Chapter 13 References


[1]Described in the Chapter on ‘Financial Legislation’.

[2]The Senate’s power to insist on requests for amendments to bills it cannot amend has never been conceded by the House (see Ch. on ‘Senate amendments and requests’). One double dissolution has been granted on the basis, in part, of purported ‘pressed requests’ (see p. 484).

[3]See Ch. on ‘Senate amendments and requests’.

[4]For examination of the operation of section 57 the following references are noted: Report from the Joint Committee on Constitutional Review, PP 108 (1959–60) 19–34; ‘Constitutional Alteration (Avoidance of Double Dissolution Deadlocks) Bill’, Report from Senate Select Committee, S1 (1950–51); George Howatt, Resolving Senate–House deadlocks in Australia without endangering the smaller States, PP 51 (1964–66); and Odgers.

[5]The Senate can be dissolved only pursuant to this section.

[6]Quick and Garran, p. 685.

[7]Quick and Garran, p. 339.

[8]Quick and Garran, p. 685.

[9]P. H. Lane, Lane’s commentary on the Australian Constitution, Law Book Co., 1986, pp. 291–92. And see comments by Chief Justice Griffith noted at p. 471.

[10]Quick and Garran, p. 686.

[11]See, for example, Simultaneous dissolution of the Senate and the House of Representatives 4 February 1983, PP 129 (1984) 43–4.

[12]This interpretation of section 57 was upheld by the High Court in Victoria v. Commonwealth (1975) 134 CLR 81 (Petroleum and Minerals Authority Case)—see page 492.

[13]Quick and Garran, p. 685.

[14]In 1994 the Senate made extensive amendments to the ATSIC Amendment (Indigenous Land Corporation and Land Fund) Bill 1994. The Government agreed to accept 21 of the amendments, and a second version of the bill, with a new short title and incorporating the agreed Senate amendments was introduced, H.R. Deb. (28.2.1995) 1106. At the time it was considered that the changes made to the original bill did not preclude the possibility that if necessary the bill could become a bill subject to the s. 57 provisions. The Broadcasting Services Amendment (Media Ownership) Bill 2002 [No. 2] was an example of a ‘second’ bill with less extensive amendments incorporated. For discussion of the question of the necessary identity between the two bills see K. Magarey, Alcopops makes the House see double: ‘the proposed law’ in section 57 of the Constitution. Parliamentary Library Research Paper, no. 32, 2008–09, May 2009.

[15]Resolving deadlocks: A discussion paper on Section 57 of the Australian Constitution, H.R. Deb. (8.10.2003) 20852–62.

[16]Consultative Group on Constitutional Change, Resolving deadlocks: the public response. H.R. Deb. (1.6.2004) 29656–60.

[17]Accounts of the same events from the Senate perspective are given in Odgers, 14th edn, pp. 728–64.

[18]VP 1913/132 (31.10.1913).

[19]VP 1913/162–5 (18.11.1913).

[20]J 1913/93 (20.11.1913), 137 (11.12.1913).

[21]VP 1914/33 (6.5.1914), 61 (28.5.1914).

[22]VP 1914/40, 41, 42 (13.5.1914), 48, 53 (21.5.1914), 61 (28.5.1914).

[23]J 1914/53 (28.5.1914).

[24]Double dissolution correspondence between the late Prime Minister (the Right Honourable Joseph Cook) and His Excellency the Governor-General, PP 2 (1914–17) 3.

[25]PP 2 (1914–17) 4.

[26]PP 2 (1914–17) 8.

[27]PP 2 (1914–17) 3.

[28]Gazette 38 (29.6.1914) 99.

[29]Gazette 48 (30.7.1914) 101.

[30]‘Memorandum by Sir Samuel Griffith’, quoted in L. F. Crisp, Australian national government, 5th edn, pp. 404–5.

[31]J 1914/86–8 (17.6.1914).

[32]J 1914/98 (24.6.1914). Double dissolution documents presented to the House on the first day of the 6th Parliament, VP 1914–17/5 (8.10.1914).

[33]VP 1950–51/34 (16.3.1950).

[34]VP 1950–51/73 (4.5.1950).

[35]J 1950–51/42 (10.5.1950).

[36]J 1950–51/93–4 (21.6.1950).

[37]VP 1950–51/170–1 (22.6.1950).

[38]J 1950–51/107–8 (22.6.1950).

[39]VP 1950–51/174 (22.6.1950).

[40]J 1950–51/123–5 (10.10.1950). Odgers, 6th edn, gives a more detailed account on pp. 38–9.

[41]VP 1950–51/195 (11.10.1950).

[42]VP 1950–51/195–7 (11.10.1950).

[43]J 1950–51/131–2 (12.10.1950).

[44]J 1950–51/223–4 (14.3.1951).

[45]Simultaneous dissolution of the Senate and the House of Representatives by His Excellency the Governor-General on 19 March 1951, PP 6 (1957–58).

[46]PP 6 (1957–58) 10–12.

[47]PP 6 (1957–58) 12.

[48]PP 6 (1957–58) 4.

[49]PP 6 (1957–58) 15.

[50]PP 6 (1957–58) 20–1. In Victoria v. Commonwealth (1975) the High Court was not required to reach a conclusion on this particular aspect of s. 57, but comments were made on the point, 134 CLR 81 at 125 per Barwick CJ; 147, 149 and 151 per Gibbs J; 167 per Stephen J; and 187 per Mason J.

[51]PP 6 (1957–58) 16–17.

[52]PP 6 (1957–58) 21–2.

[53]PP 6 (1957–58) 23.

[54]Gazette 19A (19.3.1951) 740a.

[55]VP 1951–53/82 (26.9.1951).

[56]For details of general Senate opposition to government activity and other political developments see Odgers, 6th edn, pp. 43–64.

[57]VP 1974/65 (21.3.1974).

[58]VP 1974/77 (2.4.1974).

[59]VP 1974/102–4 (10.4.1974).

[60]H.R. Deb. (4.4.1974) 1054.

[61]J 1974/109–14 (10.4.1974).

[62]Simultaneous dissolution of the Senate and the House of Representatives, 11 April 1974, PP 257 (1975) 4.

[63]PP 257 (1975) 30–1.

[64]PP 257 (1975) 32.

[65]PP 257 (1975) 38.

[66]Gazette 31B (11.4.1974).

[67]VP 1974–75/17–8 (10.7.1974).

[68]VP 1974–75/22–4 (10.7.1974).

[69]VP 1974–75/26–8 (11.7.1974).

[70]See Appendix 22 of the first edition.

[71]There were many political factors which had a direct bearing on the 1975 double dissolution, e.g. the manner of filling casual vacancies in the Senate, the ‘loans affair’, and ministerial resignations. The intention here is to cover only the parliamentary aspects of the crisis.

[72]See Appendixes 23 and 24 of first edition.

[73]VP 1974–75/840 (19.10.1975).

[74]VP 1974–75/953–6 (8.10.1975).

[75]J 1974–75/952 (14.10.1975).

[76]J 1974–75/962–5 (16.10.1975).

[77]J 1974–75/954–6 (15.10.1975).

[78]VP 1974–75/987–90 (16.10.1975).

[79]VP 1974–75/992–3, 997–8 (16.10.1975).

[80]VP 1974–75/1004–6 (21.10.1975).

[81]VP 1974–75/1007–9 (21.10.1975).

[82]J 1974–75/978–80 (22.10.1975).

[83]Section 28 reads ‘Every House of Representatives shall continue for three years from the first meeting of the House, and no longer, but may be sooner dissolved by the Governor-General’.

[84]VP 1974–75/1045–7 (28.10.1975).

[85]J 1974–75/1016–8 (5.11.1975).

[86]VP 1974–75/1105–7 (5.11.1975).

[87]Appropriation Bill (No. 1) 1975–76 [No. 2], Appropriation Bill (No. 2) 1975–76 [No. 2] and Loans Bill 1975 [No. 2], VP 1974–75/1015–25 (22.10.1975).

[88]Appropriation Bill (No. 1) 1975–76 [No. 3] and Appropriation Bill (No. 2) 1975–76 [No. 3], VP 1974–75/1067–70 (29.10.1975).

[89]J 1974–75/987–8 (23.10.1975), 1019–20 (5.11.1975), 1023–4 (6.11.1975).

[90]VP 1974–75/1059–60 (29.10.1975).

[91]VP 1974–75/1121–3 (11.11.1975).

[92]G. Whitlam. The truth of the matter, Penguin, Ringwood, 1979: p.  J. Kerr. Matters for judgment, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1978: p. 355. P. Kelly and T. Bramston, The dismissal in the Queen’s name, Penguin, Melbourne, 2015.

[93]Simultaneous dissolution of the Senate and the House of Representatives by His Excellency the Governor-General on 11 November 1975, PP 15 (1979) 1.

[94]H.R. Deb. (11.11.1975) 2928; Gazette S227 (11.11.1975).

[95]H.R. Deb. (11.11.1975) 2928.

[96]J 1974–75/1031 (11.11.1975).

[97]VP 1974–75/1125–7 (11.11.1975).

[98]H.R. Deb. (11.11.1975) 2931.

[99]An acknowledgment, dated 13 November, of receipt of the resolution of the House was received by the Speaker on 17 November.

[100]Gazette S229 (11.11.1975).

[101]PP 15 (1979) 2–4.

[102]H.R. Deb. (17.2.1976) 5.

[103]H.R. Deb. (17.2.1976) 6.

[104]Colin Howard, ‘The constitutional crisis of 1975’, Australian Quarterly 31, 1, 1976, p. 5.

[105]Quick and Garran, p. ix.

[106]Quick and Garran, p. 703.

[107]Sir Samuel Griffith, Notes on Australian Federation, 1896, pp. 17–18, quoted in Quick and Garran, pp. 703–4.

[108]Quick and Garran, p. 705.

[109]Quick and Garran, pp. 706–7. For further information and argument on the conflict of principles of responsible government and federalism see for example, Australian Constitutional Convention 1977, Standing Committee D, Special report to Executive Committee on the Senate and supply, 23 June 1977 (especially pp. 39–45); Sir Billy Snedden, The Constitution, Parliament and the Westminster heritage, 20 October 1979, House of Representatives, Canberra; Report of the Advisory Committee on Executive Government, Constitutional Commission, Canberra, June 1987; John Uhr, Deliberative democracy in Australia: the changing place of Parliament, Cambridge University Press, 1998, especially pp. 77–81; and Brian Galligan, A Federal Republic: Australia’s constitutional system of government, Cambridge University Press, 1995.

[110]See, for example, Report of the Advisory Committee on Executive Government, Constitutional Commission, Canberra, June 1987 (especially pp. 20–8); Republic Advisory Committee, An Australian republic—the options. v. 1, pp. 114–6, PP 168 (1993).

[111]Letter of 3 February 1983 from the Prime Minister to the Governor-General, PP 129 (1984) 1–15.

[112]VP 1980–83/613–5 (21.10.1981).

[113]Fuller details are contained in the paper Simultaneous dissolution of the Senate and the House of Representatives, 4 February 1983, PP 129 (1984).

[114]PP 129 (1984) 1–15, 41.

[115]PP 129 (1984) 43–4.

[116]PP 129 (1984) 47–8.

[117]Simultaneous dissolution of the Senate and the House of Representatives, 5 June 1987, PP 331 (1987) 1–4.

[118]PP 331 (1987) 5.

[119]PP 331 (1987) 8.

[120]S. Deb. (23.9.1987) 565.

[121]J 1987–88/116–7 (23.9.1987).

[122]J 1987–88/152–4 (8.10.1987).

[123]There was also a trigger in the Clean Energy Finance Corporation (Abolition) Bill 2013 and the [No. 2] bill of the same title. However, the Government had responded in this case by introducing a further bill which had additional provisions (Clean Energy Finance Corporation (Abolition) Bill 2014).

[124]J 2013–16/4079 (17.3.2016).

[125]VP 2016–18/360–1 (22.11.2016), 422–3 (30.11.2016).

[126]Constitution, s. 57.

[127]In respect of the 1974 joint sitting, bills were not amended by either House prior to the joint sitting.

[128]Constitution, s. 57.

[129]See Appendix 22 of the first edition.

[130]Gazette S62B (30.7.1974).

[131]Constitution, s. 50.

[132]There were formerly three joint standing orders (standing orders applicable to both Houses) which were discarded by the Senate in 1989 and by the House in 2004 (Joint Standing Order I covered the treatment of copies of Acts assented to).

[133]VP 1974–75/118–21 (1.8.1974); J 1974–75/117–20 (1.8.1974). see Rules for joint sittings (following Appendix 25).

[134]The three amending Acts concerned were assented to on 1 August 1974, VP 1974–75/121 (1.8.1974). Details of the amendments to the Evidence Act, Parliamentary Papers Act and Parliamentary Proceedings Broadcasting Act, and related determinations, are set out at pages 473–4 of the fifth edition.

[135]VP 1974–75/106 (31.7.1974). The Senate passed a similar resolution, J 1974–75/117 (1.8.1974).

[136]The record of the joint sitting can be found in the following parliamentary records: (a) Joint Sitting of Senate and House of Representatives: minutes of proceedings and certain related documents, 6–7 August 1974, and (b) H.R. Deb. (6 and 7.8.1974) 1–175.

[137]Many aspects of the wording of section 57 were discussed.

[138]Cormack v. Cope (1974) 131 CLR 432.

[139]VP 1974–75/127 (2.8.1974).

[140]Victoria v. Commonwealth (1975) 134 CLR 81 (Petroleum and Minerals Authority Case).

[141]Western Australia v. Commonwealth (1975) 134 CLR 201 (Territories Representation Case); see also Queensland v. Commonwealth (1977) 139 CLR 585.

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