research, Submission 63, pp. 2–3. See also: Tesla, Submission 92, p. [6].

[47]      Dr Liz Hanna, Submission 3, p. 3.

[48]      Dr Ingrid Johnston, Senior Policy Officer, Public Health Association of Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 39.

[49]      ClimateWorks, Submission 46, p. 2. See also: Queensland Government Department of Transport and Main Roads, Submission 43, p. 2; Doctors for the Environment, Submission 50, p. 4; Department of the Environment and Energy, Submission 72, pp. 4–5.

[50]      Dr Liz Hanna, Senior Fellow, Fenner School of Environment and Society, and Climate Change Institute, Australian National University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 39.

[51]      Dr Liz Hanna, Senior Fellow, Fenner School of Environment and Society, and Climate Change Institute, Australian National University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 41.

[52]      Professor Guy Marks, Chief Investigator, Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 40. See also: Dr Liz Hanna & Dr Ingrid Johnston, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 40.

[53]      See, for example: Ms Michelle English, Associate Director, Sustainability, City of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 48; Dr Matthew Stocks, Research Fellow, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 10; Hyundai Motor Company, Submission 103, p. [6].

[54]      NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric Vehicles in NSW, May 2018, pp. 4–5.

[55]      Dr Sara Liu, Associate Professor Michael Fitzharris, Associate Professor Jennie Oxley, Mr Chris Edwards, The impact of electric/hybrid vehicles and bicycles on pedestrians who are blind or have low vision, Monash University Accident Research Centre and Vision Australia, October 2018, p. 10, http://apo.org.au/system/files/197121/apo-nid197121-1026741.pdf (accessed 17 October 2018).

[56]      Dr Sara Liu, Associate Professor Michael Fitzharris, Associate Professor Jennie Oxley, Mr Chris Edwards, The impact of electric/hybrid vehicles and bicycles on pedestrians who are blind or have low vision, Monash University Accident Research Centre and Vision Australia, October 2018, p. 13.

[57]      See, for example: 350 Canberra, Submission 21, p. 5; AEVA, Submission 6; AGL Energy, Submission 55.

[58]      Victorian Government Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Submission 129, p. 6.

[59]      Victorian Government Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Submission 129, p. 6.

[60]      Air Vice-Marshall John Blackburn AO (Retired), Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 20.

[61]      See, for example: Mr Adrian Dwyer, Chief Executive, Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 27; Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate, Bloomberg NEF, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 11.

[62]      Knight Frank Research and Consulting, NSW Service Stations Insight, February 2017, p. 1, https://www.knightfrank.com.au/resources/commercial/service-stations/kf_nsw-service-stations-insight-feb17.pdf (accessed 26 November 2018).

[63]      NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric Vehicles in NSW, May 2018, p. 9.

[64]      Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 7.

[65]      James Wong, 'EV Onslaught: 10 Electric Cars Coming By 2021—Update', CarAdvice, 17 April 2018, https://www.caradvice.com.au/618789/ev-onslaught-10-electric-cars-coming-by-2021/ (accessed 28 November 2018).

[66]      NHP, Submission 95, p. 4.

[67]      Mr Adrian Dwyer, Chief Executive Officer, Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 25.

[68]      Mr Adrian Dwyer, Chief Executive Officer, Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 25.

[69]      Mr Steve Bletsos, Senior Research Analyst, VACC, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 78.

[70]      Mr Alex Foulds, Executive Director, Surface Transport Policy Division, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 73.

[71]      Mr Alex Foulds, Executive Director, Surface Transport Policy Division, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 73.

[72]      Dr Jake Whitehead, Research Fellow, School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 50.

[73]      Dr Jake Whitehead, Research Fellow, School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 50.

[74]      International Energy Agency, Global EV Outlook 2018, May 2018, p. 56.

[75]      Hon Josh Frydenberg MP, 'Standby, Australia, for the electric car revolution', The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 January 2018, https://www.smh.com.au/opinion/stand-by-australia-for-the-electric-car-revolution-20180112-h0hazy.html (accessed 15 July 2018).

[76]      Infrastructure Australia, Submission 79.1, p. 2. See also: Alan Finkel, Karen Moses, Chloe Munro, Terry Effeney, Mary O'Kane, Independent Review into the Future Security of the Energy Markey: Blueprint for the Future, June 2017, https://www.energy.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3411/f/independent-review-future-nem-blueprint-for-the-future-2017.pdf (accessed 7 November 2018).

[77]      Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60, pp. [2–3].

[78]      ENA, Submission 60, p. [2].

[79]      ENA, Submission 60, pp. [2–3].

[80]      Infrastructure Australia, Submission 79.1, p. 2.

[81]      AEMO, Submission 38, p. 1.

[82]      AEMO, Submission 38, p. 2.

[83]      AEMO, Submission 38, p. 1. See also: Australian Energy Market Operator - answers to questions taken on notice from public hearing in Melbourne on 31 August 2018 (received 27 September 2018), p. 4.

[84]      ENA, Submission 60.1, pp. 100–103.

[85]      Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 4. See also: Victorian Legislative Council Economy and Infrastructure Committee, Inquiry into electric vehicles, May 2018, pp. 19–21, https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/eic/inquiries/article/3507 (accessed 15 July 2018).

[86]      Australian Energy Market Operator - answers to questions taken on notice from public hearing in Melbourne on 31 August 2018 (received 27 September 2018), p. 4.

[87]      Infrastructure Australia, Submission 79.1, p. 3.

[88]      ENA, Submission 60, pp. 1–2.  See also: Infrastructure Australia, Submission 79.1, p. 3.

[89]      AEMO, Submission 38, p. 3.

[90]      Infrastructure Australia, Submission 79.1, p. 2.

[91]      AEMO, Submission 38, p. 3.

[92]      The Australia Institute, Submission 1.1, p. 14.

[93]      ENA, Submission 60.1, p. 69.

[94]      Infrastructure Australia, Submission 79.1, p. 2.

[95]      Infrastructure Australia, Submission 79.1, p. 4.

[96]      Transgrid, Submission 90, p. 4.

[97]      Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 16.

[98]      Motor Trades Association of Queensland, Submission 41, p. [3].

[99]      Name withheld, Submission 86, p. 6.

[100]    Infrastructure Victoria, Submission 88.1, p. 46.

[101]    VACC, Submission 26, pp. 9–10.

[102]    MTAQ, Submission 41, p. [3].

Chapter 4 - Manufacturing and value-chain activities—opportunities and challenges

[1]        Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 3.

[2]        Association of Mining and Exploration Companies (AMEC), Submission 20.2, p. 4.

[3]        See, for example: University of Adelaide, Submission 91, p. [3]; Uniti Australia, Submission 2, p. [3].

[4]        Uniti Australia, Submission 2, p. [3].

[5]        Dr Brett Dale, Chief Executive Officer, Motor Trades Association of Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 39.

[6]        University of Adelaide, Submission 91, p. [3].

[7]        Mr Tony Weber, Chief Executive Officer, Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries, Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 15.

[8]        Mike Ladd, 'Holden closure: Australia's history of car manufacturing comes to an end', ABC News Online, 8 October 2017, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-10-08/holden-closure-australia-history-car-manufacturing/9015562 (accessed 25 October 2018).

[9]        Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 107, p. 4.

[10]      Iveco, Manufacturing, https://www.iveco.com.au/manufacturing (accessed 26 November 2018).

[11]      Hobsons Bay Council, Submission 52, p. 4.

[12]      South Australian Government, Submission 130, p. 4. See also: AEVA—SA, Submission 69, p. 4.

[13]      Victorian Automobile Chamber of Commerce, Submission 26, p. 12.

[14]      ACTU, Submission 107, p. 2.

[15]      Australian Manufacturers Workers Union, Submission 116, p. [4].

[16]      Australian Government Business Website, Automotive Transformation Scheme (ATS), https://www.business.gov.au/assistance/automotive-transformation-scheme (accessed 25 October 2018).

[17]      Mr Christian Reynolds, Director, Precision Buses, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 21.

[18]      Mr Christian Reynolds, Director, Precision Buses, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 20.

[19]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 112, p. 13.

[20]      Mr Gregory McGarvie, Managing Director, Australian Clean Energy Electric Vehicle Group, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 55.

[21]      Ms Claire Johnson, Chief Executive Officer from Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, pp. 28–29. See also: Toyota, Submission 77, p. 11.

[22]      Ms Claire Johnson, Chief Executive Officer from Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, pp. 28–29.

[23]      Hyundai, Submission 103, pp. [12–13].

[24]      Tritium, Submission 58, p. [5].

[25]      Volvo, Submission 70, p. 3.

[26]      Uniti, Submission 2, p. [3].

[27]      Dr Michael Molitor, Chairman, Uniti Sweden AB, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 56.

[28]      Mr Greg McGarvie, Managing Director, Australian Clean Energy Electric Vehicle Group, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 56.

[29]      Mr Tony Fairweather, Group Managing Director, SEA Electric, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 5.

[30]      Mr Tony Fairweather, Group Managing Director, SEA Electric, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 4.

[31]      Mr Tony Fairweather, Group Managing Director, SEA Electric, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 2.

[32]      Ben Potter, 'SEA Electric eyes $200 million-plus annual van sales with Vic Labor backing', Australian Financial Review, 30 October 2018, https://www.afr.com/news/sea-electric-eyes-200mplus-annual-van-sales-with-vic-labor-backing-20181030-h17ajk (accessed 31 October 2018).

[33]      Australian Productivity Council, Submission 7, pp. [5–6].

[34]      Mr Christian Reynolds, Director, Precision Buses, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 20.

[35]      Hon David Ridgway MLC, South Australian Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment, South Australia, EasyMile and Transit Australia Group sign a MOU to advance AV manufacturing and technology in South Australia, Media Release, 24 July 2018, https://premier.sa.gov.au/news/south-australia-easymile-and-transit-australia-group-sign-a-mou-to-advance-av-manufacturing-and (accessed 26 November 2018).

[36]      Mr Simon Pearce, Head of EasyMile Asia-Pacific, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 18.

[37]      See, for example: AEVA—ACT, Submission 6, p. 13; VACC, Submission 26, p. 12.

[38]      MTA of Queensland, Submission 41, p. [4].

[39]      Monash University, Submission 128, p. 2. See also: HMA, Submission 73, p. [17].

[40]      Associate Professor Nesimi Ertugrul, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 47.

[41]      Nissan, Submission 40, p. 1.

[42]      Nissan, Submission 40, p. 1.

[43]      Pilbara Metals Group, Submission 17, p. 2.

[44]      MTAQ, Submission 41, p. [4].

[45]      Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 4.

[46]      Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 4.

[47]      University of Adelaide, Submission 91, p. [2].

[48]      Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 5.

[49]      Mr David Magill, Director, Government Relations and Public Policy, GM Holden, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 62.

[50]      Mr Brett Vivian, Executive Director Engineering, GM Holden, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 63.

[51]      Hyundai, Submission 103, pp. 12–13.

[52]      Dr Keith McLean, Director, Manufacturing, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 47.

[53]      Dr David Harris, Research Director, Low Emissions Technologies, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 11.

[54]      Associate Professor Patrick Howlett, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 42.

[55]      Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 6.

[56]      Professor Rocco Zito, Head of Civil Engineering, College of Science and Engineering at Flinders University, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 46.

[57]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Industry 4.0, https://www.industry.gov.au/ funding-and-incentives/manufacturing/industry-40 (accessed 2 October 2018)

[58]      Australian Institute of Company Directors, Industry 4.0: a whole of economy opportunity, August 2017, https://aicd.companydirectors.com.au/membership/company-director-magazine/2017-back-editions/august/industry-4-0-a-whole-of-economy-opportunity (accessed 28 November 2018).

[59]      Boston Consulting Group, The Future of Battery Production for Electric Vehicles, September 2018, https://www.bcg.com/en-au/publications/2018/future-battery-production-electric-vehicles.aspx (accessed 28 November 2018).

[60]      Professor Peter Newman AO, Submission 23.1, p. 13.

[61]      Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 1.

[62]      Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 1.

[63]      Australia-Germany Advisory Group, Collaboration, Innovation and Opportunity, November 2015, https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/international-relations/Documents/australia-germany-advisory-group.pdf (accessed 22 October 2018).

[64]      Australia-Germany Advisory Group, Collaboration, Innovation and Opportunity, November 2015, p. 4.

[65]      Australia-Germany Advisory Group, Collaboration, Innovation and Opportunity, November 2015, p. 4.

[66]      Australian Advanced Manufacturing Council, Industry 4.0 Advanced Manufacturing Forum, http://aamc.org.au/industry-4-0/ (accessed 3 October 2018)

[67]      See, for example: AMEC, Submission 20; Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127; Pilbara Metals Group, Submission 17; Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 4.

[68]      Australian Electric Vehicle Association, Submission 6, p. 6.

[69]      ETU, Submission 110, p. 4.

[70]      Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate, Bloomberg NEF, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 7.

[71]      Dr Howard Lovatt, Team Leader, Electrical Machines, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 8.

[72]      Mr Warren Pearce, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Mining and Exploration Companies, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 27.

[73]      Mr Warren Pearce, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Mining and Exploration Companies, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 27.

[74]      Professor Peter Newman AO, Submission 23.1, p. 14. See also: Regional Development Australia Perth, Lithium Valley: Establishing the Case for Energy Metals and Battery Manufacturing in Western Australia, 2018.

[75]      Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 4.

[76]      Mr Warren Pearce, Chief Executive Officer of the Association of Mining and Exploration Companies, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 27.

[77]      Mr Warren Pearce, Chief Executive Officer of the Association of Mining and Exploration Companies, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 27.

[78]      Professor Peter Newman AO, Submission 23.1, p. 8. See also: Regional Development Australia Perth, Lithium Valley: Establishing the Case for Energy Metals and Battery Manufacturing in Western Australia, 2018.

[79]      Professor Peter Newman AO, Submission 23.1, p. 14. See also: Regional Development Australia Perth, Lithium Valley: Establishing the Case for Energy Metals and Battery Manufacturing in Western Australia, 2018.

[80]      University of Adelaide, Submission 91, p. [1].

[81]      Mr Brian Craighead, Director, Energy Renaissance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 11.

[82]      Mr Brian Craighead, Director, Energy Renaissance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 12.

[83]      Mr Brian Craighead, Director, Energy Renaissance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 13.

[84]      Mr Brian Craighead, Director, Energy Renaissance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 13.

[85]      See, for example: Giles Parkinson, 'Sonnen to manufacture home batteries at old Holden factory in Adelaide' RenewEconomy, 9 September 2018, https://reneweconomy.com.au/sonnen-to-manufacture-home-batteries-at-old-holden-factory-in-adelaide-92563/ (accessed 26 November 2018); Sophie Vorrath, 'Alpha-ESS to become second battery manufacturer to set up shop in Adelaide', One Step Off the Grid, 14 November 2018, https://onestepoffthegrid.com.au/alpha-ess-become-second-battery-manufacture-set-shop-adelaide/ (accessed 26 November 2018).

[86]      Professor Mainak Majumder, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 45.

[87]      Mr Warren Pearce, Chief Executive Officer of the Association of Mining and Exploration Companies, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 28.

[88]      ACTU, Submission 107, pp. 3–4.

[89]      Associate Professor Patrick Howlett, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 38.

[90]      Associate Professor Patrick Howlett, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 40.

[91]      Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate for Power, Energy Storage and EVs at Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 9.

[92]      Associate Professor Patrick Howlett, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 42.

[93]      Professor Baohua Jia, Research Leader, Swinburne University of Technology, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 38.

[94]      University of Adelaide, Submission 91, p. [3].

[95]      Professor Mainak Majumder, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University & Associate Professor Patrick Howlett, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 42.

[96]      Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate for Power, Energy Storage and EVs, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 11.

[97]      Associate Professor Patrick Howlett, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 40.

[98]      Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, pp.3–4.

[99]      Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate, Power, Energy Storage and EVs, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 10.

[100]    Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, p. 4.

[101]    Mr Tony Fairweather, Managing Director, SEA Electric, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 2.

[102]    International Energy Agency, Global EV Outlook 2017: Two million and counting, 2017, p. 6.

[103]    International Energy Agency, Global EV Outlook 2017: Two million and counting, 2017, p. 14.

[104]    DTMR, Submission 43, p. 3.

[105]    CSIRO, Submission 134, p. 10.

[106]    MTAQ, Submission 41, p. [4]. See also: Sarah King, Naomi J. Boxall & Anand I. Bhatt, Lithium battery recycling in Australia: Current status and opportunities for developing a new industry, CSIRO, April 2018, https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/EF/Areas/Energy-storage/Battery-recycling (accessed 29 October 2018).

[107]    Dr David Harris, Research Director, Low Emissions Technologies and Energy, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 10.

[108]    Dr Howard Lovatt, Team Leader, Electrical Machines, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 50. See also: ACT Government, Submission 48, p. 3; Mr Gregory McGarvie, Managing Director, Australian Clean Energy Electric Vehicle Group, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 55.

[109]    Toyota Australia, Hybrid HV Battery Recycling Program, https://www.toyota.com.au/hybrid/battery-recycling (accessed 28 November 2018).

[110]    John Forfar, 'Tesla's approach to recycling is the way of the future for sustainable production', Medium, August 2018, https://medium.com/tradr/teslas-approach-to-recycling-is-the-way-of-the-future-for-sustainable-production-5af99b62aa0e (accessed 28 November 2018). See also: Tesla, Tesla's closed loop battery recycling program, January 2011, https://www.tesla.com/en_AU/blog/teslas-closed-loop-battery-recycling-program (accessed 28 November 2018). See also: Mr Gregory McGarvie, Managing Director, Australian Clean Energy Electric Vehicle Group, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 55.

[111]    Dr Brett Dale, Chief Executive Officer, Motor Trades Association of Queensland, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 39.

[112]    Giles Parkinson, 'ARENA, CEFC back plan to recycle EV-batteries for household storage', RenewEconomy, 4 October 2018, https://reneweconomy.com.au/arena-cefc-back-plan-to-recycle-ev-batteries-for-household-storage-65580/ (accessed 26 November 2018).

[113]    Dr Matthew Stocks, Research Fellow, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 13.

[114]    Dr Howard Lovatt, Team Leader, Electrical Machines, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 50.

[115]    Royal Automobile Club of Victoria, Submission 114, p. 3.

[116]    Royal Automobile Club of Victoria, Submission 114, p. 3.

[117]    ALC, Submission 104, p. 13.

[118]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.5, p. 6. See also: ARENA, Submission 99.2, p. 54. A US-based simulation undertaken in 2017 assumed that 88 per cent of all PEVs would be charged at home.

[119]    Royal Automobile Club of WA, Submission 117, p. 8.

[120]    Fast Cities Australia, Submission 64, p. 3.

[121]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.5, p. 5.

[122]    Fast Cities Australia, Submission 64, p. 3. Converted miles to kilometres.

[123]    Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 7.

[124]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.5, p. 6.

[125]    Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 7.

[126]    Tesla, Submission 92, p. [10].

[127]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.5, p. 6.

[128]    ALC, Submission 104, p. 13.

[129]    ARENA, Submission 99.1, p. 13.

[130]    Mr Nathan Dunlop, New Markets and Sales Analyst, Tritium, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 1.

[131]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.3, p. 30.

[132]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.5, p. 5.

[133]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.5, p. 5.

[134]    Fast Cities Australia, Submission 64, p. 4.

[135]    Fast Cities Australia, Submission 64, p. 1.

[136]    Mr Paul Fox, Head, Corporate Development, Fast Cities Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p.  27. See also: Fast Cities Australia, Submission 64, p. 8. In its submission, Fast Cities Australia has stated that it intends to install up to 100 chargers.

[137]    DTMR, Submission 43, p. 3.

[138]    DTMR, Submission 43, p. 5.

[139]    Ms Sally Noonan, Chief Economist, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 36.

[140]    Royal Automobile Club of Western Australia, Submission 117, p. [1].

[141]    NRMA, Submission 78, p. [6].

[142]    Mr Tim Washington, Chief Executive Officer, Jetcharge; and Founder, Chargefox, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 2.

[143]    Mr Tim Washington, Chief Executive Officer, Jetcharge; and Founder, Chargefox, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 2.

[144]    See, for example: City of Darebin, Submission 51, p. [2]; City of Adelaide, Submission 93, p. 10.

[145]    350 Canberra, Submission 21, p. 4. See also: Mr Geoffrey Rutledge, Deputy Director-General, Sustainability and the Built Environment, Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Australian Capital Territory, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 5.

[146]    Ms Michelle English, Associate Director , Sustainability, City of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 48.

[147]    Ms Michelle English, Associate Director , Sustainability, City of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 48.

[148]    Jolt, Submission 96, p. 1.

[149]    Department of Transport (UK), Road to Zero: Next steps towards cleaner roads transport and delivering our industrial strategy, July 2018, p. 82, available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/reducing-emissions-from-road-transport-road-to-zero-strategy (accessed 2 January 2019).

[150]    Department of Transport (UK), Road to Zero: Next steps towards cleaner roads transport and delivering our industrial strategy, July 2018, p. 86.

[151]    Victorian Government Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Submission 129, pp. 8–9.

Chapter 5 - Seizing the opportunity and managing the risks

[1]        Mr Peter Colacino, Executive Director, Policy and Research, Infrastructure Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 1.

[2]        Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 8.

[3]        NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric vehicles in NSW, May 2018, p. 11, https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/researchpapers/Documents/electric%20vehicles%20in%20NSW.pdf (accessed 11 July 2018).

[4]        NSW Parliamentary Research Service, Electric vehicles in NSW, May 2018, p. 11.

[5]        Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 9. See, for example: ACE-EV Group, Submission 4; SEA Electric, Submission 24.

[6]        ACT Government, Submission 48.1, p. 2.

[7]        350 Canberra, Submission 21, p. 4.

[8]        Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, Submission 121, p. 3.

[9]        Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 1.

[10]      ATO, Luxury car tax rate and thresholds, 25 May 2018, https://www.ato.gov.au/rates/luxury-car-tax-rate-and-thresholds/(accessed 31 October 2018).

[11]      ATO, Definitions, November 2016, https://www.ato.gov.au/business/luxury-car-tax/in-detail/definitions/(accessed 31 October 2018).

[12]      ATO, Luxury car tax rate and thresholds, 25 May 2018. The 'fuel-efficient vehicles' category was introduced in the 2008-09 financial year and the threshold was set at $75,000.

[13]      Victorian Government Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Submission 129, p. 12.

[14]      The Australia Institute (TAI), Submission 1, p. 1.

[15]      ACT AEVA, Submission 6, pp. 8–9. See also: 350 Canberra, Submission 21, p. 7.

[16]      ATO, Luxury Car Tax DeterminationLCTD 2018/1, 23 May 2018, available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/law/view/document?docid=LCD/LCTD20181/NAT/ATO/00001#fp6 (accessed 12 December 2018).

[17]      See, for Australian Bureau of Statistics, Consumer Price Index, Australia, September 2018, Time Series Spreadsheet, Table 7, Index Numbers for Motor Vehicles, available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/6401.0Sep%202018?OpenDocument#Time (accessed 14 January 2019).  

[18]      Vehicles in Australia using 7L per 100 kms or less, Parliamentary Library, Additional Information.

[19]      Revenue implications of changes to vehicle taxation measures, Parliamentary Budget Office, 4 December 2018, p. 4.

[20]      Revenue implications of changes to vehicle taxation measures, Parliamentary Budget Office, 4 December 2018, p. 3.

[21]      Revenue implications of changes to vehicle taxation measures, Parliamentary Budget Office, 4 December 2018, p. 8.

[22]      FCAI, Submission 119, p. 10.

[23]      Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, Submission 121, p. 3.

[24]      Revenue implications of changes to vehicle taxation measures, Parliamentary Budget Office, 4 December 2018, p. 4.

[25]      ATO, Purchasing a motor vehicle, 11 January 2018, https://www.ato.gov.au/business/gst/in-detail/your-industry/motor-vehicle-and-transport/gst-and-motor-vehicles/?page=2 (accessed 31 October 2018).

[26]      See, for example: Australian Electric Vehicle Association, Submission 8, p. 4; Hyundai Motor Company Australia, Submission 103, p. [11].

[27]      FCAI, Submission 119, p. 11.

[28]      Revenue implications of changes to vehicle taxation measures, Parliamentary Budget Office, 4 December 2018, p. 5.

[29]      ATO, Fringe Benefits Tax (FBT), 2 August 2018, https://www.ato.gov.au/General/Fringe-benefits-tax-(FBT)/ (accessed 31 October 2018).

[30]      DELWP, Submission 129, p. 13.

[31]      Hydrogen Mobility Australia, Submission 73, p. 14.

[32]      Tesla, Submission 92, p. [12].

[33]      Mr Greg Partridge, President, AEVA, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 19.

[34]      Australian Electric Vehicle Association, Submission 8, p. 3.

[35]      Australian Electric Vehicle Association - answer to question on notice from public hearing in Brisbane on 27 September 2018 (received 22 November 2018).

[36]      Revenue implications of changes to vehicle taxation measures (Fringe Benefits Tax), Parliamentary Budget Office, 14 December 2018, p. 2.

[37]      Ms Gail Broadbent, Submission 15.4, pp. 3–8.

[38]      350 Canberra, Submission 21, p. 6.

[39]      Name withheld, Submission 86, p. 12.

[40]      Name withheld, Submission 86, p. 12.

[41]      See, for example: NRMA, Submission 78.2, p. 8; AITI, Submission 5.1, p. 3.

[42]      Associate Professor Tim Nelson, Chief Economist, AGL Energy, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 79.

[43]      Associate Professor Tim Nelson, Chief Economist, AGL Energy, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 79.

[44]      Hobson's Bay Council, Submission 52, p. 6.

[45]      Mr Tim Washington, Chief Executive Officer, JET Charge, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 6.

[46]      Dr James Prest, Senior Lecturer, College of Law, Australian National University, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 11.

[47]      AITI, Submission 5.1, p. 3.

[48]      AITI, Submission 5.1, p. 4.

[49]      Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 1.

[50]      Hyundai Motor Company Australia, Submission 103, p. [9].

[51]      Infrastructure Victoria, Submission 88.1, p. 48.

[52]      Hobson's Bay Council, Submission 52, p. 6.

[53]      Department of Finance, Australian Government Fleet Statistics as at 1 July 2018, Additional Information, received 22 January 2019.

[54]      Department of Finance, Australian Government Fleet Statistics as at 1 July 2018, Additional Information, received 22 January 2019.

[55]      Mr Jonathon Lathleiff, Senior Manager, Corporate and External Affairs, Toyota Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 64.

[56]      Associate Professor Tim Nelson, Chief Economist, AGL Energy, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 79. See also: City of Adelaide, Submission 93, p. 2.

[57]      Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 8.

[58]      NHP Electrical Engineering Products, Submission 95, p. [4].

[59]      Mr Sam McLean, Senior Manager, Tesla, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 7.

[60]      Department of Transport (UK), Road to Zero: Next steps towards cleaner roads transport and delivering our industrial strategy, July 2018, p. 60, available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/reducing-emissions-from-road-transport-road-to-zero-strategy (accessed 2 January 2019).

[61]      See, for example: Hyundai Motor Company Australia, Submission 103, p. [9].

[62]      ACT Government, Submission 48, p. 2.

[63]      NSW Government, Future Transport 2056: Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Plan, January 2019, available at: https://www.future.transport.nsw.gov.au/sites/default/files/media/documents/2019/Future_Transport_NSW_Electric_and_Hybrid_vehicle_plan.pdf (accessed 21 January 2019).

[64]      Revenue implications of setting mandatory Government fleet electric vehicle purchasing targets, Parliamentary Budget Office, 11 January 2019, Additional Information, p. 2.

[65]      Royal Automobile Club of Western Australia, Submission 117, p. [5].

[66]      Mr Ali Asghar, Senior Associate, Power, Energy Storage and EVs, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 11.

[67]      Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Vehicle Emissions Standards, available at: https://infrastructure.gov.au/vehicles/environment/emission/index.aspx (accessed 7 January 2019)

[68]      ClimateWorks Australia, Submission 46, Attachment 1, p. 26.

[69]      RACWA, Submission 117, p. [5].

[70]      Ms Sarah Fumei, Project Manager, ClimateWorks Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 60.

[71]      Ms Sarah Fumei, Project Manager, ClimateWorks Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 60.

[72]      Mr Anthony Larkins, Member, Professionals Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 48.

[73]      DELWP, Submission 129, p. 12.

[74]      DELWP, Submission 129, p. 12.

[75]      Mr Alex Foulds, Executive Director, Surface Transport Division, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 75.

[76]      Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, pp. 75–76.

[77]      Correspondence from Mr Alex Foulds, Acting Deputy Secretary, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities following the committee's public hearing in Canberra on 17 August 2018, dated 13 September 2018.

[78]      Correspondence from Mr Alex Foulds, Acting Deputy Secretary, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities following the committee's public hearing in Canberra on 17 August 2018, dated 13 September 2018.

[79]      Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities - answers to questions on notice from public hearing in Canberra on 17 August 2018 (received 25 September 2018).

[80]      Department of Industry Innovation and Science  - answers to questions on notice from public hearing in Canberra on 17 August 2018 (received 24 September 2018).

[81]      Department of the Environment and Energy - answers to questions on notice from public hearing in Canberra on 17 August 2018 (received 25 September 2018).

[82]      Correspondence from Mr Alex Foulds, Executive Director, Surface Transport Division, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development, and Cities, dated 22 November 2018.

[83]      The following meeting minutes were not included in this or subsequent correspondence to the committee: 17 August 2016, 4 July 2017, 24 October 2017, 29 May 2018, and 18 June 2018.

[84]      Correspondence from Ms Pip Spence, Deputy Secretary, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development, and Cities, dated 22 October 2018.

[85]      Correspondence from Ms Pip Spence, Deputy Secretary, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development, and Cities, dated 22 October 2018.

[86]      Correspondence from Mr Alex Foulds, Executive Director, Surface transport Division, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development, and Cities, dated 22 November 2018.

[87]      Correspondence from Ms Jo Evans, Deputy Secretary, Climate Change and Energy Innovation, Department of the Environment and Energy, dated 5 November 2018.

[88]      Correspondence from Dr Heather Smith, Secretary, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, dated 2 November 2018.

[89]      Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, answers to written questions on notice, received 17 December 2018.

[90]      Government guidelines for official witnesses before Parliamentary Committees and related matters, February 2015, pp. 18–19, https://www.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/Gov_Guidelines_for_Official_WIitnesses_Feb_2015.pdf (accessed 4 December 2018).

[91]      Tesla, Submission 92, p. 10.

[92]      Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.3, p. 35. See also: Tesla, Submission 92, p. 10.

[93]      NHP, Submission 95, p. [5]. See also: Name withheld, Submission 86, p. 15. See also: Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, pp. 51–52.

[94]      NHP, Submission 95, p. [5].

[95]      Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.3, p. 35.

[96]      NHP, Submission 95, p. [6]. The relevant AS is AS/NZ3000:2018 (Electrical installations: Wiring Rules).

[97]      NHP Electrical Engineering Products, Submission 95, p. [6].

[98]      NHP Electrical Engineering Products, Submission 95, p. [6]. Emphasis in original.

[99]      Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60, p. 5. See also: PwC, 'Recharging the economy: The economic impact of accelerating electric vehicle adoption', July 2018, p. 11, http://electricvehiclecouncil.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Recharging-the-economy.pdf (accessed 1 November 2018).

[100]    Australian Renewable Energy Agency, Submission 99.2, p. 3.

[101]    Australian Renewable Energy Agency, Submission 99.2, p. 8.

[102]    Electric Vehicle Council, NRMA, St Baker Energy Innovation Fund, PwC, 'Recharging the economy: The economic impact of accelerating electric vehicle adoption', July 2018, p. 11.

[103]    ACT Government, Submission 48, p. 4.

[104]    International Energy Agency, Global EV Outlook 2018, May 2018, pp. 47–48, https://www.iea.org/gevo2018/ (accessed 1 November 2018).

[105]    International Energy Agency, Global EV Outlook 2018, May 2018, pp. 47–48.

[106]    FCA, Submission 64, p. 6.

[107]    DELWP, Submission 129, p. [9].

[108]    Environment Victoria, Submission 102, p. [2].

[109]    ALC, Submission 104, p. 13.

[110]    Clean Energy Finance Corporation, Submission 31, p. 1.

[111]    AITI, Submission 5, pp. 3–4. See also: Labeye, E., Hugot, M., Brusque, C., & Regan, M. A. (2016). The electric vehicle: A new driving experience involving specific skills and rules. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 37, pp. 27-40

[112]    Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 6.

[113]    AEVA—SA, Submission 69, p. 4.

[114]    DELWP, Submission 129, p. 7.

[115]    Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 6.

[116]    Mr Tony Weber, CEO, FCAI, Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 19.

[117]    See, for example: Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100, p. 6; Mr David Lloyd, Submission 22, p. 3; AEVA—SA, Submission 69, p. 1; ITM Power, Submission 74, p. [3].

[118]    HMA, Submission 73, p. [4].

[119]    AITI, Submission 5, p. 3.

[120]    AITI, Submission 5, p. 4.

[121]    Australian Automotive Dealer Association, Submission 54, pp. 5–6.

[122]    Australian Automotive Aftermarket Association, Submission 37, p. 2.

[123]    Sage Automation, Submission 84, p. [6].

[124]    VACC, Submission 26, p. 15

[125]    AIMVIA, Submission 57, p. 4.

[126]    Nichibo Australia, Submission 118, p. 4.

[127]    AEVA, Submission 8, p. 3.

[128]    AIMVIA, Submission 57, p. 6.

[129]    Hon Paul Fletcher MP, Minister for Urban Infrastructure and Cities, Road Vehicle Standards Bill 2018, Second Reading Speech, 7 February 2018, pp. 494–495.

[130]    AIMVIA, Submission 57, p. 6.

[131]    AIMVIA, Submission 57, p. 6.

[132]    AIMVIA, Submission 57, p. 6.

[133]    Mr Tony Weber, Chief Executive Officer, Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries, Committee Hansard, 18 October 2018, p. 17.

[134]    Nichibo Australia Pty Ltd, Submission 118, p. 5.

[135]    New Zealand Energy Efficiency and Conservation Fund, Low Emission Vehicles Contestable Fund, August 2017, https://www.eeca.govt.nz/funding-and-support/low-emission-vehicles-contestable-fund/ (accessed 5 November 2018).

[136]    Mr Tony Fairweather, Group Managing Director, SEA Electric, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 2.

[137]    Mr Tony Fairweather, Group Managing Director, SEA Electric, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 2.

[138]    Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 112, p. 11.

[139]    Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 112, p. 15.

[140]    Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 112, p. 13.

[141]    Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 112, p. 12.

[142]    Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 112, p. 12.

[143]    Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 112, pp. 14–15.

[144]    ARENA, Submission 99, pp. 2–3.

[145]    CEEM UNSW, Submission 65, p. 13.

[146]    Dr Paul Sernia, Chief Product Officer, Tritium , Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 4.

[147]    Dr Paul Sernia, Chief Product Officer, Tritium, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 3.

[148]    Tritium, Submission 58, p. [5].

[149]    Dr Paul Sernia, Chief Product Officer, Tritium, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 3.

[150]    Dr Paul Sernia, Chief Product Officer, Tritium, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 3.

[151]    Mr Warren Pearce, Chief Executive Officer, Association of Mining and Exploration Companies, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, p. 28. See also: AMEC, Submission 20.3, p. 3.

[152]    Energy Networks Australia, Submission 60.5, p. 64. See also: Energeia, Australian Electric Vehicle Market Study, May 2018, prepared for ARENA and CEFC.

[153]    Mr Paul Fox, Head, Corporate Development, Fast Cities Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, p. 27.

[154]    ALC, Submission 104, p. 14.

[155]    Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 4.

[156]    Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 4.

[157]    Queensland Government Department of Transport and Main Roads, Submission 43, p. 4. See also: ACT Government, Submission 48, p. 2.

[158]    Ms Michelle English, Associate Director, Sustainability, City of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 52.

[159]    Mr Christian Reynolds, Director, Precision Buses, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 23.

[160]    Doctors for the Environment, Submission 50, p. 9.

[161]    Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland - answers to questions taken on notice from public hearing in Brisbane on 27 September 2018 (received 19 October 2018)

[162]    Mr Geoffrey Rutledge, Deputy Director-General, Sustainability and the Built Environment, Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, Australian Capital Territory, Committee Hansard, 17 August 2018, pp. 5–6.

[163]    Ms Michelle English, Associate Director, Sustainability, City of Adelaide, Committee Hansard, 10 August 2018, p. 52.

[164]    Mr David Smith, Secretary, Vehicle Division and Assistant National Secretary, Australian Manufacturing Workers Union, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 49.

[165]    Australian Council of Trade - answers to questions on notice from public hearing in Melbourne on 31 August 2018 (received 27 September 2018).

[166]    Sage Automation, Submission 84, p. 7.

[167]    Mr Lance McCallum, National Campaign Coordinator, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 54.

[168]    Mr Lance McCallum, National Campaign Coordinator, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 54.

[169]    Mr Lance McCallum, National Campaign Coordinator, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 54.

[170]    CEEM UNSW, Submission 65, p. 13.

[171]    CEEM UNSW, Submission 65, p. 13.

[172]    Sage Automation, Submission 84, p. 8.

[173]    See: CEEM UNSW, Submission 65, p. 11.

[174]    DTMR, Submission 43, p. 5.

[175]    DTMR, Submission 43, p. 5.

[176]    ACTU, Submission 107, p. 5.

[177]    Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 5.

[178]    Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 6.

[179]    Deakin University, Submission 35, p. 6.

[180]    ETU, Submission 110, p. 13.

[181]    Mr Anthony Larkins, Submission 32, p. 2.

[182]    United Kingdom Office for Low Emission Vehicles, Homepage, https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/office-for-low-emission-vehicles (accessed 6 November 2018).

[183]    Mr Daniel Hilson, Founder and Managing Director, Evenergi, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 57.

[184]    Mr Tim Washington, Chief Executive Office, JET Charge, Committee Hansard, 27 September 2018, pp. 5–6.

[185]    Mr Daniel Hilson, Founder and Managing Director, Evenergi, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 58.

[186]    South Australian Government, Submission 130, p. 3.

[187]    Transport and Infrastructure Council, Communiqué, Sydney, 9 November 2018, available at: https://transportinfrastructurecouncil.gov.au/communique/ (accessed 2 January 2019).

[188]    See, for example: Isuzu Australia, Submission 67, p. 3; SEA Electric, Submission 24, p. [3]. See also: New Zealand Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority, Electric Vehicles, October 2017, https://www.energywise.govt.nz/on-the-road/electric-vehicles/ (accessed 6 November 2018).

[189]    Flinders University, Submission 5.1, p. [9].

[190]    Hyundai Australia, Submission 103, p. 5.

[191]    South Australian Government, Submission 130, p. 3. See also: Productivity Commission, Progress in Rail Reform: Inquiry Report, Report No. 6, 5 August 1999, Attachment C, pp. C1–2, https://www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/34526/rail.pdf (accessed 6 November 2018).

[192]    AEVA, Submission 6, p. 3.

[193]    International Energy Agency, Global EV Outlook 2017, June 2017, p. 30.

[194]    FCAI, Submission 119, p. 16.

[195]    City of Adelaide, Submission 93, p. 5.

[196]    FCAI, Submission 119, p. 14.

[197]    FCAI, Submission 119, p. 14.

[198]    iMove Australia, Submission 124, p. [1].

[199]    Deakin University, Submission 128, p. 1.

[200]    Ms Gail Broadbent, Submission 115, p. [4].

[201]    Tesla Owners Club of Australia, Submission 28, p. 9.

[202]    Mr Tony Fairweather, Managing Director, SEA Electric, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 2.

[203]    SEA Electric, Submission 24, p. [4].

[204]    Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Submission 127, p. 26.

[205]    Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, Submission 121, p. 3.

[206]    Mr Adrian O'Dwyer, Chief Executive Officer, Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 August 2018, p. 26.

[207]    Road User Charges Review Group, An Independent Review of the New Zealand Road User Charging System, 31 March 2009, p. 20, https://www.nzta.govt.nz/assets/resources/road-user-charges/docs/ruc-final-report.pdf (accessed 28 November 2018).

[208]    Dr James Prest, College of Law, Australian National University, Submission 101, pp. 10–11.

[209]    New Zealand Ministry of Transport, Electric Vehicles, https://www.transport.govt.nz/multi-modal/climatechange/electric-vehicles/ (accessed 28 November 2018).

[210]    Applying a road user charge to electric vehicles, Parliamentary Budget Office, 7 December 2018.

[211]    Applying a road user charge to electric vehicles, Parliamentary Budget Office, 7 December 2018, pp. 6–7.

Australian Greens' Additional Comments

[1]        Bloomberg New Energy Finance,  Submission 127; Australian Renewable Energy Agency, Submission 99.

[2]        Mr. Behyad Jafari, Electric Vehicle Council, Committee Hansard, Friday, 17 August 2018 p. 20.

[3]        ClimateWorks, Submission 46.

[4]        Electric Vehicle Council, Submission 100.

[5]        100 Renewable Energy Research Group ANU, Submission 108.

[6]        Andrew Tillett, 'Deputy PM Michael McCormack shelves inquiry into road pricing', Australian Financial Review, 5 October 2018, available at: https://www.afr.com/news/politics/deputy-pm-michael-mccormack-shelves-inquiry-into-road-pricing-20181004-h1688d .

Appendix 3 - Summary of committee site visits

[1]        A glider is a vehicle without a powertrain.

[2]        https://www.eeca.govt.nz/funding-and-support/low-emission-vehicles-contestable-fund/

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