Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        See: http://pc.gov.au/projects/inquiry/childcare.

[2]        Productivity Commission 2014, Childcare and Early Childhood Learning, Draft Report, Canberra, p. 94, available at: http://pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/138383/childcare-draft.pdf (accessed 25 September 2014).

[3]        For example: COTA National Seniors, Grandparents Raising Grandchildren, A Report of the project commissioned by The Hon Larry Anthony, Minister for Children and Youth Affairs, July 2003; Parliament of Tasmania, Joint Standing Committee on Community Development, Report on Issues Relating to Custodial Grandparents, Report No. 2, 2003.

[4]        Journals of the Senate, No. 8–9 December 2013, p. 282.

[5]        Journals of the Senate, No.57–30 September 2014, p. 1550.

[6]        See: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs.

[7]        Brennan, D., Cass, B., Flaxman, S., Hill, T., Jenkins, B., McHugh, M., Purcal, C., & valentine, k. (2013), Grandparents raising grandchildren: Towards recognition, respect and reward (Grandparents raising grandchildren) (SPRC Report 14/13), Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, p. 14.

[8]        Submission 93, p. [1].

[9]        Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, pp 1-2.

[10]      Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 65.

[11]      Submission 99, p. 6.

[12]      Submission 93, p. [4].

[13]      For example: Dr Marilyn McHugh, Submission 17, p. 1; Victorian Council of Social Service, Submission 96, p. 5; Children's Commissioner, Northern Territory, Submission 111, p. 1; Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare Inc. (Centre for Excellence), Submission 169, p. 9.

[14]      Submission 150, p. 10. Also see: Australian Medical Association, Submission 82, p. 4.

[15]      For example: National Seniors, Submission 131, p. 6.

[16]      Submission 133, p. 21. Also see: Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS), Submission 99, p. 13.

[17]      Dr Pamela Kinnear, Head, Continuing and Specialised Care Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 8; AIFS, Submission 99, p. 12.

[18]      Submission 99, p. 12. The submission indicated also the need for nested studies with respect to particular groups, for example, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families, as well as the need to include children's perspectives.

[19]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 37. Also see: AIFS, answers to questions on notice, received 22 September 2014, pp 7-8.

[20]      Answers to questions on notice, received 22 September 2014, p. 3.

[21]      Answers to questions on notice, received 22 September 2014, pp 2-6.

[22]      Answers to questions on notice, received 22 September 2014, p. 6.

[23]      Answers to questions on notice, received 22 September 2014, p. 2.

[24]      Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, pp 7-8.

[25]      Commonwealth of Australia, Protecting Children is Everyone's Business, National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020, Second three-year action plan 2012-2015, 2012, p. 30, available at: http://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/families-and-children/publications-articles/protecting-children-is-everyone-s-business-national-framework-for-protecting-australia-s-children-2009-2020-second-action-plan-2012-2015 (accessed 4 September 2014).

[26]      Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, pp 8-9. The Child Protection National Minimum Dataset collects information on the relationship between a kinship carer and the child or young person in care. However, its use is currently restricted by an ongoing assessment of the data quality and its scope, which does not encompass informal care arrangements: see Dr Pamela Kinnear, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 6.

[27]      AIHW, Child Protection, available at: http://www.aihw.gov.au/child-protection/#collect (accessed 4 September 2014).

[28]      Child protection Australia 2012-13, Child Welfare Series No. 58, Cat. No. CWS 49, Canberra: AIHW, p. 45.

[29]      Child protection Australia 2012-13, Child Welfare Series No. 58, Cat. No. CWS 49, Canberra: AIHW, p. 48. The proportion of children placed with kin varied across jurisdictions, ranging from 2.6% in the Northern Territory to 55.8% in New South Wales: see Table A28.

[30]      Smyth, C. and T. Eardley (2008), Out of Home Care for Children in Australia: A Review of Literature and Policy, SPRC Report No. 3/08, prepared for the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, p. 9.

[31]      Boetto, H. (2010), 'Kinship care: a review of issues', Australian Institute of Family Studies, p. 61.

[32]      For example: Australian Association of Social Workers, Submission 132, p. 4; Ms Meredith Kiraly, Member, Expert Reference Group, Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 11.

[33]      Submission 17, p. 2. Also see, for example: Winangay Resources Inc., Submission 107, p. 3; Centre for Excellence, Submission 169, p. 10.

[34]      Mrs Beverely Orr OAM, President, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 48. Also see: Ms Meredith Kiraly, Kinship Care Researcher and Consultant, Centre for Excellence, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 58; Ms Mary D'Elia, State Operations Manager, Baptcare, Committee Hansard, Hobart, 19 September 2014, pp 25-26.

[35]      Families Australia, 'Grandparenting: Present & Future', Family Issues Series No. 2, January 2007, p. 19.

[36]      Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 90.

[37]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 11.

[38]      Mr Brett Fahey, Area Manager, New South Wales South Coast, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 44. Also see: Dr Katrina Stratton, Co-ordinator, Research and Evaluation, Wanslea Family Services Inc., Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 22.

[39]      Mr Brett Fahey, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 42 (the names have been changed to protect the family's privacy).

[40]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 35

[41]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 38.

[42]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 41.

[43]      Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 142.

[44]      Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 91.

[45]      Commonwealth of Australia, Protecting Children is Everyone's Business, National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020, 2009, p. 11, available at: http://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/child_protection_framework.pdf (accessed 4 September 2014).

[46]      The performance indicators are located in Appendix B of the Second Action Plan.

[47]      Department of Social Services, Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020—Second  Action Plan 2012-2015, available at: http://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/families-and-children/publications-articles/protecting-children-is-everyone-s-business-national-framework-for-protecting-australia-s-children-2009-2020-second-action-plan-2012-2015 (accessed 4 September 2014).

[48]      Commonwealth of Australia, Protecting Children is Everyone's Business, National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020, 2009, p. 26. The Second Action Plan targets improved supports for grandparents raising grandchildren.

[49]      Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Protecting Children is Everyone's Business, National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020, 2012, p. 23.

[50]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 50.

[51]      Ms Emma White, Acting Director General, Department for Child Protection and Family Services (WA), Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, pp 16-17.

Chapter 2 - Recognising the role and contribution of grandparents raising grandchildren

[1]        The Salvation Army (TSA), Submission 108, p. 3.

[2]        Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. 1.

[3]        See, for example: Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare Inc., Submission 169, p. 10; Ms Jenni Perkins, Acting Commissioner, Commissioner for Children and Young People, Western Australia (WA Commissioner), Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 1.

[4]        Submission 17, p. 2. Also see, for example: Gosnells Community Legal Centre Inc., Submission 37, p. 2; UnitingCare Children, Young People and Families, Submission 85, Attachment 1, p. 3; TSA, Submission 108, p. 3; Mrs Anne McLeish, Director, Grandparents Victoria and Kinship Carers, Victoria, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 17.

[5]        Submission 150, p. 5.

[6]        For example: Tangentyere Council, Submission 112, p. 2; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Service (Qld) Ltd. (ATSILS Qld), Submission 134, p. [16].

[7]        Submission 51, pp 1-2.

[8]        For example: CREATE Foundation, Submission 136, p. 5.

[9]        See, for example: Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [2]; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 14; Mr Moray McSevich, Manager, Albany Branch, Wanslea Family Services Inc., Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, pp 1-2.

[10]      For example: Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA (Inc.), Submission 50, p. [2]; Family and Relationship Services Australia, Submission 81, p. 2.

[11]      For example: TSA, Submission 108, p. 3.

[12]      Dr Jan Backhouse, Submission 51, p. 2. Also see: Mr Bernie Geary, Principal Commissioner, Victorian Commission for Children and Young People (Victorian Commission), Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 28.

[13]      Submission 113, p. 7. Also see: Mr Michael Tugwell, grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 2.

[14]      Manager, Kinship Care and Research, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 8.

[15]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 28.

[16]      For example: Ms Meredith Kiraly and Ms Cynthia Mifsud, Member, Expert Reference Group, and Ms Heather Gridley, Fellow and Manager of Public Interest, Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, pp 11-12.

[17]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 12.

[18]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 12.

[19]      For example: Mr Roy Cox, grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 23 (citing as an example the provision of a motor vehicle).

[20]      See, for example: Professor Gillian Triggs, President, Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 63.

[21]      Mr Brett Fahey, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 45.

[22]      Submission 51, p. 2.

[23]      Submission 64, p. 5.

[24]      Submission 34, p. 4.

[25]      See, for example: Mr Brett Fahey, Mission Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 46.

[26]      Submission 108, pp 2-3. Also see: Dr Jan Backhouse, Submission 51, p. 2; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, pp 6-7; Dr Caroline O'Neill, Board Member and Founder, Permanent Care and Adoptive Families, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 53.

[27]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 37.

[28]      COTA Australia (COTA), Submission 113, p. 4. Also see: Mrs Nicole Patton, Manager, Kinship Care and Research, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 7.

[29]      For example: Dr Marilyn McHugh, Submission 17, p. 4; Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [5]; COTA, Submission 113, p. 4; Dr Stephen Nicholson, President, Grandparent and Kinship Carers Association Inc., Mid North Coast New South Wales, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 10; Dr Jan Backhouse, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 19.

[30]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 3.

[31]      Submission 150, p. 5.

[32]      Submission 81, p. 2.

[33]      See, for example: Dr Marilyn McHugh, Submission 17, p. 4; AHRC, Submission 133, p. 12.

[34]      For example: Ms Pam Cox, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 20. Also see: Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [4].

[35]      See, for example: NSW Government, Justice and Attorney General, NSW Statutory Declaration for Informal Relative Caregivers, Frequently Asked Questions, p. 1, available at: http://www.lpclrd.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/agdbasev7wr/lpclrd/documents/pdf/statdecfaqs.pdf (accessed 4 September 2014).

[36]      Women's Legal Services NSW (WLS NSW), Submission 138, pp 3-4; Mr Bernie Geary, Victorian Commission, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 32; Ms Josephine Root, National Policy Manager, COTA, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 21. Family and Relationship Services Australia noted also different practices between federal and state agencies: see Submission 81, p. 3.

[37]      Principal Solicitor, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 3.

[38]      Ms Elizabeth Hefren-Webb, Acting Group Manager, Families, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 26.

[39]      Submission 138, p. 4.

[40]      Cited in Family Law Council, Improving the Family Law System for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Clients, February 2012, p. 90.

[41]      For example: ATSILS Qld, Submission 134, p. [5].

[42]      Cited in Family Law Council, Improving the Family Law System for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Clients, February 2012, pp 90-91. WLS NSW suggested that a non-government agency should be the repository of registrations: Submission 138, p. 6.

[43]      Ms Kaye Bendle, President, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 29.

[44]      Submission 58, p. [5].

[45]      Section 5 of the Carer Recognition Act 2010 (Cth).

[46]      Submission 113, p. 4.

[47]      Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 21.

[48]      Manager, Legal Services, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 45.

[49]      Professor Gillian Triggs, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 60.

[50]      WA Commissioner, Submission 34, p. 4. Also see: Ms Kelly Bucknall, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 28; Mr James Pilkington, General Manager, Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 15.

[51]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 28.

[52]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, pp 29-30.

[53]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 13.

[54]      For example: Dr Jan Backhouse, Submission 51, p. 3; TSA, Submission 108, p. 4.

[55]      Submission 133, p. 17. Also see: COTA, Submission 113, p. 4.

[56]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 59.

Chapter 3 - Financial challenges and supports

[1]        See, for example: Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [2]; COTA Australia (COTA), Submission 113, p. 6; Wanslea Family Services Inc. (Wanslea), Submission 150, p. 3.

[2]        The Department of Human Services (Department) noted that it is normal practice for the department to contact the person receiving a payment upon receipt of an application for alternate payment: see Mr Matt McNeil, Director, Families Division, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 25.

[3]        For example: Grandparents For Grandchildren SA Inc., Submission 55, p. 2; Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [2]; Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), Submission 133, p. 10; Ms Julie Argeros, Service Co-Ordinator, Time for Grandparents Program, Uniting Care Community, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, pp 32-33; Ms Patricia Kurnoth, Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 16.

[4]        Submission 150, pp 3-4. Also see: North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. 4; Children's Commissioner, Northern Territory, Submission 111, pp 1-2.

[5]        Brennan, D., Cass, B., Flaxman, S., Hill, T., Jenkins, B., McHugh, M., Purcal, C. and valentine, k. (2013), Grandparents raising grandchildren: Towards recognition, respect and reward (SPRC Report 14/13) (Grandparents raising grandchildren), Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, p. 2.

[6]        Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 3.

[7]        For example: Brandon, D., 'Identifying the diversity in Australian children's living arrangements', Journal of Sociology, June 2004, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp 179-192.

[8]        Submission 113, p. 6. Also see: Gosnells Community Legal Centre Inc. (Gosnells), Submission 37, p. 1; National Seniors, Submission 131, p. 9.

[9]        Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 107; AHRC, Submission 133, p. 8.

[10]      Submission 133, p. 8. Also see: The Aged-care Rights Service Inc. (TARS), Submission 64, pp 3-4. The AHRC recently identified a number of reforms to recognise and value unpaid care work: AHRC (2013), Investing in care: Recognising and valuing those who care, Volume 1 Research Report, 2013.

[11]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 11.

[12]      AMP.NATSEM Income and Wealth Report, Don't stop thinking about tomorrow, The changing face of retirement – the past, the present and the future, Issue 24, November 2009, p. 18.

[13]      Submission 131, p. 9.

[14]      AHRC, Submission 133, p. 7.

[15]      For example: TARS, Submission 64, p. 4; Ms Meredith Kiraly, Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 9; Dr Jan Backhouse, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 20; Mrs Gillian Bonser, Board Member, Co‑founder and Developer, Winangay Resources Inc., Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 56.

[16]      For example: Central Australian Women's Legal Service, Submission 104, p. 2; Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW), Submission 132, p. 5; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Service (Qld) Ltd. (ATSILS Qld), Submission 134, pp [12-13].

[17]      Grandparents Raising Grandchildren, July 2003, p. 29. Also see: AASW, Submission 132, p. 5.

[18]      Submission 55, p. 2.

[19]      The Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare Inc., Submission 169.1, p. 8. Also see: Ms Kelly Bucknall, Community Facilitator, CREATE Foundation, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 26.

[20]      Ms Elizabeth Hefren-Webb, Department of Social Services, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 25.

[21]      Ms Donna Dei-Rossi, Grandparent Adviser, Department, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 54.

[22]      See: Department of Human Services, Support for non-parent carers, available at: http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/subjects/support-for-non-parent-carers (accessed 6 September 2014). The Department also administers the Double Orphan Pension, Carer Supplement, Child Disability Assistance Payment, Carer Adjustment Payment, and Assistance for Isolated Children Scheme.

[23]      Department of Human Services, Non-parent carer applying for Child Support, available at: http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/child-support/child-support-assessment/non-parent-carer-applying-for-child-support (accessed 6 September 2014). The difficulties experienced by grandparents raising grandchildren in accessing Commonwealth financial assistance apply also to child support payments. The committee's report does not duplicate or further refer to the evidence received in relation to child support entitlements. See: Gosnells, Submission 37, p. 2; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 13; Women's Legal Service NSW (WLS NSW), Submission 138, pp 8-9.

[24]      Family Tax Benefit Part A includes a supplement, which is worth up to $726.35 per child per annum. A range of other supplements are also available.

[25]      Department of Human Services, A guide to Australian Government payments, 20 September‑ 31 December 2014, p. 12, available at: http://www.humanservices.gov.au/spw/corporate/publications-and-resources/resources/co029/co029-1409.pdf (accessed 26 September 2014).

[26]      McHugh, M. and valentine, k. (2010), Financial and Non-Financial Support to Formal and Informal Out of Home Carers, Social Policy Research Centre, Final Report for the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, p. vii.

[27]       NSW Government, Department of Family and Community Services, Carer Allowances, available at: http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/fostercare_allowances_fact.pdf (accessed 8 September 2014).

[28]      Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania, Submission 32, p. 1. From 12 July 2011, support for informal grandparents raising grandchildren was provided by the Gateways Supporting Grandparent Carers Program, meaning that the Relatives Care Allowance ceased taking new applications.

[29]      Government of Western Australia, Department of Regional Development, Grandcarers Support Scheme Launched, November 2013, available at: http://www.rrr.wa.gov.au/newsandevents/Pages/Grandcarers-support-scheme-launched---November-2013.aspx (accessed 13 May 2014). According to Wanslea, the Grandparent Support Scheme terminates in 2014: see Submission 150, p. 9.

[30]      Submission 133, p. 10.

[31]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 4. Also see: Gosnells, Submission 37, p. 2; Ms Meredith McLaine, Solicitor, Southcoast Community Legal Centre Inc., Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 46.

[32]      Ms Patricia Murray, Chief Executive Officer, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 24.

[33]      Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 12.

[34]      Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania, Submission 32, p. 2.

[35]      Blue Care Multicultural Services (Bluecare), Submission 88, p. 3.

[36]      Mr Andrew Jackomos, Commissioner for Aboriginal Children and Young People, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 30.

[37]      The Salvation Army (TSA), Submission 108, p. 5.

[38]      Submission 88, p. 3.

[39]      Submission 88, p. 2. Also see: Ms Wendy Frayne, Social Worker and Team Leader, Kinship Care, AASW, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 46.

[40]      UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 7 (quoting a grandparent).

[41]      Committee Hansard, Hobart, 19 September 2014, p. 18.

[42]      Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 73. Also see: WLS NSW, Submission 138, p. 5.

[43]      Submission 150, pp 5-6. Also see: Australian Medical Association, Submission 82, p. 6; TSA, Submission 108, p. 56.

[44]      Submission 132, p. 8.

[45]      Submission 133, p. 13.

[46]      For example: North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. 5.

[47]      Submission 113, p. 6. Also see: Sutherland Shire Grandparents' Support Group, Submission 36, p. 1; Blue Care, Submission 88, p. 3; TSA, Submission 108, p. 6.

[48]      Submission 64, p. 8 (emphasis in the original).

[49]      For example: Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA (Inc.) (GRG WA), Submission 50, p. [8]; Grandparents For Grandchildren SA Inc., Submission 55, p. 3; Blue Care, Submission 88, p. 3; Victorian Council of Social Service (VCOSS), Submission 96, p. 5; TSA, Submission 108, p. 5; AASW, Submission 132, p. 8; CREATE Foundation, Submission 136, p. 8; Ms Lorraine Taylor, Solicitor, Gosnells, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 59.

[50]      Mrs Nicole Patton, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 1.

[51]      Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 70.

[52]      Submission 97, Appendix, p. 2.

[53]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 30. Also see: Ms Diane Robinson, grandparent, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 38.

[54]      The Schoolkids Bonus is a yearly payment of $422.00 for each eligible child in primary study and $842.00 for each eligible child in secondary study.

[55]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 16.

[56]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Hobart, 19 September 2014, p. 2.

[57]      For example: Wanslea, Submission 150, pp 3-4.

[58]      Committee Hansard, Hobart, 19 September 2014, p. 14.

[59]      UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 5 (quoting two grandparents).

[60]      Committee Member and Public Officer, Grandparent and Kinship Carers Association Inc., Mid North Coast New South Wales, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 12.

[61]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 12.

[62]      Ms Elizabeth Hefren-Webb, Department of Social Services, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 25. Also see: Mr Matt McNeill at p. 25.

[63]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 21.

[64]      See, for example: COTA, Submission 113, p. 7; Wanslea, Submission 150, p. 9.

[65]      Submission 51, p. 3. Also see: VCOSS, Submission 96, p. 5.

[66]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 2.

[67]      Brennan, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 70.

[68]      For example: Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania, Submission 32, p. 4; Central Australian Women's Legal Service, Submission 104, p. 2; COTA, Submission 113, pp 7-8; AHRC, Submission 133, p. 10.

[69]      Mrs Anne McLeish, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 23.

[70]      Submission 150, p. 9. Also see: Family and Relationship Services Australia, Submission 81, p. 3.

[71]      Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 69.

[72]      Submission 58, p. [4].

[73]      For example: Women's Legal Service Tasmania, Submission 66, p. [2]; National Seniors, Submission 131, p. 10; ATSILS Qld, Submission 134, p. [21].

[74]      Submission 131, p. 8.

[75]      AMP.NATSEM Income and Wealth Report, Cost of Kids, The cost of raising children in Australia, Issue 33, May 2013, Foreword.

[76]      AMP.NATSEM Income and Wealth Report, Cost of Kids, The cost of raising children in Australia, Issue 33, May 2013, p. 8.

[77]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, pp 8-9.

[78]      The Age Pension includes a supplement, which is worth $63.50 per fortnight (for singles) and $95.80 per fortnight (for couples).

[79]      Submission 131, p. 9.

[80]      Submission 64, p. 4.

[81]      President, Grandparent and Kinship Carers Association Inc., Mid North Coast New South Wales, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 11. Also see: Mr Ron Richards, grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 25, who was 'not in a corner with financial matters' but expressed sympathy for those grandparents who are.

[82]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 44.

[83]      AMP.NATSEM Income and Wealth Report, Cost of Kids, The cost of raising children in Australia, Issue 33, May 2013, p. 7.

[84]      Submission 134, p. [13].

[85]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 29. Also see: Mrs Nicki Pratt, grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, pp 17-18 and Mr Ross Henderson, grandparent, Committee Hansard, Hobart, 19 September 2014, p. 6, who argued that activity tests are not practical given grandparents' age.

[86]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 49.

[87]      Ms Elizabeth McCrea, Advocacy and Family Support, and Mrs Nicole Patton, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 4.

[88]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Hobart, 19 September 2014, p. 7.

[89]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 44.

[90]      Submission 52, p. [1]. Also see: UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 12.

[91]      Submission 55, p. 3.

[92]      Submission 34, p. 5.

[93]      Submission 34, p. 6. Also see: Gosnells, Submission 37, p. 3; AASW, Submission 132, p. 8; Wanslea, Submission 150, p. 10.

[94]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, pp 2-3.

[95]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, pp 60-61.

[96]      Submission 51, p. 3.

[97]      Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 14.

[98]      Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 16.

[99]      Commonwealth of Australia, Protecting Children is Everyone's Business, National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020, 2009, p. 26. The Second Action Plan targets improved supports for grandparents raising grandchildren.

Chapter 4 - Non-financial challenges and supports

[1]        Brennan, D., Cass, B., Flaxman, S., Hill, T., Jenkins, B., McHugh, M., Purcal, C. and valentine, k. (2013), Grandparents raising grandchildren: Towards recognition, respect and reward (SPRC Report 14/13) (Grandparents raising grandchildren), Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, p. 24. Also see: National Seniors, Submission 131, p. 7.

[2]        For example: Tweed Valley Kin Care Support Group Inc., Submission 56, p. 2; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 13; Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. [2].

[3]        The issue of grandparents' awareness of existing supports and services is discussed in Chapter 3.

[4]        Submission 85, p. 3. Also see: Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW), Submission 132, p. 8.

[5]        McHugh, M. (2009), A Framework of Practice for Implementing a Kinship Care Program, Report for the Benevolent Society, Social Policy Research Centre, p. 10. Also see: Yardley, A., Mason, J. and E. Watson (2009), Kinship Care in NSW: Finding a way forward, Social Justice and Social Change Research Centre, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, p. 69.

[6]        Centre for Social Impact, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, pp 7-8.

[7]        Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 15. Also see: Mr Matthew Strong, Senior Solicitor, Family Law and Child Protection, Civil Section, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 3, who remarked on the high turnover and limited training supplied to caseworkers.

[8]        Mr Bill Volkers, General Manager, Face to Face Service Delivery, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 56.

[9]        Submission 133, p. 17.

[10]      Submission 138, p. 9.

[11]      Submission 151, p. [2].

[12]      Submission 131, pp 12-13.

[13]      For example: Sutherland Shire Grandparents' Support Group, Submission 36, p. 1.

[14]      Also see: Mrs Anne McLeish, Grandparents Victoria and Kinship Care, Victoria, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 23.

[15]      Ms Julie Argeros, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 33. Also see: Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA (Inc.) (GRG WA), Submission 50, p. [5].

[16]      For example: Ms Sue Rouch, Social Policy Officer, AASW, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 40.

[17]      Submission 150, p. 6.  Also see: Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [3]; GRG WA, Submission 50, p. [5].

[18]      Mr Ron Richards, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 21.

[19]      Submission 65, p. 11. Also see: Mr Bernie Geary, Victorian Commission for Children and Young People, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 27.

[20]      Ms Sue Rouch, AASW, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 40. Also see: Mrs Anne McLeish, Grandparents Victoria and Kinship Care, Victoria, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 22.

[21]      Submission 32, p. 4.

[22]      Submission 107, p. 12. Also see: Dr Stephen Nicholson, Grandparent and Kinship Carers Association Inc., Mid North Coast New South Wales, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 13.

[23]      See, for example: Uniting Care Community, Time for Grandparents program, additional documents, received 29 August 2014.

[24]      See: Ms Emma White, Department for Child Protection and Family Services (WA), Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 15, who stated that some respite is provided to informal grandparents raising grandchildren to facilitate medical treatment and recovery.

[25]      For example: The Aged-care Rights Service Inc. (TARS), Submission 64, p. 6.

[26]      Submission 108, p. 5. Also see: Women's Legal Services NSW, Submission 138, p. 10; Wanslea Family Services Inc. (Wanslea), Submission 150, p. 10.

[27]      For example: Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania, Submission 32, p. 4; GRG WA, Submission 50, p. [2]; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 7.

[28]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 22.

[29]      For example: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services (Qld) Ltd. (ATSILS Qld), Submission 134, p. [10].

[30]      Submission 17, p. 3.

[31]      Submission 131, p. 12 (quoting one grandparent).

[32]      Mr Brett Fahey, Mission Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 43; Mrs Nicole Patton, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 2, respectively.

[33]      Submission 104, p. 4. Note that this issue might not be relevant to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

[34]      For example: Wanslea, Submission 150, p. 4.

[35]      For example: North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. [3].

[36]      The Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare Inc., Submission 169.1, p. 4. Also see: Ms Julie Argeros, Uniting Care Community, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 33.

[37]      Submission 133, p. 13.

[38]      Mrs Nicole Patton, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, pp 1-2. Also see: Ms Julie Argeros, Uniting Care Community, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 33.

[39]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 43.

[40]      Mrs Anne McLeish, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 18.

[41]      Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs together with the National Framework Implementation Working Group, An outline of National Standards for out-of-home care, A Priority Project under the National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020, July 2011, p. 7, available at: http://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/pac_national_standard.pdf (accessed 11 September 2014).

[42]      Mrs Anne McLeish, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 24.

[43]      Grandparents For Grandchildren SA Inc., Submission 55, p. 3.

[44]      Wanslea, Submission 150, p. 4.

[45]      For example: GRG WA, Submission 50, p. [4]; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 15.                                                                                            

[46]      Submission 133, p. 14.

[47]      AASW, Submission 132, p. 6.

[48]      Submission 17, p. 3. Also see: Ms Meredith Kiraly, Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 12; Ms Kelly Bucknall, CREATE Foundation, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 27 (referring also to the potential for further traumatisation).

[49]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 26. Also see: Miss Kathleen, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 30 (in relation to supervision).

[50]      For example: Family and Relationship Services Australia, Submission 81, p. 4; Tangentyere Council, Submission 112, p. 1; CREATE Foundation, Submission 136, p. 6; National Legal Aid, Submission 141, p. 4; Ms Trish Heath, Principal Policy Officer, Commissioner for Children and Young People, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, pp 6-7.

[51]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 26.

[52]      Ms Sue Rouch and Ms Wendy Frayne, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 44.

[53]      AASW, Submission 132, p. 7.

[54]      Mrs Anne McLeish, Grandparents Victoria and Kinship Care, Victoria, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 22.

[55]      For example: Dr Marilyn McHugh, Submission 17, p. 3.

[56]      Submission 50, p. [5]. Also see: Mrs Nicole Patton, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 7; Ms Wendy Frayne, AASW, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 44; Dr Bridget Jenkins, Centre for Social Impact, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 2.

[57]      For example: North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. [3].

[58]      Submission 150, p. 6. Also see: Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 152, which noted the cultural importance of kinship to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander grandparents raising grandchildren.

[59]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 29.

[60]      Mr Moray McSevich, Albany Branch, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 3.

[61]      Mr Brett Fahey, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 42.

[62]      Dr Stephen Nicholson, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, pp 10 and 12. Also see: Dr Jan Backhouse, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 20; Ms Julie Argeros, Uniting Care Community, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 35.

[63]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 14.

[64]      For example: GRG WA, Submission 50, p. [6]; Shoalcoast Community Legal Centre Inc., Submission 87, p. [3]; Central Australian Women's Legal Service, Submission 104, p. 3.

[65]      The Child and Family Welfare Agencies Association, Submission 151, p. [3].

[66]      Dr Jan Backhouse, Submission 51, p. 3.

[67]      Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 15.

[68]      For example: TARS, Submission 64, p. 6; GRANDS Raising Kids NSW Inc., Submission 74, p. 2.

[69]      Department of Human Services, Foster Child Health Care Card, available at: http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/foster-child-health-care-card (accessed 9 September 2014).

[70]      Department of Social Services, MyTime for Grandparents (peer support groups), available at: http://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/families-and-children/programs-services/family-support-program/family-and-children-s-services/mytime-for-grandparents-peer-support-groups (accessed 9 September 2014).

[71]      Answers to questions on notice, received 15 August 2014, p. 2.

[72]      Department of Human Services, Grandparent advisers, available at: http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/centrelink/grandparent-advisers (accessed 9 September 2014).

[73]      Department, answers to questions on notice, received 15 August 2014, p. 4.

[74]      Ms Pene Futcher, Operational Manager, Grandparent Adviser Program Delivery, Department, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 52. Also see: Ms Donna Dei-Rossi and Ms Susan Thornton, Grandparent Advisors, Department, p. 55.

[75]      Mr Bill Volkers, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 53.

[76]      Ms Pene Futcher, Department, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 56. Ms Thornton provided one example involving questions asked on the claim form for the Foster Child Health Care Card: see p. 57.

[77]      Answers to question on notice, received 24 September 2014, p. 2.

[78]      For example: Sutherland Shire Grandparents' Support Group, Submission 36, p. 1; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 7; Wanslea, Submission 150, p. 3; Child and Family Welfare Agencies Association, Submission 151, p. [2]; Mrs Nicole Patton, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 1; Ms Merilyn O'Neill, Grandparent and Kinship Carers Association Inc., Mid North Coast New South Wales, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 11.

[79]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 20.

[80]      Mrs Anne McLeish, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 21.

[81]      Ms Donna Dei-Rossi, Department, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 51.

[82]      Ms Susan Thornton, Department, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 52.

[83]      Centre for Social Impact, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 7. Also see: Dr Jan Backhouse, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 19.

[84]      Dr Stephen Nicholson, Committee Hansard, Sydney 13 June 2014, p. 10. Also see: Mr James Pilkington, Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 14.

[85]      Ms Josephine Root, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 21.

[86]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 40.

[87]      Mr Matt McNeil, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 27; Ms Donna Dei-Rossi and Ms Susan Thornton, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, pp 50-51.

[88]      Submission 113, p. 5.

[89]      Submission 113, p. 6.

[90]      Answers to question on notice, received 23 September 2014, p. 2.

[91]      Ms Elizabeth Hefren-Webb, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, pp 29 and 32.

[92]      Department, answers to questions on notice, received 15 August 2014, p. 2.

[93]      McHugh, M. and valentine, k. (2010), Financial and Non-Financial Support to Formal and Informal Out of Home Carers, Social Policy Research Centre, Final Report for the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Tables 3.1-3.8 at pp 41-44. A summary of the supports available by jurisdiction is provided at pp 45-49.

[94]      McHugh, M. and valentine, k. (2010), Financial and Non-Financial Support to Formal and Informal Out of Home Carers, Social Policy Research Centre, Final Report for the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, p. 41.

[95]      Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services (Qld), Carer information and fact sheets, available at: http://www.communities.qld.gov.au/childsafety/foster-care/resources-and-publications/carer-information-and-fact-sheets (accessed 10 September 2014).

[96]      For example: Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania, Submission 32, p. 4; COTA Australia, Submission 113, p. 6; Dr Caroline O'Neill, Board Member and Founder, Permanent Care and Adoptive Families, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 53.

[97]      For example: Tweed Valley Kin Care Support Group Inc., Submission 56, pp 1-2; North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. [2]; ATSILS Qld, Submission 134, p. [9].

[98]      For example: GRG WA, Submission 50, p. [2]. Also see: Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 68.

[99]      Submission 134, pp [9-10]. The ATSILS Qld contended also that these supports and services should be delivered by 'culturally appropriate and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community controlled support services'.

[100]    Submission 82, p. 6.

[101]    Also see: UnitingCare Children, Young People and Families, Submission 85, p. 3; Mrs Nicole Patton, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 4; Ms Kellie Booth, Indigenous Programs, Child Australia, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 17.

[102]    Mr Brett Fahey, Mission Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 49.

[103]    Mr Moray McSevich, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 2.

[104]    Submission 150, p. 9.

[105]    Submission 65, p. 2.

[106]    Submission 65, p. 2. Also see p. 13.

[107]    Submission 32, p. 2.

[108]    Submission 32, p. 4.

[109]    Submission 100, pp [1-2].

[110]    Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 28.

Chapter 5 - Other challenges encountered by grandparents raising grandchildren

[1]        Boetto, H. (2010), 'Kinship care: A review of the issues', Family Matters 2010 No. 85, Australian Institute of Family Studies, p. 62.

[2]        Submission 132, p. 5. Also see: Brennan, D., Cass, B., Flaxman, S., Hill, T., Jenkins, B., McHugh, M., Purcal, C. and valentine, k. (2013), Grandparents raising grandchildren: Towards recognition, respect and reward (SPRC Report 14/13) (Grandparents raising grandchildren), Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, pp 109 and 111, reporting widespread (45 per cent) health problems among the surveyed grandparents, which many (61.5 per cent) considered had been exacerbated by the care arrangement.

[3]        For example: Women's Legal Service Tasmania, Submission 66, p. 2; The Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare Inc. (Centre for Excellence), Submission 169, p. 12.

[4]        Submission 134, pp [18-19] (quoting the grandparent).

[5]        Submission 17, p. 4.

[6]        For example: COTA Australia (COTA) Submission 113, p. 6; Wanslea, Submission 150, p. 3.

[7]        Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 18.

[8]        Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 18.

[9]        Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 42.

[10]      Submission 64, p. 4. Also see: Women's Legal Services NSW, Submission 138, p. 9.

[11]      Submission 108, p. 6.

[12]      Ms Wendy Frayne, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 45.

[13]      For example: Dr Marilyn McHugh, Submission 17, p. 3; Commissioner for Children and Young People, Western Australia (WA Commissioner), Submission 34, p. 5; Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [3]; Ms Meredith Kiraly, Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 10.

[14]      Ms Elizabeth McCrea, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 2.

[15]      Submission 51, p. 2. In relation to this 'disenfranchised grief', also see: Dr Marilyn McHugh, Submission 17, p. 3.

[16]      Submission 50, p. [6].

[17]      Submission 150, p. 7.

[18]      Grandparents For Grandchildren SA Inc., Submission 55, p.2.

[19]      Ms Barbara Anderson, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 24.

[20]      Submission 138, p. 5

[21]      For example: Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA (Inc.) (GRG WA), Submission 50, p. [6]; North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, pp [9-10]; Central Australian Women's Legal Service, Submission 104, p. 4; Winangay Resources Inc., Submission 107, p. 13. Also see: Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, p. 150.

[22]      Submission 104, p. 3. Also see: Ms Ann Owen, Foster Carers Association NT Inc., Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 8, who noted grandparents' concern regarding the additional trauma that this might cause.

[23]      For example: Tweed Valley Kin Care Support Group Inc., Submission 56, p. 3.

[24]      Tweed Valley Kin Care Support Group Inc., Submission 56, p. 4.

[25]      Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 21.

[26]      The Aged-care Rights Service Inc., Submission 64, p. 9. Also see: Miss Kathleen, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 25.

[27]      Submission 65, p. 4 (quoting four grandparents).

[28]      Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 15.

[29]      Submission 17, p. 3.

[30]      For example: Australian Association of Social Workers, Submission 132, p. 9.

[31]      Submission 55, p. 3 and Submission 74, p. [2], respectively.

[32]      Submission 108, p. 7.

[33]      Submission 82, pp 6-7.

[34]      Centre for Excellence, Submission 169.1, pp 7-8 and 12.

[35]      For example: North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. [4]; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Service (Qld) Ltd. (ATSILS Qld), Submission 134, p. [14].

[36]      Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [4].

[37]      Submission 64, p. 6.

[38]      Member, GRG WA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 34. Also see: UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 9.

[39]      Supplementary Submission 64, p. 1.

[40]      Supplementary Submission 64, p. 1.

[41]      Submission 32, p. 4.

[42]      Families Australia, 'Grandparenting: Present & Future', Family Issues Series No. 2, January 2007, p. 19.

[43]      McHugh, M. and k. valentine (2011), Financial and Non-Financial Support to Formal and Informal Out of Home Care, Occasional Paper No. 38, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra, p. 5; Dunne, G. and L. Kettler (2006), 'Social and Emotional Issues of Children in Kinship Foster Care and Stressors on Kinship Carers: A Review of the Australian and International Literature', Children Australia, 31(2) p. 23.

[44]      Smyth, C. and T. Eardley (2008), Out of Home Care for Children in Australia: A Review of Literature and Policy, Social Policy Research Centre Report No. 3/08, prepared for the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, p. 4.

[45]      Submission 6, p. [3]. Also see: Ms Elizabeth McCrea, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 2.

[46]      Submission 132, p. 4.

[47]      Submission 132, p. 4.

[48]      Submission 65, p. 10 (quoting two grandparents).

[49]      For example: Ms Meredith McLaine, Shoalcoast Community Legal Centre Inc., Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 40; Ms Trish Heath, WA Commissioner, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 8.

[50]      For example: Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania, Submission 32, p. 4; Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 133, p. 14; Ms Jenni Perkins, WA Commissioner, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, pp 1-2.

[51]      Submission 113, pp 8-9 and Ms Elizabeth McCrea, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 7, respectively.

[52]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 17.

[53]      Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 5.

[54]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 55. Also see: Women's Legal Service Tasmania, Submission 66, p. [3], which noted that delays in accessing supports and services can compound trauma; Ms Julie Argeros, Uniting Care Community, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 33.

[55]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 11.

[56]      See, for example: WA Commissioner, Submission 34, p. 5; UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 18.

[57]      For example: Wanslea Family Services Inc. (Wanslea), Submission 150, pp 6-7.

[58]      Submission 50, p. [6].

[59]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 27.

[60]      Submission 18, p. 1. Also see: Tweed Valley Kin Care Support Group Inc., Submission 56, p. 3.

[61]      Submission 18, p. 3. The National Framework for Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020, Second Action Plan, prioritises the mental health of vulnerable and at-risk children, and identifies, as future work, exploration of options to better meet these needs for children and young people in out-of-home care: Department of Social Services, Protecting Australia's Children 2009-2020—Second  Action Plan 2012-2015, p. 27, available at: http://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/07_2014/facs_42647_nfpac_action_plan_text.pdf (accessed 23 September 2014).

[62]      Submission 50, p. [6].

[63]      Submission 111, p. 2.

[64]      GRG WA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 31.

[65]      Submission 34, p. 4.

[66]      Department of Social Services, Better Start for Children with Disability initiative, available at: http://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/disability-and-carers/program-services/for-people-with-disability/better-start-for-children-with-disability-initiative (accessed 17 September 2014).

[67]      Submission 133, p. 15.

[68]      Boetto, H. (2010), 'Kinship care: a review of issues', Australian Institute of Family Studies, pp 62-63. Also see, for example: Grandparents For Grandchildren SA Inc., Submission 55, p. 2; Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [4].

[69]      The Social Policy Research Centre has reported that marital (and other intimate) relationships can be adversely affected by the commencement of a care arrangement, particularly where one grandparent is not biologically related to the children in care: see Brennan et al, Grandparents raising grandchildren, pp 115 and 117. However, participants did not generally raise this issue for consideration.

[70]      Submission 58, pp [4-5]. Also see: UnitingCare Tasmania, Submission 65, p. 9; North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. [3]; Wanslea, Submission 150, p. 7, which noted the loss of the 'normal' family experience.

[71]      For example: Tangentyere Council, Submission 112, p. 2.

[72]      For example: Women's Legal Service Tasmania, Submission 66, p. 3.

[73]      Submission 150, p. 7.

[74]      Submission 134, p. [14].

[75]      Submission 132, p. 8.

[76]      Submission 66, p. [3].

[77]      Submission 132, pp 5-6.

[78]      Submission 134, p. [14].

[79]      Quoted in Centre for Excellence, Submission 169.1, p. 10.

Chapter 6 - Barriers in acquiring legal recognition

[1]        Smyth, C. and T. Eardley (2008), Out of Home Care for Children in Australia: A Review of Literature and Policy, SPRC Report No. 3/08, prepared for the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, p. vi.

[2]        For example: Dr Caroline O'Neill, Permanent Care and Adoptive Families, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 53; Ms Meredith Kiraly, Kinship Care Researcher and Consultant, The Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare Inc. (Centre for Excellence), Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 58.

[3]        For example: Federal Circuit Court of Australia, Submission 91, p. 2; North West Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Tasmania, Submission 100, p. [3]; Women's Legal Services NSW (WLS NSW), Submission 138, p. 8; National Legal Aid (NLA), Submission 141, p. 3; Law Council of Australia (LCA), Submission148, p. 1.

[4]        Submission 150, p. 8.

[5]        Submission 113, p. 8.

[6]        For example: Dr Marilyn McHugh, Submission 17, p. 2; The Salvation Army, Submission 108, p. 5; Tangentyere Council, Submission 112, p. 2; Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), Submission 133, p. 11. Other barriers which are referred to throughout this report include: distrust of formal processes and bodies; reluctance to involve child protection authorities; and intrusion into family affairs.

[7]        Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, pp 53-54.

[8]        A 'Parenting Order' is an order, by consent or judicially determined, that may specify the person(s) with whom a child is to live and allocate 'parental responsibility' for that child: sections 61B and 64B of the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) (Act). A 'Parenting Plan' is a written agreement made by the birth parents and dealing with certain matters, such as where a child is to live and who is to exercise 'parental responsibility' for the child: section 63C of the Act.

[9]        NLA, Submission 141, p. 4; Gosnells Community Legal Centre Inc. (Gosnells), Submission 37, p. 3.

[10]      Submission 91, p. 2.

[11]      North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency (NAAJA) noted also that the ability of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander grandparents raising grandchildren to apply for Legal Aid is compromised by geographic and language considerations: Mr Matthew Strong, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, pp 4-5.

[12]      Attorney-General's Department, Legal Aid, available at: http://www.ag.gov.au/LegalSystem/Legalaidprogrammes/Pages/Legalaid.aspx (accessed 18 September 2014).

[13]      NLA, Submission 141, p. 2. Also see, for example: Relationships Australia, Submission 58, p. [4]; Mrs Nicole Patton, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 4.

[14]      Submission 141, p. 2 and Attachments C-D. Ms Julie Jackson, Legal Aid Western Australia Representative, Family Law Working Group, noted 'one could not expect that one would be able to manage the whole of their Family Court proceedings with the assistance of the duty lawyer scheme': Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 15.

[15]      Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 13.

[16]      Submission 55, p. 3.

[17]      Mrs Nicole Patton, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 4.

[18]      Submission 134, p. [6].

[19]      Submission 139, p. 10 and Submission 64, p. 7, respectively. Also see: Mr Roy Cox, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 25.

[20]      Mrs Margaret Small, Solicitor, Older Persons Legal Service, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 44.

[21]      For example: AHRC, Submission 133, p. 11.

[22]      COTA Australia (COTA), Submission 113, p. 8.

[23]      Submission 65, p. 12.

[24]      Submission 169.1, pp 11-12; Mr Brett Fahey, Mission Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 45.

[25]      Submission 141, p. 2.

[26]      Submission 87, p. 4.

[27]      Ms Julie Jackson, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 12.

[28]      Mr Matthew Strong, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, pp 2-3.

[29]      Submission 134, pp [5-6].

[30]      For example: Tweed Valley Kin Care Support Group Inc., Submission 56, p. 5; COTA , Submission 113, p. 8; LCA, Submission 148, p. 1.

[31]      Committee Hansard, Hobart, 19 September 2014, p. 2.

[32]      Submission 150, pp 7-8. Also see: Aboriginal Family Violence Prevention and Legal Service Victoria, Submission 140, p. 5.

[33]      Centre for Excellence, Submission 169.1, pp 11‑12 (quoting a grandchild). Also see: The Aged‑care Rights Service Inc., Submission 64, p. 7, which noted the adverse effect of legal costs on grandparents raising grandchildren's financial security at a time when income and assets are finite.

[34]      Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 13.

[35]      For example: Mrs Gabrielle Heuft, Blue Care Multicultural Services, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 37; Ms Meredith McLaine, Shoalcoast Community Legal Centre Inc. (Shoalcoast CLC), Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 41.

[36]      Ms Elizabeth McCrea, The Mirabel Foundation, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 4.

[37]      Submission 37, p. 4.

[38]      Submission 141, p. 4.

[39]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 60.

[40]      Ms Meredith McLaine, Shoalcoast CLC, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 49.

[41]      Submission 140, p. 5.

[42]      Submission 140, p. 6. Also see: Tangentyere Council, Submission 112, p. 2.

[43]      Ms Elizabeth McCrea, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 4.

[44]      Submission 87, p. [4]. Also see: Mr Matthew Strong, NAAJA, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, pp 3 and 5-6.

[45]      Submission 148, p. 2. The LCA acknowledged that this alternative to self‑representation 'may have a negative and significantly detrimental effect on the child or young person': Attachment A (contributed by the Queensland Law Society).

[46]      For example: NLA, Submission 141, p. 3.

[47]      Submission 37, p. 3. Also see: Australian Association of Social Workers, Submission 132, p. 10.

[48]      Submission 37, p. 2. Also see: Ms Kaye Bendle, Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA (Inc.) (GRG WA), Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August, 2014, pp 29-30.

[49]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 33.

[50]      Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 58.

[51]      Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 4.

[52]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 41.

[53]      Submission 141, p. 3.

[54]      Shoalcoast CLC, Submission 87, pp [3-4].

[55]      Mr Matthew Strong, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 2. Also see: Ms Julie Jackson, NLA, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 16.

[56]      Submission 141, p. 4.

[57]      Communiqué, 6-7August 2009, p. 6, available at: http://www.lccsc.gov.au/sclj/archive/former_sclj/communiques/2009_communiques.html (accessed 20 October 2014).

[58]      Submission 141, p. 4.

[59]      For example: GRG  WA, Submission 50, p. [3];  Country Women's Association of NSW, Submission 19, p. 2 (aligning the means test with the aged pension).

[60]      For example: Wanslea Family Services Inc., Submission 150, p. 9.

[61]      For example: Ms Shannon Williams, Senior Community Access Officer, Indigenous Women's Legal Program, WLS NSW, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 3.

[62]      Mr Matthew Strong, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 1. In 2015-16, NAAJA's operational budget will be reduced to $6.036 million: see NAAJA, answers to questions on notice, received 27 August 2014, pp 1-2.

[63]      Answers to questions on notice, received 27 August 2014, p. 3.

[64]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 48.

[65]      Ms Lorraine Taylor, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 59.

[66]      Ms Julie Jackson, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 13.

[67]      Grandparent, Committee Hansard, Albany, 7 August 2014, p. 13.

[68]      Submission 87, pp [2-3].

[69]      Submission 139, p. 9.

[70]      Submission 139, p. 11.

[71]      For example: Gosnells, Submission 37, p. 3; Centre for Excellence, Submission 169.1, p. 6.

[72]      Submission 91, p. 2.

[73]      Family Violence–A National Legal Response (ALRC Report 114, NSWLRC Report 128), October 2010, p. 926.

[74]      Family Violence–A National Legal Response (ALRC Report 114, NSWLRC Report 128), October 2010, p. 928.

[75]      Submission 141, p. 4.

[76]      Submission 141, p. 5.

[77]      Submission 141, p. 5 and Submission 66, p. [5], respectively.

[78]      NLA, Submission 141, p. 5; Women's Legal Service Tasmania, Submission 66, p. [5].

[79]      Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 10 June 2014, p. 12.

Chapter 7 - Specific needs of particular groups

[1]        Child protection Australia: 2012-13, Child Welfare Series No. 58, Cat. No. CWS 49, Canberra: AIHW, p. 51. Rates across Australia varied widely from 22.2 per 1,000 in the Northern Territory to 85.5 per 1,000 in New South Wales: see Table 5.4.

[2]        Winangay Resources Inc. (Winangay), Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 56.

[3]        Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 13.

[4]        Ms Shannon Williams, Senior Community Access Officer, Indigenous Women's Legal Program, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 20 June 2014, p. 23.

[5]        Child protection Australia: 2012-13, Child Welfare Series No. 58, Cat. No. CWS 49, Canberra: AIHW, p. 55 and Figure 5.6.

[6]        Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (1997), Bringing them Home Report: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, Sydney, p. 432.

[7]        Submission 104, pp 4-5. Also see: Ms Paula Hayden, Public Officer, Winangay, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 52.

[8]        Lock, J.A (1997), The Aboriginal child placement principle: Research Report 7, NSW Law Reform Commission, Sydney, p. 60. An Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child can only be placed with a non‑Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander carer if an appropriate placement cannot be found from the three preferred groups: see p. 50.

[9]        Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child Placement Principle: Aims and Core Elements, June 2013, pp 3-4.

[10]      Mr James Pilkington, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 14.

[11]      Submission 140, pp 3-4.

[12]      See: Children and Young Person's (Care and Protection) Act 1998 (NSW); Children, Youth and Families Act 2005 (Vic); Child Protection Act 1999 (Qld); Children and Community Services Act 2004 (WA); Children's Protection Act 1993 (SA); Children, Young Persons and their Families Act 1997 (Tas); Care and Protection of Children Act 2007 (NT); Children and Young People Act 2008 (ACT).

[13]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2014, Child protection Australia: 2012-13, Child Welfare Series No. 58, Cat. No. CWS 49, Canberra: AIHW, p. 52 and Table A32. Rates across Australia varied widely from 40 per cent in Tasmania to 81.7 per cent in New South Wales.

[14]      Child protection Australia: 2012-13, Child Welfare Series No. 58, Cat. No. CWS 49, Canberra: AIHW, p. 52.

[15]      Submission 136, p. 5. Also see: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2014, Child protection Australia: 2012-13, Child Welfare Series No. 58, Cat. No. CWS 49, Canberra: AIHW, Table A32.

[16]      Submission 32, p. 4.

[17]      Ms Ann Owen, Executive Director, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 11.

[18]      Submission 133, p. 16.

[19]      Sixtieth session 29 May-15 June 2012, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Australia, CRC/C/AUS/CO/4, August 2012, p. 9, available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/co/CRC_C_AUS_CO_4.pdf (accessed 12 September 2014).

[20]      For example: Community Legal Centres NSW, Submission 139, pp 4-6 and 10; Mr Brett Fahey, Area Manager, New South Wales South Coast, Mission Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 42.

[21]      Submission 107, p. 2.

[22]      Submission 107, p. 6.

[23]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 56.

[24]      Submission 107, p. 9.

[25]      'SNAICC Chairperson launches new assessment tool to assist Aboriginal kinship carers', Media Release, 18 November 2011. Also see: Winangay, Submission 107 pp 10-12.

[26]      Winangay, Submission 107, p 14; Ms Paula Hayden, Winangay, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 53.

[27]      Ms Paula Hayden, Winangay Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 53. Also see: Winangay, Submission 107, p 14.

[28]      Submission 107, p. 13. Also see: Tangentyere Council, Submission 112, p. 3.

[29]      For example: Commissioner for Children and Young People, Western Australia (WA Commissioner), Submission 34, p. 7; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Service (Qld) Ltd. (ATSILS Qld), Submission 134, p. [7].

[30]      Submission 87, p. [3].

[31]      Ms Julie Argeros, Service Coordinator, Time for Grandparents Program, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 38. Also see Chapter 4 (in relation to Wanslea Family Services Inc. (Wanslea) and its Narrogin support group).

[32]      For example: Ms Mary-Jean Kelly, Aboriginal Family Law Support Worker, Shoalcoast Community Legal Centre Inc. (Shoalcoast CLC), Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 47.

[33]      Tangentyere Council, Submission 112, p. 1; Ms Julie Argeros, Uniting Care Community, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 36.

[34]      Submission 81, p. 3.

[35]      Submission 134, p. [2]. Also see: Dr Marilyn McHugh, who noted that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander grandparents raising grandchildren experience higher levels of stress and strain, compared with their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts: Submission 17, p. 3.

[36]      Submission 96, p. 5 and Submission 132, p. 9, respectively.

[37]      Submission 132, p. 9.

[38]      For example: CREATE Foundation, Submission 136, p. 5; Ms Meredith McLaine, Shoalcoast CLC, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 41.

[39]      Mr James Pilkington, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 13.

[40]      Mr James Pilkington, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 15.

[41]      Submission 134, p. [16].

[42]      Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 6.

[43]      Submission 91, p. 2. Also see: Mr Matthew Strong, North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 3.

[44]      Quoted by ATSILS Qld, Submission 134, p. [15].

[45]      Committee Hansard, Darwin, 5 August 2014, p. 4.

[46]      Ms Emma White, Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 19.

[47]      Submission 91, p. 3. This pathway includes, for example: the appointment of independent children's lawyers and the commission of family reports, to determine the best interests of the child.

[48]      Submission 91, p. 3. Also see: ATSILS Qld, Submission 134, p. [7], which stated that the lack of understanding in relation to family law matters is exacerbated by resistance to engagement with, and fear of, such legal systems.

[49]      Submission 134, p. [7].

[50]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 13 June 2014, p. 56.

Chapter 8 - Conclusion

[1]        Mrs Sharyne De Young, Secretary, Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA (Inc.), Committee Hansard, Perth, 6 August 2014, p. 31.

[2]        See Chapter 3.

[3]        See Chapter 3.

[4]        See Chapter 4.

[5]        See Chapters 5 and 6.

[6]        See Chapter 5.

[7]        See Chapter 1.

[8]        See Chapter 2.

[9]        See Chapters 3-5.

[10]      See Chapter 4.

[11]      See Chapters 2 and 4.

[12]      See Chapters 3 and 6.

[13]      See Chapter 5.

[14]      See Chapters 2 and 6.