Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 130, 26 November 2015, p. 3495.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 9, 11 October 2016, p. 295.

[3]        BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 4.

[4]        Liberty OneSteel, 'GFG Alliance has completed the acquisition of the Arrium Mining and Steel businesses', https://www.libertyonesteel.com/announcement/ (accessed 12 September 2017).

Chapter 2 - Overview of the steel industry in Australia

[1]        Arrium Ltd, Submission 16, p. 1.

[2]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 6.

[3]        World Steel Association, World Steel in Figures 2017, p. 9; Mr Oscar Gregory, Director, ARC Research Hub for Australian Steel Manufacturing, University of Wollongong, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 28.

[4]        Arrium Ltd, Submission 16, p. 2; BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 3; Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 9.

[5]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 4.

[6]        Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 15.

[7]        An integrated steel producer converts iron ore into finished or semi-finished steel products, which traditionally requires coke ovens, blast furnaces, steelmaking furnaces and rolling mills. See: Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 6.

[8]        Arrium Ltd, Submission 16, p 2; Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 9.

[9]        BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 3.

[10]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 6.

[11]      BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, pp. 2, 3.

[12]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 2.

[13]      Lysaght, 'An Australian Icon', http://www.lysaght.com/about-us/an-australian-icon  (accessed 31 July 2017).

[14]      BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 3.

[15]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 2.

[16]      BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 4.

[17]      ABC News Online, 'BlueScope assistance package passes through NSW Parliament', http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-11-19/bluescope-assitance-package-enacted-in-law/6954030   (accessed 3 August 2017).

[18]      Mr Glenn Leake, Branch Executive Delegate, The Australian Workers' Union; Mr Wayne Phillips, Branch Secretary, The Australian Workers' Union; and Mr Lance Turner, Branch Executive Delegate, The Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, pp.  18–20.

[19]      ABC News Online, 'BlueScope assistance package passes through NSW Parliament', http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-11-19/bluescope-assitance-package-enacted-in-law/6954030   (accessed 3 August 2017).

[20]      Senator the Hon Michaelia Cash, Minister for Employment, Media Release, 'Help at hand for Port Kembla BlueScope workers', 21 December 2015.

[21]      BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 4.

[22]      Tim Binsted, The Sydney Morning Herald, 'BlueScope tips $50m profit boost after job cuts, new Port Kembla enterprise agreement', 12 February 2016, http://www.smh.com.au/business/mining-and-resources/bluescope-upgrades-profit-forecast-to-230m-20160211-gms53n.html (accessed 3 August 2017).

[23]      Arrium Ltd, Annual Report 2015: Building Resilience, p. 2.

[24]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 6.

[25]      Arrium Ltd, Submission 16, p. 2.

[26]      KordaMentha Restructuring, 'Arrium Creditor Committee Approves Sale to GFG Alliance', http://www.arrium.com/~/media/Arrium%20Mining%20and%20Materials/Files/ASX%20Announcements/FY2018/Arrium%20Creditor%20Committee%20approves%20sale%20to%20GFG%20Alliance%2013%20July%202017.pdf (accessed 31 July 2017).

[27]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 9.

[28]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 16.

[29]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 16.

[30]      Best Bar Reinforcements, Submission 22, p. 1; Steelforce, Submission 11, p. 5.

[31]      Best Bar Reinforcements, Submission 22, pp. 1–2.

[32]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 3.

[33]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 11.

[34]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 11.

[35]      Illawarra Business Chamber, Submission 5, p. 1.

[36]      BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 3.

[37]      Arrium Ltd, Submission 16, p. 2.

[38]      Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Ltd, Submission 6, p. 4.

[39]      Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Ltd, Submission 6, p. 3.

[40]      BlueScope Illawarra, 'About Us: BlueScope in the Illawarra', https://www.bluescopeillawarra.com.au/about-us/ (accessed 31 July 2017).

[41]      Illawarra Business Chamber, Submission 5, p. 2.

[42]      Councillor Gordon Bradbery, Lord Mayor, Wollongong City Council, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 34.

[43]      Mr Wayne Phillips, Branch Secretary, the Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 18.

[44]      See, for example, Mr Tom Antonio, Acting Mayor, City of Whyalla, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 27.

[45]      Arrium Ltd, Submission 16, p. 10.

[46]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 6.

[47]      Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Ltd, Submission 6, p. 2.

[48]      This method involves oxygen being blown into molten iron and scrap from a blast furnace.

[49]      This method involves melting scrap steel or direct reduced iron in an electric arc furnace.

[50]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 8.

[51]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 9.

[52]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 6.

[53]      Australian Steel Institute, webpage, 'Steel Indicators', http://steel.org.au/about-our-industry/steel-indicators/#overview-1 (accessed 24 November 2017).

[54]      Worldsteel Association, Steel Statistical Yearbook 2016, p. 2. Figures from the Office of the Chief Economist, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, shown on a financial year basis, show further modest increases in production, to 5 million tonnes in 2015–16, and to 5.4 million tonnes in 2016–17. Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Resources and Energy Quarterly: September 2017, Historical Data, available at https://www.industry.gov.au/Office-of-the-Chief-Economist/Publications/ResourcesandEnergyQuarterlySeptember2017/index.html.

[55]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 13.

[56]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 14.

[57]      Alloyed steels have a larger proportion of elements in them than carbon steel, such as manganese and silicon. Coated steel is steel coated through a heat process or through electrolysis to protect its metal base against corrosion. Flat-rolled steel is produced by rolls with smooth surfaces and different ranges of dimension that vary in thickness. Clad steel is steel bonded with dissimilar metals. See ArcelorMittal, A guide to the language of steel, http://corporate.arcelormittal.com/news-and-media/factfile/steel-terminology (accessed 15 November 2017).

[58]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, pp. 14–15.

[59]      Australian Steel Association, Submission 24, p. 7.

[60]      Arrium Ltd, Submission 16, p. 2.

[61]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 15.

[62]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 20.

[63]      Australian Workers' Union, Submission 25, p. 17.

[64]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 4.

[65]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, pp. 9–10. See also Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Ltd, Submission 6, p. 9.

[66]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 9.

[67]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 18.

[68]      Mr Kenneth Watson, Executive Director, National Association of Steel-Framed Housing Inc, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 43.

[69]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 18.

[70]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 20.

[71]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 19.

[72]      Ben Potter, 'Sanjeev Gupta's $700 million solar-battery-hydro bet to power Whyalla's green steel', AFR, 30 October 2017, http://www.afr.com/news/sanjeev-guptas-700-million-solarbatteryhydro-bet-to-power-whyalla-steel-20171029-gzaqfe (accessed 24 November 2017).

[73]      BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, pp 4–5.

[74]      Ms Naomi Margaret James, Chief Executive, Strategy, Arrium Mining and Materials, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 26.

[75]      See, for example, Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, pp 19–20; BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 4, p. 5.

[76]      University of Wollongong, Submission 9, pp. 2–3.

[77]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 9.

[78]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 10.

[79]      See Matthew Dunkley, Sydney Morning Herald, 'Bluescope's power price shock triggers share slide', 21 August 2017, http://www.smh.com.au/business/mining-and-resources/bluescope-taps-new-ceo-warns-earnings-set-to-slide-20170820-gy0hqp.html (accessed 29 November 2017).

[80]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 11.

[81]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 11.

[82]      Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, pp. 7–8.

[83]      BlueScope Steel Ltd, Submission 58 to the Productivity Commission's inquiry into Productivity & the Australian Workplace Relations System, March 2015, p. 2.

[84]      Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Ltd, Submission 6, p. 6.

[85]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 7.

[86]      Mr Geoff Crittenden, Chief Executive Officer, Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 38.

[87]      Carrie Fellner, 'Soaring prices a "killer blow", industry warns', Newcastle Herald,  24 August 2017, p. 4.

[88]      Herald Sun, 'Rising costs give steel giant the blues', Herald Sun, 12 October 2017, p. 26.

[89]      Matt Chambers, 'Australia has highest power costs in the world: Gupta', The Australian, 31 October 2017, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/mining-energy/australia-has-the-highest-power-costs-in-the-world-gupta/news-story/3f54bd44b3916127d9e085b5160cc8b0 (accessed 25 November 2017).

[90]      Cameron England, 'Arrium's Zen moment to reduce power costs', The Advertiser,  21 September 2017, p. 4.

[91]      Cameron England, 'The state's two blast furnaces are in serious trouble following the storm, with the Port Pirie smelter out of action for up to two weeks', The Advertiser, 29 September 2016, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/business/the-states-two-blast-furnaces-are-in-serious-trouble-following-the-storm-with-the-port-pirie-smelter-out-of-action-for-up-to-two-weeks/news-story/c7b496663e93c6bf55cdbf8e0c9f7ca2 (accessed 25 November 2017).

Chapter 3

[1]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 2.

[2]        Liberty OneSteel, 'GFG Alliance has completed the acquisition of the Arrium Mining and Steel businesses', https://www.libertyonesteel.com/announcement/ (accessed 12 September 2017).

[3]        Ms Naomi Margaret James, Chief Executive, Strategy, Arrium Mining and Materials, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 31.

[4]        Mr Stephen Young, Managing Director, E&A Ltd, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 34; E&A Limited, Submission 34, p. 1.

[5]        Mr Scott Andrew Martin, Branch Organiser, Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 15.

[6]        Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, pp. 7–8.

[7]        Mr David Gabb, AWU Delegate/Steelworker, Onesteel, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p.  8.

[8]        Michael Janda, ABC Online, 'Arrium, Mt Gibson iron ore losses remain large; Whyalla steelworks future in doubt', 17 February 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-02-17/arrium-mt-gibson-iron-ore-losses/7175698 (accessed 9 August 2017).

[9]        Tim Binstead, The Sydney Morning Herald, 'GSO Capital extends $US957m lifeline to Arrium as subs builders look to Whyalla', 22 February 2016, http://www.smh.com.au/business/gso-capital-extends-us957m-lifeline-to-arrium-20160221-gmzw2z.html (accessed 12 September 2017).

[10]      KordaMentha, 'KordaMentha Restructuring appointed as Voluntary Administrators of Arrium Limited', http://www.kordamentha.com/News-and-Insights/KordaMentha-Restructuring-appointed-as-Voluntary-A (accessed 12 September 2017).

[11]      KordaMentha, 'Arrium sale proceeds start to flow', 8 September 2017, http://www.kordamentha.com/News-and-Insights/Arrium-sale-proceeds-start-to-flow (accessed 12 September 2017).

[12]      ABC Online, 'Arrium steelworks employees accept administrator's bid for pay cut', 29 September 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-09-29/arrium-steelworks-employees-accept-planned-paycut-whyalla/7890960 (accessed 12 September 2017).

[13]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, p. 4.

[14]      Mr Nicholas John Bindi, Chief Executive Officer, ICE Engineering and Construction Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, pp. 1–2.

[15]      Mr Tom Antonio, Acting Mayor, City of Whyalla, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 27.

[16]      Mr Scott Andrew Martin, Branch Organiser, Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 16.

[17]      Department of State Development South Australia, 'High-powered Steel Taskforce to secure Whyalla's future', https://statedevelopment.sa.gov.au/news-releases/all-news-updates/high-powered-steel-taskforce-to-secure-whyallas-future (accessed 14 September 2017).

[18]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, pp. 4, 8.

[19]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, p. 4.

[20]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, p. 4.

[21]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, p. 5.

[22]      SBS News Online, 'SA looks to leverage Arrium cash', 10 July 2017, http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2017/07/10/sa-looks-leverage-arrium-cash (accessed 14 September 2017).

[23]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 2.

[24]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 3.

[25]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 3.

[26]      The Hon. Bill Shorten MP, 'Labor's positive plan to secure Australian metals, manufacturing and jobs', Media Release, 14 April 2016.

[27]      The Hon. Bill Shorten MP, 'Backing Australian steel, backing Australian jobs', Media release, 16 June 2016.

[28]      The Hon. Bill Shorten MP, 'Mr Turnbull: Don't wait until it's too late for Arrium', Media release, 21 September 2016.

[29]      KordaMentha, 'Arrium announces sale of Moly-Cop', 4 November 2016,  http://www.kordamentha.com/News-and-Insights/Arrium-announces-sale-of-Moly-Cop (accessed 12 September 2017).

[30]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 2.

[31]      KordaMentha, 'Korean group is preferred bidder for Arrium', 15 June 2017, http://www.kordamentha.com/News-and-Insights/Korean-group-is-preferred-bidder-for-Arrium (accessed 12 September 2017).

[32]      Luke Griffiths, 'Inside the Arrium sale: How steely nerves overcame catastrophe', The Advertiser, 1 September 2017, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/business/inside-the-arrium-sale-how-steely-nerves-overcame-catastrophe/news-story/e6abe8e44e897b3b66faeb6d316f4362 (accessed 12 September 2017).

[33]      Liberty OneSteel, 'GFG Alliance has completed the acquisition of the Arrium Mining and Steel businesses', https://www.libertyonesteel.com/announcement/ (accessed 12 September 2017).

[34]      Simon Evans, 'Liberty House triggers real estate flurry in Whyalla', Australian Financial Review, 31 July 2017, http://www.afr.com/business/mining/iron-ore/liberty-house-triggers-real-estate-flurry-in-whyalla-20170730-gxlxyj (accessed 1 August 2017).

[35]      Luke Griffiths, 'GFG Alliance takes ownership of Whyalla's steelworks, plans huge increase in production', The Advertiser, 1 September 2017, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/business/gfg-alliance-takes-ownership-of-whyallas-steelworks-plans-huge-increase-in-production/news-story/fb7e04fe01916b8cf9ed35a22eec70b3 (accessed 14 September 2017); Khama Reid and Annabelle Regan, 'Whyalla steelworks purchase completed by GFG Alliance, with big investment promised', ABC Online, 1 September 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-08-31/whyalla-prepares-to-celebrate-arrium-steelworks-sale/8860998 (accessed 14 September 2017).

[36]      KordaMentha, 'Arrium sale proceeds start to flow', 8 September 2017, http://www.kordamentha.com/News-and-Insights/Arrium-sale-proceeds-start-to-flow (accessed 12 September 2017).

[37]      Michael Owen-Brown, Lauren Novak and Sheradyn Holderhead, 'Arrium steelworks to be sold to GFG Alliance, saving thousands of jobs in Whyalla', The Advertiser, 5 July 2017, http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/south-australia/state-government-announces-official-sale-of-the-arrium-steelworks/news-story/3e049ffb3ad49a0266a2896256e3511f (accessed 14 September 2017); GFG Alliance, 'GFG Alliance completes landmark acquisition of Arrium', 31 August 2017, http://www.gfgalliance.com/media/gfg-alliance-completes-landmark-acquisition-arrium/ (accessed 14 September 2017).

[38]      David Lipson, 'Steelmaker Sanjeev Gupta teams with Ross Garnaut to run factories using renewable energy', ABC Online, 21 September 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-09-20/steel-maker-teams-with-ross-garnaut-to-run-factories-using-rene/8965240 (accessed 21 September 2017).

Chapter 4 - Steel standards, certification and non-conforming products

[1]        World Trade Organisation, The WTO Agreements Series: Technical Barriers to Trade, 16 December 2013, p. 14, emphasis in original.

[2]        World Trade Organisation, The WTO Agreements Series: Technical Barriers to Trade, 16 December 2013, p. 15; Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 7.

[3]        Senate Economics References Committee, Non-conforming building products interim report: Aluminium composite cladding, September 2017, p. 25.

[4]        Senior Officers' Group, Non-conforming building products, http://www.hpw.qld.gov.au/construction/BuildingPlumbing/Building/Pages/NonConformingBuildingProducts.aspx (accessed 27 September 2017). See also Senate Economics References Committee, Non-conforming building products interim report: Aluminium composite cladding, September 2017, p. 3.

[5]        Senate Economics References Committee, Non-conforming building products interim report: Aluminium composite cladding, September 2017, pp. 3–4.

[6]        World Trade Organisation Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, 1 January 1995, Article 2.2.

[7]        World Trade Organisation Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, 1 January 1995, Article 2.2.

[8]        Standards Australia, What We Do, http://www.standards.org.au/OurOrganisation/AboutUs/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 26 September 2017).

[9]        Standards Australia, Search and buy a standard, http://www.standards.org.au/SearchandBuyAStandard/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 9 October 2017).

[10]      Mr Adam Stingemore, General Manager, Stakeholder Engagement and Public Affairs, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 52.

[11]      Mr Adam Stingemore, General Manager, Stakeholder Engagement and Public Affairs, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, pp. 54-55.

[12]      Mrs Kareen Riley-Takos, General Manager, Standards Development, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 56.

[13]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 40, pp. 3–4.

[14]      Mr Adam Stingemore, General Manager, Stakeholder Engagement and Public Affairs, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 56.

[15]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 32, p. 8.

[16]      Standards Australia, Response to Submission 32 made by Welding Technology Institute of Australia, pp. 1–2.

[17]      Senate Economics References Committee, Non-conforming building products interim report: Aluminium composite cladding, September 2017, pp. 49–51.

[18]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 40, p. 1.

[19]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 34.

[20]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 4.

[21]      Mr Geoff Crittenden, Chief Executive Officer, Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 39.

[22]      Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2017, p. 7.

[23]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 34.

[24]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 19.

[25]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, pp. 25–26.

[26]      Mr Adam Stingemore, General Manager, Stakeholder Engagement and Public Affairs, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 53.

[27]      Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2017, p. 7.

[28]      Mr Geoff Crittenden, Chief Executive Officer, Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 35.

[29]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Industry, Submission 41, p. 4.

[30]      Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 10.10 (emphasis in original).

[31]      Mr Adam Stingemore, General Manager, Stakeholder Engagement and Public Affairs, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 52.

[32]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 20.

[33]      Mr Kenneth Watson, Executive Director, National Association of Steel-Framed Housing Inc., Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 37.

[34]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, Attachment 3.

[35]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, Attachment 3.

[36]      Australian Constructors Association, Submission 13, p. 2.

[37]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 40, p. 2.

[38]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 32, p. 7.

[39]      Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, pp. 43–44.

[40]      The Australian Industry Group, The quest for a level playing field: The non-conforming building products dilemma, November 2013, p. 11.

[41]      Mr Geoff Crowhurst, Managing Director, Crowhurst Goodline, Committee Hansard, Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee, 23 August 2017, p. 20.

[42]      Mr Geoff Crowhurst, Managing Director, Crowhurst Goodline, Committee Hansard, Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee, 23 August 2017, p. 20.

[43]      Best Bar Reinforcements, Submission 22, p. 4.

[44]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 15.

[45]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 40, p. 2.

[46]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 40, p. 2.

[47]      Mr Ian Waters, on behalf of 63 businesses, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 44.

[48]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 33.

[49]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, Attachment 3.

[50]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, Attachment 3.

[51]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, Attachment 3.

[52]      Illawarra Business Chamber, Submission 5, p. 3.

[53]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 5.

[54]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 38.

[55]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 38.

[56]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 33.

[57]      Illawarra Business Chamber, Submission 5, p. 3.

[58]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 38.

[59]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 39.

[60]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 32, p. 7.

[61]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 33.

[62]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 35.

[63]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 40, p. 2.

[64]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 35.

[65]      Mr Adam Stingemore, General Manager, Stakeholder Engagement and Public Affairs, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 55.

[66]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 20.

[67]      Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 7.

[68]      Mr Adam Stingemore, General Manager, Stakeholder Engagement and Public Affairs, Standards Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 56.

[69]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 19.

[70]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 33.

[71]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 35.

[72]      Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 40, p. 1.

[73]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Building and construction, https://industry.gov.au/industry/IndustrySectors/buildingandconstruction/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 29 September 2017). The SOG consists of senior officers from the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science and each State and Territory building regulator.

[74]      Senior Officers' Group, Implementation Plan: Strategies to Address Risks Related to Non‑Conforming Building Products, September 2017, Recommendation 2, p. 3.

[75]      Senior Officers' Group, Implementation Plan: Strategies to Address Risks Related to Non‑Conforming Building Products, September 2017, Recommendation 3B, p. 5.

[76]      Senior Officers' Group, Implementation Plan: Strategies to Address Risks Related to Non‑Conforming Building Products, September 2017, Recommendation 2, p. 3.

[77]      Senior Officers' Group, Implementation Plan: Strategies to Address Risks Related to Non‑Conforming Building Products, September 2017, Recommendation 3D, p. 6.

[78]      Senior Officers' Group, Implementation Plan: Strategies to Address Risks Related to Non‑Conforming Building Products, September 2017, Recommendation 4A, p. 7.

[79]      Senior Officers' Group, Implementation Plan: Strategies to Address Risks Related to Non‑Conforming Building Products, September 2017, Recommendation 4B, p. 7.

[80]      Senior Officers' Group, Implementation Plan: Strategies to Address Risks Related to Non‑Conforming Building Products, September 2017, Recommendation 5, p. 8.

Chapter 5 - Government Procurement

[1]        Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 4.5.

[2]        Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 10.10 (emphasis in original), clause 10.30 and clause 10.37.

[3]        Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 5.3 (emphasis in original).

[4]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 26.

[5]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 26.

[6]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 26.

[7]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 4.

[8]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 4.

[9]        Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 4.

[10]      Australian Building and Construction Commission, Code for the Tendering and Performance of Commonwealth Funded Building Work 2016: Funding Entity Model Clauses: Directly Commonwealth Funded Building Work, 1 September 2017, https://www.abcc.gov.au/sites/g/files/net2406/f/funding_entity_clauses_1_september_2017.pdf (accessed 24 November 2017).

[11]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, p. 8.

[12]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, p. 8.

[13]      Government of South Australia, Steel Task Force, http://supportoursteel.com/steel-task-force/ (accessed 6 October 2017).

[14]      Government of South Australia, Industry Advocate, http://supportoursteel.com/industry-advocate/ (accessed 6 October 2017).

[15]      Government of South Australia, Industry Advocate, http://supportoursteel.com/industry-advocate/ (accessed 6 October 2017).

[16]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 22.

[17]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 19.

[18]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 18.

[19]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 23.

[20]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 18.

[21]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 18.

[22]      Mr Neil Gibson, Executive General Manager, Steel Manufacturing and Integration, Arrium Mining and Materials, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 32.

[23]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 30; Australian Workers' Union, Submission 25, p. 21; Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victorian Industry Participation Policy: Local Jobs First, https://economicdevelopment.vic.gov.au/victorian-industry-participation-policy#utm_source=economicdevelopment-vic-gov-au&utm_medium=vanity-url-301ssredirect&utm_content=vipp&utm_campaign=/victorian-industry-participation-policy (accessed 24 November 2017).

[24]      Victorian Government Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victorian Industry Participation Policy Annual Report 2014–15, November 2015, p. 6.

[25]      Mr Wayne Phillips, Branch Secretary, The Australian Workers Union, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 24.

[26]      Mr Michael (Misha) Zelinsky, National Vice President, Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 15.

[27]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 9, citing a BIS Shrapnel report provided to the committee by the Australian Workers' Union as Submission 25.1.

[28]      For example, Australian Workers' Union, Submission 25, p. 5; Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union, Submission 27, p. 8.

[29]      Mr Geoff Crittenden, Chief Executive Officer, Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 38. See also Mr Nicholas John, Chief Executive Officer, ICE Engineering and Construction Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 2.

[30]      Mr Wayne Phillips, Branch Secretary, Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard,  1 April 2016, p. 18.

[31]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 25.1, p. iii.

[32]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 25.1, p. i.

[33]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 25.1, p. ii.

[34]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, BlueScope, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 7.

[35]      Best Bar Reinforcements, Submission 22, p. 4.

[36]      Dr Gary Richards, General Manager, Advanced Technologies Branch, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 63.

[37]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 26.

[38]      Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), August 11 2017, http://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/international-organisations/wto/Pages/wto-agreement-on-government-procurement.aspx (accessed 5 October 2017).

[39]      Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), August 11 2017; World Trade Organisation Agreement on Government Procurement, Article IV(1).

[40]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 17.

[41]      Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, pp. 89–90.

[42]      Australia and New Zealand Government Procurement Agreement, September 2013, Article 4.

[43]      Australia and New Zealand Government Procurement Agreement, September 2013, Article 2.

[44]      Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Submission 25 to the Joint Standing Committee on Government Procurement, p. 2.

[45]      Mr Michael (Misha) Zelinsky, National Vice President, Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 24.

[46]      Mr Ian Nightingale, Industry Participation Advocate, Department of State Development, South Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 24.

[47]      BIS Shrapnel, Submission 25.1, p. 14.

[48]      Mr Scott Andrew Martin, Branch Organiser, Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 16.

[49]      Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union, Submission 27, p. 3.

[50]      Department of Defence, Australian Industry Capability Program, http://www.defence.gov.au/SPI/Industry/AIC.asp (accessed 10 October 2017).

[51]      Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 8.

[52]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, BlueScope, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 3.

[53]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 26.

[54]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 27.

[55]      Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 4.5.

[56]      Mr Stephen Young, Managing Director, E&A Ltd, Committee Hansard, 5 April 2016, p. 35;

[57]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 7.

[58]      Mr Ian Cairns, National Manager, Industry Development and Government Relations, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 4.

[59]      Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 4.

[60]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 7.

[61]      Mr Travis Kent Wacey, Policy Research Officer, Forestry, Furnishing, Building Products and Manufacturing Division, Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 16.

[62]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 26.

[63]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 8.

[64]      Council of Australian Governments, COAG meeting Communiqué, 9 June 2017, https://www.coag.gov.au/meeting-outcomes/coag-meeting-communique-9-june-2017 (accessed 4 October 2017).

[65]      Mr Ian Waters, on behalf of 63 businesses, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 50.

[66]      Joint submission from 63 Australian businesses, Submission 31, p. 9.

[67]      Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, pp. iii–iv.

[68]      Australian Government, Australian Government response to the Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement report: Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, November 2017, p. 9.

[69]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 26.

[70]      Dr Gary Richards, General Manager, Advanced Technologies Branch, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, pp. 6364.

[71]      Mr Peter Chesworth, Head of Division, Sectoral Growth Policy Division, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, pp. 57–58.

[72]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 35.

[73]      For example, Bisalloy Steel Group Limited, Submission 33, p. 5.

[74]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 6.

[75]      Australian Steel Institute, The Environmental Sustainability Charter (ESC), p. 3, http://steel.org.au/media/File/Environmental_Sustainability_Charter_info_sheet_rev1.pdf (accessed 25 November 2017).

[76]      Australian Steel Institute, Australian Steel Institute Environmental Sustainability Charter, p. 1.

[77]      Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 4.5.

[78]      Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, p. iii; Australian Government, Australian Government response to the Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement report: Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, November 2017, p. 8.

[79]      ANU Solar Thermal Group, Swinburne University of Technology and University of Adelaide, Submission 43, pp. 1–2.

[80]      Government of South Australia, Submission 44, pp. 6–7, 9, 10–11.

[81]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 18, p. 27.

[82]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 7.

[83]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, pp. 38–39.

[84]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, BlueScope, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 9.

[85]      Australian Workers' Union, Submission 25, p. 6; Australian Workers' Union Victoria, Submission 26, p. 2; Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union, Submission 27, p. 10.

[86]      For example, Illawarra Business Chamber, Submission 5, p. 1; South Coast Labour Council, Submission 23, p. 8; Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, BlueScope, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 3.

[87]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 34.

[88]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 34; Welding Technology Institute of Australia, Submission 32, p. 2.

[89]      Mr Tony Dixon, Chief Executive, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 2.

[90]      Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 10.37.

[91]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, p. 7.

[92]      Australian Industry Group, Submission 10, pp. 33–34.

[93]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 5.

[94]      Mr Michael (Misha) Zelinsky, National Vice President, Australian Workers' Union, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 24.

[95]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, BlueScope, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 7.

[96]      Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules, 1 March 2017, clause 10.30.

[97]      Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, p. 79.

[98]      Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, pp. 96–97.

[99]      Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, p. 56.

[100]    Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, p. 81.

[101]    Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, Recommendation 1, p. 129.

[102]    Australian Government, Australian Government response to the Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement report: Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, November 2017, p. 8.

[103]    Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, Recommendation 5, pp. 133–34.

[104]    Australian Government, Australian Government response to the Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement report: Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, November 2017, p. 4.

[105]    Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, Recommendation 7, p. 135.

[106]    Australian Government, Australian Government response to the Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement report: Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, November 2017, p. 10.

[107]    Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, Recommendation 14, p. 141.

[108]    Australian Government, Australian Government response to the Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement report: Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, November 2017, p. 11.

[109]    Joint Select Committee on Government Procurement, Buying into our future: Review of amendments to the Commonwealth Procurement Rules, June 2017, Recommendation 5, p. 137.

Chapter 6 - Imports and trade measures

[1]        Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 'Trade remedies', http://dfat.gov.au/trade/topics/pages/anti-dumping-and-safeguards.aspx (accessed 3 November 2017).

[2]        Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 'Trade remedies', http://dfat.gov.au/trade/topics/pages/anti-dumping-and-safeguards.aspx (accessed 3 November 2017).

[3]        Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation, Marrakesh, 15 April 1994, entry into force 1 January 1995, ATS 1995 No. 8, Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, Article 2.1.

[4]        Anti-Dumping Commission, Australia’s Anti-Dumping and Countervailing (Anti-Subsidy) System, November 2013, p. 1.

[5]        Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation, Marrakesh, 15 April 1994, entry into force 1 January 1995, ATS 1995 No. 8, Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Article 1.1. It also states that a subsidy is deemed to exist if there is any form of income or price support in the sense of Article XVI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994; and a benefit is thereby conferred.

[6]        Anti-Dumping Commission, Australia’s Anti-Dumping and Countervailing (Anti-Subsidy) System, November 2013, p. 1.

[7]        Anti-Dumping Commission, Australia’s Anti-Dumping and Countervailing (Anti-Subsidy) System, November 2013, p. 1.

[8]        Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 'Trade remedies', http://dfat.gov.au/trade/topics/pages/anti-dumping-and-safeguards.aspx (accessed 3 November 2017).

[9]        Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 3.

[10]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Agriculture and Industry, Circumvention: Closing the loopholes: Inquiry into Australia's anti-circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping measures, May 2015, p. 6.

[11]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 28.

[12]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 4.

[13]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, pp. 4–5.

[14]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 5.

[15]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Agriculture and Industry, Circumvention: Closing the loopholes: Inquiry into Australia's anti-circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping measures, May 2015, pp. 23–24.

[16]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 33.

[17]      Anti-Dumping Commission, International Trade Remedies Forum, http://www.adcommission.gov.au/adsystem/Pages/ITRF.aspx (accessed 8 November 2017).

[18]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 31.

[19]      Weihuan Zhou, 'Indonesia challenges Australia’s anti-dumping measures at the WTO', The Conversation, 15 September 2017, https://theconversation.com/indonesia-challenges-australias-anti-dumping-measures-at-the-wto-83723 (accessed 6 November 2017); Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 33; Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti‑Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 72.

[20]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 19.

[21]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 19.

[22]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 28.

[23]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 33.

[24]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 35.

[25]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 39.

[26]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, pp. 20–21.

[27]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 5.

[28]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 35.

[29]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, pp. 43–44.

[30]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 44, citing OECD calculations in Steel Market Developments, Q4 2015, 2016, p. 21.

[31]      Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, pp. 5–6.

[32]      Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, p. 11.

[33]      United States of America Department of Commerce, Presidential Memorandum Prioritizes Commerce Steel Investigation, 20 April 2017, https://www.commerce.gov/news/press-releases/2017/04/presidential-memorandum-prioritizes-commerce-steel-investigation (accessed 8 November 2017).

[34]      Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, p. 6.

[35]      Steelforce, Submission 11, p. 7; Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 14.

[36]      Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, p. 11.

[37]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 83.

[38]      Steelforce, Submission 11, p. 6.

[39]      Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 73.

[40]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 6.

[41]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 9.

[42]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 7.

[43]      Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 73.

[44]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 46.

[45]      Illawarra Business Chamber, Submission 5, p. 4.

[46]      Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, pp. 11–12, 15.

[47]      Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, pp. 5–6.

[48]      Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union, Submission 27, p. 5.

[49]      Mr Travis Kent Wacey, Policy Research Officer, Forestry, Furnishing, Building Products and Manufacturing Division, Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 19.

[50]      Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 74.

[51]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 62.

[52]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 68.

[53]      Edcon Steel, Submission 19, p. 1.

[54]      Ms Naomi Margaret James, Chief Executive, Strategy, Arrium Mining and Materials, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 31.

[55]      Bisalloy Steel Group Limited, Submission 33, p. 3.

[56]      Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, p. 16.

[57]      Arrium Mining and Minerals, Submission 16, p. 16.

[58]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Agriculture and Industry, Circumvention: Closing the loopholes: Inquiry into Australia's anti-circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping measures, May 2015, p. 1.

[59]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Agriculture and Industry, Circumvention: Closing the loopholes: Inquiry into Australia's anti-circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping measures, May 2015, p. 8.

[60]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Agriculture and Industry, Circumvention: Closing the loopholes: Inquiry into Australia's anti-circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping measures, May 2015, p. 15.

[61]      BlueScope Steel, Submission 9 to House of Representatives Inquiry into Australia's anti‑circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping duties, p. 3.

[62]      BlueScope Steel, Submission 9 to House of Representatives Inquiry into Australia's anti‑circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping duties, p. 3.

[63]      Arrium, Submission 14 to House of Representatives Inquiry into Australia's anti-circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping duties, p. 6.

[64]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, pp. 21–22.

[65]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Agriculture and Industry, Circumvention: Closing the loopholes: Inquiry into Australia's anti-circumvention framework in relation to anti-dumping measures, May 2015, p. 36.

[66]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 4; Bisalloy Steel Group Limited, Submission 33, p. 3.

[67]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 79.

[68]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 90.

[69]      The Hon. Christopher Pyne MP, Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science, 'Press Conference: Government Inquiry into Steel Dumping', 18 February 2016.

[70]      Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 59.

[71]      Anti-Dumping Commission, 'New circumvention activity to address the slight modification of goods exported to Australia', Anti-Dumping Notice No. 2015/44, 30 March 2015.

[72]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 108.

[73]      Productivity Commission, Developments in Anti-Dumping Arrangements: Productivity Commission Research Paper, February 2016, p. 108.

[74]      Rachel Baxendale, 'Pyne closes loophole on steel imports', The Weekend Australian, 19 March 2016, p. 28.

[75]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, 'Levelling the playing field – changes to Australia's anti-dumping laws', https://industry.gov.au/industry/IndustryInitiatives/TradePolicies/Pages/Levelling-the-playing-field-changes-to-Australias-Anti-dumping-laws.aspx (accessed 7 November 2017).

[76]      Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 69. See also Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Reforms to the Anti‑Dumping System, April 2016 (tabled 6 April 2016).

[77]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 5.

[78]      Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Submission 41, p. 5.

[79]      Bisalloy Steel Group Limited, Submission 33, p. 3.

[80]      BlueScope Steel, Submission 4, p. 2.

[81]      Australian Steel Association, Submission 24, p. 9.

[82]      BlueScope Steel, Submission 4, p. 2.

[83]      Mr Thomas Victor Matinca, General Manager, Sales and Strategy, Bisalloy Steel Group Limited, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 16.

[84]      Mr John Doyle, on behalf of 63 businesses, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 47.

[85]      Mr Ian Waters, on behalf of 63 businesses, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 46.

[86]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 11.

[87]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 23.

[88]      Mr Ian Cairns, National Manager, Industry Development and Government Relations, Australian Steel Institute, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 5.

[89]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 23.

[90]      Australian Government, International Trade Remedies Advisory Service, 4 October 2017, https://www.business.gov.au/advisory-services/international-trade-remedies-advisory-service (accessed 8 November 2017).

[91]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, pp. 19–20.

[92]      BlueScope Steel, Submission 4, p. 10.

[93]      Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 75.

[94]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 20.

[95]      Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 75; Anti-Dumping Commission, Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Markets: Report to the Commissioner of the Anti-Dumping Commission, August 2016, p. 11.

[96]      BlueScope Steel, Submission 4, p. 10.

[97]      BlueScope Steel, Submission 4, p. 9.

[98]      Australian Steel Institute, Submission 19, p. 3; Bisalloy Steel Group Limited, Submission 33, p. 3.

[99]      Bisalloy Steel Group Limited, Submission 33, p. 3.

[100]    Best Bar Reinforcements, Submission 22, p. 4.

[101]    Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union, Submission 27, p. 6.

[102]    Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union, Submission 27, p. 6.

[103]    Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, BlueScope, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 3.

[104]    Mr Mark Vassella, Chief Executive, BlueScope Australia and New Zealand, BlueScope, Committee Hansard, 1 April 2016, p. 10.

[105]    South Coast Labour Council, Submission 23, p. 10.

[106]    South Coast Labour Council, Submission 23, p. 8.

[107]    Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Committee Hansard, 6 April 2016, p. 70.

[108]    Mr Dale Seymour, Anti-Dumping Commissioner, Anti-Dumping Commission, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, answers to questions on notice, Economics Legislation Committee, 22 October 2015 (received 29 January 2016).

[109]    Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, answers to questions on notice, Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, 27 February 2014 (received 2 May 2014); Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, answers to questions on notice, Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, 23 October 2014 (received 12 December 2014).

Australian Greens Additional Comments

[1]        Chair's report, Chapter 2, p. 20.

[2]        Matt Chambers, 'BlueScope chief Paul O'Malley calls for 10-year energy transition plan', The Australian, 11 October 2017, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/companies/bluescope-chief-paul-omalley-calls-for-10year-energy-transition-plan/news-story/b5d784f1a97d363b2a6daa4813664c20 (accessed 30 November 2017).

[3]        Chair's report, Chapter 2, p. 24, Recommendation 1.

[4]        Jamie Freed and Barry FitzGerald, 'BlueScope scraps plans for cleaner, greener power plant', Sydney Morning Herald, 6 May 2009, http://www.smh.com.au/business/bluescope-scraps-plans-for-cleaner-greener-power-plant-20090505-au0y.html (accessed 30 November 2017).

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