Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 101, 24 June 2015, pp. 2807–2808.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 9, 11 October 2016, p. 173.

[3]        On 20 June 2017, the Senate granted the committee an extension to report by 7 December 2017, see Journals of the Senate, No. 46, 20 June 2017, p. 1494. On 27 November 2017, the Senate granted the committee a further extension to report by 7 February 2018, see Journals of the Senate, No. 72, 27 November 2017, p. 2283.

[4]        Journals of the Senate, No. 80, 5 February 2018, p. 2565.

[5]        Journals of the Senate, No. 101, 24 June 2015, p. 2807.

[6]        OECD Working Group on Bribery, Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, article 1, p. 7, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 26 February 2018).

[7]        Attorney-General's Department, Factsheet—The foreign bribery offence, https://www.ag.gov.au/CrimeAndCorruption/Foreignbribery/Documents/Factsheet-Theforeignbriberyoffence.pdf (accessed 26 February 2018).

[8]        International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 7.

[9]        Attorney-General's Department, Submission 32, p. 2.

[10]      Engineers Australia, Submission 3, p. 2.

[11]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 5.

[12]      Crimes Legislation (Combatting Corporate Crime) Bill 2017, Schedule 1.

[13]      Crimes Legislation (Combatting Corporate Crime) Bill 2017, Schedule 2.

[14]      Treasury Laws Amendment (Enhancing Whistleblower Protections) Bill 2017.

Chapter 2 - Australia's anti-foreign bribery framework

[1]        Catherine Barker, Australia's implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, Background Note, 7 February 2012, p. 1, http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/ prspub/1403446/upload_binary/1403446.pdf;fileType=application/pdf#search=%222010s%20background%20note%20(parliamentary%20library,%20australia)%22 (accessed 1 December 2017).

[2]        OECD Working Group on Bribery, Australia: Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation, 1999, p. 1, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/anti-briberyconvention/2378916.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[3]        Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, 21 November 1997, p. 6, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[4]        Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, 21 November 1997, p. 6, article 1.1, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[5]        Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, 21 November 1997, p. 6, article 1.2, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[6]        Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, 21 November 1997, p. 6, articles 3, 4, 5, 9–10, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[7]        United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Convention against Corruption, New York, 2004, article 1, p. 7.

[8]        United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Convention against Corruption, New York, 2004, article 16, p. 17.

[9]        United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Convention against Corruption, New York, 2004, Chapter IV, pp. 30–41.

[10]      Criminal Code Amendment (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Bill 1999, explanatory memorandum p. 2.

[11]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 12.1.

[12]      See, for example, the discussion of the NPA and Securency case in Appendix 1, where penalties for NPA and Securency were ordered under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002; and a former Chief Financial Officer of Securency, Mr David Ellery, was sentenced under the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) for a false accounting offence case. See, R v Ellery [2012] VSC 349, http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgibin/sinodisp/au/cases/vic/VSC/2012/349.html?stem=0&synonyms=0&query=title(R%20and%20Ellery%20 (accessed 1 March 2018).

[13]      Criminal Code Act 1995, Division 12.

[14]      Criminal Code Act 1995, ss. 12.3(2). See also Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, 31 October 2017 (received on 17 November 2017), p. 4.

[15]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, 31 October 2017 (received on 17 November 2017), p. 4.

[16]      Pursuant to Crimes Act 1914, ss. 4AA(1), a penalty unit is currently $210.

[17]      Criminal Code Act 1995, ss. 70.2(4) and (5).

[18]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 70.3.

[19]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 70.4.

[20]      As a result of the outcome of the Australian Wheat Board Case, discussed in more detail in Appendix 1, the Criminal Code was amended to clarify that the benefit offered must be required or permitted in the written law of the place or country. The various sources of applicable law are set out in the table in ss. 70.3(1) of the Criminal Code.

[21]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, 31 October 2017 (received on 17 November 2017), p. 3.

[22]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 17, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[23]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 1.

[24]      Pre-existing concealment and falsification of company books and provision of false information offences contained in s. 1307 and 1309 of the Corporations Act 2001 remain. However, it is important to note that in relation to civil penalty proceedings under the Corporations Act 2001, proceedings must be commenced within six years (s. 1317K).

[25]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 1.

[26]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 4.

[27]      AGD, Deferred prosecution agreements—public consultation, 2016, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[28]      Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: A proposed model for a Deferred Prosecution Agreement scheme in Australia, Public Consultation Paper, March 2017, p. 1.

[29]      Attorney-General's Department, Deferred Prosecution Agreements – public consultation, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 3 January 2018).

[30]      Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: A proposed model for a Deferred Prosecution Agreement scheme in Australia, Public Consultation Paper, March 2017, p. 1.

[31]      Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: A proposed model for a Deferred Prosecution Agreement scheme in Australia, Public Consultation Paper, March 2017, p. 1.

[32]      Australian Government, The Treasury, Treasury Laws Amendment (Whistleblowers) Bill 2017 - Exposure Draft, https://consult.treasury.gov.au/market-and-competition-policy-division/whistleblowers-bill-2017/ (accessed 3 January 2018).

[33]      Australian Government, The Treasury, Review of tax and corporate whistleblower protections in Australia, Review of tax and corporate whistleblower protections in Australia, 21 December 2016–10 February 2017, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/review-of-tax-and-corporate-whistleblower-protections-in-australia/ (accessed 19 March 2018).

[34]      Australian Government, The Treasury, Treasury Laws Amendment (Whistleblowers) Bill 2017—Exposure Draft, https://consult.treasury.gov.au/market-and-competition-policy-division/whistleblowers-bill-2017/ (accessed 3 January 2018).

[35]      Phase 1 evaluates the adequacy of a country's legislation to implement the Convention. Phase 2 assesses whether a country is applying its legislation effectively. Phase 3 focuses on enforcement of the laws implementing the Convention and associated instruments. Phase 4 focuses on key group-wide cross-cutting issues; the progress made on weaknesses identified in previous evaluations; enforcement efforts and results; and any issues raised by changes in the domestic legislation or institutional framework.

[36]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, 12 October 2012, p. 5, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[37]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, 12 October 2012, p. 5, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017). The committee notes that there is some debate about the number of prosecutions arising out of Australia's foreign bribery legislation.

[38]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Follow-up to the Phase 3 Report & Recommendations, 3 April 2015, pp. 4–5, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-3-Follow-up-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[39]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Follow-up to Phase 3 Report, April 2015, p. 4, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-3-Follow-up-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[40]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Follow-up to Phase 3 Report, April 2015, p. 4, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-3-Follow-up-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017), see in particular recommendations 3 and 4b.

[41]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Follow-up to Phase 3 Report, April 2015, p. 4, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-3-Follow-up-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018), see in particular recommendation 10b.

[42]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Monitoring Schedule December 2016—June 2024, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Phase-4-Evaluation-Schedule-2016-2024.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[43]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[44]      OECD, Bribery and corruption, 19 December 2017, Australia takes major steps to combat foreign bribery, but OECD wants to see more enforcement, http://www.oecd.org/corruption/australia-takes-major-steps-to-combat-foreign-bribery-but-oecd-wants-to-see-more-enforcement.htm (accessed 3 January 2018).

[45]      OECD, Bribery and corruption, 19 December 2017, Australia takes major steps to combat foreign bribery, but OECD wants to see more enforcement, http://www.oecd.org/corruption/australia-takes-major-steps-to-combat-foreign-bribery-but-oecd-wants-to-see-more-enforcement.htm, (accessed 3 January 2018).

[46]      United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Mechanism for the Review of Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption–Basic Documents, p. 11, 'IV. Review process', http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/Publications/ReviewMechanism-BasicDocuments/Mechanism_for_the_Review_of_Implementation_-_Basic_Documents_-_E.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[47]      Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption, Resolution 3/1, 9–13 November 2009, p. iii, item 3, https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/COSP/session3/V1051985e.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[48]      Attorney-General's Department, Global leadership in combating corruption, https://www.ag.gov.au/CrimeAndCorruption/AntiCorruption/Pages/Globalleadershipincombatingcorruption.aspx (accessed 1 December 2017).

[49]      Implementation Review Group, Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, 18–22 June 2012, p. 9, https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/ImplementationReviewGroup/18-22June2012/V1253616e.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[50]      Implementation Review Group, Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, 18–22 June 2012, p. 9, https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/ImplementationReviewGroup/18-22June2012/V1253616e.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[51]      Implementation Review Group, Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, 18–22 June 2012, p. 12, https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/ImplementationReviewGroup/18-22June2012/V1253616e.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[52]      Implementation Review Group, Review of implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, 18–22 June 2012, p. 12, https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/ImplementationReviewGroup/18-22June2012/V1253616e.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[53]      United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Note CU 2015/46/DTA/CEB/CSS – Response from the Australian Government, p. 1, http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/ImplementationReviewGroup/14-16November2016/GoodPractices/ 2015.46/Australia.pdf (accessed 13 February 2018).

[54]      United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Note CU 2015/46/DTA/CEB/CSS – Response from the Australian Government, pp. 1–2, http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/ImplementationReviewGroup/14-16November2016/GoodPractices/ 2015.46/Australia.pdf (accessed 13 February 2018).

[55]      United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Country profiles, Australia, http://www.unodc.org/unodc/treaties/CAC/country-profile/CountryProfile.html?code=AUS (accessed 13 February 2018). 

Chapter 3 - Investigation and enforcement

[1]        OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018), pp. 15–16.

[2]        Ms Kelly Williams, Assistant Secretary, Criminal Law Policy Branch, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 45.

[3]        Attorney-General's Department, Submission 32, Annex 1, pp. 31–34.

[4]        International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 6.

[5]        Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Submission 39, p. 1.

[6]        Participating agencies in the FAC include: AFP, ATO, Australian Crime Commission, Department of Human Services, Australian Border Force, ASIC, DFAT, Department of Defence, AUSTRAC, AGD and CDPP.

[7]        Attorney-General's Department, Submission 32, p. 12.

[8]        Australia Federal Police, Fraud and Anti-Corruption Centre Fact-sheet, https://www.afp.gov.au/sites/default/files/PDF/fac-centre-fact-sheet.pdf  (accessed 7 November 2017).

[9]        OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 23, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[10]      Australian Government, Attorney-General's Department, Foreign bribery, Agency roles and responsibilities, April 2017, p. 1, https://www.ag.gov.au/.../Foreignbriberyagencyrolesandresponsibilities.DOCX (accessed 9 January 2018).

[11]      Note the Flowchart is presented in a format that is different from the original source.

[12]      See, for example, Governance Institute of Australia, Submission 14.

[13]      The Australia Institute and The Jubilee Australia Research Centre, Submission 15, p. 3.

[14]      Governance Institute of Australia, Submission 14, p. 1.

[15]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 5.

[16]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 4.

[17]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 4.

[18]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 8.

[19]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 1.

[20]      Mr Robert Wyld, Co-Chair, Anti-Corruption Committee, International Bar Association, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, pp. 20–21.

[21]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 10, p. 2.

[22]      The Law Society of New South Wales Young Lawyers, International Law Committee, Submission 25, pp. 10–11.

[23]      McMurray + Associates, Submission 33, p. 4.

[24]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 7.

[25]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 10, p. 3.

[26]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 5.

[27]      Mr Robert Wyld, Co-Chair, Anti-Corruption Committee, International Bar Association, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, pp. 20–21.

[28]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 5.

[29]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 5.

[30]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 7.

[31]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, pp. 9–10.

[32]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 9.

[33]      Mr Ian McCartney, Acting Deputy Commissioner Operations, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 25.

[34]      OECD, OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials, 2014, p. 14, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/oecd-foreign-bribery-report_9789264226616-en (accessed 7 December 2016).

[35]      Mr Robert Wyld, Co-Chair, Anti-Corruption Committee, International Bar Association, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 21.

[36]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 34.

[37]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 9.

[38]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 10.

[39]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, pp. 4–5.

[40]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 10.

[41]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 5.

[42]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 32, p. 13

[43]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, pp. 10 and 12.

[44]      Mr Ian McCartney, Acting Deputy Commissioner Operations, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 25.

[45]      Australian Taxation Office, Project Wickenby task force, https://www.ato.gov.au/General/The-fight-against-tax-crime/Our-focus/Project-Wickenby-task-force/ (accessed 14 February 2018).

[46]      Australian Taxation Office, Project Wickenby has delivered, https://www.ato.gov.au/general /the-fight-against-tax-crime/news-and-results/project-wickenby-has-delivered/ (accessed 14 February 2018).

[47]      Australian Federal Police, Serious Financial Crime Taskforce, https://www.afp.gov.au/what-we-do/crime-types/fraud/serious-financial-crime-taskforce (accessed 16 February 2018).

[48]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 12.

[49]      Mr Mark Pulvirenti, Partner, Control Risks, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 29.

[50]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 40.

[51]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 43.

[52]      Mr Tim Game SC, Co-Chair, National Criminal Law Committee, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 47.

[53]      Mr Ian McCartney, Acting Deputy Commissioner Operations, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, pp. 26–27.

[54]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 32, p. 7.

[55]      Australia's mutual assistance regime is set out in the Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act 1987.

[56]      Commander Peter Crozier, Manager, Criminal Assets, Fraud and Anti-Corruption, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 18.

[57]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 29.

[58]      Mr Robert Wyld, Co-Chair, Anti-Corruption Committee, International Bar Association, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 21.

[59]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, pp. 5 and 30, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[60]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017 p. 11.

[61]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017 p. 9.

[62]      KordaMentha, Submission 22, p. 12.

[63]      Commander Peter Crozier, Manager, Criminal Assets, Fraud and Anti-Corruption, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 42.

[64]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 41.

[65]      UK Government, Serious Fraud Office, About us, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/about-us/ (accessed 1 December 2017).

[66]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 42.

[67]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 42.

[68]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 42.

[69]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 42.

[70]      Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull MP, Boosting efforts to tackle foreign bribery, 23 April 2016, http://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/boosting-efforts-to-tackle-foreign-bribery (accessed 1 December 2017).

[71]      Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull MP, Boosting efforts to tackle foreign bribery, 23 April 2016, http://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/boosting-efforts-to-tackle-foreign-bribery (accessed 1 December 2017).

[72]      Commander Peter Crozier, Manager, Criminal Assets, Fraud and Anti-Corruption, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 41.

[73]      Ms Kelly Williams, Assistant Secretary, Criminal Law Policy Branch, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 45.

[74]      Commander Peter Crozier, Manager, Criminal Assets, Fraud and Anti-Corruption, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017 p. 42.

[75]      Mr Greg Golding, Chair, Foreign Corrupt Practices Committee, Business Law Section, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 47.

[76]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 18.

[77]      Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Submission 39, p. 2.

[78]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 38.

[79]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 32, p. 12.

[80]      Mr Robert Wyld, Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 20.

[81]      See Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, pp. 33–44.

[82]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 36.

[83]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 26.

[84]      Ms Jeldee Roberston, Principal Federal Prosecutor, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 32.

[85]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 32.

[86]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[87]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, pp. 34–35.

[88]      Commander Peter Crozier, Manager, Criminal Assets, Fraud and Anti-Corruption, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 38.

[89]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 26.

[90]      Commander Peter Crozier Manager, Criminal Assets, Fraud and Anti-Corruption, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 39.

[91]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 20.

[92]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 20.

[93]      The Hon. Kelly O'Dwyer MP, Minister for Revenue and Financial Services, Media release, ASIC Enforcement Review Taskforce, 19 October 2016, http://kmo.ministers.treasury.gov.au/media-release/095-2016/ (accessed 1 December 2017).

[94]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 37.

[95]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 38.

[96]      Ms Kate Mills, Principal Adviser, Financial System Division, Treasury, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 24.

[97]      Ms Kate Mills, Principal Adviser, Financial System Division, Treasury, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 24.

[98]      Ms Kate Mills, Principal Adviser, Financial System Division, Treasury, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 24.

[99]      Ms Kelly Williams, Assistant Secretary, Criminal Law Policy Branch, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 45.

[100]    OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 42, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[101]    OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p.44, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[102]    OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 44, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018), (accessed 1 January 2018).

Chapter 4 - Reforming the foreign bribery offence

[1]        Criminal Code Act 1995, Division 70.

[2]        Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 4.

[3]        On 6 December 2017 the CCC bill was introduced by the government in the Senate. See Journals of the Senate, No. 78, 6 December 2017, p. 2484.  On 7 December 2017 the Senate referred the bill to the L and C committee for inquiry and report by 20 April 2018. See Journals of the Senate, No. 79, 7 December 2017, pp. 2512–2513.

[4]        CCC bill, Schedule 1, item 4.

[5]        Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 4.

[6]        Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 4.

[7]        Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 4.

[8]        Australian Institute of Company Directors, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 5.

[9]        Allens Linklaters, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 5.

[10]      Allens Linklaters, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 5.

[11]      BHP Billiton, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 2.

[12]      CCC bill, Schedule 1, item 6.

[13]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, pp. 6–7.

[14]      Mr Tim Game SC, Co-Chair, National Criminal Law Committee, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 44.

[15]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 37.

[16]      Mr Matthew McGirr, Policy Adviser, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 32.

[17]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 130.3.

[18]      Peters v R (1998) 192 CLR 493 at 504 [18].

[19]      Mr Tim Game SC, Co-Chair, National Criminal Law Committee, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, pp. 44–45.

[20]      Mr Matthew McGirr, Policy Adviser, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 34.

[21]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 37.

[22]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 5.

[23]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 5.

[24]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 4.

[25]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 5 [emphasis added].

[26]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 4.

[27]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 4.

[28]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 70.2.

[29]      CCC bill, Schedule 1, item 6.

[30]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 4.

[31]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 4.

[32]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 7.

[33]      Control Risks, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 3; Law Council of Australia, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 3.

[34]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 6.

[35]      Criminal Code Act 1995, Division 12.

[36]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 12.2.

[37]      Criminal Code Act 1995, ss. 12.3(2).

[38]      Criminal Code Act 1995, ss. 12.3(6).

[39]      Criminal Code Act 1995, ss. 12.3(6).

[40]      Allens Linklaters, Corporate criminal liability: A review of law and practice across the globe, 2016, p. 8, https://www.allens.com.au/pubs/pdf/ibo/CorporateCriminalLiability Publication_2016.pdf (accessed 20 March 2018).

[41]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 8.

[42]      CCC bill, Schedule 1, item 2.

[43]      CCC bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 12.

[44]      CCC bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 18.

[45]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 8.

[46]      Australian Council of Superannuation Investors, Submission 8, p. 17.

[47]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 46, p. 2.

[48]      Mr David Lehmann, Director, KordaMentha Forensic, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 15.

[49]      Mr Mark Pulvirenti, Partner, Control Risks, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 30.

[50]      See, for example, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, pp. 32–36; Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, pp. 45–46.

[51]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 13.2.

[52]      Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 13.1.

[53]      Ms Louise Petschler, General Manager, Advocacy, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 33.

[54]      Mr Matthew McGirr, Policy Adviser, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 32.

[55]      Ms Louise Petschler, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 36.

[56]      Mr Tim Game SC, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, pp. 45–46.

[57]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 8.

[58]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 16.

[59]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 17.

[60]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 16.

[61]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 16.

[62]      Mr Matthew McGirr, Policy Adviser, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 32.

[63]      Mr Matthew McGirr, Policy Adviser, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 32.

[64]      Mr Matthew McGirr, Policy Adviser, Australian Institute of Company Directors, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 32.

[65]      Dr Mark Zrisnak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 2.

[66]      Dr Mark Zrisnak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 7

[67]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 37.

[68]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 3.

[69]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 1.

[70]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 17.

[71]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 17.

[72]      See, for example, Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, pp. 2–3.

[73]      Criminal Division of the US Department of Justice and the Enforcement Division of the US Securities and Exchange Commission, A Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, pp. 57–60, https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/criminal-fraud/legacy/2015/01/16/ guide.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[74]      UK Ministry of Justice, The Bribery Act 2010: Guidance about procedures which relevant commercial organisations can put into place to prevent persons associated with them from bribing (section 9 of the Bribery Act 2010), pp. 20–31,  https://www.justice.gov.uk/ downloads/legislation/bribery-act-2010-guidance.pdf (accessed 20 March 2018).

[75]      Lexis Nexis, Six principles for bribery prevention, Sam Hemmant (5 August 2015), https://bis.lexisnexis.co.uk/blog/posts/anti-bribery-and-corruption/six-principles-for-bribery-prevention (accessed 1 December 2017).

[76]      International Organization for Standardization, ISO 37001:2016, Anti-bribery management systems—Requirements with guidance for use, https://www.iso.org/standard/65034.html (accessed 1 December 2017).

[77]      Mr Greg Golding, Chair, Foreign Corrupt Practices Committee, Business Law Section, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 46.

[78]      Mr Michael Ahrens, Director, Transparency International Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 23.

[79]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 38.

[80]      Mr Greg Golding, Chair, Foreign Corrupt Practices Committee, Business Law Section, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 46.

[81]      Mr David Lehmann, Director, KordaMentha Forensic, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 15.

[82]      Mr David Lehmann, Director, KordaMentha Forensic, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 18.

[83]      Mr Robert Wyld, Partner, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 38.

[84]      Mrs Rebecca Davies, Director Transparency International Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 22.

[85]      See, for example, Associate Professor Vivienne Brand, Submission 4 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 2.

[86]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 7.

[87]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, pp. 8–9.

[88]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 10.

[89]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 12.

[90]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 12.

[91]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 12.

[92]      Criminal Code Act 1995, ss. 70.2(c).

[93]      CCC bill, s. 70.2

[94]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 6.

[95]      Export Council of Australia, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 3.

[96]      Control Risks, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 4.

[97]      Law Council of Australia, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 6; International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 9.

[98]      Law Council of Australia, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 6.

[99]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 9.

[100]    See Criminal Code Act 1995, subpara. 70.2(1)(c)(ii); Control Risks, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 4; Australia-Africa Minerals & Energy Group, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 9; Allens Linklaters, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 5.

[101]    Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 9.

[102]    For instance, the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977, the UK Bribery Act 2010, the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act 1998 and the New Zealand Crimes Act 1961.

[103]    Control Risks, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 4; Australia-Africa Minerals & Energy Group, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 9; Allens Linklaters, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 5.

[104]    See CCC bill, Schedule 1, item 6.

[105]    International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 10; Law Council of Australia, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 6.

[106]    International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, submission to Attorney-General's Department 2017 consultation, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, p. 9.

[107]    Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 5.4.

[108]    Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 8.

[109]    Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 8.

[110]    Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 8.

[111]    Mr Shane Kirne, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 38.

[112]    Dr Cindy Davids, Associate Professor, School of Law, Deakin University, Melbourne, Submission 34, p. 19.

[113]    Mr Mark Pulvirenti, Partner, Control Risks, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 29.

[114]    Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 2.

[115]    Mr Robert Wyld, Co-Chair, Anti-Corruption Committee, International Bar Association, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 23.

[116]    Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 1.

[117]    Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 6.

[118]    Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 6.

[119]    Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, pp. 6–7.

[120]    Attorney-General's Department, Submission 7 to the L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 7.

[121]    Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 1.

[122]    Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 1.

[123]    Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 1.

[124]    Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee's inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 2.

Chapter 5 - Encouraging self-reporting by corporations—A deferred prosecution agreement scheme

[1]        OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 52, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 4 January 2018).

[2]        Attorney-General's Department, Deferred prosecution agreements—public consultation, 2016, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[3]        Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[4]        Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[5]        BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 6.

[6]        BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 6.

[7]        Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: Consideration of a Deferred Prosecution Agreements scheme in Australia, March 2016, p. 12, https://www.ag.gov.au/consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 10 May 2016).

[8]        Serious Fraud Office, Standard Bank PLC, 1 June 2016, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/cases/ standard-bank-plc/ (accessed 22 July 2016).

[9]        Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: Consideration of a Deferred Prosecution Agreements scheme in Australia, March 2016, p. 11, https://www.ag.gov.au/consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 11 December 2017).

[10]      US Securities and Exchange Commission, SEC Charges Former Executive at Tampa-Based Engineering Firm With FCPA Violations, https://www.sec.gov/news/pressrelease/2015-13.html (accessed 11 December 2017).

[11]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 5.

[12]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 29.

[13]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 29.

[14]      Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: Consideration of a Deferred Prosecution Agreements scheme in Australia, March 2016, p. 3, https://www.ag.gov.au/consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 11 December 2017).

[15]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 7.

[16]      Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Prosecution Policy of the Commonwealth: Guidelines for the Making of Decisions in the Prosecution Process, pp. 12–14, 20–23, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/sites/g/files/net391/f/Prosecution-Policy-of-the-Commonwealth_0.pdf (accessed 11 December 2017).

[17]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 7.

[18]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 7.

[19]      Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Prosecution Policy of the Commonwealth: Guidelines for the Making of Decisions in the Prosecution Process, p. 13, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/sites/g/files/net391/f/Prosecution-Policy-of-the-Commonwealth_0.pdf (accessed 11 December 2017).

[20]      Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Prosecution Policy of the Commonwealth: Guidelines for the Making of Decisions in the Prosecution Process, p. 13, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/sites/g/files/net391/f/Prosecution-Policy-of-the-Commonwealth_0.pdf (accessed 11 December 2017).

[21]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 7.

[22]      Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: Consideration of a Deferred Prosecution Agreements scheme in Australia, March 2016, p. 3, https://www.ag.gov.au/consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 11 December 2017).

[23]      Attorney-General's Department,  Deferred prosecution agreements—public consultation, 2016, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 4 January 2017); Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, https://www.ag.gov.au/ Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2017).

[24]      See, for example, Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 8; ANZ, Submission 20, p. 6; BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 5.

[25]      Mr William Brind Zichy-Woinarski, Member and Consultant, Anti-Corruption Committee, International Bar Association, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 22.

[26]      See, for example, Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 8; ANZ, Submission 20, p. 6; BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 5.

[27]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 8.

[28]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 8.

[29]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 8.

[30]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 17.

[31]      Mr David Lehmann, Director, KordaMentha Forensic, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 15.

[32]      King & Wood Mallesons, Mr Neville Tiffen, Norton Rose Fulbright, Responses to AGD, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2017).

[33]      King & Wood Mallesons, Response to AGD, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 2, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/ Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[34]      King & Wood Mallesons, Response to AGD, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 2,  https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/ Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[35]      Crime and Courts Act 2013 (UK), Schedule 17, para. 6(1).

[36]      UK Serious Fraud Office and Crown Prosecution Service, Deferred Prosecution Agreements Code of Practice, p. 2, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/publications/guidance-policy-and-protocols/deferred-prosecution-agreements/ (accessed 9 March 2018).

[37]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Response to AGD, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 5, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[38]      Norton Rose Fulbright, Response to AGD, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 9, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/ Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2017).

[39]      See, for example, Mr Mark Pulverenti, Partner, Control Risks, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 26.

[40]      Mr Mark Pulverenti, Partner, Control Risks, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 26.

[41]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 4.

[42]      Mr Michael Ahrens, Director, Transparency International, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 22.

[43]      CCC bill, Schedule 2, item 7, new ss. 17A(1).

[44]      CCC bill, Schedule 2, item 7, new s. 17.

[45]      Attorney-General's Department, Improving enforcement options for serious corporate crime: Consideration of a Deferred Prosecution Agreements scheme in Australia, March 2016, p. 9, https://www.ag.gov.au/consultations/Pages/Deferred-prosecution-agreements-public-consultation.aspx (accessed 11 December 2017).

[46]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new ss. 17C(1).

[47]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new ss. 17C(2).

[48]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new ss. 17D(1)—(6).

[49]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new ss. 17D(1)—(2).

[50]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new s. 17F.

[51]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new ss. 17D(7)—(10). See also Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 29.

[52]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new s. 17H.

[53]      CCC bill, schedule 2, item 7, new s.17A. See also, CCC bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 3.

[54]      CCC bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 3.

[55]      Uniting Church in Australia, Submission 1 to the L and C committee inquiry into CCC bill, pp. 1 and 11.

[56]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 25.

[57]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 26.

[58]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 26.

[59]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 26.

[60]      In the UK, the statement of facts is treated as an admission of fact by the corporation in any criminal proceedings brought against a corporation for the offences specified in the DPA. See s. 10 of the Criminal Justice Act 1967 (UK) and Schedule 17, s.13 of the Crime and Courts Act 2013 (UK).

[61]      CCC bill, Schedule 2, new ss. 17H(5).

[62]      Attorney-General's Department,  Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 16, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[63]      International Bar Association's Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 2 to the L and C committee inquiry into CCC bill, p. 3.

[64]      International Bar Association's Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 2 to the L and C committee inquiry into CCC bill, p. 4.

[65]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 28.

[66]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 28.

[67]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 28.

[68]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 11, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[69]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 12, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[70]      UK Serious Fraud Office and Crown Prosecution Service, Deferred Prosecution Agreements Code of Practice, pp. 13–15, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/publications/guidance-policy-and-protocols/deferred-prosecution-agreements/ (accessed 9 March 2018).

[71]      UK Serious Fraud Office and Crown Prosecution Service, Deferred Prosecution Agreements Code of Practice, pp. 13–15, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/publications/guidance-policy-and-protocols/deferred-prosecution-agreements/ (accessed 9 March 2018).

[72]      Morgan Lewis & Bockius LLP, Submission 3 to the L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 8.

[73]      Morgan Lewis & Bockius LLP, Submission 3 to the Land C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, pp. 1 and 8.

[74]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 33.

[75]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 33.

[76]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, pp. 16–17, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[77]      Australian Constitution, Chapter III.

[78]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 16, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[79]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 30.

[80]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 7, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[81]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed model for a deferred prosecution agreement scheme in Australia, 2017, p. 7, https://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/Proposed-model-for-a-deferred-prosecution-agreement-scheme-in-australia.aspx (accessed 4 January 2018).

[82]      AFP and CDPP Best Practice Guidelines, Self-reporting of foreign bribery and related offending by corporations, 8 December 2017, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/sites/g/files/ net2061/f/20170812AFP-CDPP-Best-Practice-Guideline-on-self-reporting-of-foreign-bribery.pdf (accessed 12 February 2018).

[83]      CDPP, Best Practice Guideline: Self-reporting of foreign bribery and related offending by corporations, 8 December 2017, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/sites/g/files/net2061/f/20170812AFP-CDPP-Best-Practice-Guideline-on-self-reporting-of-foreign-bribery.pdf (accessed 13 March 2018).

[84]      International Bar Association's Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 2, L and C committee inquiry into CCC bill, p. 3.

[85]      AFP and CDPP Best Practice Guidelines, Self-reporting of foreign bribery and related offending by corporations, 8 December 2017, p. 2, paragraph 3, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/ sites/g/files/net2061/f/20170812AFP-CDPP-Best-Practice-Guideline-on-self-reporting-of-foreign-bribery.pdf (accessed 12 February 2018).

[86]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 25.

[87]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 25.

[88]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 25.

[89]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 38.

Chapter 6 - Protecting whistleblowers who expose foreign bribery

[1]        See for example the Leighton Holdings Limited case example discussed in Appendix 1.

[2]        Commonwealth Ombudsman, Agency Guide to the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, April 2016, p. 2.

[3]        Simon Wolfe, Mark Worth, Suelette Dreyfus and A J Brown, Whistleblower Protection Laws in G20 Countries: Priorities for Action, September 2014, p. 25, https://blueprintforfreespeech.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Whistleblower-Protection-Laws-in-G20-Countries-Priorities-for-Action.pdf  (accessed 5 December 2017).

[4]        Australian Government, The Treasury, Review of tax and corporate whistleblower protections in Australia 20 December 2016, p. 7, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/review-of-tax-and-corporate-whistleblower-protections-in-australia/ (accessed 20 March 2018).

[5]        Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009, Part 4A.

[6]        Australian Government, The Treasury, Review of tax and corporate whistleblower protections in Australia 20 December 2016, p. 4, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/review-of-tax-and-corporate-whistleblower-protections-in-australia/ (accessed 20 March 2018).

[7]        Australian Government, The Treasury, Review of tax and corporate whistleblower protections in Australia 20 December 2016, p. 4, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/review-of-tax-and-corporate-whistleblower-protections-in-australia/ (accessed 20 March 2018).

[8]        Australian Government, The Treasury, Review of tax and corporate whistleblower protections in Australia 20 December 2016, p. 5, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/review-of-tax-and-corporate-whistleblower-protections-in-australia/ (accessed 20 March 2018).

[9]        Simon Wolfe, Mark Worth, Suelette Dreyfus and A J Brown, Whistleblower Protection Laws in G20 Countries: Priorities for Action, September 2014, p. 25, https://blueprintforfreespeech.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Whistleblower-Protection-Laws-in-G20-Countries-Priorities-for-Action.pdf  (accessed 5 December 2017).

[10]      The poor treatment of whistleblowers is not confined to instances of foreign bribery. Indeed, the committee has observed the conduct and treatment of whistleblowers within the financial services sector across many inquiries, including: Senate Economics References Committee, The performance of the Australian Securities Investments Commission (26 June 2017) and Scrutiny of Financial Advice (30 June 2017).

[11]      Dr Kath Hall, Submission 9, p. 4.

[12]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 27, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[13]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 27, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[14]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 27, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[15]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 27, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[16]      Cited by Regnan, Submission 13, p. 3 (Where does Australia sit in the world of whistleblowing?, Australian Institute of Company Directors, 1 March 2014, http://www.companydirectors.com.au/Director-Resource-Centre/Director-QA/Roles-Duties-and-Responsibilities/Where-doesAustralia-sit-in-the-world-of-whistleblowing).

[17]      Mr David Lehmann, Director, KordaMentha Forensic, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 15.

[18]      Regnan, Submission 13, p. 9.

[19]      See, for example, the Leighton Holdings Limited case example discussed in Appendix 1.

[20]      KordaMentha, Submission 22, p. 10.

[21]      SKINS, Submission 28, pp. 9 and 10.

[22]      SKINS, Submission 28, p. 10.

[23]      SKINS, Submission 28, p. 10.

[24]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 47.

[25]      Employment Rights Act 1996 (UK), Part IVA.

[26]      Employment Rights Act 1996 (UK), ss. 43B(1).

[27]      Foxley v GPT Special Project Management Pty Ltd., Employment Tribunal, No. 22008793/2011 (12 August 2011).

[28]      UK Parliament, Banking Standards: Written evidence from Ian Foxley, Lieutenant Colonel (retired), 24 August 2012, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt201314/jtselect/jtpcbs/ 27/27iv74.htm (accessed 15 March 2018).

[29]      UK Parliament, Banking Standards: Written evidence from Ian Foxley, Lieutenant Colonel (retired), 24 August 2012, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt201314/jtselect/jtpcbs/ 27/27iv74.htm (accessed 15 March 2018).

[30]      Foxley v GPT Special Project Management Pty Ltd., Employment Tribunal, No. 22008793/2011 (12 August 2011).

[31]      UK Parliament, Banking Standards: Written evidence from Ian Foxley, Lieutenant Colonel (retired), 24 August 2012, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt201314/jtselect/jtpcbs/ 27/27iv74.htm (accessed 15 March 2018).

[32]      Serious Fraud Office, GPT Special Project Management Ltd, 28 April 2016, https://www. sfo.gov.uk/cases/gpt-special-project-management-ltd// (accessed 6 December 2017).

[33]      OECD, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in the United Kingdom, March 2012, p. 55, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/UnitedKingdomphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 14 March 2018).

[34]      OECD, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in the United Kingdom, March 2012, p. 55, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/UnitedKingdomphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 14 March 2018).

[35]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 36.

[36]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 36.

[37]      See, for example, Regnan, Submission 13, p. 3; CPA Australia, Submission 18, p. 4.

[38]      BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 7.

[39]      Regnan, Submission 13, p. 3.

[40]      Professor Simon Bronitt, Professor Nikos Passas, Ms Wendy Pei and Ms Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, p. 13.

[41]      CPA Australia, Submission 18, p. 4.

[42]      CPA Australia, Submission 18, p. 4.

[43]      Flinders University, Submission 19, p. 3.

[44]      See, for example, Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 8.

[45]      See, for example, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 37; Governance Institute of Australia, Submission 14, p. 2.

[46]      Mr Robert Wyld, Co-Chair, Anti-Corruption Committee, International Bar Association, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, pp. 19–20.

[47]      Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 20.

[48]      Governance Institute of Australia, Submission 14, p. 2.

[49]      BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 7.

[50]      Publish What You Pay Australia and the Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Submission 17, p. 3.

[51]      CCC bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 18.

[52]      CCC bill, new s. 70.5B.

[53]      Associate Professor Vivienne Brand, Submission 4, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 2.

[54]      Associate Professor Vivienne Brand, Submission 4 to the L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, pp. 2–3.

[55]      UK Ministry of Justice, The Bribery Act 2010: Guidance about procedures which relevant corporations can put in place to prevent persons associated with then from bribing (section 9 of the Bribery Act 2010), p. 22, paragraph 1.7,  https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/ legislation/bribery-act-2010-guidance.pdf (accessed 14 March 2018).

[56]      UK Ministry of Justice, The Bribery Act 2010: Guidance about procedures which relevant corporations can put in place to prevent persons associated with then from bribing (section 9 of the Bribery Act 2010), p. 23, https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/legislation/bribery-act-2010-guidance.pdf (accessed 14 March 2018).

[57]      UK Ministry of Justice, The Bribery Act 2010: Guidance about procedures which relevant corporations can put in place to prevent persons associated with then from bribing (section 9 of the Bribery Act 2010), p. 23, paragraph 2.3, https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/ legislation/bribery-act-2010-guidance.pdf (accessed 14 March 2018).

[58]      UK Ministry of Justice, The Bribery Act 2010: Guidance about procedures which relevant corporations can put in place to prevent persons associated with then from bribing (section 9 of the Bribery Act 2010), p. 23, paragraph 2.3, https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/ legislation/bribery-act-2010-guidance.pdf (accessed 14 March 2018).

[59]      Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, L and C committee inquiry into the CCC bill, p. 15.

[60]      House Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, 2009, Inquiry into whistleblowing protections within the Australian Government public sector, p. vii-x.

[61]      Phillip Moss AM, Review of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, July 2016, p. 2.

[62]      Phillip Moss AM, Review of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, July 2016, pp. 6–7.

[63]      Phillip Moss AM, Review of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, July 2016, pp. 7–8.

[64]      Journals of the Senate, No. 22, 30 November 2016, p. 714.

[65]      Whistleblower protections, report of the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services, Whistleblower protections in the corporate, public and not-for-profit sectors, September 2017, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/ Joint/Corporations_and_Financial_Services/WhistleblowerProtections (accessed 13 March 2018).

[66]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services, Whistleblower Protections, September 2017, p. ix, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/ Committees/Joint/Corporations_and_Financial_Services/WhistleblowerProtections (accessed 13 March 2018).

[67]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services, Whistleblower Protections, September 2017, pp. xiii–xx.

[68]      Minister for Revenue and Financial Services, The Hon. Kelly O'Dwyer, MP, Expert advisory panel on whistleblower protections, 28 September 2017, http://kmo.ministers.treasury.gov.au/media-release/097-2017/ (accessed 15 March 2018).

[69]      Australian Government, The Treasury, Treasury Laws Amendment (Whistleblowers) Bill 2017— Exposure Draft, https://consult.treasury.gov.au/market-and-competition-policy-division/whistleblowers-bill-2017/ (accessed 2 November 2017).

[70]      Department of the Treasury, Treasury Laws Amendment (Whistleblowers) Bill 2017—Exposure Draft, Published Responses, https://consult.treasury.gov.au/market-and-competition-policy-division/whistleblowers-bill-2017/ (accessed 21 February 2018).

[71]      In effect the bill does address the vast majority of the PJC’s 35 recommendations. The recommendations which are not addressed, as they pertain to the private sector, are summarised in the EWP bill, explanatory memorandum, pp. 10–11.

[72]      EWP bill, Schedule 3.

[73]      EWP bill, explanatory memorandum, pp. 65–66.

[74]      EWP bill, Schedule 1, item 2, new ss.1317AA(4).

[75]      EWP bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 23.

[76]      EWP bill, Schedule 1, item 2, new s. 1317AAD.

[77]      EWP bill, Schedule 1, item 2, new ss. 1317AA(4) and (5)

[78]      EWP bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 28.

[79]      EWP bill, Schedule 1, item 2, new ss. 1317AB(1).

[80]      EWP bill, explanatory memorandum, p. 33.

[81]      EWP bill, Schedule 1, item 9, new s. 1317AH.

[82]      EWP bill, Schedule 1, item 9, new s. 1317AI.

[83]      EWP bill, Schedule 1, items 10 and 11, new ss. 1317E(1) and 1317G(1G).

[84]      EWP bill, explanatory memorandum, pp. 65–66.

[85]      Senate Economics Legislation Committee, Treasury Laws Amendment (Enhancing Whistleblower Protections) Bill 2017 (22 March 2017).

[86]      Senate Economics Legislation Committee, Treasury Laws Amendment (Enhancing Whistleblower Protections) Bill 2017 (22 March 2017).

[87]      Senate Economics Legislation Committee, Treasury Laws Amendment (Enhancing Whistleblower Protections) Bill 2017 (22 March 2017), pp. 29–37.

Chapter 7 - The facilitation payment defence

[1]        What constitutes a 'minor payment' and 'minor routine government action' is conceptually complex and is discussed in more detail below. See the section 'A facilitation payment if distinct from a bribe'.

[2]        See, for example, Simon Bronitt, Nikos Passas, Wendy Pei and Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, p. 8.

[3]        Criminal Code Act 1995, ss. 70.2(4).

[4]        King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 12.

[5]        See for example, BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 1; International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 41; and The Australian Institute and Jubilee Australia, Submission 15, pp. 4–8.

[6]        OECD, Commentary on the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, adopted by the Negotiating Conference on 21 November 1997, paragraph 9, https://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Conv CombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 19 February 2018).

[7]        OECD Recommendation of the Council for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, p. 22, https://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 19 February 2018).

[8]        OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, Section VII Combating Bribery, Bribe Solicitation and Extortion, para 3, pp. 47–48, http://www.oecd.org/daf/inv/mne/48004323.pdf (accessed 20 February 2018).

[9]        APEC Anti-corruption Code of Conduct for Business , September 2007, Guideline 3.C, p. 1, https://www.apec.org/Publications/2007/09/APEC-Anticorruption-Code-of-Conduct-for-Business-September-2007 (accessed 20 February 2018).

[10]      United Nations Convention against Corruption, Article 16.1, https://www.unodc.org/ documents/brussels/UN_Convention_Against_Corruption.pdf (accessed 21 February 2018).

[11]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 39.

[12]      Simon Bronitt, Nikos Passas, Wendy Pei and Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, p. 9.

[13]      Transparency International Australia, Submission 31, p. 9; citing www.sfo.gov.uk/bribery--corruption/the-bribery-act/facilitation-payments.aspx.

[14]      Associate Professor Cindy Davids, Submission 34, p. 21.

[15]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 39.

[16]      Bill S-14; See Simon Bronitt, Nikos Passas, Wendy Pei and Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, p. 10.

[17]      Government of Canada, Canada repeals facilitation payments exception in Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2017/10/canada_repeals_facilitationpaymentsexceptionincorruptionofforeig.html (accessed 20 February 2018).

[18]      15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1(b).

[19]      15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1(f)(3)(A).

[20]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 39.

[21]      Simon Bronitt, Nikos Passas, Wendy Pei and Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, pp. 9–10.

[22]      United States v Kay 359 F.3d 738 (5th Cir. 2004). The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over 9 district courts in the federal judicial districts of Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas.

[23]      Simon Bronitt, Nikos Passas, Wendy Pei and Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, pp. 9–10.

[24]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 39.

[25]      Norton Rose Fulbright, Business ethics and anti-corruption world, Publication Issue 2, February 2014, http://www.nortonrosefulbright.com/wissen/publications/113670/business-ethics-and-anti-corruption-world (accessed 20 February 2018).

[26]      International Bar Association, Submission 6, pp. 41–42. The bill is the Organised Crime and Anti-Corruption Legislation Bill, http://www.parliament.nz/en-nz/pb/legislation/bills/ 00DBHOH_BILL56502_1/organised-crime-and-anti-corruption-legislation-bill (accessed 20 February 2018).

[27]      See Organised Crime and Anti-Corruption Legislation Bill, paras. 105C(1)(c)(i) and (ii).  http://www.parliament.nz/en-nz/pb/legislation/bills/00DBHOH_BILL56502_1/organised-crime-and-anti-corruption-legislation-bill (accessed 20 February 2018).

[28]      See Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Corruption, http://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/themes/corruption/pages/corruption.aspx (accessed 20 February 2018) and National Library of Australia, Australian Government Web Archive, Attorney-General's Department Crime Prevention, A discussion paper assessing aspects of Australia's foreign bribery laws launched on 15 November 2011, Bribery of foreign public officials is a crime, http://webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/20120316193242/http://www. crimeprevention.gov.au/agd/WWW/ncphome.nsf/Page/Financial_Crime_Bribery_of_Foreign_Public_Officials (accessed 21 February 2018).

[29]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 41.

[30]      National Library of Australia, Australian Government Web Archive, Attorney-General's Department Crime Prevention, Bribery of foreign public officials, http://webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/20130904121500/http://www.crimeprevention.gov.au/Financialcrime/Pages/Briberyofforeignpublicofficials.aspx (accessed 21 February 2018).  See for example the Australia-Africa Mining Industry Group submission and the Australian Institute of Superannuation Trustees submission.

[31]      National Library of Australia, Australian Government Web Archive, Attorney-General's Department Crime Prevention, Bribery of foreign public officials, http://webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/20130904121500/http://www.crimeprevention.gov.au/Financialcrime/Pages/Briberyofforeignpublicofficials.aspx  (accessed 21 February 2018).  See for example the Regnan submission and the Australian Compliance Institute submission.

[32]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 10, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[33]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 11, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[34]      Parliament of Australia, Crimes Legislation Amendment (Powers, Offences and Other Measures) Bill 2015, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/ Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5430 (accessed 20 February 2018).

[35]      Parliament of Australia, Crimes Legislation Amendment (Powers, Offences and Other Measures) Bill 2015, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/ Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5430 (accessed 20 February 2018).

[36]      Attorney-General's Department, Proposed amendments to the foreign bribery offence in the Criminal Code Act 1995, Public Consultation Paper, April 2017, p. 4.

[37]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 35, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[38]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, p. 35, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 4 January 2018).

[39]      Mr Tom Sharp, Senior Legal Officer, Criminal Law Reform Section, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 49.

[40]      Ms Kelly Williams, Assistant Secretary, Criminal Law Policy Branch, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 49.

[41]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 43.

[42]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 43.

[43]      The Australia Institute and Jubilee Australia, Submission 15, p. 4.

[44]      The Australia Institute and Jubilee Australia, Submission 15, p. 8.

[45]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 41.

[46]      BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 1.

[47]      Associate Professor Cindy Davids, Submission 34, pp. 21–22.

[48]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 2.

[49]      Diaspora Legal, Submission 5, p. 5.

[50]      Diaspora Legal, Submission 5, p. 5.

[51]      Diaspora Legal, Submission 5, p. 6.

[52]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 10.

[53]      Law Society of South Australia, Submission 23, p. 2.

[54]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, pp. 2–3.

[55]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 13.

[56]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 13.

[57]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 13.

[58]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 14.

[59]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 14.

[60]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 15; citing OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in the United States (October 2010), p. 29, para. 94.

[61]      King & Wood Mallesons, Submission 11, p. 16.

[62]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 3.

[63]      Export Council of Australia, Submission 30, p. 3.

[64]      Export Council of Australia, Submission 30, p. 4.

[65]      Diaspora Legal, Submission 5, p. 5.

[66]      Diaspora Legal, Submission 5, p. 5.

[67]      Mr Kane Preston-Stanley, Submission 40, pp. 4–5 (emphasis in original).

[68]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 4.

[69]      See, for example, Regnan, Submission 13; Control Risks, Submission 12; Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16.

[70]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 4.

[71]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 4.

[72]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 4.

[73]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 3.

[74]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 4.

[75]      Australia–Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 3.

[76]      Associate Professor Cindy Davids, Submission 34, p. 24.

[77]      Associate Professor Cindy Davids, Submission 34, p. 24.

[78]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 3.

[79]      Law Council of Australia, Submission 10, p. 10.

[80]      Mr Mark Pulvirenti, Partner, Control Risks, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 28.

[81]      Mr Mark Pulvirenti, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 29.

[82]      Mr Robert Wyld, Johnson Winter & Slattery; and Immediate Past Co-Chair, International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 39.

[83]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 3.

[84]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 41.

[85]      Regnan, Submission 13, p. 2. See also Control Risks, Submission 12, p. 2; Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 9; CPA Australia, Submission 18, p. 4; GRC Institute, Submission 1, p. 6.

[86]      Transparency International Australia, Submission 31, p. 9.

[87]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 41, citing 'Corruption', an address by The Honourable Terence Cole AO RFD QC to the 6th National Investigations Symposium, 2 November 2006, pp. 2–3 and 7.

[88]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 41.

[89]      KordaMentha, Submission 22, p. 9; citing Guidance on the UK Bribery Act 2010 issued by the UK Ministry of Justice (March 2011), p. 18.

[90]      Woodside Petroleum Ltd, Submission 4¸ p. 2. See also Mr David Wildman, FTI Consulting, Submission 38, p. 5.

[91]      Woodside Petroleum Ltd, Submission 4¸ p. 2.

[92]      Control Risks, Submission 12, p. 2.

[93]      Transparency International Australia, Submission 31, p. 9.

[94]      Simon Bronitt, Nikos Passas, Wendy Pei and Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, p. 12.

[95]      Mr David Wildman, FTI Consulting, Submission 38, p. 5.

[96]      The Australia Institute and Jubilee Australia, Submission 15, p. 3.

[97]      KordaMentha, Submission 22, p. 9.

[98]      Assoiciate Professor Cindy Davids, Submission 34, p. 23. See also Uniting Church in Australia Synod of Victoria and Tasmania and Publish What you Pay Australia, Submission 17, p. 2.

[99]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 2.

[100]    Regnan, Submission 13, p. 2.

[101]    Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 10. 

[102]    Attorney-General's Department, Submission 32, p. 25.

[103]    Woodside Petroleum Ltd, Submission 4¸ p. 2.

[104]    Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 3.

[105]    OECD Recommendation of the Council for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, p. 22, Recommendation 6, https://www.oecd. org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf (accessed 19 February 2018).

[106]    Simon Bronitt, Nikos Passas, Wendy Pei and Chloe Widmaier, Submission 35, p. 9.

[107]    Control Risks, Submission 12, p. 8.

[108]    Woodside Petroleum Ltd, Submission 4¸ p. 2.

[109]    BHP Billiton, Submission 37, pp. 6–7.

[110]    Control Risks, Submission 12, p. 2. See also Regnan, Submission 13, p. 2; Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, pp. 3, 10.

[111]    BHP Billiton, Submission 37, p. 7.

[112]    Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, pp. 3, 10; Transparency International Australia, Submission 31, p. 9.

[113]    Mr David Wildman, FTI Consulting, Submission 38, p. 5.

[114]    Transparency International Australia, Submission 31, p. 9.

[115]    See, for example, Uniting Church in Australia Synod of Victoria and Tasmania and Publish What you Pay Australia, Submission 17, p. 4.

Chapter 8 - Other reform options

[1]        Australian Government, The Treasury, Increasing transparency of the beneficial ownership of companies: Consultation Paper, February 2017, p. 1, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/ increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 12 January 2018).

[2]        Australian Government, The Treasury, Increasing transparency of the beneficial ownership of companies: Consultation Paper, February 2017, p. 1, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/ increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 12 January 2018).

[3]        Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, 1.2—Beneficial ownership transparency, https://ogpau.pmc.gov.au/commitment/12-beneficial-ownership-transparency (accessed 27 November 2017).

[4]        Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand, Submission to the Treasury consultation on Increasing Transparency of the Beneficial Ownership of Companies, March 2017, p. 7, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[5]        Australian Government, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Open Government Partnership Australia: 1.2—Beneficial ownership transparency, https://ogpau.pmc.gov.au/ commitment/12-beneficial-ownership-transparency (accessed 22 March 2018).

[6]        Australian Government, The Treasury, FOI 2075—Documents, pp. 26–27, https://static. treasury.gov.au/uploads/sites/1/2017/06/FOI_2075_Document_3.pdf (accessed 22 March 2018).

[7]        Australian Government, The Treasury, FOI 2075—Documents, https://static.treasury.gov.au/ uploads/sites/1/2017/06/FOI_2075_Document_3.pdf (accessed 22 March 2018).

[8]        Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 1.

[9]        Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 5.

[10]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 11.

[11]      See, for example, the following submissions to the Treasury consultation on Increasing Transparency of the Beneficial Ownership of Companies: Transparency International Australia, Tax Justice Network Australia, Nook Studios, Dr Madeleine Roberts, and Institute of Public Accountants, March 2017 https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[12]      Action Aid, Submission to the Treasury consultation on Increasing Transparency of the Beneficial Ownership of Companies, March 2017, p. 2, https://treasury.gov.au/ consultation/increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[13]      Publish What You Pay Australia, Submission to the Treasury consultation on Increasing Transparency of the Beneficial Ownership of Companies, March 2017, p. 8,  https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[14]      The B Team, Submission to the Treasury consultation on Increasing Transparency of the Beneficial Ownership of Companies, March 2017, p. 1, https://treasury.gov.au/ consultation/increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[15]      The B Team, Submission to the Treasury consultation on Increasing Transparency of the Beneficial Ownership of Companies, March 2017, p. 2, https://treasury.gov.au/ consultation/increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[16]      Dr David Chaikin, Submission to the Treasury consultation on Increasing Transparency of the Beneficial Ownership of Companies, March 2017, p. 4, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/ increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[17]      United Kingdom Government, PSC requirements for companies and limited liability partnerships, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/guidance-to-the-people-with-significant-control-requirements-for-companies-and-limited-liability-partnerships (accessed 15 January 2018).

[18]      Mr Michael Ahrens, Director, Transparency International Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 25.

[19]      Australian Government, The Treasury, Increasing transparency of the beneficial ownership of companies: Consultation Paper, February 2017, p. 15, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/ increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 12 January 2018).

[20]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 5.

[21]      Mr Michael Ahrens, Director, Transparency International Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 25.

[22]      See, for example, submissions to the Treasury consultation on a register of beneficial ownership by Tax Justice Network Australia and The Law Council of Australia, March 2017, https://treasury.gov.au/consultation/increasing-transparency-of-the-beneficial-ownership-of-companies/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[23]      Australian Government, Department of Finance, Policy and Legislation, Matters dealt with by the Department, https://www.finance.gov.au/policy-legislation.html (accessed 22 January 2018).

[24]      Australian Government, Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules: Achieving value for money, 1 January 2018, https://www.finance.gov.au/sites/default/files/ commonwealth-procurement-rules-1-jan-18.pdf (accessed 22 January 2018).

[25]      Australian Government, Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules: Achieving value for money, 1 January 2018, p. 6, https://www.finance.gov.au/sites/default/files/ commonwealth-procurement-rules-1-jan-18.pdf (accessed 22 January 2018).

[26]      Australian Government, Department of Finance, Commonwealth Procurement Rules: Achieving value for money, 1 January 2018, p. 15, https://www.finance.gov.au/sites/ default/files/commonwealth-procurement-rules-1-jan-18.pdf (accessed 22 January 2018).

[27]      Ms Kelly Williams, Assistant Secretary, Criminal Law Reform Section, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 49.

[28]      Mr Tom Sharp, Senior Legal Officer, Criminal Law Reform Section, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, pp. 49–50.

[29]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 46, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[30]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 46, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[31]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Australia: Follow up to the Phase 3 Report & Recommendations, April 2015, p. 35, www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-3-Follow-up-Report-ENG.pdf  (accessed 28 February 2018). 

[32]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p.46, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 1 January 2018).

[33]      Which reiterates the 2006 OECD Phase 2 Recommendation 6(b) See OECD Working Group on Bribery, Australia: Phase 2 Report on the application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combatting Bribery in International Business Transactions, 4 January 2006, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/anti-briberyconvention/35937659.pdf (accessed 20 March 2018).

[34]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 46, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 1 January 2018).

[35]      See, for example, Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 3; Associate Professor Cindy Davids, Submission 34, pp. 8–9.

[36]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 46, p. 6.

[37]      Transparency International Australia, Submission 31, p. 8.

[38]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 3.

[39]      International Bar Association Anti-Corruption Committee, Submission 6, p. 25.

[40]      Mr Kane Preston-Stanley, Submission 40, pp. 7–8.

[41]      Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 4.

[42]      Transparency International Australia, Submission 31, p. 8.

[43]      Federal Acquisition Regulation 48 CFR Part 9 § 9.406-2.

[44]      Federal Acquisition Regulation 48 CFR Part 9 § 9.406-1.

[45]      The World Bank, Sanctions & Compliance, http://www.worldbank.org/en/about/unit/integrity-vice-presidency/sanctions-compliance (accessed 22 January 2018).

[46]      The World Bank, Sanctions & Compliance, http://www.worldbank.org/en/about/unit/integrity-vice-presidency/sanctions-compliance (accessed 22 January 2018).

[47]      The World Bank, World Bank Listing of Ineligible Firms & Individuals, http://web.worldbank.org/external/default/main?theSitePK=84266&contentMDK=64069844&menuPK=116730&pagePK=64148989&piPK=64148984 (accessed 23 January 2018).

[48]      Publish What You Pay Australia and the Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Submission 17, p. 24.

[49]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Australia: Phase 2: Report on the application of the convention on combatting corporate bribery of foreign public officials in international business transaction and the 1997 recommendations on combatting crime in international business transactions, January 2006, p. 53, http://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/anti-briberyconvention/35937659.pdf (accessed 26 February 2018).

[50]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 45.

[51]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 55, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 11 January 2018).

[52]      Mr Tim Game SC, Co-Chair, National Criminal Law Committee, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 44.

[53]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 6.

[54]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 1.

[55]      Mrs Rebecca Davies, Director, Transparency International Australia, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2018, p. 21.

[56]      Mr David Lehmann, Director, KordaMentha Forensic, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 18.

[57]      Commander Tim Crozier, Manager, Criminal Assets, Fraud and Anti-Corruption, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, pp. 43–44.

[58]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 55, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 11 January 2018).

[59]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 54, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 11 January 2018).

[60]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investments Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 25.

[61]      Mr Chris Savundra, Chief Legal Officer, Australian Securities and Investments Commission, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 40.

[62]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 28.

[63]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 28.

[64]      Mr Shane Kirne, Deputy Director and Practice Group Leader, Commercial, Financial and Corruption Group, Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2017, p. 40.

[65]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 50, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 11 January 2018).

[66]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 51, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 11 January 2018).

[67]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Implementing the OECD Anti-bribery Convention, Phase 4 report: Australia, 15 December 2017, p. 51, https://www.oecd.org/corruption/anti-bribery/Australia-Phase-4-Report-ENG.pdf (accessed 11 January 2018).

[68]      AFP and CDPP Best Practice Guidelines, Self-reporting of foreign bribery and related offending by corporations, 8 December 2017, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/sites/g/files/ net2061/f/20170812AFP-CDPP-Best-Practice-Guideline-on-self-reporting-of-foreign-bribery.pdf (accessed 12 February 2018).

[69]      DLA Piper, Greater clarity on self-reporting foreign bribery offences: Regulatory Update, 30 January 2018, https://www.dlapiper.com/en/australia/insights/publications/2018/01/greater-clarity-on-self-reporting-foreign-bribery-offences/ (accessed 26 February 2018).

[70]      DLA Piper, Foreign Bribery, The inquiry, Briefing paper on the Senate inquiry into Australia's foreign bribery regime, October 2015, https://connect.dlapiper.com/RS/emsdocuments/Publications/Foreign_Bribery_The_Inquiry_October_2015_LR.pdf (accessed 26 February 2018).

[71]      Allens Linklaters, International business obligations, Focus: Best practice guidelines for self-reporting of foreign bribery, 9 February 2018, https://www.allens.com.au/mobile/page. aspx?page=/pubs/ibo/foibo9feb18.htm (accessed 26 February 2018).

[72]      Allens Linklaters, International business obligations, Focus: Best practice guidelines for self-reporting of foreign bribery, 9 February 2018, https://www.allens.com.au/mobile/page. aspx?page=/pubs/ibo/foibo9feb18.htm (accessed 26 February 2018).

[73]      Herbert Smith Freehills, Legal Briefings, New Australian Guidelines for self-reporting foreign bribery,7 February 2018, https://www.herbertsmithfreehills.com/latest-thinking/new-australian-guidelines-for-self-reporting-foreign-bribery (accessed 26 February 2018).

[74]      AFP and CDPP Best Practice Guidelines, Self-reporting of foreign bribery and related offending by corporations, 8 December 2017, p. 2, paragraph 3, https://www.cdpp.gov.au/sites/g/files/net2061/f/20170812AFP-CDPP-Best-Practice-Guideline-on-self-reporting-of-foreign-bribery.pdf (accessed 12 February 2018).

Appendix 1 - Examples of foreign bribery involving Australian entities

[1]        United Nations, Security Council Resolutions, Resolution 661: Iraq-Kuwait (6 August 1990) http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=S/RES/661%20(1990)&Lang=E&Area =RESOLUTION (accessed 14 March 2018).

[2]        United Nations, Office of the Iraq Programme: Oil-for-Food, 4 November 2003, http://www.un.org/Depts/oip/background/ (accessed 15 March 2018).

[3]        Hon Terence RH Cole, Report of the Inquiry into certain Australian companies in relation to the UN Oil-for-Food Programme, vol 1, November 2006, p. 38, https://web.archive.org/web/20070830174503/http:/www.offi.gov.au/agd/WWW/unoilforfoodinquiry.nsf/Page/Report (accessed 15 March 2018).

[4]        Independent Inquiry Committee into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Programme, Report on Programme Manipulation, 27 October 2005, p. 4, http://dpl/Books/2005/IIC_ ManipulationOilForFood.pdf (accessed 15 March 2018).

[5]        Hon Terence RH Cole, Report of the Inquiry into certain Australian companies in relation to the UN Oil-for-Food Programme, vol 1, November 2006, p. xxxii, https://web.archive.org/web/20070830174503/http:/www.offi.gov.au/agd/WWW/unoilforfoodinquiry.nsf/Page/Report (accessed 15 March 2018).

[6]        Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions, Submission 39, p. 3 (emphasis in original).

[7]        Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 16.

[8]        Four Corners, Cover Up, 30 September 2013, http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/ stories/2013/09/30/3857148.htm  (accessed 16 March 2018); OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 8.

[9]        Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity, Integrity of overseas Commonwealth law enforcement operations, June 2013, pp. 9–10.

[10]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity, Integrity of overseas Commonwealth law enforcement operations, June 2013, p. 10.

[11]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity, Integrity of overseas Commonwealth law enforcement operations, June 2013, pp. 10–11.

[12]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 8.

[13]      Mr Neville Tiffen, Submission 16, p. 10; Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, pp. 13–14.

[14]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 13.

[15]      Mr Nick McKenzie, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 7 August 2017, p. 8.

[16]      UK Serious Fraud Office, News Releases, Former securency manager convicted of corruption, 11 May 2016, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/2016/05/11/former-securency-manager-convicted-corruption/ (accessed 5 March 2018).

[17]      UK Serious Fraud Office, Case Information, Securency PTY Ltd, 31 March 2017, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/cases/securency-pty-ltd/ (accessed 5 March 2018).

[18]      UK Serious Fraud Office, Case Information, Securency PTY Ltd, 31 March 2017, https://www.sfo.gov.uk/cases/securency-pty-ltd/ (accessed 5 March 2018). Serving a sentence 'on licence' means that the for the sentence period the prisoner must obey certain conditions.

[19]      Mr Robert Wyld, Johnson Winter & Slattery, Foreign Bribery Update — May 2016, May 2016, https://www.jws.com.au/en/acumen/item/775-foreign-bribery-update-may-2016 (accessed 5 March 2018).

[20]      Mr Robert Wyld, Johnson Winter & Slattery, Foreign Bribery Update — May 2016, May 2016, https://www.jws.com.au/en/acumen/item/775-foreign-bribery-update-may-2016 (accessed 5 March 2018).

[21]      Supreme Court Victoria, Supreme Court List for Wednesday 31 January 2018, 31 January 2018, see R v Christian Boillot, R v John Leckenby and R v Barry Thomas Brady, https://www.supremecourt.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/embridge_cache/emshare/original/public/2018/02/f0/e8035e0f4/scvdailylistforwednesday31january2018.pdf (accessed 6 March 2018).

[22]      See, for example, Law Council of Australia, Submission 10, p. 11.

[23]      See, for example, Mr Nick McKenzie, Submission 43, p. 1.

[24]      SKINS, Submission 28, p. 6. See also Peter Rolfe, Australian whistle-blower Bonita Mersiades says Sepp Blatter shouldn’t be allowed to restructure FIFA, 5 June 2015, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/football/australian-whistleblower-bonita-mersiades-says-sepp-blatter-shouldnt-be-allowed-to-restructure-fifa/news-story/95a49a8c26cf3288aad1fca861294205 (accessed 21 April 2016).

[25]      ABC and wires, FIFA corruption: FFA chairman Frank Lowy wants Senate inquiry to prove Australia's 2022 World Cup bid was clean, 9 June 2015, http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/international/2015-06-09/fifa-corruption-ffa-chairman-frank-lowy-wants-senate-inquiry-to-prove-australias-2022-world-cup-bid-/1456616 (Accessed 20 April 2016).

[26]      Ed Thomas, Fifa corruption: Document show details of Jack Warner 'bribes', 7 June 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-33039014 (accessed 20 April 2016).

[27]      Football Federation of Australia, Final Report, p. 29 of 38, (accessed 23 February 2016).

[28]      SKINS, Submission 28, pp. 4–5. See also Peter Rolfe, Australian whistle-blower Bonita Mersiades says Sepp Blatter shouldn’t be allowed to restructure FIFA, 5 June 2015, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/football/australian-whistleblower-bonita-mersiades-says-sepp-blatter-shouldnt-be-allowed-to-restructure-fifa/news-story/95a49a8c26cf3288 aad1fca861294205 (accessed 21 April 2016).

[29]      Australia-Africa Mining Industry Group, Submission 7, p. 3.

[30]      United States, Securities and Exchange Commission, SEC Charges BHP Billiton with Violating FCPA at Olympic Games, 20 May 2015, https://www.sec.gov/news/pressrelease/2015-93.html (accessed 5 March 2018).

[31]      United States Securities and Exchange Commission, Order Instituting Cease-and-Desist Proceedings Pursuant to Section 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Making Findings, and Imposing a Cease-And-Desist Order, 20 May 2015, p. 7, https://www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2015/34-74998.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[32]      United States Securities and Exchange Commission, Order Instituting Cease-and-Desist Proceedings Pursuant to Section 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Making Findings, and Imposing a Cease-And-Desist Order, 20 May 2015, p. 9, https://www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2015/34-74998.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[33]      United States Securities and Exchange Commission, Order Instituting Cease-and-Desist Proceedings Pursuant to Section 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Making Findings, and Imposing a Cease-And-Desist Order, 20 May 2015, p. 9, https://www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2015/34-74998.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[34]      United States Securities and Exchange Commission, Order Instituting Cease-and-Desist Proceedings Pursuant to Section 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Making Findings, and Imposing a Cease-And-Desist Order, 20 May 2015, p. 9, https://www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2015/34-74998.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[35]      United States Securities and Exchange Commission, Order Instituting Cease-and-Desist Proceedings Pursuant to Section 21C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Making Findings, and Imposing a Cease-And-Desist Order, 20 May 2015, p. 10, https://www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2015/34-74998.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[36]      Publish What You Pay Australia and the Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Submission 17, p. 7.

[37]      Publish What You Pay Australia and the Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Submission 17, p. 7; 7.30, Nauru President and Justice Minister face bribery allegations involving Australian company, 8 June 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2015/s4251115.htm (accessed 18 February 2018).

[38]      Publish What You Pay Australia and the Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Submission 17, p. 7.

[39]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 24, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018).

[40]      Publish What You Pay Australia and the Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Submission 17, p. 7; Maris Beck and Ben Butler, Police reopen OZ, Cochlear bribery cases, 13 January 2013, http://www.smh.com.au/business/police-reopen-oz-cochlear-bribery-cases-20130112-2cmrt.html (accessed 18 February 2018).

[41]      ABC, Money trail from Australian phosphate company Getax leads to Nauru minister David Adeang, 14 September 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-09-14/australian-phosphate-company-getax-payments-to-nauru-minister/7838170 (accessed 5 March 2018).

[42]      SBS, Gupta's company under investigation for corruption in Australia, India, 16 September 2016, https://www.sbs.com.au/yourlanguage/punjabi/en/article/ 2016/09/16/guptas-company-under-investigation-corruption-australia-india (accessed 5 March 2018); and ABC, Money trail from Australian phosphate company Getac leads to Nauru minister David Adeang, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-09-14/australian-phosphate-company-getax-payments-to-nauru-minister/7838170 (accessed 5 March 2018).

[43]      Australian Federal Police, answers to questions on notice, Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs estimates hearing on 17 October 2016, Question No. SBE16/011, p. 2.

[44]      Douglas Gillison and Phann Ana, 'OZ Minerals Deal a Windfall for Officials' Kin', The Cambodia Daily, 31 May 2011, https://www.cambodiadaily.com/news/oz-minerals-deal-a-windfall-for-officials-kin-101770/ (accessed 6 March 2018).

[45]      Douglas Gillison and Phann Ana, 'OZ Minerals Deal a Windfall for Officials' Kin', The Cambodia Daily, 31 May 2011, https://www.cambodiadaily.com/news/oz-minerals-deal-a-windfall-for-officials-kin-101770/ (accessed 6 March 2018).

[46]      Douglas Gillison and Phann Ana, 'OZ Minerals Deal a Windfall for Officials' Kin', The Cambodia Daily, 31 May 2011, https://www.cambodiadaily.com/news/oz-minerals-deal-a-windfall-for-officials-kin-101770/ (accessed 6 March 2018).

[47]      Douglas Gillison and Phann Ana, 'OZ Minerals Deal a Windfall for Officials' Kin', The Cambodia Daily, 31 May 2011,  https://www.cambodiadaily.com/news/oz-minerals-deal-a-windfall-for-officials-kin-101770/ (accessed 6 March 2018).

[48]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 23, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018).

[49]      OECD Working Group on Bribery, Phase 3 Report on Implementing the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Australia, October 2012, p. 23, http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ Australiaphase3reportEN.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018).

[50]      OZ Minerals, Annual Report 2014, p. 106, https://www.ozminerals.com/uploads/media/ozm-ar-2014-web-c2113c7f-2989-48f7-8400-e74c1b15dc8f-0.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018).

[51]      OZ Minerals, Annual Report 2015, p. 25, http://www.ozminerals.com/uploads/media/ oz_minerals_ar2015_web.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018).

[52]      OZ Minerals, Annual Report 2017, p. 119, https://www.ozminerals.com/uploads/media/ OZMinerals_2017_Annual_and_Sustainability_Report.pdf (accessed 27 March 2018).

[53]      Nick McKenzie, Emmanuel Freudenthal, Michael Bachelard, and Richard Baker, 'Sundance Resources took risks in Congo business', Australian Financial Review, 24 August 2016, http://www.afr.com/business/sundance-resources-took-risks-in-congo-business-20160824-gr04h2 (accessed 6 December 2017); Nick McKenzie and Emmanuel Freudenthal, 'Sundance Resources, Snowy Mountain Engineering Co embroiled in bribery scandals in Sri Lanka and Congo', Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 25 August 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news /2016-08-24/australian-companies-embroiled-in-bribery-scandals/7778324 (accessed 6 December 2017).

[54]      Now known as 'CIMIC Group Limited'.

[55]      See, for example, The Bribe Factory, Fairfax Media and Huffington Post, [article not dated] http://www.theage.com.au/interactive/2016/the-bribe-factory/day-1/leighton-news.html  (accessed 6 March 2018).

[56]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 1.

[57]      Nick McKenzie and Richard Baker, Building giant Leighton rife with corruption: claims, 3 October 2013, http://www.smh.com.au/business/building-giant-leighton-rife-with-corruption-claims-20131002-2ut2e.html (accessed 12 February 2018). The type of currency was not specified in the article.

[58]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 2.

[59]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 1.

[60]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 2.

[61]      Nick McKenzie and Richard Baker, Building giant Leighton rife with corruption: claims, 3 October 2013, http://www.smh.com.au/business/building-giant-leighton-rife-with-corruption-claims-20131002-2ut2e.html (accessed 12 February 2018).

[62]      Nick McKenzie and Richard Baker, Building giant Leighton rife with corruption: claims, 3 October 2013, http://www.smh.com.au/business/building-giant-leighton-rife-with-corruption-claims-20131002-2ut2e.html (accessed 12 February 2018).

[63]      Nick McKenzie and Richard Baker, Building giant Leighton rife with corruption: claims, 3 October 2013, http://www.smh.com.au/business/building-giant-leighton-rife-with-corruption-claims-20131002-2ut2e.html (accessed 12 February 2018).

[64]      Mr Ian McCartney, Acting Deputy Commissioner Operations, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 24.

[65]      Mr Ian McCartney, Acting Deputy Commissioner Operations, Australian Federal Police, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 24.

[66]      Mr George Stogdale, Senior Executive, Corporations and Corporate Governance Enforcement, Australian Securities and Investments Commission, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 36.

[67]      ASIC, Media centre, 17-020MR Former Leighton employees charged, 31 January 2017, http://asic.gov.au/about-asic/media-centre/find-a-media-release/2017-releases/17-020mr-former-leighton-employees-charged/ (accessed 5 March 2018).

[68]      ASIC, Media centre, 17-020MR Former Leighton employees charged, 31 January 2017, http://asic.gov.au/about-asic/media-centre/find-a-media-release/2017-releases/17-020mr-former-leighton-employees-charged/ (accessed 5 March 2018).

[69]      Nick McKenzie and Richard Baker, Building giant Leighton rife with corruption: claims, 3 October 2013, http://www.smh.com.au/business/building-giant-leighton-rife-with-corruption-claims-20131002-2ut2e.html (accessed 12 February 2018).

[70]      Nick McKenzie and Michael Bachelard, 'Leightons' bribery ran into millions', The Age, 31 March 2016, p. 9.

[71]      Nick McKenzie and Michael Bachelard, 'Leightons' bribery ran into millions', The Age, 31 March 2016, p. 9.

[72]      Richard Baker and Nick McKenzie, 'Pressure mounts on ABC director over handling of corruption red flags', The Age, 8 April 2016, p. 6.

[73]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 3.

[74]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 4.

[75]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 2.

[76]      CIMIC, Ethics, Compliance and Sustainability Committee Charter, 31 October 2017, p. 1, https://www.cimic.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/3454/ECSC-Charter_Final.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[77]      CIMIC, Ethics, Compliance and Sustainability Committee Charter, 31 October 2017, p. 2, https://www.cimic.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/3454/ECSC-Charter_Final.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[78]      CIMIC, Ethics, Compliance and Sustainability Committee Charter, 31 October 2017, p. 3, https://www.cimic.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/3454/ECSC-Charter_Final.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[79]      CIMIC, Ethics, Compliance and Sustainability Committee Charter, 31 October 2017, p. 3, https://www.cimic.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/3454/ECSC-Charter_Final.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

[80]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 8.

[81]      CIMIC, Group Code of Conduct, 12 August 2015, reformatted 1 November 2016, p. 3, https://www.cimic.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/3429/Group-Code-of-Conduct.pdf (accessed 4 March 2018).

[82]      CIMIC, Group Code of Conduct, 12 August 2015, reformatted 1 November 2016, pp. 1–2, https://www.cimic.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/3429/Group-Code-of-Conduct.pdf (accessed 4 March 2018).

[83]      Mr Stephen Sasse, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 22 April 2016, p. 2.

[84]      Nick McKenzie and Michael Bachelard, 'The 'naively noble' man who could not get his voice heard', Sydney Morning Herald, 28 August 2016, http://www.smh.com.au/business/the-naively-noble-man-who-could-not-get-his-voice-heard-20160824-gr0bu5.html (accessed 6 December 2017).

Coalition Senators Additional Comments

[1]        Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull MP, Boosting efforts to tackle foreign bribery, 23 April 2016, http://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/boosting-efforts-to-tackle-foreign-bribery  (accessed 28 March 2018).

[2]        OECD, The United Kingdom Phase 4 Report, 15 March 2017, p. 35, http://www.oecd.org/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/progress?id=R_fLwOYRO1ULrZNrMc UCxQSwkHjAqmKm7IYGtdV60wA,&dl (accessed 28 March 2018).

[3]        Attorney-General's Department, answers to questions on notice, Senate Legal and Constitutional Committee inquiry into the CCC bill 2017, p. 8.

[4]        See Criminal Code Act 1995, paras. 70.4(1)(a) and 70.4(1)(b).

[5]        See CCC bill, schedule 1.

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