Don't mince words: definitions of meat and other animal products

February 2022

© Commonwealth of Australia 2022
ISBN: 978-1-76093-357-9

View the report as a single document:

View the report as separate downloadable parts:


Chair's foreword

List of Recommendations

Chapter 1—Introduction and background

  Conduct of the inquiry
  Note on references
  Structure of the report
  Definitions relevant to the scope of this inquiry
  Food Standards Australia New Zealand
  Australian New Zealand Food Standards Code
  Plant-based protein products and consumer protection
  Reviews of labelling and marketing regulations under the FSANZ Code
  International efforts to regulate plant-based products

Chapter 2—Potential impairment of Australia's meat category branding

  The use of animal protein descriptors, utility terms and images
  Traditional protein industry’s concerns
  Are consumers confused?
  Product placement
  Future developments—cultured meat
  Committee comment and recommendations

Chapter 3—Consideration of Code and the use of animal protein descriptors

  Section 1.1.1—13(4) of the FSANZ Code
  Consultation and application of section 1.1.1—13(4)
  The use of animal protein descriptors, livestock images and utility terms
   Proposed amendments to the FSANZ Code—section 1.1.1—13(4)
  Committee comment and recommendations

Chapter 4—A voluntary or mandatory framework under Australian Consumer Law

  Voluntary framework
  Co-regulatory framework
  Mandatory framework
  Committee comment and recommendations

Chapter 5—Economic impact and opportunities

  Growth of red meat and concerns over ‘piggybacking’
  Global protein demand and opportunities for growth
  Opportunities for the plant-based protein industry
  Committee comment and recommendations

Chapter 6—Nutritional, environmental and animal welfare statements

  Nutritional information
  Environmental outcomes and animal welfare
  Zero-sum marketing
  Committee comment and recommendation

Dissenting report by the Australian Greens

  Definitions of meat and other animal products
  Consumer understanding
  Regulatory framework
  Australian Consumer Law
  Opportunities from the protein sector
  Nutritional qualities
  Recommendations of the inquiry
  The Australian Greens recommendations

Appendix 1—Submissions and Additional Information

Appendix 2—Public Hearings

Appendix 3—Images of plant-based protein products

Committee Secretariat contact:

Committee Secretary
Senate Standing Committees on Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport
PO Box 6100
Parliament House
Canberra ACT 2600

Phone: +61 2 6277 3511