Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 21–29 November 2016, pp. 659–660.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 43–14 June 2017, p. 1410.

[3]        A submission was categorised as a form letter where it contained a specific, or easily identifiable, template of words. A submission was included as a variation to a particular form letter where the template of words was modified but could still be identified as having derived from a form letter, or where the template was supplemented with additional material.

[4]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2024.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Australia Revealed, 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2024.0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[5]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2024.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Australia Revealed, 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2024.0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[6]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2024.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Australia Revealed, 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2024.0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[7]        Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2024.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Australia Revealed, 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2024.0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[8]        Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights, Freedom of speech in Australia, February 2017, p. 1.

[9]        Joint Standing Committee on Migration, Inquiry into Migration and Multiculturalism in Australia, March 2013, p. 2.

[10]      The Scanlon Foundation, Surveys, http://scanlonfoundation.org.au/research/surveys/ (accessed 16 August 2017).

[11]      The Scanlon Foundation, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation surveys 2016, November 2016, pp. 1­4.

[12]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4159.0 – General Social Survey: Summary Results, Australia, 2014, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/exnote/4159.0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[13]      See, for example, E Koleth, Multiculturalism: a review of Australian policy statements and recent debates in Australian and overseas, Research paper, 6, 2010–11, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2010.

[14]      E Koleth, Multiculturalism: a review of Australian policy statements and recent debates in Australian and overseas, Research paper, 6, 2010–11, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2010.

[15]      Department of Social Services, Fact Sheet – Australia's Multicultural Policy, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/publications/fact-sheet-australias-multicultural-policy (accessed 16 August 2017).

[16]      The Hon. Malcolm Turnbull, MP, Prime Minister of Australia, and Senator the Hon. Zed Seselja, Assistant Minister for Social Services and Multicultural Affairs, 'Multicultural Australia: United, Strong, Successful', Media Release, 20 March 2017.

[17]      Department of Social Services, Submission 10, p. 5.

[18]      Department of Social Services, Humanitarian Settlement Services (HSS), https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/settlement-services/humanitarian-settlement-services-hss (accessed 16 August 2017).

[19]      Department of Social Services, Complex Case Support Program, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/settlement-services/complex-case-support-programme (accessed 16 August 2017).

[20]      Department of Education and Training, Adult Migrant English Program, https://www.education.gov.au/adult-migrant-english-program-0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[21]      Department of Social Services, About Settlement Grants, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/settlement-services/settlement-grants/what-is-settlement-grants/about-settlement-grants (accessed 16 August 2017).

[22]      Department of Social Services, Free Translating Service, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/settle-in-australia/help-with-english/free-translating-service (accessed 16 August 2017).

[23]      Department of Social Services, Free Interpreting Service, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/settle-in-australia/help-with-english/free-interpreting-service (accessed 16 August 2017).

[24]      Senator the Hon Zed Seselja, Assistant Minister for Social Services and Multicultural Affairs, 'Better focus on employment, English and outcomes under the new humanitarian settlement program', Media Release, 27 July 2017.

[25]      Department of Social Services, National Settlement Framework, https://www.dss.gov.au/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/publications/national-settlement-framework (accessed 5 August 2017).

[26]      Multicultural Youth Advocacy Network, National Youth Settlement Framework, http://www.myan.org.au/our-work-with-the-sector/156/ (accessed 16 August 2017).

[27]      Australian Multicultural Advisory Council, The People of Australia: Australia's Multicultural Policy, December 2013, [p. 7].

[28]      Department of Social Services, Australian Multicultural Council, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/a-multicultural-australia/australian-multicultural-council (accessed 16 August 2017).

[29]      Attorney-General's Department, Australia's anti-discrimination law, https://www.ag.gov.au/RightsAndProtections/HumanRights/Pages/Australias-Anti-Discrimination-Law.aspx (accessed 16 August 2017).

[30]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Legislation, http://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/legal/legislation (accessed 16 August 2017).

[31]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Legislation, http://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/legal/legislation (accessed 16 August 2017).

[32]      Australian Human Rights Commission, National Anti-Racism Strategy and Racism. It Stops with Me Campaign, July 2012, p. 2.

[33]      Australian Human Rights Commission, National Anti-Racism Strategy and Racism. It Stops with Me Campaign, http://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/race-discrimination/projects/national-anti-racism-strategy-and-racism-it-stops-me-campaign (accessed 16 August 2017).

[34]      See, for example, Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 27; Anthony Heath, 'Has multiculturalism failed in the UK? Not really', The Guardian, 11 August 2012, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/aug/10/multiculturalism-uk-research (accessed 16 August 2017).

[35]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 5.

[36]      E Koleth, Multiculturalism: a review of Australian policy statements and recent debates in Australian and overseas, Research paper, 6, 2010–11, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2010.

[37]      Canadian Multiculturalism Act 1988, Preamble.

[38]      Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Story: Biculturalism, https://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biculturalism (accessed 16 August 2017).

Chapter 2 - Adequacy of settlement and social inclusion services

[1]        See, for example, Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p.3; Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture Inc., Submission 47, pp. 6–7; Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 2.

[2]        Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 3.

[3]        Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 3.

[4]        See, for example, Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 6; Professor Fethi Mansouri, Director, Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation; and UNESCO Chair, Comparative Research in Cultural Diversity and Social Justice, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 54; Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 3.

[5]        Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 2.

[6]        Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 3.

[7]        Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 3.

[8]        Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 3.

[9]        Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture Inc., Submission 47, pp. 6–7.

[10]      Settlement Services International, Submission 14, p. 5.

[11]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 7.

[12]      Department of Social Services, Humanitarian Settlement Services (HSS), https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/settlement-services/humanitarian-settlement-services-hss (accessed 6 July 2017).

[13]      Settlement Council of Australia, Submission 62, p. 12.

[14]      Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 4.

[15]      Mr Nicholas Tebbey, Chief Executive Officer, Settlement Council of Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 24.

[16]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 7.

[17]      Mrs Esta Paschalidis-Chilas, Government and Member Relations Manager, Settlement Services International, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 38.

[18]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 8.

[19]      Mr Burhan Zangana, Committee Member, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 36.

[20]      Multicultural Council of Tasmania, Submission 21, [p. 3].

[21]      Multicultural Council of Tasmania, Submission 21, [p. 2].

[22]      See, for example, Tasmanian Government, Submission 54, p. 6; Victorian Multicultural Commission, Engaging Our Youth: Our Future, June 2015, p. 76.

[23]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 54, p. 6.

[24]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 10.

[25]      Ms Kaye Graves, Team Manager, Diversity, Bendigo Community Health Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 11.

[26]      Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, pp. 7–8.

[27]      Mr Matthew Hall, Ms Georgie Currie, Ms Anna McArthur-Dowty, Submission 36, [p. 2].

[28]      Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 7.

[29]      Mr Asher Hirsch, Senior Policy Officer, Refugee Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 8.

[30]      Queensland Government, Submission 98, p. 3.

[31]      Department of Education and Training, Adult Migrant English Program, https://www.education.gov.au/adult-migrant-english-program-0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[32]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 54, p. 6.

[33]      'SCARF' refers to the Strategic Community Assistance to Refugee Families organisation in Wollongong. They provide a range of support services to refugees settling into the Illawarra region.

[34]      Mrs Elizabeth Lual, Member, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 40.

[35]      Ms Sky de Jersey, Settlement Services Programs Officer, Policy and Strategy, Settlement Services International, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 40. Also see: Ms Kaye Graves, Team Manager, Diversity, Bendigo Community Health Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 11.

[36]      Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 4.

[37]      Multicultural Communities Council of SA, Submission 33, [p. 2].

[38]      Dr Sonja Hood, Chief Executive Officer, Community Hubs Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 61.

[39]      Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 6.

[40]      Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 4.

[41]      Name withheld, Submission 94, [p. 1].

[42]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 6.

[43]      Dr Sonja Hood, Chief Executive Officer, Community Hubs Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 60.

[44]      Dr Irene Bouzo, Executive Officer, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 19. Also see: Queensland Government, Submission 98, p. 3.

[45]      Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 2.

[46]      Dr Sonja Hood, Chief Executive Officer, Community Hubs Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 60.

[47]      Mr Lachlan Murdoch, Deputy Chief Executive Officer, New South Wales Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 40.

[48]      Mr Atem Dau Atem, Public Officer, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, pp. 40–41.

[49]      Dr Sonja Hood, Chief Executive Officer, Community Hubs Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 62.

[50]      Dr Sonja Hood, Chief Executive Officer, Community Hubs Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, pp. 61–62.

[51]      See, for example, Ms Jasmina Bajraktarevic-Hayward, Community Services Coordinator, New South Wales Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 41; Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 11.

[52]      Mr Burhan Zangana, Committee Member, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 39.

[53]      See, for example, Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 6; Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 7; Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 27.

[54]      Ms Jasmina Bajraktarevic-Hayward, Community Services Coordinator, New South Wales Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 41.

[55]      Settlement Council of Australia, Submission 62, p. 9.

[56]      Mr Asher Hirsch, Senior Policy Officer, Refugee Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 2.

[57]      Professor Ann Sanson, Fellow, Australian Psychological Society, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 57.

[58]      Mr Asher Hirsch, Senior Policy Officer, Refugee Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 8.

[59]      Australian Citizenship Legislation Amendment (Strengthening the Requirements for Australian Citizenship and Other Measures) Bill 2017.

[60]      Australian Government, Strengthening The Test For Australian Citizenship, April 2017, pp. 9–15.

[61]      Australian Government, Strengthening The Test For Australian Citizenship, April 2017, pp. 9–15.

[62]      See, for example, Australian Government, Strengthening the test for Australian citizenship, April 2017, p. 6; The Hon Peter Dutton MP, Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, 'Labor's citizenship smokescreen', Media Release, 21 June 2017.

[63]      The Scanlon Foundation, 'Australians Today', August 2016, p. 2.

[64]      The Scanlon Foundation, 'Australians Today', August 2016, p. 103.

[65]      See, for example, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Submission 60, pp. 7–8; Public Health Association of Australia, Submission 50, p. 6.

[66]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 9.

[67]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 9. Also see: RMIT ABC Fact Check, 'Fact check: Will the Government's new citizenship test demand a university-level standard of English?', ABC News, 29 June 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/factcheck/2017-06-28/tony-burke-citizenship-test-university-level-english-dutton/8656754 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[68]      Refugee Community Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 7.

[69]      Settlement Council of Australia, Submission 62, p. 9.

[70]      Edmund Rice Centre, Submission 26, p. 14.

[71]      Ms Olyvia Nikou QC, Co-Chair of Cultural Committee, Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 10.

[72]      See, for example, Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 15; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 22; Australian Multicultural Foundation, Submission 31, [p. 2]; Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 8.

[73]      Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria, Submission 7, p. 6.

[74]      Refugee Community Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 8.

[75]      Volunteering SA&NT, Submission 27, [p. 1].

[76]      Volunteering SA&NT, Submission 27, [p. 3].

[77]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 15.

[78]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 9.

[79]      Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 4.

[80]      See, for example, Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 4; Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 5; Australian Bureau of Statistics, 6250.0 – Characteristics of Recent Migrants, Australia, November 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/E92EA270A32AF8F1CA256953007D9AFA?Opendocument (accessed 16 August 2017).

[81]      Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 2.

[82]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 14.

[83]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 4.

[84]      Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 5.

[85]      Mr Asher Hirsch, Senior Policy Officer, Refugee Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 5.

[86]      Department of Employment, jobactive Star Ratings and Performance, www.employment.gov.au/jobactive-star-ratings-and-performance (accessed 16 August 2017).

[87]      Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 5.

[88]      Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 4.

[89]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 6250.0 – Characteristics of Recent Migrants, Australia, November 2016, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/E92EA270A32AF8F1CA256953007D9AFA?Opendocument (accessed 16 August 2017).

[90]      Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW, Submission 15, p. 2.

[91]      Queensland Government Submission 98, p. 2.

[92]      Volunteering SA&NT, Submission 27, [p. 3].

[93]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 54, p. 4.

[94]      Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 6.

[95]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 5.

[96]      Queensland Government, Submission 98, p. 2.

[97]      Ms Catherine Scarth, Chief Executive Officer, AMES Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 4.

[98]      Ms Olyvia Nikou QC, Co-Chair of Cultural Committee, Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 10.

[99]      Ms Olyvia Nikou QC, Co-Chair of Cultural Committee, Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, pp. 15–16.

[100]    Dr Joshua Mark Roose, Secretary, Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, pp. 12–13; Ms Olyvia Nikou QC, Co-Chair of Cultural Committee, Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 15.

[101]    Mr Dominic Ofner, Coordinator of Campaigns and Development, Edmund Rice Centre, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 10.

[102]    Ms Huong Truong. Victoria Chapter, Vietnamese Community in Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 17.

[103]    Ms Carmel Guerra, Chief Executive Officer, Centre for Multicultural Youth, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 31.

[104]    Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 4.

[105]    Ernst & Young, Evaluation of the Humanitarian Settlement Services and Complex Case Support programmes, June 2015, p. 3.

[106]    Department of Social Services, Submission 10, p. 5.

[107]    Department of Education and Training, Revised business model for the Adult Migrant English Program, https://www.education.gov.au/revised-business-model-adult-migrant-english-program (accessed 7 July 2017).

[108]    Department of Human Services, Help for refugees, humanitarian entrants and new arrivals, https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/subjects/help-refugees-humanitarian-entrants-and-new-arrivals (accessed 16 August 2017).

Chapter 3 - Racial discrimination and representation of multicultural groups

[1]        The Scanlon Foundation, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation surveys 2016, November 2016, p. 4.

[2]        The Scanlon Foundation, Australians Today: The Australia@2015 Scanlon Foundation Survey, August 2016, pp. 60–77.

[3]        See, for example, R Martin, 'Is Australia Racist?', Face Up To Racism, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), 26 February 2017; B Wang, 'State of denial: Is Australia racist?', It's Not A Race audio podcast, 13 July 2017, ABC Radio National, accessed 13 July 2017.

[4]        Australian Psychological Society, Submission 61, p. 3.

[5]        Australian Psychological Society, Submission 61, p. 3. Also see: Challenging Racism Project, Submission 22, [p. 4].

[6]        See, for example, Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, pp. 5–6; Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 13; Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 4.

[7]        Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 9.

[8]        The Scanlon Foundation, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation surveys 2016, November 2016, p. 1.

[9]        Mr Marama Kufi, Member, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 3.

[10]      Mr Marama Kufi, Member, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 3.

[11]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 13. Also see: Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture Inc., Submission 47, p. 4.

[12]      See, for example, Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 13; Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 5; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 32, p. 4.

[13]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 10.

[14]      See, for example, Multicultural Youth Advocacy Network, Submission 39, p. 3; Victorian Multicultural Commission, Engaging Our Youth: Our Future, December 2015, p. 45.

[15]      See, for example, Multicultural Youth Advocacy Network, Submission 39, p. 4; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 32, p. 5.

[16]      Multicultural Youth South Australia, Submission 17, p. 6.

[17]      Multicultural Youth Advocacy Network, Submission 39, p. 3.

[18]      Multicultural Youth South Australia, Submission 17, p. 4. Also see: Ms Cam Lu, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 28.

[19]      Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 8. Also see: Multicultural Youth South Australia, Submission 17, p. 6.

[20]      Multicultural Youth South Australia, Submission 17, p. 5.

[21]      Multicultural Youth South Australia, Submission 17, p. 5.

[22]      Mr Eddie Micallef, Chairperson, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 20.

[23]      Ms Cam Lu, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 28. Also see: Ms Maximus Po, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 27.

[24]      See, for example, Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 6; Ms Elizabeth Blades-Hamilton, Senior Research and Policy Officer, Multicultural Affairs and Social Cohesion Division, Department of Premier and Cabinet, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 43; Hume Interfaith Network Youth Group, Submission 102, [p. 2].

[25]      Hume Interfaith Network Youth Group, Submission 102, [p. 2].

[26]      Ms Huong Truong, Victoria Chapter, Vietnamese Community in Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 12. Also see: Australian National Maritime Museum, Australia's Immigration History, http://waves.anmm.gov.au/Immigration-Stories/Immigration-history (accessed 16 August 2017).

[27]      Ms Huong Truong, Victoria Chapter, Vietnamese Community in Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 11.

[28]      Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 5.

[29]      Ms Huong Truong, Victoria Chapter, Vietnamese Community in Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 13.

[30]      Ms Viv Nguyen, President, Victoria Chapter, Vietnamese Community in Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 15.

[31]      Kurdish Lobby Australia, Submission 12, [p. 1]. Also see: Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 32.

[32]      Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 32.

[33]      Mr Peter George Doukas, Chair, Ethnic Communities Council of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 28.

[34]      Community Centres SA, Submission 6, [pp. 4–5].

[35]      Mrs Margot Spalding, Founder and Member of Steering Committee, Believe in Bendigo, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 27.

[36]      The Scanlon Foundation, Australians Today: The Australia@2015 Scanlon Foundation Survey, August 2016, p. 61.

[37]      Australian Psychological Society, Submission 61, p. 18.

[38]      See, for example, Mr Peter George Doukas, Chair, Ethnic Communities Council of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 28; Mr Louis De Villiers, Submission 76, [p. 1]; Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 2.

[39]      Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 2. Also see: Author unknown, 'Nova Peris: NSW Central Coast chiropractor charged over online racist abuse', ABC News, 31 May 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-30/nova-peris-online-racist-abuse-nsw-chiropractor-charged/7460374 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[40]      Vietnamese Community in Australia, Submission 34, p. 5. Also see: Andrew Wu, 'Sydney Swans midfielder Adam Goodes booed again in qualifying final against Fremantle Dockers', Sydney Morning Herald, 12 September 2015, http://www.smh.com.au/afl/sydney-swans/adam-goodes-booed-again-in-qualifying-final-against-fremantle-20150912-gjl7hv.html (accessed 16 August 2017).

[41]      Northern Territory Anti-Discrimination Commission, Submission 48, p. 4.

[42]      See, for example, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 28; Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 14; Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 1; Mr Atem Dau Atem, Public Officer, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 42.

[43]      See, for example, Settlement Services International, Submission 14, [p. 1]; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 32, pp. 7–8; Multicultural Council of Tasmania, Submission 21, p. 2.

[44]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 32, p. 8.

[45]      Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 2.

[46]      Mr Peter George Doukas, Chair, Ethnic Communities Council of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 29. Also see: Settlement Services International, Submission 14, [p. 1]; Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Submission 16, p. 2; Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 2.

[47]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 32, p. 8. Also see: Ms Elizabeth Blades-Hamilton, Senior Research and Policy Officer, Multicultural Affairs and Social Cohesion Division, Department of Premier and Cabinet, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 39.

[48]      Challenging Racism Project, Submission 22, [p. 3].

[49]      Settlement Services International, Submission 14, p. 10.

[50]      Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland, Submission 24, [p. 3].

[51]      See, for example, Queensland Government, Submission 98, p.2; Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 5; Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 15.

[52]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 14.

[53]      Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Submission 16, p. 2.

[54]      Volunteering SA&NT, Submission 27, [p. 3] (capitalisation as per original submission).

[55]      Ms Huong Truong, Victoria Chapter, Vietnamese Community in Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 15.

[56]      Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 2.

[57]      Ms Viv Nguyen, President, Victoria Chapter, Vietnamese Community in Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 15.

[58]      Miss Tessa Mills, Senior Manager, Policy and Research, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 13.

[59]      Challenging Racism Project, Submission 22, [pp. 2–3]. Also see: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 8146.0 – Household Use of Information Technology, Australia, 2014-15, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8146.0 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[60]      Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland, Submission 24, [p. 5].

[61]      Dr Joshua Mark Roose, Secretary, Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017,  p. 14; Refugee Community Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 4.

[62]      Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 32, p. 8.

[63]      Mr Burhan Zangana, Committee Member, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 43.

[64]      Dr Joshua Mark Roose, Secretary, Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017,  p. 14.

[65]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 15. Also see: Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 15; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Submission 32, p. 8; Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 10; Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 6.

[66]      See, for example, Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Submission 16, p. 2; Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 11.

[67]      Ms Isabel Lo, Founder, Media Diversity Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 34.

[68]      Multicultural Youth South Australia, Submission 17, p. 5.

[69]      See, for example, Multicultural Communities Council of New South Wales, Submission 13, p. 1; Multicultural Youth South Australia, Submission 17, p. 6; Ms Kaye Graves, Team Manager, Diversity, Bendigo Community Health Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 11.

[70]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 21. Also see: Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 13.

[71]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Engaging Our Youth: Our Future, December 2015, p. 89.

[72]      Western Sydney University, The resilience and ordinariness of Australian Muslims: Attitudes and experiences of Muslims Report, November 2015, p. 30. Also see: Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 11.

[73]      See, for example, Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 3; Challenging Racism Project, Submission 22, [p. 3].

[74]      Challenging Racism Project, Submission 22, [p. 3].

[75]      Professor Andrew Markus, Private capacity, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 19.

[76]      See, for example, Ms Ly Ly Lim, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 2; Professor Fethi Mansouri, Director, Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation; and UNESCO Chair, Comparative Research in Cultural Diversity and Social Justice, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 49.

[77]      Mr Eddie Micallef, Chairperson, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 19.

[78]      City of Greater Bendigo, About Greater Bendigo, https://www.bendigo.vic.gov.au/About/About-Greater-Bendigo (accessed 4 August 2017).

[79]      Author unknown, 'Bendigo mosque one step closer after latest appeal against proposal rejected', ABC News, 16 December 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-12-16/bendigo-mosque-given-all-clear-after-final-appeal-rejected/7032344 (accessed 4 August 2017).

[80]      Rebekah Cavanagh, 'Bendigo mosque: Anti-Islam and anti-racist protestor face off in counter rallies', Herald Sun, 29 August 2015, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/bendigo-mosque-antiislam-and-antiracist-protester-face-off-in-counter-rallies/news-story/e4591d0767c596b9b3242eed46aaa6b7 (accessed 5 August 2017).

[81]      Madeleine Morris, 'Bendigo's anti-mosque protest: United Patriots Front nationalist group behind demonstration', ABC News, 12 October 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-12/who-was-behind-bendigos-anti-mosque-protests/6848468 (accessed 5 August 2017).

[82]      The 'Yellow Tie Dinner' was a dinner event on 15 July 2017 organised by Believe in Bendigo to celebrate Bendigo's growing diversity, and facilitate conversation between cultural groups.

[83]      Mrs Margot Spalding, Founder and Member of Steering Committee, Believe in Bendigo, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 29.

[84]      Ms Kate McInnes, Executive Officer, Loddon Campaspe Multicultural Services, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 9.

[85]      Mrs Margot Spalding, Founder and Member of Steering Committee, Believe in Bendigo, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, pp. 28–29.

[86]      Mr Abhishek Awasthi, Non-Executive Director, Bendigo Interfaith Council, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 29.

[87]      Mrs Margot Spalding, Founder and Member of Steering Committee, Believe in Bendigo, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 26.

[88]      Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 13. Also see: Australian Hellenic Council, Submission 53, p. 6.

[89]      Name withheld, Submission 92, [pp. 1–2].

[90]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, pp. 11–12.

[91]      Dr Tamsin Clarke, Freedoms Committee Chair, Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 49.

[92]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 19.

[93]      Mr Eddie Micallef, Chairperson, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, pp. 20–21.

[94]      Ms Ly Ly Lim, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 3.

[95]      Multicultural Communities Council of SA, Submission 33, [p. 3].

[96]      Mr Eddie Micallef, Chairperson, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 21.

[97]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 19.

[98]      Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Submission 103, p. 3. Also see: Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Submission 100, p. 2.

[99]      See, for example, Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, pp. 2–3; Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 9; Chinese Community Council of Australia, Submission 11, p. 1.

[100]    Ms Mandi Wicks, Director, Audio and Language Content, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 19.

[101]    Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Submission 100, p. 4.

[102]    See, for example, Ms Mandi Wicks, Director, Audio and Language Content, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 19; Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Submission 100, p. 4.

[103]    Special Broadcasting Service, SBS Charter, http://www.sbs.com.au/aboutus/corporate/index/id/25/h/SBS-Charter (accessed 16 August 2017). Also see: Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Submission 100, p. 2.

[104]    Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Legislative framework, http://about.abc.net.au/how-the-abc-is-run/what-guides-us/legislative-framework/ (accessed 16 August 2017). Also see: Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Submission 104, p. 2.

[105]    Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Submission 103, p. 3.

[106]    Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 2.

[107]    Challenging Racism Project, Submission 22, [p. 5]; Also see: Victorian Multicultural Commission, Strengthening Social Cohesion: Meeting Community Need, May 2016, p. 78.

[108]    Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland, Submission 24, [pp. 5–6].

[109]    Ms Helen Kapalos, Chairperson, Victorian Multicultural Commission, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 41.

[110]    Media Diversity Australia, Submission 64, [p. 2]. Also see: Mr Eddie Micallef, Chairperson, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 21.

[111]    Screen Australia, Seeing ourselves: Reflections on diversity in Australian TV drama, August 2016, p. 10.

[112]    Miss Tessa Mills, Senior Manager, Policy and Research, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 13.

[113]    Ms Clare O'Neil, Director, Corporate Affairs, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 17.

[114]    Ms Ly Ly Lim, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, pp. 2–3.

[115]    Ms Clare O'Neil, Director, Corporate Affairs, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 17. Also see: Miss Tessa Mills, Senior Manager, Policy and Research, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 14.

[116]    Ms Clare O'Neil, Director, Corporate Affairs, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 17.

[117]    Screen Australia, Screen Currency: Valuing our screen industry, November 2016, pp. 10–11.

[118]    Ms Isabel Lo, Founder, Media Diversity Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 35.

[119]    Ms Helen Kapalos, Chairperson, Victorian Multicultural Commission, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 42.

[120]    Ms Clare O'Neil, Director, Corporate Affairs, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, pp. 15–16.

[121]    See, for example, Miss Tessa Mills, Senior Manager, Policy and Research, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 18; Ms Clare O'Neil, Director, Corporate Affairs, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 18.

[122]    Mr Patrick May, Policy Analyst, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 18.

[123]    Miss Tessa Mills, Senior Manager, Policy and Research, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 14.

[124]    Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights, Freedom of speech in Australia: Inquiry into the operation of Part IIA of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) and related procedures under the Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986 (Cth), February 2017, pp. 1–112.

Chapter 4 - Political leadership and education

[1]        Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 7.

[2]        Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 10.

[3]        See, for example, Professor Fethi Mansouri, Director, Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation and UNESCO Chair, Comparative Research in Cultural Diversity and Social Justice, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 54; Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, pp. 7–8.

[4]        Professor Fethi Mansouri, Director, Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation and UNESCO Chair, Comparative Research in Cultural Diversity and Social Justice, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 54.

[5]        Mr Dominic Ofner, Coordinator of Campaigns and Development, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 4.

[6]        The Hon. Malcolm Turnbull, MP, Prime Minister for Australia, and Senator the Hon. George Brandis QC, Attorney-General, 'Human Rights Legislation Amendment Bill', Media release, 21 March 2017.

[7]        Chinese Australian Services Society, Submission 30, p. 6.

[8]        See, for example, Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, p. 13; Mr George Said, Submission 66, [p. 1]; Chinese Community Council of Australia, Submission 11, p. 1.

[9]        Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 14.

[10]      Professor Andrew Markus, Private capacity, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 19.

[11]      See, for example, Mr Dominic Ofner, Coordinator of Campaigns and Development, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 7; Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 4.

[12]      See, for example, Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 6; Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 20.

[13]      The All Hungary Media Group, Jobbik confident of winning EP seat, party leader says, http://www.politics.hu/20090513/jobbik-confident-of-winning-ep-seat-party-leader-says/ (accessed 16 August 2017).

[14]      Reuters, '"I will protect you!" Marine Le Pen vows to end all immigration to France if elected president', The Telegraph, 18 April 2017.

[15]      Ethnic Communities' Council of New South Wales, Submission 15, p. 1. Also see: Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Submission 16, p. 2.

[16]      Professor Andrew Markus, Private capacity, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 20.

[17]       Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 14.

[18]      Mr Dominic Ofner, Coordinator of Campaigns and Development, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 5. Also see: Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria, Submission 7, p. 5.

[19]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 8.

[20]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 11. Also see: Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 4.

[21]      See, for example, Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Submission 16,
pp. 2–3; Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 7.

[22]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 13.

[23]      Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 12.

[24]      See, for example, Mr Dominic Ofner, Coordinator of Campaigns and Development, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 6; Ms Isabel Lo, Founder, Media Diversity Australia, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 34; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 17.

[25]      Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 4. Also see: Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 14.

[26]      Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 7.

[27]      Mr Dominic Ofner, Coordinator of Campaigns and Development, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 7.

[28]      Ms Ly Ly Lim, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 2. Also see: Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Submission 60, p. 4.

[29]      Mr Dominic Ofner, Coordinator of Campaigns and Development, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 5.

[30]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 11.

[31]      Katharine Murphy, 'Race ethics code: Shorten challenges Turnbull to put Labor proposal to Coalition MPs', The Guardian, 16 November 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/16/shorten-turnbull-labor-race-ethics-code-coalition (accessed 16 August 2017).

[32]      Settlement Services International, Submission 14, p. 7. Also see: Ellen Whinnett and Tawqeer Hussain, 'Indian student numbers plunge after fresh attack', Herald Sun, 5 January 2014, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/indian-student-numbers-plunge-after-fresh-attack/news-story/193d86e790b3faa8eef8760bc928bdd8 (accessed 16 August 2017).

[33]      Settlement Services International, Submission 14, p. 9.

[34]      Ms Ly Ly Lim, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 2.

[35]      See, for example, Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 43, p. 8; Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture Inc., Submission 47, p. 6.

[36]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 8.

[37]      See, for example, Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 1; Settlement Services International, Submission 14, p. 9; Australian Multicultural Foundation, Submission 31, [p. 2]; Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 6; Centre for Multicultural Youth, Submission 51, p. 6.

[38]      Journals of the Senate, No. 192, 2 July 1998, pp. 4837–4838.

[39]      Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, ACARA facts: Religion in the Australian Curriculum, http://www.acara.edu.au/news-and-media/acara-facts (accessed 16 August 2017).

[40]      See, for example, Dr Anna Halafoff, Mr Andrew Singleton, Ms Mary Lou Rasmussen and Mr Gary D. Bouma, Submission 28, [p. 1]; Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 24; Professor Fethi Mansouri, Submission 38, p. 3.

[41]      Dr Anna Halafoff, Mr Andrew Singleton, Ms Mary Lou Rasmussen and Mr Gary D. Bouma, Submission 28, [p. 1]. Also see: Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 33.

[42]      Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 27. Also see: Mr Atem Dau Atem, Public Officer, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 43.

[43]      Mr Atem Dau Atem, Public Officer, Refugee Communities Advocacy Network, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 42.

[44]      See, for example, Ms Mandi Wicks, Director, Audio and Language Content, Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 20; Mr Peter George Doukas, Chair, Ethnic Communities Council of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 28; Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 28.

[45]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Strengthening Social Cohesion: Meeting Community Needs, May 2016, p. 14. Also see: Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 5.

[46]      See, for example, Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 12; Mr George Alexander Vellis, Coordinator, Australian Hellenic Council of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 29; Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 4; Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, pp. 9–10.

[47]      Mr George Alexander Vellis, Coordinator, Australian Hellenic Council of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 29. Also see: Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 12.

[48]      Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 4.

[49]      Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 10.

[50]      See, for example, Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 7; Professor Fethi Mansouri, Submission 38, p. 3; Vietnamese Community in Australia, Submission 34, p. 3.

[51]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Private capacity, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 59.

[52]      Dr Irene Bouzo, Executive Officer, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, pp. 23–24.

[53]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 7.

[54]      Australian Psychological Society, Submission 61, p. 15.

[55]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, '2016 Census data reveals "no religion" is rising fast', Media release 074/2017, 27 June 2017.

[56]      See, for example, Edmund Rice Centre for Justice and Community Education, Submission 26, p. 24; Ms Susan Ennis, Submission 35, p. 5; C8 Journey, Submission 37, p. 5.

[57]      Australian Government, Multicultural Australia: United, Strong, Successful, March 2017, p. 15.

[58]      Australian Bahá'í Community, Submission 52, pp. 2–3.

[59]      Monsignor Francis Marriott, Chair, Bendigo Interfaith Council, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 27.

[60]      Australian Multicultural Council, Interfaith and social cohesion in Australia: looking to the future, June 2014, p. 4.

[61]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 9.

[62]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 11.

[63]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 10.

[64]      From 2012–16, the Strategy successfully led the development of a number of educative tools and resources to raise awareness about the prevalence of racism, and bolster understanding of how it can be prevented and reduced. Outputs included: What You Say Matters, an online anti-racism resource for young people; Strengthening Connections, a training resource addressing systemic racism against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people using government services; The Workplace Cultural Diversity Tool, an audit tool for employers; RightsED, education resources for schools on racism and race relations; A National Forum on Diversity Training for police; and Building Social Cohesion in Our Communities, a resource for local government.

[65]      Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, p. 10. Also see: C8 Journey, Submission 37, p. 5.

[66]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 10.

[67]      Refugee Council of Australia, Submission 59, pp. 15–16.

[68]      Department of Social Services, Australian Multicultural Council, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/a-multicultural-australia/australian-multicultural-council (accessed 16 August 2017).

[69]      Australian Human Rights Commission, National Anti-Racism Strategy and Racism. It Stops with Me: Summary Evaluation and Future Direction, June 2015, p. 45.

Chapter 5 - Legislation and data collection

[1]        Australian Lawyers for Human Rights submitted that there is no generally accepted definition of the phrase 'principles of multiculturalism': Submission 23, pp. 21–22.

[2]        Chapter 1, Table 1; Tasmanian Government, Submission 54, p. 3; Northern Territory Government, Submission 63, p. 1; Queensland Government, Submission 98, pp. 3–4; ACT Government, Submission 101, p. 1. Chinese Australian Services Society Limited suggested that these approaches evidence inconsistency in enshrining multicultural principles and addressing social cohesion issues: Submission 30, p. 7.

[3]        Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 3.

[4]        Edmund Rice Centre, Submission 26, p. 21.

[5]        Professor Fethi Mansouri, Submission 38, p. 1.

[6]        For further details of Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim's proposal, see: Submission 8, pp. 4–6.

[7]        Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 6. The submission observed that there has been a concurrent and significant shift in sentiment and leadership: p. 7.

[8]        Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 2. Also see: Chinese Australian Services Society Limited, Submission 30, p. 2.

[9]        Ms Elizabeth Blades-Hamilton, Senior Research and Policy Officer, Multicultural Affairs and Social Cohesion Division, Department of Premier and Cabinet (Victoria), Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 39.

[10]      Department of Social Services, Australian Government's Multicultural Statement, https://www.dss.gov.au/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/australian-governments-multicultural-statement (accessed 16 August 2017).

[11]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 14. Also see: Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 11 (in respect of symbolism).

[12]      On this point, also see: Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 4.

[13]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Supplementary Submission 23, p. 1.

[14]      Government of Canada, Canadian Multiculturalism Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 24 (4th Supp.)), http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-18.7/ (accessed 16 August 2017).

[15]      See: Varun Uberoi, 'Legislating Multiculturalism and Nationhood: The 1988 Canadian Multiculturalism Act, Canadian Journal of Political Science, June 2016, pp. 267–287, which provided an explanation of the development and implementation of the legislation (including the Canadian Government's reprioritisation of multiculturalism).

[16]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Supplementary Submission 23, p. 1.

[17]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 23. Some states—such as the Australian Capital Territory (Human Rights Act 2004 (ACT)) and Victoria (Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic)) have enacted Human Rights Acts.

[18]      Professor George Williams, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 34.

[19]      Professor George Williams, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 35.

[20]      Professor George Williams, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2017, p. 36.

[21]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 5. Also see: pp. 4 and 21–22.

[22]      Multicultural Communities Council of NSW, Submission 13, pp. 9–10 (bold in the original). Also see pp. 7–9.

[23]      Professor Linda Briskman, Margaret Whitlam Chair of Social Work, Challenging Racism Project, Western Sydney University, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 46. Also see: Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 4; Professor Fethi Mansouri, Submission 38, p. 2; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 61, p. 12.

[24]      Part II of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth).

[25]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 9.

[26]      Challenging Racism Project, Submission 22, p. 6.

[27]      Section 18C of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) prohibits offensive behaviour because of race, colour, or national or ethnic origin

[28]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 23, p. 17. Also see: Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW, Submission 15, p. 1; Chinese Australian Services Society Limited, Submission 30, p. 1: both of which supported the retention of section 18C of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth).

[29]      Section 80.2A criminalises the urging of violence against groups; section 80.2B criminalises the urging of violence against members of groups, both on the basis of race, religion, nationality, national or ethnic origin or political opinion.

[30]      Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 31.

[31]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, p. 14. Also see: Mr Peter Doukas, Chair, Ethnic Communities Council of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 30; Attorney-General's Department, Human Rights and Anti-Discrimination Bill 2012 Exposure Draft Legislation, https://www.ag.gov.au/consultations/documents/consolidationofcommonwealthanti-discriminationlaws/human%20rights%20and%20anti-discrimination%20bill%202012%20-%20exposure%20draft%20.pdf (accessed 16 August 2017).

[32]      Department of Social Services, Australian Multicultural Council, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/programs-policy/a-multicultural-australia/australian-multicultural-council (accessed 16 August 2017).

[33]      Chinese Australian Services Society Limited, Submission 30, p. 7.

[34]      Mr Peter Wertheim, Executive Director, Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 30.

[35]      The Edmund Rice Centre suggested that, as with Multicultural NSW, any legislation to establish a Multicultural Advisory Council should enshrine its function to strengthen its role and enhance its public standing as a statutory body: Submission 26, p. 22.

[36]      Australian Association of Islamic and Muslim Studies, Submission 16, p. 3. Also see: p. 2; Department of Social Services, Australian Government's Multicultural Statement, https://www.dss.gov.au/settlement-and-multicultural-affairs/australian-governments-multicultural-statement (accessed 16 August 2017).

[37]      Department of Social Services, Submission 10, p. 7.

[38]      Ms Helen Kapalos, Chairperson, Victorian Multicultural Commission, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 39.

[39]      Victorian Multicultural Commission, Submission 56, pp. 15–16. Also see: Government of Canada, Canadian Multiculturalism Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 24 (4th Supp.)), s 7, http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-18.7/ (accessed 16 August 2017).

[40]      Chinese Australian Services Society Limited, Submission 30, p. 6.

[41]      Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 13.

[42]      Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 12.

[43]      Australian Multicultural Council, Submission 20, p. 3.

[44]      Victorian Foundation for Survivors of Torture Inc., Submission 47, p. 6.

[45]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Submission 19, p. 1.

[46]      Ms Denise Carlton, Program Manager, Population Statistics, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 21. Ms Carlton noted that the introduction of an online form improved reporting for some culturally diverse groups in the 2016 Census: pp. 22–23.

[47]      Ms Denise Carlton, Program Manager, Population Statistics, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Committee Hansard, 29 June 2017, p. 21.

[48]      Dr Tim Soutphommasane, Race Discrimination Commissioner, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 53.

[49]      Ms Olyvia Nikou QC, Co-Chair of Cultural Committee, Greek Orthodox Community of Melbourne and Victoria, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 13.

[50]      Professor Fethi Mansouri, Director, Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation and UNESCO Chair, Comparative Research in Cultural Diversity and Social Justice, Deakin University, Committee Hansard, 27 June 2017, p. 54.

[51]      For example, there is wide variation in the definition of key terms such as 'hate crime', 'bias‑motivated crime' and 'racially-motivated crime'.

[52]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 22. Also see: Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, Submission 46, pp. 4–5, which argued that further research is needed to better understand racially motivated crime and social cohesion factors.

[53]      Executive Council of Australian Jewry, Submission 2, p. 23.

[54]      Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 7.

[55]      The Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Victoria made a similar observation: Submission 57, p. 4.

[56]      Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 49, p. 10 (bold in the original). The Commission also recommended investigating ways to collect more comprehensive data on issues concerning multiculturalism: p. 13.

[57]      Edmund Rice Centre, Submission 26, p. 25.

[58]      Victorian Government, Submission 41, p. 1.

[59]      Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 1.

[60]      Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 3.

[61]      Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 6.

[62]      Professor Andrew Jakubowicz and Ms Ly Ly Lim, Submission 8, p. 8.

[63]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 7.

[64]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, p. 8.

[65]      Professor Joseph Camilleri OAM, Submission 43, pp. 8–9.

[66]      Federation of Ethnic Communities' Councils of Australia, Submission 57, p. 11.

Additional comments by Labor Senators

[1]        Final Report of the Expert Panel on Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution, Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution, 15 January 2012, pp. 137–156.

[2]        Joint Select Committee on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, Final Report, June 2015, pp. xi–xvi.

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