Footnotes

Chair's foreword

[1]        The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, www.theguardian.com/australia-news/ng-interactive/2016/aug/10/the-nauru-files-the-lives-of-asylum-seekers-in-detention-detailed-in-a-unique-database-interactive (accessed 20 April 2017).

Chapter 1 - Introduction and background

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 4, 12 September 2016, p. 129.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 31, 20 March 2017, p. 1054.

[3]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), Submission 23, p. 7.

[4]        Refugee Convention 1951, article 1(2).

[5]        DIBP, Submission 23, p. 7.

[6]        International Crisis Group (ICG), What's Driving the Global Refugee Crisis,
15 September 2016, https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/what-s-driving-global-refugee-crisis (accessed 13 January 2017).

[7]        United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), www.unhcr.org/en-au/figures-at-a-glance.html (accessed 13 January 2017).

[8]        UNHCR, www.unhcr.org/en-au/figures-at-a-glance.html (accessed 13 January 2017).

[9]        DIBP, Fact sheet – Australia's refugee and humanitarian programme, https://www.border.gov.au/about/corporate/information/fact-sheets/60refugee (accessed
13 January 2017).

[10]      DIBP, 2015-16 Humanitarian Programme Outcomes, https://www.border.gov.au/ReportsandPublications/Documents/statistics/humanitarian-programme-outcomes-offshore-2015-16.pdf (accessed 13/01/2017).

[11]      Australian Government, Joint Media Release, The Syrian and Iraqi humanitarian crisis¸
9 September 2015, www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/15738/the-syrian-and-iraqi-humanitarian-crisis/ (accessed 5 April 2017).

[12]      Select Committee, Recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru ('Select Committee'), Taking responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru ('Nauru RPC'),
August 2015, pp. 3–6.

[13]      Refugee Council of Australia, Timeline, http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/getfacts/timeline/ (accessed 13 January 2017).

[14]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at the Manus Island Detention Centre from 16 February to 18 February 2014 ('Incident at Manus'),
December 2014, p. 40.

[15]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 40.

[16]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014, pp. 42-43.

[17]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014, pp. 43-44.

[18]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014, pp. 45-46.

[19]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
pp. 51-54.

[20]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 147.

[21]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 145.

[22]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 146.

[23]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 146.

[24]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 151.

[25]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 151.

[26]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 19.

[27]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, pp. 20–23.

[28]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 25.

[29]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 31.

[30]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 49.

[31]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, pp. 64–85.

[32]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, pp. 99–116.

[33]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 120.

[34]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 121.

[35]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 120.

[36]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 123.

[37]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 124.

[38]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Conditions and treatment of asylum seekers and refugees at the regional processing centres in the Republic of Nauru and Papua New Guinea ('Nauru and PNG RPCs'), Interim Report, May 2016, pp. 5–6.

[39]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, pp. 6–7.

[40]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, p. 8.

[41]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, p. 11.

[42]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, p. 12.

[43]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, pp. 12–13.

[44]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, pp. 13–14.

[45]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, pp. 14–16.

[46]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Nauru and PNG RPCs, Interim Report, May 2016, pp. 16–17.

[47]      Belden Norman Namah MP v Hon Rimbink Pato, National Executive Council and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, SCA No. 84 of 2013, Supreme Court of Justice (Papua New Guinea), 26 April 2016.

[48]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), Submission 23, p. 68.

[49]      ABC News, Manus Island detention centre to close, Peter Dutton and PNG Prime Minister confirm, 18 August 2016.

[50]      ABC News, PNG Chief Justice finds Manus Island detention centre is actually closed,
13 March 2017.

[51]      DIBP, Immigration Detention and Community Statistics Summary, 31 January 2017, https://www.border.gov.au/ReportsandPublications/Documents/statistics/immigration-detention-statistics-31-jan-2017.pdf (accessed 20 March 2017).

[52]      The Hon Peter Dutton MP, Interview with Peter Van Onselen and Paul Kelly, Sky Sunday Agenda, 9 April 2017, www.minister.border.gov.au/peterdutton/2017/Pages/sky-sunday-agenda-09042017.aspx (accessed 18 April 2017).

[53]      See, www.minister.border.gov.au/peterdutton/Pages/Refugee-resettlement-from-Regional-Process-Centres.aspx.

[54]      Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Offshore Processing Centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea: procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17.

[55]      ANAO, Offshore processing centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea – contact management of garrison support and welfare services, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17.

[56]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 34.

[57]      Ferrovial, Ferrovial reaches 59% of Broadspectrum, media release, 29 April 2016, www.ferrovial.com/en/press-room/press_releases/59-per-cent-offer-broadspectrum/ (accessed 19 January 2017).

[58]      Wilson Security, Wilson Security to conclude RPC services in 2017, media release,
1 September 2016, https://uploads.guim.co.uk/2016/09/01/245T1041.PDF.pdf (accessed
19 January 2017).

[59]      Sydney Morning Herald, Refugee welfare service provider Connect abandons Nauru,
19 September 2016.

[60]      RNZ, Embattled healthcare provider leaves Manus, 1 April 2017.

[61]      The Guardian Australia, Manus healthcare provider forced to leave for practicing unlicensed,
3 April 2017.

[62]      The Guardian Australia, Manus healthcare provider forced to leave for practicing unlicensed,
3 April 2017.

[63]      Mr Behrouz Boochani, Twitter, https://twitter.com/BehrouzBoochani (accessed 7 April 2017).

Chapter 2 - Allegations of abuse, neglect and self-harm

[1]        The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/ng-interactive/2016/aug/10/the-nauru-files-the-lives-of-asylum-seekers-in-detention-detailed-in-a-unique-database-interactive (accessed 16 January 2017).

[2]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), The 'Nauru files', 10 August 2016, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/releases/the-nauru-files (accessed 16 January 2017).

[3]        Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, Island of despair: Australia's "processing" of refugees on Nauru, October 2016.

[4]        United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNHCR monitoring visit to the Republic of Nauru 7 to 9 October 2013, p. 13.

[5]        Weatherzone, Nauru Coastal Radio Station Climate, www.weatherzone.com.au/climate
/station.jsp?lt=site&lc=200245
(accessed 16 January 2017).

[6]        Human Rights Watch (HRW), Submission 22, p. 3.

[7]        Mr Daniel Webb, Director of Advocacy (DA), Human Rights Law Centre (HRLC), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 2

[8]        HRW, Submission 22, p. 3.

[9]        HRW, Submission 22, p. 4.

[10]      Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Offshore processing centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea – contract management of garrison support and welfare services ('contract management'), January 2017, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 53.

[11]      ANAO, Contract Management, January 2017, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 53.

[12]      De-identified interviews conducted by the International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic of Stanford Law School (Stanford Law School) in May 2016, Communique to the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court under Article 15 of the Rome Statue (Communique to the ICC), The situation in Nauru and Manus Island: liability for crimes against humanity in the detention of refugees and asylum seekers (The situation in Nauru and Manus), 14 February 2017, p. 29, https://law.stanford.edu/publications/communique-to-the-office-of-the-prosecutor-of-the-international-criminal-court-under-article-15-of-the-rome-statute-the-situation-in-nauru-and-manus-island-liability-for-crimes-against-humanity/ (accessed 4 March 2017).

[13]      At the date of this report, no public information is available in relation to that request.

[14]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 13 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 28.

[15]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information 'health', 31 March 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140152.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[16]      Ms Claire O'Connor SC, Australian Women in Support of Women in Nauru (AWSWN), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 18; UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 8.

[17]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 28.

[18]      Stanford Law School, seven de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 28.

[19]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 28.

[20]      UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Concluding observations on the initial report of Nauru, 28 October 2016, CRC/C/NRU/CO/1, p. 13.

[21]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 35.

[22]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 13 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 36.

[23]      DIBP, answer to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[24]      Ms Elaine Pearson, AD, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 8.

[25]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'complaint', 15 January 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140018.pdf  (accessed 3 April 2017).

[26]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information (downgraded from minor incident of 'bullying and harassment'), 13 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150401.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[27]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, incident 'abusive or aggressive behaviour', 18 September 2013 (no link to the incident report is provided where none was available).

[28]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'bullying and harassment',
14 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150340.pdf (accessed
3 April 2017).

[29]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information (downgraded from a major incident of obscene behaviour), 15 August 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150534.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[30]      Mr Philip Moss AM, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015.

[31]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 29.

[32]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, DIBP response, p. 7.

[33]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 29.

[34]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 30.

[35]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'abusive or aggressive behaviour',
10 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150585.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[36]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'abusive/aggressive behaviour',
4 August 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150510.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[37]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'assault on a minor', 13 October 2015.

[38]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'threat of self-harm', 19 August 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150541.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[39]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, 'information', 26 November 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca141111.pdf (accessed 5 March 2017).

[40]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'sexual assault', 16 November 2013, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca131116.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[41]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information 'concern for minor', 31 January 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140042.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[42]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'complaint', 6 March 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140096.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[43]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'abusive or aggressive behaviour' (changed to information by Wilson Security), 27 April 2015.

[44]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'anti-social behaviour', 21 May 2015.

[45]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information (downgraded from major incident of assault on a minor), 24 February 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150173.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[46]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information (downgraded from major incident of assault on a minor), 13 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nufiles/pdf/sca
150398.pdf
(accessed 3 April 2017); information (downgraded from major incident  of assault on a minor, 26 April 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150304.pdf (accessed 5 March 2017); major incident, 'assault on a minor', 11 June 2015.

[47]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'assault on a minor',
30 September 2015.

[48]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, unclassified incident 'concern for minor',
20 November 2013.

[49]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, critical incident 'assault on a minor',
3 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150574.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[50]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'abusive or aggressive behaviour',
11 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150336.pdf (accessed
4 April 2017); minor incident 'misbehaviour', 13 May 2015 https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150338.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[51]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, 28 September 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140808.pdf (accessed 4 March 2017).

[52]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'complaint', 27 January 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140037.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[53]      Doctors for Refugees (DFR), Submission 56, p. 18.

[54]      DFR, Submission 56, p. 18.

[55]      DFR, Submission 56, p. 18.

[56]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 29.

[57]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 29.

[58]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, DIBP response.

[59]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, DIBP response, p. 7.

[60]      Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, the Hon Peter Dutton MP, Media Release,
Australia welcomes Nauru open centre, 5 October 2015, www.minister.border.gov.au/peterdutton/2015/Pages/australia-welcomes-nauru-open-centre.aspx (accessed 9 January 2017).

[61]      Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, the Hon Peter Dutton MP, Media Release, Australia welcomes Nauru open centre, 5 October 2015.

[62]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 41.

[63]      Ms Elaine Pearson, Australia Director (AD), HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday
15 November 2016, p. 1; Ms Pamela Curr, AWSWN, Committee Hansard, Tuesday
15 November 2016, pp. 11-12; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[64]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5

[65]      Ms Elaine Pearson, AD, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 1;
Ms Pamela Curr, AWSWN, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 11.

[66]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information, 4 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150323.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[67]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'sexual assault', 12 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150394.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017); major incident 'sexual assault', 16 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150444.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[68]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information, 18 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150405.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[69]      Ms Pamela Curr, AWSWN, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 12.

[70]      Sydney Morning Herald, Refugee battles for abortion after rape on Nauru, 15 April 2016.

[71]      ABC News, Refugee raped on Nauru flown to Papua New Guinea for abortion, 7 May 2016.

[72]      Ms Elaine Pearson, AD, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 1.

[73]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 40.

[74]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, pp. 40–41.

[75]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 40.

[76]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'assault', 9 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150330.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[77]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, pp. 40–42.

[78]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, pp. 40–42.

[79]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[80]      Ms Elaine Pearson, AD, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[81]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5

[82]      HRW, Submission 22, p. 7.

[83]      ABC News, Omid Masoumali, refugee who died after setting himself on fire, 'suffered without medical care, 2 May 2016.

[84]      The Guardian Australia, Somali refugee in critical condition after setting herself alight on Nauru, 3 May 2016.

[85]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 34.

[86]      Stanford Law School, de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 34.

[87]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[88]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'actual self-harm', 29 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150451.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[89]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'self-harm', 21 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150461.pdf  (accessed 4 April 2017).

[90]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5; The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, critical incident 'actual self-harm', 26 June 2015; major incident 'actual self-harm',
30 June 2015.

[91]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'actual self-harm', 8 October 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150704.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[92]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'actual self-harm', 28 April 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150442.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[93]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5

[94]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information 'threatened self-harm' (despite stating that the worker observed the man in question cutting himself), 12 March 2014.

[95]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, critical incident 'voluntary starvation',
28 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150661.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[96]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'food or fluid refusal', 28 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150449.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[97]      The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'food/fluid refusal', 31 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150502.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017);  critical incident 'voluntary starvation', 28 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150661.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[98]      Ms Elaine Pearson, AD, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 2.

[99]      Mr Daniel Webb, DA, HRLC, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 2

[100]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 32.

[101]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[102]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, unclassified incident 'concern for minor',
18 November 2013; unclassified incident 'concern for minor', 18 November 2013 (a separate incident); critical incident 'actual self-harm', 29 March 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/
2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150253.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017); critical incident 'self-harm',
5 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150321.pdf (accessed
4 April 2017).

[103]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'threatened self-harm',
15 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150606.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); information, 30 March 2015 (the body of the incident lists the date as being 2015, while the date of incident is recorded as 2013), https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/
08/nu-files/pdf/sca150257.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017); information 'threatened self-harm',
13 March 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150424.pdf (accessed
4 April 2017); major incident 'threatened self-harm', 29 June 2015.

[104]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, unclassified incident 'concern for minor',
21 November 2013; minor incident 'self-harm threat', 19 May 2015, https://interactive.guim
.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150347.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017).

[105]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'threatened self-harm', 26 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150413.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); major incident 'threatened self-harm', 26 June 2015 (separate incident), https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150413.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); major incident 'threatened self-harm' (downgraded to 'information' at the request of the Department), 26 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150418.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); major incident 'threatened self-harm', 26 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150463.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); major incident 'threat of self-harm' (changed to minor incident 'threat of harm'), 28 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150421.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017);  major incident 'threat of self-harm', 1 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150427.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[106]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident of 'accident/injury and non-compliance' (downgraded to information), 1 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nufiles/pdf
/sca150308.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017).

[107]    Australasian College of Emergency Medicine (ACEM), Submission 13, p. 2.

[108]    ACEM, Submission 13, p. 2.

[109]    CRC, Concluding observations on the initial report of Nauru, 28 October 2016, CRC/C/NRU/CO/1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/587ce6df4.html (accessed 4 March 2017).

[110]    CRC, Concluding observations on the initial report of Nauru, 28 October 2016, CRC/C/NRU/CO/1, p. 11.

[111]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 42.

[112]    ABC News, Nauru refugee critical after caesarean to deliver premature son, flown to Brisbane, 13 May 2016.

[113]    The Guardian Australia, Doctors plead for pregnant refugee on Nauru to be moved to Australian hospital, 26 January 2017.

[114]    The Guardian Australia, Pregnant refugee to be flown from Nauru to Australia to give birth, 3 February 2017.

[115]    Australian Medical Association (AMA), Submission 1, p. 7.

[116]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 3.

[117]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 7.

[118]    AMA, Submission 1, pp. 5–6.

[119]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 6.

[120]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 6.

[121]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 3.

[122]    AMA, Submission 1, International Health and Medical Services (IHMS) response, p. 2.

[123]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 3.

[124]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 3.

[125]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 5.

[126]    AMA, Submission 1, pp. 4-7.

[127]    AMA, Submission 1, IHMS response, p. 2.

[128]    AMA, Submission 1, IHMS response, p. 3.

[129]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 1.

[130]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 2.

[131]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 7.

[132]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 9.

[133]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 13.

[134]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 15.

[135]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 15.

[136]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 14–15.

[137]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 15.

[138]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 15.

[139]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 25.

[140]    DFR, Submission 56, pp. 10-11.

[141]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 10.

[142]    DFR, Submission 56, pp. 12-13.

[143]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 12.

[144]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 13.

[145]    DFR, Submission 56, IHMS response, p. 2.

[146]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 13.

[147]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 19.

[148]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 19.

[149]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 32.

[150]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interviews, May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 32.

[151]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 33.

[152]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'threatened self-harm', 21 February 2014.

[153]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident, 'threat of self-harm', 10 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150390.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[154]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, information, 1 October 2015.

[155]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'self-harm threatened',
9 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150586.pdf (accessed
4 April 2017); unclassified incident 'food and fluid refusal', 14 June 2015, https://interactive.
guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150457.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017); minor incident 'self-harm threatened', 9 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nufiles/pdf/
sca150582.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017); minor incident 'threat of self-harm', 28 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150492.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[156]    Government of Nauru, Opening Statement Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13-14 September 2016, p. 4.

[157]    Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), The forgotten children: national inquiry into children in immigration detention, 2014.

[158]    Mr Philip Moss AM, Review into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, 6 February 2015.

[159]    Select Committee into Recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru (Select Committee), Taking Responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru ('Nauru RPC'),
August 2015, pp. 87–93.

[160]    Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 132.

[161]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, pp. 30-31.

[162]    Child Protection Panel (CPP), Making Children Safer, May 2016, p. 24.

[163]    CPP, Making Children Safer, May 2016, p. 25.

[164]    CPP, Making Children Safer, May 2016, p. 24.

[165]    CPP, Making Children Safer, May 2016, p. 24.

[166]    CPP, Making Children Safer, May 2016, p. 24.

[167]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, incident 'concern for minor', 28 October 2013; information 'family violence', 20 February 2014; minor incident 'family violence',
20 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150349.pdf (accessed
4 April 2017); major incident 'assault on a minor', 14 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk
/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150403.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017); major incident 'assault on a minor', 7 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150327.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); minor incident 'assault', 9 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150581.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[168]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'family violence', 22 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150356.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[169]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'assault on a minor', 16 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150404.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[170]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'fighting', 1 November 2013, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca131101.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[171]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'assault', 23 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150360.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); minor incident 'assault', 1 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150370.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[172]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, unclassified incident 'sexual assault', 21 October 2013; information 'concern for minor', 7 February 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140048.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); major incident 'sexual assault', 4 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150432.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[173]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'assault', 20 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150351.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[174]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, 15 January 2015, critical incident 'sexual assault allegation (downgraded by Wilson Security from to a major incident), https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150051.pdf (accessed 5 March 2017).

[175]    Submission 53.

[176]    Submission 53, p. 2.

[177]    Submission 53, p. 3.

[178]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 31.

[179]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 31.

[180]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 31.

[181]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'bullying and harassment',
16 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150473.pdf (accessed
4 April 2017); major incident 'assault on a minor', 30 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/
2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150499.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017).

[182]    HRW, Submission 22, pp. 5-7.

[183]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'threatened self-harm',
2 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150571.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[184]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, major incident 'sexual assault', 12 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150583.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); major incident 'sexual assault', 15 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150608.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); minor incident 'assault on a minor',
17 September 2015 https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150621.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); information, 20 March 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/
2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140135.pdf
(accessed 4 April 2017).

[185]    The Guardian Australia, The Nauru files, minor incident 'abusive/aggressive behaviour', 1 September 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150570.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[186]    DIBP, response to question on notice, 15 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[187]    DIBP, response to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[188]    DIBP, response to question on notice, 15 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[189]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at the Manus Island Detention Centre from 16 February to 18 February 2014 ('Incident at Manus'), December 2014, Chapter 3.

[190]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 68.

[191]    ABC News, PNG Chief Justice finds Manus Island detention centre is actually closed, 13 March 2017.

[192]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 8.

[193]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 8.

[194]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 8.

[195]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 17 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 41.

[196]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 41.

[197]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 41.

[198]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014, pp. 43-44.

[199]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 43.

[200]    HRW, Submission 22, p. 9.

[201]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 29.

[202]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 29.

[203]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 10.

[204]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 33.

[205]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 32.

[206]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014, pp. 44-48.

[207]    AMA, Submission 1.

[208]    AMA, Submission 1, pp. 3-4.

[209]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 4.

[210]    AMA, Submission 1, p. 7.

[211]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 8.

[212]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 16.

[213]    DFR, Submission 56, pp. 16–17.

[214]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 50.

[215]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 17 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 50.

[216]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 50.

[217]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014.

[218]    Mr Cheryl-Anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 1.

[219]    DIBP, Death of a refugee, 24 December 2016, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/releases/death-of-a-refugee (accessed 21 April 2017).

[220]    Mr Behrouz Boochani, Facebook post, 23 December 2016.

[221]    Mr Behrouz Boochani, Facebook post, 24 December 2016.

[222]    ABC News, Manus Island detainees riot after death of refugee Faysal Ishak Ahmed, 25 December 2016.

[223]    DIBP, answer to question on notice, 15 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[224]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 33.

[225]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 32.

[226]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 32.

[227]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 33.

[228]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 33.

[229]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014.

[230]    DIBP, Submission 23, pp. 34–35.

[231]    Wilson Security, Submission 18, p. 4.

[232]    Ms Jessica Bloom, Submission 14, p. 2.

[233]    Ms Jessica Bloom, Submission 14, p. 2.

[234]    Ms Jessica Bloom, Submission 14, p. 1.

[235]    Ms Jessica Bloom, Submission 14, p. 1.

[236]    Ms Jessica Bloom, Submission 14, p. 2.

[237]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 11.

[238]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 11.

[239]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 11.

[240]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 16-17 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 45.

[241]    Stanford Law School, de-identified interview, 17 May 2016, in Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 46.

[242]    Stanford Law School, Communique to ICC, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 14 February 2017, p. 45.

[243]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, DIBP response, p. 7.

[244]    Ms Elaine Pearson, AD, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 2.

[245]    HRW, Submission 22, p. 8.

[246]    Mr Daniel Webb, DA, HRLC, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 3.

[247]    Ms Elaine Pearson, AD, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 8; HRW, Submission 22, p. 9.

[248]    HRW, Submission 22, p. 11.

[249]    HRW, Submission 22, p. 11.

[250]    HRW, Submission 22, p. 8.

[251]    Criminal Code Act 1974 (Papua New Guinea), s. 212.

[252]    Criminal Code Act 1974 (Papua New Guinea), s. 210.

[253]    The Guardian Australia, Refugee left homeless in Papua New Guinea after being resettled from Australian-run detention, 19 February 2016.

[254]    The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) currently advises that travellers to PNG should exercise a high degree of caution, and notes that Lae in particular has a high rate of crime, an ever-present risk of car-jacking, and the dangers of walking in the streets, including at night. It advises that night travel should be by car with locked doors and windows, and suggests that travellers should also consider travelling in a convoy or with a security escort. http://smartraveller.gov.au/Countries/pacific/Pages/papua_new_guinea.aspx (accessed 15 February 2017).

 [255]   The Guardian, Refugee left homeless in Papua New Guinea after being resettled from Australian-run detention, 19 February 2016.

[256]    Sydney Morning Herald, Desperate refugees arrested trying to return to Manus Island centre, 22 April 2016.

[257]    Australian Lawyers Alliance (ALA), Second Supplementary Submission 24; Hunter Asylum Seeker Advocacy (HASA), Supplementary submission 28.

[258]    Government of the Republic of Nauru, Nauru National Assessment Report for the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, 17 May 2013, p. 9, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1119224NAURU%20National%20Assessment%20Report%20for%20Third%20SIDS%20Conference%202013.pdf (accessed 27 February 2017).

[259]    World Health Organisation (WHO), International Programme on Chemical Safety – Cadmium, www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/cadmium/en/ (accessed 27 February 2017).

[260]    WHO, International Programme on Chemical Safety – Cadmium.

[261]    WHO, Exposure to Cadmium: a major public health concern, 2010, pp. 3-4, http://www.who.int/ipcs/features/cadmium.pdf?ua=1 (accessed 27 February 2017).

[262]    WHO, Exposure to Cadmium: a major public health concern, 2010, p. 3.

[263]    Professor John Morrison and Dr Harley Manner, Pre-Mining Soil Patterns of Soils on Nauru, Central Pacific, 2005, Pacific Science 59(4), pp. 523–540.

[264]    Professor John Morrison and Dr Harley Manner, Pre-Mining Soil Patterns of Soils on Nauru, Central Pacific, 2005, Pacific Science 59(4), p. 523.

[265]    Professor John Morrison and Dr Harley Manner, Pre-Mining Soil Patterns of Soils on Nauru, Central Pacific, 2005, Pacific Science 59(4), p. 536.

[266]    Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC), Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012 (the DIBP was called DIAC from 2007 to 2013).

[267]    https://www.border.gov.au/AccessandAccountability/Documents/FOI/FA140401092.PDF (accessed 28 February 2017).

[268]    DIAC, Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, p. 5.

[269]    DIAC, Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, p. 49.

[270]    DIAC, Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, p. 45.

[271]    DIAC, Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, p. 52.

[272]    DIAC, Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, p. 52.

[273]    DIAC, Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, p. 53.

[274]    Dr Kalesh Seevnarain, Senior Health Adviser, IHMS, Committee Hansard,
Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 50.

[275]    Dr Kalesh Seevnarain, Senior Health Adviser, IHMS, Committee Hansard,
Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 51.

[276]    DIBP, response to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[277]    DIBP, response to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[278]    DIBP, response to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[279]    HASA, Supplementary Submission 28, p. 7.

[280]    DIBP, responses to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 13 April 2017).

Chapter 3 - Factors contributing to allegations of abuse, self-harm and neglect

[1]        Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, the Hon Peter Dutton MP, Media Release,
Australia welcomes Nauru open centre, 5 October 2015, www.minister.border.gov.au/ peterdutton/2015/Pages/australia-welcomes-nauru-open-centre.aspx (accessed 9 January 2017).

[2]        Minister for Immigration and Border Protection, the Hon Peter Dutton MP, Media Release, Australia welcomes Nauru open centre, 5 October 2015.

[3]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), Submission 23, p. 68.

[4]        Belden Norman Namah MP v Hon Rimbink Pato, National Executive Council and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, SCA No. 84 of 2013, Supreme Court of Justice (Papua New Guinea), 26 April 2016.

[5]        United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission 43, p. 8.

[6]        UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 7.

[7]        Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, Island of Despair: Australia's 'Processing' of Refugees on Nauru, 2016, p. 5.

[8]        Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP), Submission 8, p. 4.

[9]        The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, major incident 'threatened self-harm', 1 August 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150503.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[10]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'threat self-harm', 5 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150378.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[11]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'threatened self-harm', 23 April 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150300.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[12]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, critical incident 'abscond', 18 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150481.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[13]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, information, 23 September 2015 (no link to the incident report is provided where none is available).

[14]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'self-harm threat', 11 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150335.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[15]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, information, 13 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150399.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[16]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'self-harm threat', 11 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150335.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[17]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, critical incident 'actual self-harm', 27 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150496.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[18]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'threat of self-harm', 1 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150366.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); minor incident 'aggressive behaviour', 9 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150389.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017); minor incident 'assault', 16 April 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150280.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[19]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'threatened self-harm', 20 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150407.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[20]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'abusive/aggressive behaviour',
29 June 2015; minor incident 'non-compliance', 8 August 2015; minor incident 'non-compliance', 10 August 2015 https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150517.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[21]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, major incident 'assault', 9 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150330.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[22]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'contraband', 4 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150433.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[23]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, unclassified incident, 15 November 2013.

[24]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, major incident 'assault on a minor (downgraded to information), 3 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150317.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[25]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, major incident 'bullying and harassment/ medical incident', 16 April 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150278.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[26]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, information, 28 September 2015.

[27]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, incident 'concern for minor', 31 August 2013.

[28]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, unclassified incident 'abusive or aggressive behaviour', 30 August 2013.

[29]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, incident 'accident or injury', 8 September 2013.

[30]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, unclassified incident 'abusive or aggressive behaviour', 31 August 2013; incident 'concern for minor', 1 September 2013.

[31]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, unclassified incident 'concern for minor',
16 January 2014, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca140020.pdf (accessed
5 April 2017).

[32]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, major incident 'assault on a minor', 16 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150344.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[33]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, information 'threatened self-harm', 13 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150440.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[34]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 23.

[35]      Doctors for Refugees (DFR), Submission 56, p. 9.

[36]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 8.

[37]      Human Rights Watch (HRW), Submission 22, p. 9.

[38]      Sydney Morning Herald, We need to see Manus Island, 24 February 2014.

[39]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'information', 3 April 2014.

[40]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, incident 'unclassified', 12 November 2013.

[41]      DIBP, Latest Nauru claims false, media release, 25 February 2016, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/releases/latest-nauru-claims-false (accessed 16 January 2017).

[42]      ABC News, Nauru Facebook ban came 'at request of Australian Government', refugee advocates say, 5 May 2015.

[43]      Facebook, Refugees on Nauru, https://www.facebook.com/Refugees-on-Nauru-1018704628155583/ (accessed 2 March 2017).

[44]      ABC News, Nauru Facebook ban came 'at request of Australian Government', refugee advocates say, 5 May 2015.

[45]      ABC News, Nauru Facebook ban came 'at request of Australian Government', refugee advocates say, 5 May 2015.

[46]      Radio NZ, Nauru candidate uses banned Facebook to campaign, 8 July 2016.

[47]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 44.

[48]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 44.

[49]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 48.

[50]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 49.

[51]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 51.

[52]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 44.

[53]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 51.

[54]      Australian Medical Association (AMA), Submission 1, International Health and Medical Services (IHMS) response, p. 3.

[55]      Ms Cheryl-anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 2.

[56]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 52.

[57]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 52.

[58]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[59]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 52.

[60]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 53.

[61]      Mr Kingsley Woodford-Smith, Assistant Commissioner, Detention, Compliance and Removals Division, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 11.

[62]      AMA, Submission 1, IHMS response, p. 3.

[63]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 53.

[64]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 53.

[65]      Ms Cheryl-Anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, pp. 17-18.

[66]      Ms Cheryl-Anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, pp. 17-18.

[67]      Ms Cheryl-Anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, pp. 17-18.

[68]      Australasian College of Emergency Medicine (ACEM), Submission 13, p. 2.

[69]      ACEM, Submission 13, p. 2.

[70]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 November 2017, p. 9.

[71]      Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP), Submission 17, p. 3.

[72]      RACGP, Submission 17, p. 3.

[73]      RACGP, Submission 17, IHMS response.

[74]      RACGP, Submission 17, IHMS response, p. 2.

[75]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 November 2017, p. 2.

[76]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 November 2017, p. 3.

[77]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 November 2017, p. 3.

[78]      Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW), Submission 46, p. 1.

[79]      Australian Psychological Society (APS), Submission 49, p. 4.

[80]      AMA, Submission 1, p. 7.

[81]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[82]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 6.

[83]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 3, p. 52.

[84]      Ms Pamela Curr, Australian Women in Support of Women on Nauru (AWSWN), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 20.

[85]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 18.

[86]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 5.

[87]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 5.

[88]      DFR, Submission 56, p. 19.

[89]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 3.

[90]      ACMHN, Submission 41, p. 9.

[91]      ACMHN, Submission 41, p. 9.

[92]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, IHMS response.

[93]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, IHMS response, pp. 2-3.

[94]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, IHMS response, p. 3.

[95]      RACGP, Submission 17, p. 5.

[96]      RACGP, Submission 17, p. 5.

[97]      Mr Kingsley Woodford-Smith, Assistant Commissioner, Detention, Compliance and Removals Division, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 11.

[98]      The Guardian Australia, Immigration department and health provider blame each other over Manus death, 16 February 2017.

[99]      SBS News, Inquest resumes into Manus asylum seeker Hamid Khazaei's death, 13 February 2017.

[100]    The Guardian Australia, Immigration department and health provider blame each other over Manus death, 16 February 2017.

[101]    SBS News, Khazaei inquest: Hamid's death linked to 'deficient' emergency evacuation policy, 15 February 2017.

[102]    The Guardian Australia, Immigration department and health provider blame each other over Manus death, 16 February 2017.

[103]    The Guardian Australia, Immigration department and health provider blame each other over Manus death, 16 February 2017.

[104]    SBS News, Khazaei inquest: Hamid's death linked to 'deficient' emergency evacuation policy, 15 February 2017.

[105]    SBS News, Khazaei inquest: Hamid's death linked to 'deficient' emergency evacuation policy, 15 February 2017.

[106]    SBS News, 'Turning blue': Khazaei inquest hears of failing at PNG hospital, 13 February 2017.

[107]    SBS News, 'Turning blue': Khazaei inquest hears of failing at PNG hospital, 13 February 2017.

[108]    Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 November 2017, p. 6.

[109]    Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 November 2017, p. 8.

[110]    Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP), Submissions 5, p. 1.

[111]    RACGP, Submission 17, p. 1 (emphasis in original).

[112]    ACEM, Submission 13, p. 1.

[113]    AASW, Submission 46, p. 2.

[114]    RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 1.

[115]    RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 5.

[116]    Dr Kym Jenkins, President-elect, RANZCP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 23.

[117]    Dr Kym Jenkins, President-elect, RANZCP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 23; RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 10.

[118]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 23.

[119]    RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 11.

[120]    Refugee Council of Australia (RCA), Submission 19, 3.

[121]    Ms Claire O'Connor SC, AWSWN, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016,
pp. 11-12.

[122]    DFR, Submission 56, p. 23.

[123]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 9.

[124]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 10.

[125]    Parliamentary Library, Australia's offshore processing of asylum seekers in Nauru and PNG: a quick guide to statistics and resources, www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/ Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1617/Quick_Guides/Offshore (accessed 12 January 2017).

[126]    Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Nauru Bureau of Statistics, Demographic Profile of the Republic of Nauru 1992-2002, p. 54.

[127]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 19.

[128]    Professor Jane McAdam, How the entire nation of Nauru almost moved to Queensland, http://theconversation.com/how-the-entire-nation-of-nauru-almost-moved-to-queensland-63833 (accessed 12 January 2017).

[129]    Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Aid performance report 2012-13 Nauru,
p. 4.

[130]    The Independent UK, Australia moots radical future for bankrupt Nauru, 20 December 2003.

[131]    The Independent UK, Australia moots radical future for bankrupt Nauru, 20 December 2003.

[132]    DFAT, Overview of Australia's aid program to Nauru, http://dfat.gov.au/geo/nauru/develop
ment-assistance/Pages/development-assistance-in-nauru.aspx
(accessed 12 January 2017).

[133]    DFAT, Overview of Australia's aid program to Nauru.

[134]    DFAT, Overview of Australia's aid program to Nauru.

[135]    Parliamentary Library, Australia's offshore processing of asylum seekers in Nauru and PNG: a quick guide to statistics and resources, www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary
_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1617/Quick_Guides/Offshore
(accessed
12 January 2017).

[136]    National Statistical Office, Papua New Guinea, National Population and Housing Census 2011.

[137]    The World Bank, Papua New Guinea Overview, www.worldbank.org/en/country/png/overview (accessed 27 Mach 2017).

[138]    International Labour Organization (ILO), Labour Migration in Papua New Guinea,
14 April 2015, www.ilo.org/suva/areas-of-work/WCMS_407377/lang--en/index.htm (accessed 27 March 2017).

[139]    UNHCR, UNHCR Country Operations Plan 2006 – Papua New Guinea, 1 September 2005,
p. 1.

[140]    ABC News, Papua New Guinea resettling hundreds of West Papua asylum seekers,
18 March 2016.

[141]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at the Manus Island Detention Centre from 16 February to 18 February 2014 ('Incident at Manus'),
December 2014, p. 51.

[142]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 52.

[143]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 52.

[144]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 16.

[145]    UNHCR, Submission 43, pp. 17–18.

[146]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 16.

[147]    Select Committee on recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru ('Select Committee'), Taking responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru ('Nauru RPC'), August 2015, pp. 123–124.

[148]    Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Offshore Processing Centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea: procurement of garrison support and welfare services ('Procurement of garrison support and welfare services'), Audit Report No. 16 2016-17; ANAO, Offshore processing centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea – contact management of garrison support and welfare services ('Contract management'), ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17.

[149]    ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016-17, p. 8; ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 11.

[150]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, pp. 8­–9.

[151]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, pp. 1–12.

[152]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 12.

[153]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 59.

[154]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 40.

[155]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 50.

[156]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 52.

[157]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 50.

[158]    ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 16.

[159]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 17

[160]    ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 18

[161]    Mr Paul Stevenson, Psychologist, Brisbane Refugee and Asylum Seeker Support Network (BRASSN), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 March 2017, pp. 11–12.

[162]    Mr Paul Stevenson, Psychologist, BRASSN, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 March 2017, p. 18.

[163]    The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, critical (downgraded to major) incident, 'sexual assault allegation', 15 January 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150051.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[164]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 31.

[165]    DIBP, response to question on notice, 15 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[166]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014.

[167]    Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015.

[168]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 12.

[169]    Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, the Hon Geoffrey Eames AM QC, Submission 70, p. 1.

[170]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 13.

[171]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 39.

[172]    DIBP, media release, The 'Nauru files', 10 August 2016, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/
releases/the-nauru-files
(accessed 14 February 2017).

[173]    Ms Justine Saunders APM, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Operations, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 17 October 2016, p. 27.

[174]    DIBP, response to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 14 April 2017).

[175]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 39.

[176]    ABC News, Nauruan police force face fresh scrutiny after convicted rapist allowed to join police reserves, 15 October 2015.

[177]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 30.

[178]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 39.

[179]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[180]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 37.

[181]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 40.

[182]    Ms Laura Sawtell, Submission 52, p. 7.

[183]    Submission 53, p. 2.

[184]    Submission 53, p. 2.

[185]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 39.

[186]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2; Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 39.

[187]    Ms Elaine Pearson, Australia Director, Human Rights Watch (HRW), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, pp. 3–4.

[188]    The Government of the Republic of Nauru, media release, We won't cop it anymore – Nauru police, 3 February 2016.

[189]    The Government of the Republic of Nauru, media release, We won't cop it anymore – Nauru police, 3 February 2016.

[190]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, DIBP response, p. 4.

[191]    DIBP, Submission 23, pp. 29–30.

[192]    Radio NZ, Manus Refugees self-harm and hunger strike in protest, 17 January 2017.

[193]    Sydney Morning Herald, Escape from Manus Island: Iranian refugee seeks asylum in Fiji,
28 January 2017.

[194]    ABC News, Iranian asylum seeker who fled Manus Island detained in Fiji, deported to PNG,
3 February 2017.

[195]    ABC News, Iranian asylum seeker who fled Manus Island detained in Fiji, deported to PNG,
3 February 2017.

[196]    ABC News, Iranian refugee Loghman Sawari moved from Port Moresby to Bomana prison ahead of bail application, 10 February 2017.

[197]    The Guardian Australia, Amnesty calls for release of refugee Loghman Sawari in Papua New Guinea, 5 April 2017.

[198]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016.

[199]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016, p. 17.

[200]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016, p. 17.

[201]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016, p. 18.

[202]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016, p. 34.

[203]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016, p. 37.

[204]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016, p. 37.

[205]    Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF Pacific, Review of the Child Protection System in Nauru, 2016, p. 48.

[206]    Child Protection and Welfare Act 2016 (Nauru), ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/index.php/ act/view/1186 (accessed 20 December 2016).

[207]    UNICEF Australia, Submission 55, p. 3.

[208]    UNICEF Australia, Submission 55, p. 3.

[209]    Child Protection Panel (CPP), Making Children Safer, May 2016, www.border.gov.au/ReportsandPublications/Documents/cpp-report-making-children-safer.pdf

[210]    CPP, Making Children Safer, May 2016, p. 23.

[211]    CPP, Making Children Safer, May 2016, p. 23.

[212]    UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of Nauru (Advance Unedited Edition), 30 September 2016, UN Doc. CRC/C/NRU/CO/1, para. 30.

[213]    CRC, Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of Nauru (Advance Unedited Edition),
30 September 2016, UN Doc. CRC/C/NRU/CO/1, para. 52.

[214]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 24.

[215]    Ms Amy Lamoin, Head of Policy and Advocacy, UNICEF Australia, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 27.

[216]    UNICEF Australia, Submission 55, p. 6.

[217]    UNICEF Australia, Submission 55, p. 6.

[218]    Prime Minister, Attorney General, and Minister for Immigration Joint Press Release, Australia and Papua New Guinea Resettlement Arrangement, 19 July 2013, http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/ parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query%3DId%3A%22media%2Fpressrel%2F2611771%22 (accessed 28 March 2017).

[219]    ABC News, Manus Island, Nauru refugees to be banned from entering Australia, Malcolm Turnbull says, 30 October 2016.

[220]    See, www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/Bills_Search_Results/ Result?bId=r5754 (accessed 28 March 2017).

[221]    Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee, Migration Legislation Amendment (Regional Processing Cohort) Bill 2016 [Provisions], 22 November 2016.

[222]    Mr David Nockels, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Support Group, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Friday 11 November 2016, p. 28.

[223]    ABC News, Asylum seeker pair leave Nauru 'black hole' to be reunited with family in Canada', 21 February 2016.

[224]    See, www.minister.border.gov.au/peterdutton/Pages/Refugee-resettlement-from-Regional-Process-Centres.aspx.

[225]    University of Newcastle Legal Centre (UNLC), Submission 12, p. 2; Dr Kym Jenkins, President-elect, RANZCP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 21; Mr Daniel Webb, Director of Advocacy (DA), HRLC, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 2; RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 4; UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 5; Australasian College of Emergency Medicine (ACEM), Submission 13, p. 1.

[226]    UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 10.

[227]    The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, major incident 'food and fluid refusal' (downgraded to minor), 25 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150466.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017); minor incident 'demonstration', 26 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150490.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017); minor incident 'threatened self-harm', 28 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150492.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017); major incident 'self-harm', 5 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150454.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017); minor incident 'threat to self-harm', 7 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150384.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017); minor incident 'threat to self-harm',
7 June 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150385.pdf (accessed
5 April 2017).

[228]    The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident, 'threat of self-harm', 2 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150315.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[229]    The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, 29 June 2015, major incident 'threat of self-harm', https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150424.pdf (accessed 4 April 2017).

[230]    The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'threat of self-harm', 24 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150487.pdf (accessed 5 April 2017).

[231]    The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, major incident 'food and fluid refusal', 17 July 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150476.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

[232]    The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, information, 15 September 2015.

[233]    Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, pp. 30–32.

[234]    Australian Public Service Act 1999, s. 13.

[235]    Australian Public Service Act 1999, s. 13(4).

[236]    Australian Public Service Act 1999, s. 15(1).

[237]    Crimes Act 1914, s. 70.

[238]    Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, p. 23.

[239]    Sydney Morning Herald, Legal experts criticise Scott Morrison's use of 'draconian' law, 9 October 2014, www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/legal-experts-criticise-scott-morrisons-use-of-draconian-law-20141008-10rwn3.html (accessed 3 February 2017).

[240]    DIBP, responses to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 13 April 2017).

[241]    Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, s. 59(3)(b).

[242]    Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, s. 59(3)(c).

[243]    Commonwealth Ombudsman, Agency Guide to the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, April 2016, p. 17.

[244]    DIBP, responses to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 13 April 2017).

[245]    Commonwealth Ombudsman, Annual Report 2014–15, October 2015, p. 79.

[246]    Australian Lawyers for Human Rights (ALHR), Submission 25, p. 11; Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, s 26, item 2.

[247]    Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, s 26, item 3.

[248]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 11; Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013, s 31.

[249]    Mr Julian Burnside, AO QC, Liberty Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 November 2016, p. 33.

[250]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 11.

[251]    DIBP, responses to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 13 April 2017).

[252]    DIBP, responses to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 13 April 2017).

[253]    Australian Border Force Act 2015 ('Border Force Act'), s. 41.

[254]    Border Force Act, s. 42(1).

[255]    Border Force Act, s. 43.

[256]    Border Force Act, s. 42(2).

[257]    Border Force Act, ss. 43-51.

[258]    Border Force Act, s. 48.

[259]    Border Force Act, s. 4.

[260]    Border Force Act, s. 4.

[261]    The Guardian Australia, Open letter on the Border Force Act: 'We challenge the department to prosecute', 1 July 2015.

[262]    United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Mr Francois Crepeau, Official visit to Australia postponed due to protection concerns, 25 September 2015, http://ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=16503&LangID=E (accessed 3 February 2017).

[263]    Fitzroy Legal Service Inc, www.fitzroy-legal.org.au/doctors_for_refugees (accessed 1 February 2017).

[264]    Determination of Immigration and Border Protection Workers – Amendment No. 1, 30 September 2016, www.border.gov.au/AccessandAccountability/Documents/determination-workers-c.pdf#search=determination (accessed 1 February 2017).

[265]    Determination of Immigration and Border Protection Workers, 29 June 2015, www.border.gov.au/AccessandAccountability/Documents/determination-workers.pdf (accessed 1 February 2017).

[266]    RANZCP, Submission 8, pp. 14-15; RACGP, Submission 17, p. 6.

[267]    RACGP, Submission 17, p. 6.

[268]    RACP, Submission 5, p. 2.

[269]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 11.

[270]    RACP, Submission 5, p. 2; Edmund Rice Centre (ERC), Submission 7, p. 14; RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 2; Ms Tracie Aylmer, Submission 10, p. 4; University of Newcastle Legal Centre (UNLC), Submission 12, p. 8; RCA, Submission 19, p. 5; Australian Lawyers Alliance (ALA), Submission 24, p. 21; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights (ALHR), Submission 25, p. 11; Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, p. 9;

[271]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 14

[272]    UNLC, Submission 12, p. 8.

[273]    UNLC, Submission 12, p. 8.

[274]    UNICEF Australia, Submission 55, p. 7.

[275]    AWSWN, Submission 16, pp. 7–8.

[276]    AWSWN, Submission 16, p. 8.

[277]    RCA, Submission 19, p. 5.

[278]    Mr Matthew Albert, Liberty Victoria, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 33.

[279]    RACP, Submission 5, p. 2.

[280]    RANZCP, Submission 8, pp. 14–15.

[281]    Mr Roman Quaedvilieg, Australian Border Force Commissioner, News Release, 1 July 2015, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/releases/d0e3ab05-52b6-47ce-addd-762791fddbfc (accessed 3 February 2017).

[282]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 18.

[283]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 18.

[284]    UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Mr Michael Forst, Visit to Australia end of mission statement, 18 October 2016, www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/ DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20689&LangID=E (accessed 2 February 2017).

[285]    UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Mr Michael Forst, Visit to Australia end of mission statement, 18 October 2016, www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/ DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20689&LangID=E (accessed 2 February 2017).

[286]    UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Mr Michael Forst, Visit to Australia end of mission statement, 18 October 2016, www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/ DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20689&LangID=E (accessed 2 February 2017).

[287]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 11.

[288]    Public Interest Disclosures Act 2013, s. 26.

[289]    Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, p. 42.

[290]    Commonwealth Ombudsman, Submission by the Commonwealth Ombudsman: Review of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 (Cth), March 2016, pp. 15–16.

[291]    Commonwealth Ombudsman, Submission by the Commonwealth Ombudsman: Review of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 (Cth), March 2016, p. 16.

[292]    Commonwealth Ombudsman, Submission by the Commonwealth Ombudsman: Review of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 (Cth), March 2016, p. 17.

[293]    Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, p. 9.

[294]    Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, p. 9.

[295]    Select Committee, Taking responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, August 2015, pp. 43; 124; 126; 133.

[296]    Select Committee, Taking responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, August 2015, p. 126.

[297]    ABC News, Immigration Minister Scott Morrison refuses to detail recent asylum seeker boat arrival in Question Time, 13 November 2013, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-13/morrison-refuses-to-detail-asylum-seeker-boat-arrival/5089476 (accessed 7 February 2017).

[298]    Sydney Morning Herald, Tony Abbott compares secrecy over asylum seekers to war time, 10 January 2014, www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/tony-abbott-compares-secrecy-over-asylum-seekers-to-war-time-20140110-30lyt.html (accessed 7 February 2017).

[299]    Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, p. 13.

[300]    Liberty Victoria, Submission 26, Attachment 1, p. 17.

[301]    Ms Jessica Bloom, Submission 14, p. 2.

[302]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, DIBP response, p. 8.

[303]    Jesuit Social Services (JSS), Submission 15, p. 5.

[304]    Government of Nauru, Statement from Government of Nauru, 22 June 2016, www.nauru-news.com (accessed 17 February 2017).

[305]    The Government of the Republic of Nauru, www.naurugov.nr/about-nauru/visiting-nauru/visa-requirements.aspx (accessed 7 February 2017).

[306]    The Guardian, Chris Kenny the first foreign news reported in 18 months to be granted Nauru visa, 20 October 2015.

[307]    The Guardian, Nauru to increase visa cost for journalists from $200 to $8,000, 9 January 2014.

[308]    High Commission of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, www.pngcanberra.org/visas/ visitor.htm (accessed 7 February 2017).

[309]    High Commission of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, www.pngcanberra.org/visas/ visitor.htm (accessed 7 February 2017).

[310]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 25.

[311]    DIBP, Submission 23, pp. 24, 26.

[312]    Mr Daniel Webb, DA, HRLC, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, pp. 8–9.

[313]    Ms Elaine Pearson, Australia Director, HRW, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 9.

[314]    Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, pp. 8–9.

[315]    Mr Anthony Blucher, Senior Director, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 16.

[316]    Select Committee, Taking responsibility conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, August 2015, pp. 120–121.

[317]    Select Committee, Taking responsibility conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, August 2015, pp. 120–121.

[318]    DIBP, answers to questions on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 25 November 2017).

[319]    DIBP, answers to questions on notice, 8 February 2017 (received 3 Marcy 2017).

[320]    The principles set out in this document relate to autonomy, justice, non-maleficence, beneficence and quality domains.

[321]    DIBP, answers to questions on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 25 November 2017).

[322]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 27.

[323]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 27.

[324]    DIBP, answers to questions on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 25 November 2017).

[325]    DIBP, Submission 23, pp. 30-31.

[326]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 31.

[327]    RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 14.

[328]    RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 14.

[329]    Ms Amy Lamoin, Head of Policy and Advocacy, UNICEF Australia, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 30.

[330]    UNLC, Submission 12, p. 7.

[331]    RACP, Submission 5, p. 2; AMA Submission 1, p. 2.

[332]    RACP, Submission 5, p. 2.

[333]    ALA, Submission 24, p. 20.

[334]    RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 2.

[335]    RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 14.

[336]    AWSWN, Submission 16, p. 15.

[337]    Mr Mat Tinkler, Director, Policy and Public Affairs, Save the Children, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 31.

[338]    RACGP, Submission 17, p. 6.

[339]    RCA, Submission 19, p. 5.

[340]    RCA, Submission 19, p. 5.

[341]    APS, Submission 49, p. 5.

[342]    Ms Amy Lamoin, Head of Policy and Advocacy, UNICEF Australia, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 30.

[343]    Ms Claire O'Connor SC, AWSWN, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 14.

Chapter 4 - Refugee Status Determination and Resettlement

[1]        UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCR), Refugee Status Determination, www.unhcr.org/en-au/refugee-status-determination.html (accessed 14 March 2017).

[2]        Andrew & Renata Kaldor Centre for International Refugee Law, Factsheet: refugee status determination in Australia, 3 June 2016.

[3]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), Submission 23, p. 63.

[4]        DIBP, Submission 23, p. 20.

[5]        DIBP, media release, Operation Sovereign Borders monthly update: January 2017, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/channels/media-releases/releases/operation-sovereign-borders-monthly-update-january-3 (accessed 2 March 2017).

[6]        DIBP, media release, Operation Sovereign Borders monthly update: January 2017, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/channels/media-releases/releases/operation-sovereign-borders-monthly-update-january-3 (accessed 2 March 2017).

[7]        DIBP, response to questions on notice, 15 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[8]        Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), http://www.naurugov.nr/media/33059/refugees_
convention_act_2012.pdf
(accessed 23 February 2017).

[9]        Republic of Nauru, Department of Justice and Border Control, Refugee Status Determination Handbook, August 2013.

[10]      Secretary is defined to mean 'Head of Department', Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru),
s. 3. The relevant department is the Nauru Department of Justice and Border Control.

[11]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 5(1).

[12]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 3.

[13]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 6.

[14]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 9(b).

[15]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 8.

[16]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 22.

[17]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 11.

[18]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 22(1).

[19]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 23(1).

[20]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 27.

[21]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 31.

[22]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 33.

[23]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 34(2).

[24]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 43.

[25]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 44.

[26]      Refugees Convention Regulations 2013 (Nauru), reg. 4, http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/subordinate_legislation/f2b2fac000f377be2fa09865b36ba6ba.pdf (accessed 23 February 2017).

[27]      Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nauru), s. 43.

[28]      ROD128 v Republic of Nauru [2017] NRSC 8; Appeal Case 22 of 2015 (7 February 2017), www.paclii.org/nr/cases/NRSC/2017/8.html (accessed 23 February 2017).

[29]      SOS 011 v Republic of Nauru [2016] NRSC 30; Appeal 40 of 2015 (14 November 2016), www.paclii.org/cgibin/sinodisp/nr/cases/NRSC/2016/33.html?stem=&synonyms=&query=SOS%20011 (accessed 23 February 2017).

[30]      SOS 005 v The Republic of Nauru [2016] NRSC 26; Asylum Seekers Appeal 58 of 2015
(23 March 2016), www.paclii.org/cgibin/sinodisp/nr/cases/NRSC/2016/26.html?
stem=&synonyms=&query=SOS
(accessed 23 February 2017).

[31]      SOS054 v Republic of Nauru [2016] NRSC 32; Case 103 of 2015 (17 November 2016), www.paclii.org/cgibin/sinodisp/nr/cases/NRSC/2016/32.html?stem=&synonyms=&query=SOS054 (accessed 23 February 2017).

[32]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 20.

[33]      Migration Act 1978 (PNG), s. 2.

[34]      Migration Act 1978 (PNG), s. 15A.

[35]      Migration Act 1978 (PNG), s. 15B.

[36]      Migration Act 1978 (PNG), s. 15C(1).

[37]      Migration Act 1978 (PNG), s. 15C(3).

[38]      Migration Act 1978 (PNG), s. 15C(2).

[39]      Migration Regulation 1979 (PNG), www.paclii.org/pg/legis/consol_act/mr1979209/ (accessed 27 February 2017).

[40]      Migration (Amendment) Regulation 2013 (PNG), www.paclii.org/pg/legis/sub_leg/mr2013289/ (accessed 27 February 2017).

[41]      Migration (Amendment) Regulation 2014 (PNG), www.paclii.org/pg/legis/sub_leg/mr2014289/ (accessed 27 February 2017).

[42]      Migration Regulation 1979 (PNG), reg. 14(2)(h).

[43]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 20.

[44]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 20.

[45]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 20.

[46]      Migration Act 1978 (PNG), s. 19(2).

[47]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 20.

[48]      Sydney Morning Herald, Papua New Guinea moves to deport up to 60 asylum seekers from Manus Island, 7 February 2017.

[49]      Radio NZ, Asylum seekers offered bribes to leave PNG, 10 February 2017.

[50]      Sydney Morning Herald, Papua New Guinea moves to deport up to 60 asylum seekers from Manus Island, 7 February 2017.

[51]      The Huffington Post, Dozens Of Asylum Seekers Agree To Leave Manus After $20,000 Payments, 1 March 2017.

[52]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 3, (This is Breaking People: Human rights violations at Australia's Manus Island Asylum Seeking Processing Centre, Papua New Guinea, 2013), p. 90.

[53]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 3, p. 90 (UNHCR, Antonio Guterres’ Letter to Chris Bowen, Minister for Immigration and Citizenship of Australia, 9 October 2012, p. 2).

[54]      UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 11-13 June 2013.

[55]      UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 11-13 June 2013,
p. 6.

[56]      UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 11-13 June 2013,
p. 6.

[57]      UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 11-13 June 2013,
p. 7.

[58]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 3, p. 90.

[59]      UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 23-25 October 2013, p. 8.

[60]      UNHCR, UNHCR monitoring visit to the Republic of Nauru 7 to 9 October 2013.

[61]      UNHCR, UNHCR monitoring visit to the Republic of Nauru 7 to 9 October 2013, p. 1.

[62]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 3, p. 90.

[63]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 3, p. 4.

[64]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 4, p. 22.

[65]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 4, p. 22.

[66]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 4, p. 10.

[67]      DIBP, media release, Operation Sovereign Borders monthly update: January 2017, http://newsroom.border.gov.au/channels/media-releases/releases/operation-sovereign-borders-monthly-update-january-3 (accessed 2 March 2017).

[68]      Professor Jane McAdam, Manus deportation reports raise legal concerns, 9 February 2017, http://www.kaldorcentre.unsw.edu.au/news/manus-deportation-reports-raise-legal-concerns (accessed 27 February 2017).

[69]      Professor Jane McAdam, Manus deportation reports raise legal concerns, 9 February 2017, http://www.kaldorcentre.unsw.edu.au/news/manus-deportation-reports-raise-legal-concerns (accessed 27 February 2017).

[70]      UNHCR, UNHCR Monitoring Visit to Manus Island, Papua New Guinea 11-13 June 2013,
 
p. 6.

[71]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 5.

[72]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 63.

[73]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 63.

[74]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 63.

[75]      Mr Andrew Goledzinowski, Ambassador for People Smuggling and Human Trafficking, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 38.

[76]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 63.

[77]      The Guardian, Papua New Guinea asks Australia for help resettling refugees from Manus Island, 4 October 2016.

[78]      Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission 43, p. 1.

[79]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 19.

[80]      UNHCR, Submission 43, pp. 19-20.

[81]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 23.

[82]      Government of Papua New Guinea, National Refugee Policy, www.immigration.gov.pg/
images/PNG_National_Refugee_Policy_FINAL_ENDORSED_BY_CABINET.pdf
(accessed 27 February 2017).

[83]      Government of Papua New Guinea, National Refugee Policy, p. 9.

[84]      Government of Papua New Guinea, National Refugee Policy, p. 10.

[85]      Government of Papua New Guinea, National Refugee Policy, p. 10.

[86]      UNHCR, Submission 43, pp. 17-18.

[87]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 18.

[88]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 18.

[89]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 63.

[90]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 63.

[91]      The Cambodia Daily, More Nauru refugees opt for Cambodia as Paths to US Narrow,
14 February 2017.

[92]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 11 November 2016, p. 28.

[93]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 25 November 2016).

[94]      Ms Clare Roennfeldt, Acting First Assistant Secretary, Children, Community and Settlement Services Division, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 11 November 2016, p. 28.

[95]      Edmund Rice Centre (ERC), Submission 7, p. 4.

[96]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights (ALHR), Submission 25, p. 14.

[97]      Sydney Morning Herald, Australia's Cambodia refugee resettlement plan 'a failure',
3 April 2016.

[98]      The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, minor incident 'threat to self-harm', 4 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150319.pdf (accessed 2 March 2017); minor incident 'threat to self-harm', 5 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150324.pdf (accessed 2 March 2017); minor incident 'self-harm threat',
14 May 2015, https://interactive.guim.co.uk/2016/08/nu-files/pdf/sca150341.pdf (accessed
2 March 2017).

[99]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 63.

[100]    See, www.minister.border.gov.au/peterdutton/Pages/Refugee-resettlement-from-Regional-Process-Centres.aspx (accessed 10 April 2017).

[101]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 25.

[102]    Office of the Federal Register, Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/02/01/2017-02281/protecting-the-nation-from-foreign-terrorist-entry-into-the-united-states (accessed 22 February 2017).

[103]    Office of the Federal Register, Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States.

[104]    8 US Code 1187 – Visa waiver program for certain visitors, https://www.law.cornell.edu/
uscode/text/8/1187
(accessed 22 February 2017), section 1187(a)(12)(A); Immigration and Nationality Act, s. 217(a)(12), https://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/SLB/HTML/SLB/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-29/0-0-0-4391.html (accessed 10 April 2017).

[105]    President Donald Trump, Twitter, 2 February 2017 https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/827002559122567168?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw, (accessed 22 February 2017).

[106]    SBS, Trump to honour refugee deal with Australia: US Embassy, 2 February 2017.

[107]    PRI, A judge in Hawaii just blocked Trump's revamped immigration order, 15 March 2017.

[108]    Mr Andrew Goledzinowski, Ambassador for People Smuggling and Human Trafficking, DFAT, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 37.

[109]    Mr Andrew Goledzinowski, Ambassador for People Smuggling and Human Trafficking, DFAT, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 38.

[110]    Mr Andrew Goledzinowski, Ambassador for People Smuggling and Human Trafficking, DFAT, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 39.

[111]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 2.

[112]    Ms Rachel Noble, Deputy Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 6.

[113]    Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 3.

[114]    The Guardian Australia, Turnbull rejects New Zealand offer to take 150 refugees from detention, 29 April 2016.

[115]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 15.

[116]    Sydney Morning Herald, Turnbull rejects New Zealand's refugee offer to focus on US deal, 19 February 2017.

[117]    SHS Law, Submission 3, p. 5; Mr Tim McKenna, Submission 4, p. 1.

[118]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 57.

[119]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 4.

[120]    ABC News, Asylum seeker pair leaves Nauru 'black hole' to be reunited with family in Canada, 21 February 2016.

[121]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 12.

[122]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 4.

[123]    RCA, Submission 19, p. 2.

[124]    SHS Law, Submission 3, p. 6.

[125]    RACGP, Submission 17, p. 6.

[126]    Royal Australian and New Zealand Society of Psychiatrists (RANZCP), Submission 8, p. 16.

[127]    University of Newcastle Legal Centre (UNLC), Submission 12, p. 10.

[128]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 5.

[129]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 4.

[130]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 4.

[131]    Refugee Council of Australia (RCA), Submission 19, p. 2.

[132]    ALHR, submission 25, p. 12.

[133]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 16.

[134]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 6.

[135]    UNLC, Submission 12, p. 8.

[136]    UNLC, Submission 12, p. 8.

[137]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 2.

[138]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 6.

[139]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 14.

[140]    Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 2.

[141]    ERC, Submission 7, p. 6.

[142]    Law Council of Australia (LCA), Submission 39, p. 23.

[143]    Australia Council for International Development (ACFID), Submission 45, p. 2.

[144]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 15.

[145]    ALHR, Submission 25, p. 15.

Chapter 5 - The management of expenses associated with offshore processing

[1]        Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Nauru and the Commonwealth of Australia, relating to the transfer to and assessment of persons in Nauru, and related issues, 29 August 2012, cl. 6.

[2]        Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea and the Government of Australia, relating to the transfer to, and assessment and settlement in, Papua New Guinea of certain persons, and related issues, 6 August 2013,
cl. 6–7.

[3]        Select Committee on recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru (Select committee), Taking responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru ('Nauru RPC'),
August 2015, pp. 50–57.

[4]        DIBP, 2014–15 Portfolio Budget Statement (PBS), p. 40.

[5]        DIBP, 2014–15 PBS, p. 40.

[6]        DIBP, 2015–16 Portfolio Budget Statement ('2015-16 PBS'), p. 34.

[7]        DIBP, 2015–16 PBS, p. 34.

[8]        DIBP, 2016–17 Portfolio Budget Statement ('2016-17 PBS), p. 27.

[9]        DIBP, 2016–17 PBS, p. 27.

[10]      DIBP, 2016–17 PBS, p. 27.

[11]      DIBP, 2014–15 Portfolio Budget Statement ('2014-15 PBS'), p. 17.

[12]      DIBP, 2014–15 PBS, p. 19.

[13]      DIBP, 2014–15 PBS, p. 20.

[14]      DIBP, 2014–15 PBS, p. 19.

[15]      UNICEF Australia and Save the Children Australia, At what cost? The human, economic and strategic cost of Australia's asylum seeker policies and the alternatives ('At what cost?'), September 2016, p. 4.

[16]      Unicef Australia and Save the Children Australia, At what cost?, September 2016, p. 4.

[17]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 15 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[18]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 10.

[19]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 10.

[20]      Josephite Justice Office (JJO), Submission 20, p. 6.

[21]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 4.

[22]      Australia Council for International Development (ACFID), Submission 45.

[23]      ACFID, Submission 45, p. 2.

[24]      Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Overview of Australia's aid program to Nauru, dfat.gov.au/geo/nauru/development-assistance/Pages/development-assistance-in-nauru.aspx (accessed 2 March 2017).

[25]      DFAT, Annual Report 2015-16, p. 26.

[26]      Mr Daniel Sloper, First Assistant Secretary, Pacific Division, DFAT, Committee Hansard, Friday 11 November 2016, p. 30.

[27]      DFAT, Overview of Australia's aid program to Papua New Guinea, dfat.gov.au/geo/papua-new-guinea/development-assistance/Pages/papua-new-guinea.aspx (accessed 2 March 2017).

[28]      DFAT, Overview of Australia's aid program to Papua New Guinea.

[29]      Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Offshore Processing Centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea: procurement of garrison support and welfare services ('Procurement of garrison support and welfare services'), Audit Report No. 16 2016–17.

[30]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 8.

[31]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 8.

[32]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 49.

[33]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 9.

[34]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 71.

[35]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 47.

[36]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 47.

[37]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 48.

[38]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 57.

[39]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 14.

[40]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 15.

[41]      ANAO, Offshore processing centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea – contact management of garrison support and welfare services ('Contract management'), ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17.

[42]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 7.

[43]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 8.

[44]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 9 (our emphasis).

[45]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 9.

[46]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 11.

[47]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 8.

[48]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 8.

[49]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, pp. 8-9.

[50]      ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 15.

[51]      Performance Audit Management of the Detention Centre Contracts - Part A, Audit Report No.54 2003–04; Management of the Detention Centre Contracts - Part B, Audit Report No.1 2005–06; Management of the Tender Process for the Detention Services Contract, Audit Report No.32 2005–06; Individual Management Services Provided to People in Immigration, Audit Report No.21 2012–13; Delivery of Health Services in Onshore Immigration Detention, ANAO Report No.13 2016–17; and Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, ANAO Report No.16 2016–17.

[52]      ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17, p. 27.

[53]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, pp. 14–15.

[54]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, Appendix 1, entity response, DIBP, pp. 94–95.

[55]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Friday 11 November 2017, pp. 23–24.

[56]      ANAO, Procurement of garrison support and welfare services, Audit Report No. 16 2016–17, p. 16.

[57]      Mr Steven Groves Chief Finance Officer (CFO), DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 14.

[58]      Ms Jenet Connell, Deputy Secretary, Corporate, Chief Operating Officer, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 7.

[59]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017,
p. 17.

[60]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 26.

[61]      Mr Stephen Hayward First Assistant Secretary (FAS), Integrity, Security and Assurance Division (Chief Audit Executive), DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017,
pp. 7-8.

[62]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Friday 11 November 2015, p. 23.

[63]      ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 15.

[64]      ANAO, Contract management, ANAO Report No. 32 2016–17, p. 16.

[65]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 20126–17, Appendix 1, entity response, DIBP, pp. 100-101.

[66]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 20126–17, Appendix 1, entity response, DIBP, p. 99.

[67]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 20126–17, Appendix 1, entity response, DIBP, p. 99.

[68]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 20126–17, Appendix 1, entity response, DIBP, p. 99.

[69]      ANAO, Contract Management, ANAO Report No. 32 20126–17, Appendix 1, entity response, DIBP, pp. 99-100.

[70]      Ms Jenet Connell, Deputy Secretary, Corporate, Chief Operating Officer, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 35.

[71]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 127.

[72]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 128

[73]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 128.

[74]      Mr David Nockels, First Assistant Secretary, Detention Services Division, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 57.

[75]      Ms Cheryl-Ann Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, Australian Border Force (ABF) Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 56.

[76]      Ms Cheryl-Ann Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, ABF Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 57.

[77]      Ms Cheryl-Ann Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, ABF Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 57.

[78]      Ms Cheryl-Ann Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, ABF Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 58.

[79]      Ms Cheryl-Ann Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner, ABF Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017, p. 58.

[80]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 27 February 2017,
p. 59.

Chapter 6 - Obligations of the Commonwealth Government, and contractors, towards asylum seekers and refugees

[1]        Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at the Manus Island Detention Centre from 16 February to 18 February 2014 ('Incident at Manus'),
December 2014, pp. 128-131.

[2]        Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951, as amended by the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (Refugee Convention).

[3]        Refugee Convention, article 33; Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), article 3.

[4]        International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), articles 2, 6(1), and 7.

[5]        CAT, article 7.

[6]        Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights (PJCHR), Guide to Human Rights,
March 2014, pp. 13-14.

[7]        ICCPR, article 9.

[8]        ICCPR, article 9(1).

[9]        ICCPR, article 6(1); Second Optional Protocol to the [ICCPR] Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, article 1.

[10]      International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), article 12.

[11]      ICCPR, article 2.

[12]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 131.

[13]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 132.

[14]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 132.

[15]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 133.

[16]      Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights (UNHCR), Submission to the Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Manus RPC, December 2014, Submission 21, p. 1.

[17]      Mr Daniel Webb, Director of Advocacy (DA), Human Rights Law Centre, (HRLC), Committee Hansard, 12 July 2014, p. 59.

[18]      Mr Daniel Webb, DA, HRLC, Committee Hansard, 12 July 2014, p. 59.

[19]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 143.

[20]      DIBP, answers to questions taken on notice, 11 July 2014 (received 17 September 2014).

[21]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 151.

[22]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 151.

[23]      Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Incident at Manus, December 2014,
p. 152.

[24]      Select Committee on recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru (Select Committee), Taking responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru ('Nauru RPC'),
August 2015, p. 121.

[25]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 121.

[26]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 123.

[27]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 122.

[28]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, pp. 124-125.

[29]      Select Committee, Nauru RPC, August 2015, p. 125.

[30]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 18 (our emphasis).

[31]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 18.

[32]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 19.

[33]      DIBP, Submission 23, pp. 18-19.

[34]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 19.

[35]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 19.

[36]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 19.

[37]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 19.

[38]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, p. 3; Dr Anna Neistat, Senior Director of Research, Amnesty International, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, pp. 5-6; Ms Tracie Aylmer, Submission 10, p. 2; Ms Jessica Bloom, Submission 14, p. 2; Australian Lawyers Alliance (ALA), Submission 24, p. 12; Australia Council for International Development (ACFID), Submission 45, p. 3; and Ms Laura Sawtell, Submission 52, p. 1.

[39]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 19.

[40]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 18.

[41]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 18.

[42]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 18.

[43]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Monday 20 March 2017, p. 19.

[44]      DIBP, response to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 14 April 2017).

[45]      DIBP, response to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 14 April 2017).

[46]      Kamasaee v Commonwealth of Australia & Ors.

[47]      Slater and Gordon Lawyers, Manus Island Class Action, www.slatergordon.com.au/
class-actions/current-class-actions/manus-island-class-action
(accessed 22 March 2017).

[48]      Third Amended Statement of Claim, 1 August 2016, p. 16.

[49]      Third Amended Statement of Claim, 1 August 2016, pp. 24; 41-41; 100; 113.

[50]      Third Amended Statement of Claim, 1 August 2016, pp. 29-30; 105-106.

[51]      Third Amended Statement of Claim, 1 August 2016, pp. 30-40; 107-114.

[52]      Third Amended Statement of Claim, 1 August 2016, pp. 44-79; 115-139.

[53]      Third Amended Statement of Claim, 1 August 2016, pp. 86-91; 139-141.

[54]      Third Amended Statement of Claim, 1 August 2016, pp. 79-86; 146.

[55]      Xl Petroleum (NSW) Pty Ltd v Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty Ltd [1985] HCA 12, 471 (per
Justice Brennan).

[56]      Uren v John Fairfax & Sons (1966) 117 CLR 118, 149 (per Justice Windeyer).

[57]      Supreme Court of Victoria, Supreme Court List for Wednesday 22 March 2017, p. 4.

[58]      Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court ('Rome Statute'), 1951, article 1.

[59]      Rome Statute, article 17(1)(a).

[60]      Mr Andrew Wilkie MP, Communique for the Office of the Prosecutor regarding Mr Andrew Wilkie's MP's application relating to crimes against humanity in Australia ('Comminque'), 23 January 2015, http://andrewwilkie.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Brief-for-the-ICC-OTP-CR-322-14.pdf.

[61]      Mr Andrew Wilkie MP, Communique, 23 January 2015, p. 6.

[62]      Mr Andrew Wilkie MP, Communique, 23 January 2015, p. 7.

[63]      Mr Andrew Wilkie MP, Communique, 23 January 2015, pp. 8-9.

[64]      Mr Courtenay Barklem, Mr Tony Fisher, Professor Bill Bowring, Ms Mary Johnson,
Mr Julian Burnside AO QC, Mr Oliver Kidd and Ms Alison Battisson, In the mater of a prosecution of the Australian Government in relation to indefinite detention and forcible removal of asylum seekers ('Prosecution of the Australian Government'), November 2016, www.julianburnside.com.au/whatsinside/uploads/2016/11/Communiqu%C3%A9-to-ICC.pdf (accessed 20 March 2017).

[65]      The Office of the Prosecutor, Policy Paper on Preliminary Investigations, November 2013, p. 23, https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-Policy_Paper_Preliminary_Examinations_2013-ENG.pdf (accessed 20 March 2017).

[66]      Prosecution of the Australian Government, November 2016, p. 6.

[67]      Prosecution of the Australian Government, November 2016, pp. 13-14.

[68]      Professor James Cavallaro, Ms Diala Shamas, Professor Beth Van Schaack and others, Communique to the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Under Article 15 of the Rome Statute: The situation in Nauru and Manus Island: Liability for crimes against humanity in the detention of refugees and asylum seekers ('The situation in Nauru and Manus'), 13 February 2017, https://www-cdn.law.stanford.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2017/02/Commu
niqu%C3%A9-to-Office-Prosecutor-IntlCrimCt-Art15RomeStat-14Feb2017.pdf
(accessed
24 March 2017).

[69]      Professor James Cavallaro, Ms Diala Shamas, Professor Beth Van Schaack and others, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 13 February 2017, pp. 59-63.

[70]      Professor James Cavallaro, Ms Diala Shamas, Professor Beth Van Schaack and others, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 13 February 2017, pp. 63-73.

[71]      F.J. v Australia, Case No. CCPR/C/116/D/2233/2013, 18 April 2016, para 10.3, https://uploads.guim.co.uk/2016/05/17/CCPR-C-116-D-2233-2013-English-cln-auv_(1).pdf (accessed 24 March 2017).

[72]      Professor James Cavallaro, Ms Diala Shamas, Professor Beth Van Schaack and others, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 13 February 2017, pp. 74-83.

[73]      Professor James Cavallaro, Ms Diala Shamas, Professor Beth Van Schaack and others, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 13 February 2017, pp. 92-96.

[74]      Professor James Cavallaro, Ms Diala Shamas, Professor Beth Van Schaack and others, The situation in Nauru and Manus, 13 February 2017, pp. 87-92.

[75]      ABC News, OPCAT: Australia makes long-awaited pledge to ratify international torture treaty, 9 February 2017.

[76]      Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT).

[77]      OPCAT, article 1.

[78]      OPCAT article 4(2).

[79]      OPCAT, article 3.

[80]      OPCAT, article 4.

[81]      OPCAT, article 12.

[82]      OHCHR, UN torture prevention body urges Nauru to set up detention monitoring mechanism, 6 May 2015.

[83]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 72; ALA, Submission 24; Hunter Asylum Seeker Advocacy Service (HASA), Submission 28; Ms Paddy McGorry and Mr Max Costello, Submission 47; Mr Max Costello, Submission 48; and Doctors for Refugees (DFR), Submission 56, p. 21;  

[84]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 3(1).

[85]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 8.

[86]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 5.

[87]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 19(1).

[88]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 19(2).

[89]      Essential Energy (ACN 37 428 185 226) and WorkCover Authority of New South Wales [2012] NSWIRComm 83 (3 August 2012), para. 23.

[90]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 18.

[91]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 38(1).

[92]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 35.

[93]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 38(1).

[94]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 38(7).

[95]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 39.

[96]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 232(1).

[97]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 12F(3).

[98]      Commonwealth Criminal Code, s. 15.1(1).

[99]      Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 155.

[100]    Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 163.

[101]    Work Health and Safety Act 2011, s. 171.

[102]    Ms Lynette MacLean, Acting Chief Executive Officer (A/CEO), Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 10.

[103]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 11.

[104]    Mr Justin Napier, General Manager, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 11.

[105]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 11.

[106]    Mr Anthony Blucher, Senior Director, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 15.

[107]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 9.

[108]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 11.

[109]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 15.

[110]    Mr Justin Napier, General Manager, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 12.

[111]    Mr Anthony Blucher, Senior Director, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 15.

[112]    DIBP, Submission 23, p. 25.

[113]    Mr Anthony Blucher, Senior Director, Regulatory Operations Group, and Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 16.

[114]    Mr Justin Napier, General Manager, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 14.

[115]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017).

[116]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 30 September 2014, p. 3.

[117]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 30 September 2014, p. 1

[118]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 30 September 2014, p. 4.

[119]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 21 October 2015, p. 5.

[120]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 21 October 2015, p. 5.

[121]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 21 October 2015, p. 6.

[122]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 21 October 2015, p. 6.

[123]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 21 October 2015, p. 7.

[124]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 21 October 2015, p.8.

[125]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Manus RPC Inspector Report, 21 October 2015, p. 1.

[126]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 27 October 2014, p. 1.

[127]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 27 October 2014, p. 1.

[128]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 27 October 2014, p. 1.

[129]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 4.

[130]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 4.

[131]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 5.

[132]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 6.

[133]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 6.

[134]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 9.

[135]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 1.

[136]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017), Comcare Nauru RPC Inspector Report, 15 November 2015, p. 1.

[137]    Mr Anthony Blucher, Senior Director, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, pp. 15-16.

[138]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 12 (our emphasis).

[139]    Comcare, response to question on notice, Wednesday 15 March 2017 (received
21 March 2017).

[140]    Mr Anthony Blucher, Senior Director, Regulatory Operations Group, and Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 12.

[141]    Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, pp. 13-14.

[142]    Mr Justin Napier, General Manager, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 19.

[143]    Mr Justin Napier, General Manager, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 14.

[144]    Mr Justin Napier, General Manager, Regulatory Operations Group, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 20.

[145]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 20.

[146]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 19.

[147]    Ms Lynette MacLean, A/CEO, Comcare, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017,
p. 13.

Chapter 7 - Committee views and recommendations

[1]        Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Conditions and treatment of asylum seekers and refugees at the regional processing centres in the Republic of Nauru and Papua New Guinea ('Nauru and Manus RPCs'), 5 May 2016.

[2]        Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP) response; DIBP, correspondence, Response to the 'Forgotten Children' report by ABC's Four Corners, March 2017.

[3]        DIBP, Supplementary submission 23.

[4]        DIBP, Submission 23, p. 52.

[5]        The Guardian Australia, the Nauru files, https://www.theguardian.com/news/series/nauru-files (accessed 3 April 2017).

[6]        Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Offshore Processing Centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea: procurement of garrison support and welfare services ('Procurement of garrison support and welfare services'), Audit Report No. 16 2016-17; ANAO, Offshore processing centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea – contact management of garrison support and welfare services ('Contract management'), ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17.

[7]        Select Committee into recent allegations relating to conditions and circumstances at the Regional Processing Centre in Nauru, Taking responsibility: conditions and circumstances at Australia's Regional Processing Centre in Nauru), August 2015, p. 119.

[8]        Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC), Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, p. 49.

[9]        DIAC, Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report,
15 November 2012, p. 52.

[10]      Dr Kalesh Seevnarain, Senior Health Adviser, International Health and Medical Services (IHMS), Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 50.

[11]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[12]      DIBP, Submission 23, p. 53.

[13]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 25 November 2016).

[14]      DIBP, response to written question on notice, 28 March 2017 (received 7 April 2017).

[15]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 8 February 2017 (received 3 March 2017).

[16]      Ms Cheryl-Anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 16.

[17]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 20 March 2017 (received 4 April 2017).

[18]      Mr Kingsley Woodford-Smith, Assistant Commissioner, Detention, Compliance and Removals Division, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 11.

[19]      DIBP, response to question on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 25 November 2016).

[20]      Ms Cheryl-Anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 17.

[21]      Ms Cheryl-Anne Moy, Acting Deputy Commissioner Support, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 16.

[22]      Mr Kingsley Woodford-Smith, Assistant Commissioner, Detention, Compliance and Removals Division, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 8 February 2017, p. 11.

[23]      Doctors for Refugees (DFR), Submission 56, p. 13.

[24]      DFR, Submission 56, pp. 10-11.

[25]      DFR, Submission 56, p. 15.

[26]      DFR, Submission 56, p. 15.

[27]      DFR, Submission 56, pp. 16-17.

[28]      Ms Gabriella Sutherland, Submission 59, p. 3.

[29]      Australian Medical Association (AMA), Submission 1, pp. 3-4.

[30]      Amnesty International, Submission 6, Attachment 1, p. 6.

[31]      Australian College of Mental Health Nurses (ACMHN), Submission 41, p. 9.

[32]      Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP), Submission 17, p. 5.

[33]      Dr Kym Jenkins, President-elect, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 23.

[34]      Dr Kym Jenkins, President-elect, RANZCP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 23; RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 10.

[35]      DIBP, Submission 23, pp. 30-31.

[36]      Australian National Audit Office, Offshore processing centres in Nauru and Papua New Guinea – contact management of garrison support and welfare services, ANAO Report No. 32 2016-17.

[37]      Mr Michael Pezzullo, Secretary, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 11 November 2016, p. 29.

[38]      Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia and the Government of Australia, relating to the settlement of refugees in Cambodia, https://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/themes/people-smuggling-trafficking/Documents/cambodia-australia-mou-and-operational-guidelines.pdf (accessed 21 February 2017).

[39]      International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), article 23.

Dissenting Report from Government Senators

[1]        Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), Submission 23, p. 52.

[2]        DIBP, response to question on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 28 November 2016).

[3]        DIBP, response to question on notice, 11 November 2016 (received 25 November 2016).

[4]        Mr Kingsley Woodford-Smith, Assistant Commissioner, Detention, Compliance and Removals Division, DIBP, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 58.

[5]        DIBP, Submission 23, p. 46.

[6]        DIBP, Submission 23, p. 50.

[7]        DIBP, response to questions on notice, 31 March 2017 (received 14 April 2017).

[8]        DIBP, Submission 23, p. 31.

[9]        DIBP, Submission 23, p. 27.

Additional Comments by the Australian Greens -  

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 4, 12 September 2016, p. 129.

[2]        United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, art 1.

[3]        Dr Anna Neistat, Senior Director for Research, Amnesty International, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, pp. 5-6.

[4]        Australian College of Mental Health Nurses (ACMHN), Submission 41, p. 5.

[5]        Ms Amy Lamoin, Head of Policy and Advocacy, UNICEF Australia, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 29.

[6]        Human Rights Watch, Submission 22, p. 6.

[7]        Human Rights Watch, Submission 22, p. 8.

[8]        Human Rights Watch, Submission 22, p. 8.

[9]        Human Rights Watch, Submission 22, p. 8.

[10]      Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), answer to question on notice, 29 March 2017 (received 7 April 2017). 

[11]      Dr Peter Rudolph, Area Medical Director, International Health and Medical Services (IHMS), Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 40.

[12]      Dr Peter Rudolph, Area Medical Director, IHMS, Committee Hansard,
Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 40.

[13]      Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC), Nauru Regional Processing Centre: Environmental Due Diligence Report, 15 November 2012, https://www.border.gov.au/AccessandAccountability/Documents/FOI/FA140401092.PDF.

[14]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, Doctors for Refugees (DFR), Committee Hansard,
Tuesday 14 March 2017, p. 7.

[15]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 March 2017, pp. 7–8.

[16]      Dr Kalesh Seevnarain, Senior Health Adviser, IHMS, Committee Hansard,
Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 55.

[17]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 March 2017, p. 8.

[18]      Australian Medical Association (AMA), Submission 1, p. 6.

[19]      AMA, Submission 1, p. 7.

[20]      Dr Peter Rudolph, Area Medical Director, IHMS, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 47.

[21]      Dr Peter Rudolph, Area Medical Director, IHMS, Committee Hansard,
Wednesday 15 March 2017, pp. 47–48.

[22]      Dr Peter Rudolph, Area Medical Director, IHMS, Committee Hansard,
Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 48

[23]      Human Rights Watch, Submission 22, p. 1.

[24]      Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP), Submission 8, p. 5.

[25]      Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 42, p. 1.

[26]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 5.

[27]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 4.

[28]      Australian Psychological Society, Submission 49, p. 3.

[29]      AMA, Submission 1, p. 5.

[30]      ACMHN, Submission 41, p. 6.

[31]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 3.

[32]      Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP), Submission 17, IHMS Response, p. 3.

[33]      Mr Paul Stevenson, Psychological, Brisbane Refugee and Asylum Seeker Support Network (BRASSN), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 March 2017, p. 11.

[34]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 5.

[35]      Mr Grant Hehir, Auditor-General, Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 27.

[36]      Dr Tom Ioannou, Group Executive Director, ANAO, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 32.

[37]      Dr Tom Ioannou, Group Executive Director, ANAO, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 32.

[38]      Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP), Submission 5, p. 3.

[39]      Ms Amy Lamoin, Head of Policy and Advocacy, UNICEF Australia, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 27.

[40]      Mr Mat Tinkler, Director, Policy and Public Affairs, Save the Children, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, pp. 27–28.

[41]      RACP, Submission 5, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[42]      Human Rights Watch, Submission 22, pp. 4–5.

[43]      Ms Michelle McDonald, Volunteer, Love Makes a Way, BRASSN, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 March 2017, p. 13.

[44]      Mr Mat Tinkler, Director, Policy and Public Affairs, Save the Children, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 29.

[45]      Castan Centre for Human Rights law, Submission 42, p. 5.

[46]      RACP, Submission 5, p. 3.

[47]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 4.

[48]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 5.

[49]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 4.

[50]      Dr Anna Neistat, Senior Director for Research, Amnesty International, Committee Hansard, Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 6.

[51]      Dr Peter Rudolph, Area Medical Director, IHMS, Committee Hansard,
Wednesday 15 March 2017, p. 52.

[52]      Dr Paddy McLisky, Secretary, DFR, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 14 March 2017, p. 1.

[53]      Commissioner for Children and Young People Western Australia, Submission 9, p. 5.

[54]      Mr Mat Tinkler, Director, Policy and Public Affairs, Save the Children, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 28.

[55]      Human Rights Watch, Submission 22, p. 6.

[56]      Mr Mat Tinkler, Director, Policy and Public Affairs, Save the Children, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, pp. 27–28.

[57]      Mr Mat Tinkler, Director, Policy and Public Affairs, Save the Children, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 28.

[58]      Ms Pamela Curr, Australian Women in Support of Women on Nauru (AWSWN), Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, pp. 11–12.

[59]      Australian Lawyers for Human Rights (ALHR), Submission 25, p. 9.

[60]      ALHR, Submission 25, p. 9.

[61]      Commissioner for Children and Young People Western Australia, Submission 9, p. 3.

[62]      ALHR, Submission 25, p. 7.

[63]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 4.

[64]      Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989 entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49.

[65]      Commissioner for Children and Young People Western Australia, Submission 9, p. 2.

[66]      ALHR, Submission 25, p. 7.

[67]      ALHR, Submission 25, p. 5.

[68]      United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Submission 43, p. 6.

[69]      Australia Council for International Development (ACFID), Submission 45, p. 3.

[70]      ALHR, Submission 25, pp. 3-4.

[71]      UNHCR, Submission 43, p. 4.

[72]      ALHR, Submission 25, pp. 3-4.

[73]      RANZCP, Submission 8, p. 9.

[74]      Mr Max Costello, Submission 48, p. 1.

[75]      ALHR, Submission 24, p. 8.

[76]      Mr Max Costello, Submission 48, p. 8.

[77]      Mr Max Costello, Submission 48, p. 16.

[78]      Mr Max Costello, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 38.

[79]      Mr Max Costello, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 38.

[80]      Mr Max Costello, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 38.

[81]      Mr Max Costello, Submission 48, p. 12.

[82]      Mr Max Costello, Submission 48, p. 3.

[83]      Australian Lawyers Alliance (ALA), Untold Damage  Workplace health and safety in immigration detention under the Work, Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth,), 16,  www.lawyersalliance.com.au/documents/item/583 

[84]      Mr Max Costello and Ms Paddy McCorry, Submission 47, p. 2.

[85]      ALA, Untold Damage  Workplace health and safety in immigration detention under the Work, Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth,), 16, www.lawyersalliance.com.au/documents/item/583

[86]      Ms Anna Talbot, Legal and Policy Adviser, ALA, Committee Hansard, Tuesday 15 November 2016, p. 41.

[87]      Mr Max Costello and Ms Paddy McCorry, Submission 47, p. 2.

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