Chapter 7 References


[1]Constitution, s. 5.

[2]See Ch. on ‘The Parliament and the role of the House’, particularly on dissolution.

[3]Constitution, s. 28.

[4]Constitution, s. 32.

[5]Constitution, s. 5.

[6]Constitution, s. 6. In practice the maximum interval has not been applied and would cause financial problems for a Government if it were.

[7]See Ch. on ‘Order of business and the sitting day’.

[8]Constitution, s. 28.

[9] 3rd Parliament (20.2.1907–19.2.1910), which is therefore the longest—see p. 228.

[10]The shortest lived Parliament was the 11th (6.2.1929–16.9.1929) which was dissolved after 7 months and 11 days. (see table ‘Early dissolutions of the House of Representatives’ in Ch. on ‘The Parliament and the role of the House’.)

[11]Constitution, s. 57—see Ch. on ‘Double dissolutions and joint sittings’ for details.

[12] Constitution, s. 5. The day fixed for the return of writs for the general election of Members to the 27th Parliament was on or before 24 November 1969, Gazette, 82 (29.9.1969), which meant that the new Parliament had to be summoned to meet not later than 24 December 1969. The Parliament met on 25 November for only one sitting before the first session was prorogued on 23 February 1970.

[13] The terms of the proclamation are published in the Gazette and are also reproduced in the Votes and Proceedings, e.g. VP 2016–18/1 (30.8.2016).

[14]S.O. 4 determines the procedure on the meeting of a new Parliament; S.O.s 5–6 determine the procedure on opening day in relation to the Governor-General’s speech.

[15]H.R. Deb. (23.10.1934) 30–1; S.O. 4(i).

[16]S.O. 9(a). This may also be carried out by the Administrator (S.O. 2), VP 1961/1 (7.3.1961); or Deputies of the Governor-General (S.O. 9(b)).

[17]S.O. 4(a).

[18]In 1976 Members of the opposition party did not attend the Senate Chamber, H.R. Deb. (19.2.1976) 166, 169–70.

[19]S. Deb. (12.11.2013) 1.

[20]Until 2004 the Deputy did not explicitly declare the Parliament open—the Deputy’s address was in effect the declaration.

[21]Normally Senators for the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, or Senators filling casual vacancies. In the case of the first meeting of Parliament following a simultaneous dissolution of both Houses it is also necessary for Senators to elect their President.

[22]The term ‘Deputy’ in such cases (although appearing in the Votes and Proceedings, e.g. VP 1987–90/3 (14.9.1987), VP 2016–18/2 (30.8.2016)) is technically a misnomer. In the past the judge commissioned to swear in Members has been described as ‘Commissioner’ (even when also appointed Deputy), e.g. VP 1950–51/3 (22.2.1950).

[23]A proclamation by the Governor-General rectifying errors in the writs has also been presented, VP 1998–2001/3 (10.11.1998).

[24]Necessary when a person who has nominated for a general election dies after nominations have closed and before polling day, VP 1973–74/4 (27.2.1973).

[25]E.g. VP 2016–18/3–6 (30.8.2016).

[26]See Ch. on ‘Members’, for further discussion and form of oath and affirmation.

[27]E.g. VP 2008–10/26 (12.2.2008).

[28]Constitution, s. 42. Members assembling (and sitting) in the Chamber prior to being sworn in are said to ‘assume’ their seats. They ‘take’ their seats after being sworn.

[29]On the opening day of the 21st Parliament a Member who had not been sworn in entered the House during the election of the Speaker. Having been advised that he could not take his seat until sworn in he withdrew and was later sworn in by the Speaker, VP 1954–55/8 (4.8.1954). However, in similar circumstances returning Members re-elected have been permitted to ‘assume’ their seats immediately prior to being called to the Table to be sworn.

[30]S.O. 11; e.g. VP 2016–18/6–7 (30.8.2016); and see Ch. on ‘The Speaker, Deputy Speakers and officers’.

[31]In 1976 Members of the opposition party did not attend the presentation, H.R. Deb. (19.2.1976) 166, 169–70; see also Ch. on ‘The Speaker, Deputy Speakers and officers’.

[32]The terms of the authority are published in the Votes and Proceedings, e.g. VP 2016–18/7 (30.8.2016).

[33]E.g. VP 1978–80/7 (21.2.1978).

[34]See Ch. on ‘Members’.

[35]In 1976 Members of the opposition party did not attend the Senate, H.R. Deb. (19.2.1976) 166, 169–70.

[36]The opening speech for the 7th Parliament consisted of five lines mentioning only the need for the Houses to approve supply, VP 1917/5 (14.6.1917). The speech for the 27th Parliament consisted of four paragraphs, H.R. Deb. (25.11.1969) 18–19.

[37]The text of the speech is incorporated in Hansard, e.g. H.R. Deb. (30.8.2016) 17–25.

[38]May, 24th edn, p. 159. The practice is an expression of the House’s independence of the Crown and the Executive Government.

[39]S.O. 6(a). The practice has not been adopted by the Senate.

[40]E.g. VP 2016–18/9 (30.8.2016).

[41]In contrast to the House of Commons where the bill is by ancient custom the Outlawries Bill. May, 24th edn, p. 159.

[42]The last occasion was in 1945.

[43]H.R. Deb. (26.5.1909) 31.

[44]E.g. provisions of the privilege bill of the 36th Parliament, the Parliamentary Presiding Officers Amendment Bill 1990, were included in the Parliamentary Presiding Officers Amendment Bill 1992. The privilege bill of the 42nd Parliament, the Amendments Incorporation Amendment Bill 2008, contained components of a bill to be introduced at a later date.

[45]Standing Committee on Procedure, Balancing tradition and progress: procedures for the opening of Parliament, August 2001, pp. 16, 32, 45–6.

[46]S.O. 6(c); e.g. VP 2016–18/9 (30.8.2016). No committee was appointed to prepare an Address in Reply following the opening of the 1st Session of the 7th Parliament on 14 June 1917, VP 1917/5 (14.6.1917).

[47]The committee has consisted of four Members excluding the mover, VP 1909/6 (26.5.1909); two Members excluding the mover, VP 1912/5 (19.6.1912); and two Members, the Prime Minister (mover) and Leader of the Opposition, VP 1954/2 (15.2.1954). A Member has subsequently been discharged from the committee and another Member appointed in his place, VP 1976–77/21 (18.2.1976).

[48]E.g. VP 1998–2001/13 (10.11.1998). A specific hour (3.30p.m.) has been included in the resolution for the time of report, VP 1903/3 (26.5.1903).

[49]E.g. VP 2016–18/56 (31.8.2016).

[50]May, 24th edn, p. 160. The Procedure Committee has viewed the appointment of a committee to prepare the Address in Reply in the House of Representatives as redundant, noting that the House abandoned a similar redundant mechanism when it eliminated the Committee of Reasons in 1998. Standing Committee on Procedure, Balancing tradition and progress—Procedures for the opening of Parliament. p. 32.

[51]E.g. VP 1967–68/11 (21.2.1967); VP 2008–10/11 (12.2.2008).

[52]E.g. H.R. Deb. (12.2.2008) 33–61; H.R. Deb. (28.9.2010) 35–9; VP 2016–18/10–11 (30.8.2016).

[53]E.g. VP 1943–44/8 (23.9.1943) (adjourn); VP 1967–68/10 (21.2.1967) (suspend); VP 2002–04/10 (12.2.2002) (adjourn).

[54]E.g. VP 2016–18/10 (30.8.2016).

[55]VP 2008–10/39 (12.2.2008).

[56]VP 1969–70/12–18 (25.11.1969).

[57]VP 1920–21/6 (26.2.1920).

[58]VP 2008–10/11–26 (12.2.2008).

[59]E.g. VP 2016–18/9 (30.8.2016).

[60]E.g. H.R. Deb. (12.11.2013) 25–7.

[61]VP 1993–96/14–16 (4.5.1993).

[62]VP 1980–83/9–10 (25.11.1980).

[63]VP 1967–68/10 (21.2.1967).

[64]VP 1967–68/10 (21.2.1967).

[65]VP 1964–66/11 (25.2.1964).

[66]VP 1969–70/18 (25.11.1969).

[67]VP 1913/7, 12 (9.7.1913).

[68]Constitution, s. 5.

[69]See Ch. on ‘Double dissolutions and joint sittings’.

[70]E.g. Gazette S204 (15.10.2007), Gazette S208 (17.10.2007).

[71]E.g. Gazette S432 (31.8.1998), Gazette S421 (8.10.2001), Gazette S136 (19.7.2010).

[72]The proclamation dissolving the 25th Parliament on 31 October 1966 was read by the Clerk of the House in the absence of the Official Secretary. A member of the Governor-General’s staff is considered the appropriate person to do so. A copy of the proclamation is also included in the bound volumes of the Votes and Proceedings, e.g. VP 2004–07/2176–7.

[73]Advice of Attorney-General’s Department, dated 12 September 1969 (referring to 1963).

[74]And see Ch. on ‘Motions’ in respect of resolutions and orders of the House.

[75]Parliamentary Allowances Act 1952, s. 5A(2).

[76]Ministers can hold office for up to three months without being a Member or Senator (Constitution, s. 64). However, a caretaker convention applies—see Ch on ‘House, Government and Opposition’.

[77]Parliamentary Presiding Officers Act 1965.

[78]Advice of Attorney-General’s Department, dated 29 October 1963 (expressing opinion of Attorney-General). The Commonwealth Debt Conversion Act (No. 2) 1931 was assented to on 15 January 1932, the House of Representatives having been dissolved on 26 November 1931, VP 1929–31/951–3 (26.11.1931). see also opinion by Solicitor-General, dated 9 October 1984, which expressed the view that the Constitution does not require that bills be assented to prior to prorogation or dissolution; and the New Zealand case Simpson v. Attorney-General NZLR (1954) 271–86.

[79]Legislation Act 2003, s. 42(3). Equivalent provision applies if the Parliament expires or is prorogued, for full details see ‘Delegated legislation’ in Ch. on ‘Legislation’.

[80]J 1983–84/1276 (22.10.1984), and see Odgers, 14th edn, pp. 199, 606–8.

[81]Interpretation supported by opinion of Acting Solicitor-General, dated 14 May 1992.

[82]VP 1914–17/576 (2.3.1917).

[83]S. Deb. (1.3.1917) 10758–9.

[84]H.R. Deb. (21.6.1940) 135.

[85]Australia Act 1986, s. 1.

[86]Constitution, s. 6. A list of sessions is included at Appendix 15.

[87]The average interval between prorogation and opening of a new session since 1961 has been10 days in respect of five prorogations. The longest recess was of nine months and six days between the 1st and 2nd Sessions of the 4th Parliament. The shortest recess was of three days between the 1st and 2nd Sessions of the 44th Parliament.

[88]H.R. Deb. (19.3.1957) 19–22.

[89]This practice was adopted in 1977, VP 1977/1 (8.3.1977). Previously the Speaker took a chair near the ministerial bench and the Mace was placed under the Table until the proclamation was read, VP 1974/1 (28.2.1974).

[90]Initial proceedings are governed by S.O. 8. On the opening day of the 2nd Session of the 18th Parliament, the Clerk having informed the House of the unavoidable absence of the Speaker, the Chairman of Committees carried out the Speaker’s duties, VP 1948–49/2 (1.9.1948).

[91]VP 1968–69/2 (12.3.1968).

[92]VP 1961/2 (7.3.1961).

[93]VP 1957–58/1 (19.3.1957).

[94]VP 1970–72/1 (3.3.1970).

[95]From this point the procedure is the same as for the meeting of a new Parliament; S.O.s 5–7 apply. The Governor-General’s speech at the opening of the 2nd Session of the 2nd Parliament consisted of only 12 lines dealing with the Government’s intention to submit electoral redistribution proposals to the Parliament, VP 1905/2 (28.6.1905).

[96]VP 1968–69/2–3 (12.3.1968).

[97]VP 1960–61/2 (8.3.1960).

[98]VP 1960–61/2 (8.3.1960).

[99]VP 1909/2 (26.5.1909).

[100]VP 1958/2 (25.2.1958).

[101]VP 2016/7–23 (18.4.2016).

[102]VP 1954/5–11 (15.2.1954).

[103]VP 1911/4, 8 (5.9.1911); the supply bill was agreed to and returned from the Senate, without requests, that day; VP 1917–19/5 (11.7.1917).

[104]VP 1901–02/1 (9.5.1901).

[105]VP 1901–02/7–8 (9.5.1901). The Duke, commissioned by Letters Patent, was referred to during proceedings as His Majesty’s High Commissioner.

[106]see Odgers, 6th edn, p. 233.

[107]VP 1901–02/8–9 (9.5.1901).

[108]VP 1901–02/11–13 (10.5.1901).

[109]VP 1953–54/66 (2.12.1953); see also Royal Powers Act 1953.

[110]S.O. 9(a).

[111]May, 24th edn, p. 145. In the United Kingdom a session normally begins in early November and continues until late in the following October, May, 24th edn, p. 327.

[112]E.g. Gazette S40 (8.2.1993).

[113]Constitution, s. 5.

[114]VP 1901–02/565 (10.2.1902).

[115]VP 1903/187 (22.10.1903).

[116]VP 1904/268 (15.12.1904); VP 1905/229 (21.12.1905); VP 1906/180 (12.10.1906).

[117]See also Appendix 15.

[118]In the 41st Parliament, the proclamations proroguing the Parliament and dissolving the House of Representatives, signed on 14 October, were read at Parliament House on 15 October and 17 October 2007, respectively.

[119]E.g. the proclamation of 21 March 2016 prorogued the Parliament from 5 pm on Friday 15 April until 9.30 am on Monday 18  appointed Monday 18 April at 9.30 am as the day and time for the Parliament to meet at Parliament House to hold a session of the Parliament; and summoned all Senators and Members to meet at that day, time and place. Gazette C2016G00380 (21.3.2016). A copy of the proclamation is included in the bound volumes of the Votes and Proceedings, e.g. VP 1976–77/625.

[120]VP 1957–58/6 (19.3.1957); H.R. Deb. (19.3.1957) 19.

[121]Letter from the Prime Minister to the Governor-General dated 21.3.2016.

[122]And see Chs. on ‘Parliamentary privilege’ in respect of freedom from arrest in civil matters and ‘Motions’ in respect to resolutions and orders of the House.

[123]A list of business lapsed at prorogation or dissolution is included in the bound volumes of Votes and Proceedings, e.g. VP 1998–2001/2702–26 (Appendix 4).While House practice is that business lapses immediately on prorogation, Senate practice is that business lapses after prorogation, at midnight on the day before the next sitting, Odgers, 14th edn, p. 625. In the House there is no Notice Paper for the first sitting of the new session; Notice Paper no.1 of the new session is issued for the second sitting of the session. In 2016 a Senate Notice Paper was issued for the first sitting, with numbering continuing from the last Notice Paper of the previous session. The Votes and Proceedings start the new session at no. 1, page 1, while Senate Journals continue numbering from the previous session. The same occurs with the numbering of messages—House messages restart at no. 1, Senate messages continue the numbering.

[124]S.O. 174. see ‘Lapsed bills’ in Ch. on ‘Legislation’.

[125]The 4th Parliament having been prorogued on 29 November 1910, 11 bills were assented to on 1 December 1910, VP 1910/261–2 (25.11.1910). The view has been taken by the Solicitor-General that bills can be assented to after prorogation (Opinion No. 3 of 1952, dated 23 May 1952, also Opinion dated 9 October 1984 referred to at p. 227). This view has since been upheld by the High Court, Attorney General (WA) v. Marquet [2003] HCA 67.

[126]Odgers, 14th edn, pp. 198, 608, 614.

[127]See Denis O’Brien, ‘Federal elections—the strange case of the two proclamations’, Public Law Review, June 1993, v.4 (2) : 81–83.

[128]See Transcript of Prime Minister’s press conference at Parliament House, 29 August 2004, and S. Deb. (30.8.2004). The delay enabled the establishment of a foreshadowed Senate select committee to inquire into certain matters involving the Prime Minister, which held a public hearing after the prorogation. The House did not sit again before dissolution.

[129]Letter from the Prime Minister to the Governor-General dated 21.3.2016.

[130]The committee is, atypically, ordered to report at a specified time.

[131]E.g. VP 2010–13/58 (29.9.2010). The Prime Minister has presented the Address and another Member moved that it be agreed to, VP 1922/11 (29.6.1922), VP 1925/9 (10.6.1925). The Prime Minister has presented the Address and moved that it be agreed to, VP 1944–45/6 (17.7.1944), VP 1954/5 (15.2.1954) (opening by the Queen).

[132]In 1945 the Address was varied to include a welcome to the Duke of Gloucester, recently appointed as Governor-General, VP 1945–46/12 (22.2.1945) and there have been variations when Queen Elizabeth II opened sessions, VP 1954/5 (15.2.1954), VP 1974/36 (7.3.1974) and VP 1977/22–3 (16.3.1977). In 1974 the Address was varied to take cognisance of the fact that a new Governor-General had been appointed after the session commenced, VP 1974–75/36 (16.7.1974).

[133]VP 2016–18/56 (31.8.2016).

[134]VP 1969–70/11 (25.11.1969) (on this occasion there was no debate); VP 1954/5 (15.2.1954).

[135]VP 1917/5 (14.7.1917).

[136]VP 1913/5 (9.7.1913).

[137]VP 1913/13 (19.8.1913).

[138]VP 1961/5–6 (7.3.1961). Presented to the Administrator, VP 1961/36 (23.3.1961).

[139]H.R. Deb. (6.7.1922) 238.

[140]S.O. 1.

[141]VP 1951–53/29–30 (22.6.1951); VP 1998–2001/214 (9.12.1998).

[142]E.g. VP 2008–10/170 (then Main Committee).

[143]NP 3 (14.8.1913) 9, NP 3 (2.11.1934) 5; on these occasions the proposed Address and amendments were given precedence even though prior to 1965 the standing order did not make provision for a Minister to accept an amendment as a censure or no confidence amendment. In other cases, precedence was accorded although no precedence note appeared on the Notice Paper, H.R. Deb. (21.3.1957) 81, H.R. Deb. (27.2.1962) 271.

[144]VP 1923–24/13–18 (2, 7, and 8.3.1923).

[145]H.R. Deb. (18.3.1970) 557; VP 1970–72/48 (18.3.1970).

[146]VP 1905/7–12 (30.6.1905, 5.7.1905, 7.7.1905).

[147]In the absence of the Speaker the Address is presented by the Deputy Speaker, VP 1948–49/35 (15.9.1948), VP 1956–57/64 (20.3.1956). In recent years the presentation has been made at Government House, although on occasion in the past it has taken place in the Parliamentary Library, VP 1917–19/18 (20.7.1917); and elsewhere, VP 1903/32 (18.6.1903), VP 1906/43 (6.7.1906).

[148]S.O. 7(a). In 1976 opposition Members did not attend the presentation.

[149]Since 1937 the Speaker has ascertained the time for presentation and announced it to the House. Prior to this it was often done by the Prime Minister.

[150]E.g. VP 1998–2001/216 (9.12.1998).

[151]E.g. VP 2008–10/359 (5.6.2008).

[152]Address presented on non-sitting day, VP 1958/23 (13.3.1958), 25 (18.3.1958).

[153]Due to the respective absences of the seconder in 1943 and the mover in 1946, other Members took their places.

[154]Bearing the Mace (which is left covered in the foyer of Government House). The Mace was not borne in 1943; see also Ch. on ‘The Speaker, Deputy Speakers and officers’.

[155]Or Deputy Speaker, VP 1977/43 (24.3.1977).

[156]This was not done in 1910.

[157]E.g. VP 2016–18/763 (23.5.2017).

[158]VP 1973–74/73 (3.4.1973).

[159]VP 1974–75/172 (18.9.1974).

[160]VP 1910/21 (13.7.1910)—agreed to; 193 (27.10.1910)—presented.

[161]VP 1922/59 (2.8.1922), 138 (21.9.1922), 145 (22.9.1922).

[162]VP 1907–08/35 (31.7.1907).

[163]VP 1909/89 (25.8.1909).

[164]VP 1907/30 (21.2.1907).

[165] VP 1974/115 (bound volume, appendix 4).

[166]H.R. Deb. (28.3.1950) 1207; VP 1950–51/47–8 (30.3.1950), H.R. Deb. (30.3.1950) 1415–22. The incident was later the subject of a motion of censure of the Speaker, VP 1950–51/55–6 (20.4.1950), H.R. Deb. (20.4.1950) 1691–1702; see also Ch. on ‘The Speaker, Deputy Speakers and officers’.

[167]1901 to 2016. These figures include suspensions of sitting for meal breaks, etc.

[168]S.O. 29, e.g. VP 2016–18/11 (30.8.2016). Prior to 2008 the program was announced by the Government without being proposed to the House for agreement.

[169]VP 1983–84/468–70 (8.12.83)—to take effect from first sitting day of 1984.

[170]VP 1987–90/89–90 (24.9.1987). The sessional orders were made standing orders in November 1992.

[171]Standing Committee on Procedure, About time: Bills, questions and working hours. PP 194 (1993).

[172]Debate of proposal H.R. Deb. (12.2.2008) 61–149. The Friday sitting was twice suspended because of disorder, H.R. Deb. (22.2.2008) 1243, 1284.

[173]S.O. 30(a), e.g. VP 2008–10/838 (4.2.2009), 937 (16.3.2009).

[174]S.O. 30(b).

[175]S.O. 30(c). see also comment on actions by the Speaker under this provision under ‘Discretionary powers’ in the Ch. on ‘The Speaker, Deputy Speaker and officers’.

[176]E.g. VP 1978–80/1418 (23.4.1980).

[177]The additional sitting day on Saturday 18 December 1993 was the first Saturday sitting since 1929 (VP 1993–96/651). Since then the House has met on Saturday 6 December 1997, VP 1996–98/2682 (4.12.1997); and Saturday 26 June 2004, VP 2002–04/1758 (24.6.2004)—both of these were resumptions of the previous day’s sitting.

[178]E.g. VP 2002–04/623 (9.12.2002).

[179]VP 1976–77/454 (10.11.1976).

[180]H.R. Deb. (25.10.1979) 2490–1, VP 1978–80/1140 (25.10.1979).

[181]H.R. Deb. (13.5.1914) 983–7, VP 1914/42 (13.5.1914). The Prime Minister submitted that at any time during Wednesday’s sitting (which had continued beyond the hour of meeting for Thursday) the House could otherwise order as to the next day’s sitting. The Chair took the view that this was so only if done before the appointed time of the next sitting.

[182]VP 1974–75/540 (6.3.1975).

[183]H.R. Deb. (31.1.1902) 9559.

[184]H.R. Deb. (15.11.1918) 7929.

[185]H.R. Deb. (24.5.1940) 1261–73.

[186]VP 1945–46/345, 351 (9.4.1946).

[187]VP 1901–02/265 (6.12.1901).

[188]The precedents cited date from before the House adopted the practice of agreeing to an annual program of sittings.

[189]E.g. VP 1996–98/3199 (2.7.1998). Most commonly used for a long adjournment.

[190]E.g. VP 1987–90/1682 (30.11.1989). Sometimes used for a long adjournment.

[191]E.g. VP 1998–2001/1414 (13.4.2000). Used for short adjournment.

[192]E.g. Gazette S136 (7.7.1975).

[193]VP 1968–69/482 (29.5.1969).

[194]Gazette 61 (18.7.1969) 4301.

[195]Gazette 69 (7.8.1969) 4789. The change was made because of departure arrangements for the Duke and Duchess of Kent.

[196]VP 1978–80/746 (5.4.1979).

[197]E.g. VP 1978–80/747 (1.5.1979) (to allow Members to attend a luncheon for the Prime Minister of Korea); VP 2004–07/1777 (20.3.2007) (to allow Members to attend a funeral).

[198]VP 1940/97 (30.5.1940), 99 (20.6.1940).

[199]VP 1974–75/81l (5.6.1975); H.R. Deb. (9.7.1975) 3556, VP 1974–75/813 (9.7.1975).

[200]VP 1990–92/478 (21.12.1990), 481 (21.1.1991).

[201]VP 1985–87/334 (23.5.1985), 337 (31.5.1985); VP 1987–90/987 (1.12.1988), 989 (21.12.1988); VP 1987–90/1320 (1.6.1989), 1323 (15.6.1989); VP 1990–92/109 (17.5.1990), 111 (31.5.1990); VP 1990–92/1231, 1249 (28.11.1991), 1251 (19.12.1991).

[202]VP 1920–21/187 (27.5.1920).

[203]VP 1934–37/801 (9.12.1936); H.R. Deb. (9.12.1936) 2884.

[204]VP 1940–43/267 (16.12.1941); H.R. Deb. (16.12.1941) 1068.

[205]VP 1950–51/177 (6.7.1950); H.R. Deb. (6.7.1950) 4836.

[206]E.g. VP 1959–60/314 (3.12.1959); VP 1974–75/143–9 (23.8.1974), H.R. Deb. (23.8.1974) 1126; VP 1987–90/1682 (30.11.1989), 1695 (21.12.1989).

[207]VP 1940–43/275 (20.2.1942).

[208]VP 1990–92/1231 (28.11.1991) (the one day meeting was for the occasion of an address to both Houses by the President of the United States of America).

Top