Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        The committee received correspondence from the Victorian Premier and the Acting Tasmanian Premier indicating that those states would not be participating in the inquiry: correspondence from The Hon. Steve Bracks MP, Victorian Premier to Committee Secretary, 23 August 2006; and correspondence from Mr David Llewellyn MHA, Acting Tasmanian Premier to Senator Trish Crossin, Committee Chair, 24 August 2006.

[2]        Submission 110, p. 2.

Chapter 2 - Life under the protection acts

[1]        Mr Peter Bird, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 47.

[2]        From 1863 to 1911, the Northern Territory was administered by South Australia. The Commonwealth Government administered the Northern Territory for the period 1911 to 1978, see Northern Territory Government, Submission 110, pp 1-2. 

[3]        The following section is taken from the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) 1997, Bringing them home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney, pp 28 – 29. (Bringing them home Report). Part 2 of the Bringing them home Report gives a comprehensive overview of the laws, practices and policies for the forcible removal of Indigenous children from their families. These laws, practices and policies are also relevant to the issue of stolen wages.

[4]        Boards were later replaced by Departmental organisations, and the role of Chief Protector was taken over by the Director of the Department.

[5]        See Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49; Queensland Public Law Clearing House (QPILCH), Submission 50; and the Queensland Government, Submission 116A, The Consultancy Bureau Report, Final Report: Investigation of the Aborigines Welfare Fund and the Aboriginal Accounts, March 1991 (The Consultancy Bureau Report).

[6]        Ms Lin Morrow and Mr Andrew Dunstone, Submission 26B, Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Legal Services Secretariat (QAILSS), Document prepared for the purposes of negotiations containing the demands of claimants in relation to the Aboriginal Welfare Fund, associated accounts and issues, 26 June 2000, p. 10 (The QAILSS Proposal).

[7]        The QAILSS Proposal, p. 10; see also Queensland Government, Submission 116, p. 3.

[8]        The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A.

[9]        See section 12 of the 1897 Queensland Act, and subsection 14(1) of the Aboriginals Preservation and Protection Act 1939 (the 1939 Queensland Act).

[10]      See sections 12 and 13 of the 1897 Queensland Act; and subsections 14(1) and (4) of the 1939 Queensland Act.

[11]      Section 15 of the 1897 Queensland Act; and subsection 14(3) of the 1939 Queensland Act. The 1897 Queensland Act did not require male 'half-caste' workers to have employment contracts, however, amendments to the legislation in 1934 introduced this requirement; see subsection 15(4) of the Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Acts Amendment Act of 1934 (Qld).

[12]      Section 15 of the 1897 Queensland Act; and subsection 14(3) of the 1939 Queensland Act.

[13]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 4. The 1934 amending legislation was the Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Acts Amendment Act of 1934 (Qld).

[14]      'Indenture' means a contract by which a person, as an apprentice, is bound to service.

[15]      Submission 49, p. 9.

[16]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A. The term 'assisted Aborigine' and 'assisted Islander' were introduced in the 1965 Queensland Act and included those Indigenous Australians living on reserves for Aboriginal or Islander people; and those people declared by the Director of Aboriginal and Islander Affairs or the Magistrates Court to be an 'assisted' person.

[17]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 4. The amending legislation was the Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1901 (Qld).

[18]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 2.

[19]      See subsection 12(2) of the Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1901 (Qld). Protectors did not have the discretion to make directions about the payment of the wages of male mixed race workers.

[20]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 4.

[21]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A.

[22]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 5, quoting from a statement on 2 August 1990 by the Hon A.M. Warner, the then Minister for Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs.

[23]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A; see also QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 8 for the regulations under the 1939 Act which set out the requirements for the keeping of pocket money books.

[24]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A.

[25]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 6.

[26]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 5; and The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A.

[27]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A.

[28]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 7.

[29]      Subsection 12(9) of the 1939 Queensland Act.

[30]      QPILCH, Submission 50, pp 6-7.

[31]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 9.

[32]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 9.

[33]      QPILCH, Submission 50, pp 10-11. The legislation was the Aborigines Act 1971, the Torres Strait Islanders Act 1971, the Community Services (Aborigines) Act 1984 and the Community Services (Torres Strait) Act 1984.

[34]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 6.

[35]      Submission 49, p. 33.

[36]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 8.

[37]      See Dr Susan Greer, Submission 42; Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49; the NSW Stolen Wages Working Group, Submission 91; Indigenous Law Centre (ILC), Submission 98.

[38]      As quoted in the State Records of New South Wales, A guide to New South Wales State Archives relating to Aboriginal people, Appendix 1, available at: http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/publications/aboriginalguide/aboriginalguidetoc.htm, accessed 24 November 2006.

[39]      PIAC Submission to the Panel on the Aboriginal Trust Fund Reparation Scheme, September 2004, p. 9, available at: http://www.piac.asn.au/publications/pubs/0409-FinalSubmission.doc, accessed 24 November 2006.

[40]      See subsections 7(c) and (e), Aborigines Protection Act 1909 (NSW).

[41]      See subsection 11(1) of the Aborigines Protection Act 1909 (NSW). The Apprentices Act 1901 (NSW) provided that the minimum age for apprentices was 14 years old and provided the terms and conditions for apprenticeships.

[42]      Paragraph 2(1)(a) of the Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915 (NSW).

[43]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 10.

[44]      ILC, Submission 98, p. 4.

[45]      See subsection 2(i) of the Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act 1936 (NSW), which inserted a new section 13B into the Aborigines Protection Act 1909.

[46]      Bringing them home Report, p. 49.

[47]      Dr Susan Greer, Submission 42, p. 4; ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 9.

[48]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 20; ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 9.

[49]      Subsection 2(i) of the Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act 1936 (NSW), which inserted a new section 13C into the 1909 NSW Act.

[50]      Submission 91, p. 10.

[51]      Submission 98, p. 4.

[52]      Submission 49, p. 33.

[53]      Brian Gilligan, Terri Janke, Sam Jeffries, Report of the Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, October 2004, available at http://www.premiers.nsw.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/A1F8674E-2742-457C-825B-9C74413E89A3/0/ATFfinalreportDec05.doc, accessed 19 November 2006. This is the first Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel. The work of this panel and the repayment of wages in NSW is further discussed in Chapter 7.

[54]      See Professor Anna Haebich, Submission 19; Aboriginal Legal Service of Western Australia (ALSWA), Submission 30, 30A and 30B; Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49.

[55]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 11.

[56]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, p. 5; Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 3.

[57]      The Aborigines Protection Act 1886 (WA) required a contract between employers and workers that were 14 years or older. The Aborigines Act 1905 (WA) provided that an Aboriginal worker, a male 'half-caste' under 14, or a female 'half-caste' could not be employed except under a permit or a permit and agreement. See Professor Anna Haebich, Submission 19, p. 1; ALSWA, Submission 30, pp 12-13.

[58]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 8.

[59]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 11.

[60]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 11.

[61]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 12.

[62]      Submission 49, p. 23.

[63]      Submission 30B, pp 32-33.

[64]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 7.

[65]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 7.

[66]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 11.

[67]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, p. 4.

[68]      Submission 19, pp 1-2.

[69]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, p. 5.

[70]      Submission 49, p. 6.

[71]      See Castan Centre, Submission 11; Dr Thalia Anthony, Submission 17; and Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49.

[72]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 13.

[73]      Submission 49, p. 9.

[74]      Castan Centre for Human Rights Law (Castan Centre), Submission 11, p. 13.

[75]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, pp 17-18.

[76]      Submission 11, p. 13.

[77]      Submission 11, p. 13.

[78]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 14.

[79]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 14.

[80]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 14.

[81]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 15.

[82]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 18.

[83]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 6.

[84]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 19.

[85]      In the matter of the Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1904-1965, and of the Cattle Station (Northern Territory) Award 1951 (Equal Wages decision) C no. 830 of 1965, (1966) 113 C.A.R 651. This decision applied the Cattle Station (Northern Territory) Award 1951 to Aboriginal pastoral workers in the Northern Territory.

[86]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 20.

[87]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 6.

[88]      Submission 49, p. 33.

[89]      Submission 17, p. 7.

[90]      Dr Cameron Raynes, Submission 8; Ms Joanna Richardson, Submission 14; and The Graham Family, Submission 113.

[91]      See Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, pp 8 and 10, which talk about the number of girls being trained at the Colebrook home in South Australia up until 1972. See also the Aboriginals Ordinance 1844 (SA).

[92]      Submission 8, p. 1.

[93]      Submission 49, p. 3.

[94]      Submission 113, p. 6. These rules are from 1915.

[95]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 24.

[96]      Dr Cameron Raynes, Submission 8, p. 3.

[97]      Submission 113, p. 6.

[98]      The Graham Family, Submission 113, p. 7.

[99]      Submission 8, p. 3.

[100]    Submission 49, p. 10.

[101]    Submission 84, p. 6.

[102]    Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 2; see also Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 (Vic).

[103]    Wampan Wages, Submission 84¸ p. 4.

[104]    Wampan Wages, Submission 84¸ p. 5.

[105]    Bringing them home Report, p. 58; Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 9.

[106]    Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 2; Wampan Wages, Submission 84, p. 4; see also Aborigines Protection Regulations 1871.

[107]    Wampan Wages, Submission 84, p. 4.

[108]    Wampan Wages, Submission 84, p. 5.

[109]    Bringing them home Report, p. 58.

[110]    Bringing them home Report, p. 59.

[111]    Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 3.

[112]    Bringing them home Report, p. 59.

[113]    Australian Catholic Social Justice Council, Submission 13, ACSJC Background Paper, Stolen Wages – an opportunity for justice? p. 2, which refers to the Industrial Schools Act 1867 (Tas); Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 25, referring to the Industrial Schools Act 1867 (Tas) and the Children of the State Act 1918 (Tas).

[114]    Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 25.

[115]    Aborigines Protection Act 1909 (NSW).

[116]    See Bringing them home Report, p. 608.

[117]    Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 13.

[118]    Professor Ann McGrath, Submission 9, p. 27; Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 10.

[119]    Submission 9, p. 27.

Chapter 3 - Access to Commonwealth entitlements

[1]        ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 14.

[2]        Section 15.

[3]        Subsection 22(1).

[4]        An 'institution' was defined as a charitable institution approved by the Minister.

[5]        Subsection 6(b) of the Child Endowment Act 1942.

[6]        Section 97.

[7]        Subsection 95(4).

[8]        ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 31.

[9]        Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 36.

[10]      Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 36.

[11]      Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 36.

[12]      Submission 49, p. 34.

[13]      Submission 49, p. 34.

[14]      Submission 49, p. 26.

[15]      The figure in brackets is Dr Kidd's calculation of the current value of this amount.

[16]      Submission 49, p. 26. The figure in brackets is Dr Kidd's calculation of the current value of this amount.

[17]      Submission 49, pp 26-27. The figures in brackets are Dr Kidd's calculation of the current value of these amounts.

[18]      Submission 30B, p. 46.

[19]      Submission 30B, p. 46.

[20]      Submission 19, p. 4.

[21]      Submission 8, p. 5.

[22]      Submission 8, p. 5.

[23]      See Submission 8A, p. 4.

[24]      Submission 8, p. 5.

[25]      Submission 8A, p. 4.

[26]      Submission 8, p. 5.

[27]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 25.

[28]      Section 3.

[29]      Section 3 of the Maternity Allowance Act 1942.  See also Parliamentary Library, Social security payments for people caring for children, 1912–2004, July 2006, at http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/online/children_parta.htm#maternity.htm (accessed 28 November 2006).

[30]      Subsection 86(3).

[31]      Section 91.

[32]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 26.

[33]      Submission 49, p. 25.

[34]      Submission 49, pp 25-26.

[35]      Submission 49, p. 25.

[36]      Submission 8A, p. 3.

[37]      Submission 49, p. 34.

[38]      Submission 49, p. 34.

[39]      Subsection 16(1) and paragraph 21(1)(b).

[40]      PIAC submission to the Panel on the Aboriginal Trust Fund Reparation Scheme in September 2004.

[41]      See subsection 19(2).

[42]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 27.

[43]      Submission 30C, p. 10.

[44]      Submission 30C, p. 11.

[45]      Submission 30C, Item 3, Attachment 4, Circular Memorandum 272 (Confidential) from Commissioner for Native Welfare to all Field Officers, 24 December 1959.

[46]      Submission 30C, p. 11.

[47]      Paragraph 14(1)(g) and subsection 14(5).

[48]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 24.

[49]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, pp 24-25.

[50]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 39.

[51]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 39.

[52]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, pp 39-40.

[53]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 40.

[54]      Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 41.

[55]      Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 41.

[56]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 45.

[57]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 63.

[58]      Submission 84, p. 4.

Chapter 4 - Trust and savings accounts

[1]        Ms Yvonne Butler, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 22.

[2]        Queensland Government, Submission 116A, The Consultancy Bureau, Final Report: Investigation of the Aborigines Welfare Fund and the Aboriginal Accounts, March 2001 (The Consultancy Bureau Report).

[3]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49; and QPILCH, Submission 50.

[4]        The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment A. Information provided to the committee by the Queensland Government states that 60 per cent of a workers' wage was compulsorily saved; see Queensland Government, Submission 116, Attachment 7, Wages and Savings of Indigenous Queenslanders 1897-1972, July 2001.

[5]        The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 10.

[6]        The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 11.

[7]        The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 11.

[8]        Queensland Government, Submission 116, Attachment 7, Wages and Savings of Indigenous Queenslanders 1897-1972: History Sheet.

[9]        The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 17.

[10]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 12.

[11]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, pp 12-13.

[12]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, pp 13-16.

[13]      Queensland Government, Submission 116, Attachment 7, Wages and Savings of Indigenous Queenslanders 1897-1972: History Sheet. Emphasis in original.

[14]      Submission 50, p. 13.

[15]      Dr Ros Kidd, Black Lives, Government Lies, JT Press, Redcliffe, 2002, p. 36.

[16]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 14.

[17]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 26.

[18]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 14; QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 5.

[19]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 27.

[20]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 14; QPILCH, Submission 50, pp 5 and 14.

[21]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 27.

[22]      Subsection 12(9) of The Aboriginals Preservation and Protection Act 1939 (Qld).

[23]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 14; The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 24.

[24]      QPILCH, Submission 50, pp 14-15; The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 24.

[25]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 21.

[26]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 15; The Consultancy Bureau Report, Attachment 3.

[27]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 15.

[28]      Queensland Government, Submission 116, p. 3, and Attachment 7, Wages and Savings of Indigenous Queenslanders 1897-1972: History Sheet.

[29]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, p. 28.

[30]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 20; see also ILC, Submission 98, p. 6.

[31]      ILC, Submission 98, p. 6.

[32]      Submission 98, p. 6.

[33]      Submission 9, p. 31; see also Indigenous Law Centre, Submission 98, p. 6.

[34]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 15.

[35]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, p. 27.

[36]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, pp 27-28.

[37]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, p. 28.

[38]      Submission 30B, p. 28.

[39]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 24.

[40]      Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 11, p. 13.

[41]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 23.

[42]      Submission 11, p. 16.

[43]      Submission 49, p. 22.

[44]      Submission 8, p. 4.

[45]      Submission 8B, p. 2.

[46]      Wampan Wages, Submission 84, pp 4-5.

[47]      Wampan Wages, Submission 84, p. 5.

[48]      Wampan Wages, Submission 84, p. 5.

[49]      Submission 84A, answers to questions on notice, p. 1.

[50]      Dr Ros Kidd, Trustees on Trial: Recovering the stolen wages, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 2006.

[51]      Submission 49, pp 14-15.

[52]      Submission 49, pp 13-19.

[53]      The Consultancy Bureau, Final Report: Investigation of the Aborigines Welfare Fund and the Aboriginal Accounts, March 1991, p. 4.

[54]      Submission 14, p.6.

[55]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 10.

[56]      See, for example, Professor Ann McGrath, Submission 9, p. 11, in relation to the NSW Board; Joanna Richardson, Submission 14, p. 6, in relation to the South Australian Board; Dr Thalia Anthony, Submission  17, p. 8, in relation to the Chief Protector of the Northern Territory.

[57]      Submission 9, p. 27.

[58]      The Consultancy Bureau, Final Report: Investigation of the Aborigines Welfare Fund and the Aboriginal Accounts, March 1991, p. 8.

[59]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 11.

[60]      Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 11, p. 13.

[61]      Submission 17, p. 6

[62]      Dr Thalia Anthony, Submission 17, pp 5-6.

[63]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, pp 8 and 21.

[64]      Submission 9, p. 11.

[65]      Ms Marjorie Woodrow, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 26.

[66]      Dr Fiona Skyring, ALSWA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 19.

[67]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 35.

[68]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 22; see also Mr Steve Kinnane, Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 53.

[69]      Submission 49, p. 4.

[70]      Submission 42, pp 4-5.

[71]      Professor Ann McGrath, Submission 9, p. 25.

[72]      Submission 98, p.50.

[73]      Submission 42, p. 2.

[74]      Mr Patrick Hay, counsel instructed by QPILCH, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 27 October 2006.

Chapter 5 - Impact of wages control

[1]        Mrs Marjorie Woodrow, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 25.

[2]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 4; See also Mr Patrick Hay, counsel instructed by the Queensland Public Interest Law Clearing House (QPILCH), Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, pp 12-13.

[3]        Submission 49, p. 3.

[4]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 6.

[5]        Ms Joanna Richardson, Submission, 14 p. 4; see also Dr Cameron Raynes, Submission 8, p. 1.

[6]        Submission 49, p. 3.

[7]        Aboriginal Legal Service of Western Australia (ALSWA), Submission 30, p. 13; see also Professor Anna Haebich, Submission 19, p. 2.

[8]        Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 36.

[9]        Castan Centre, Submission 11, p.16.

[10]      Dr Thalia Anthony, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 11; see also Dr Thalia Anthony Submission 17, pp 5-6.

[11]      See, for example, Dr Thalia Anthony, Submission 17, pp 5-6; and ALSWA, Submission 30C, pp 2-3.

[12]      Submission 19, p. 4.

[13]      Submission 127, p. 12.

[14]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 45.

[15]      Submission 115, p. 2.

[16]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, Attachment A.

[17]      Submission 76, p. 9.

[18]      Submission 11, p. 10.

[19]      Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 10, quoting a witness to the 1937 NSW Select Committee Inquiry and the Bringing them Home Report. The 1937 NSW Select Committee is discussed further in Chapter 6.

[20]      Submission 19, p. 2.

[21]      Document tabled on 16 November 2006, p. 2 quoting Genevieve, statement dated 12 January 1935, SROWA Acc993:506/1927.

[22]      Mr Craig Muller, Document tabled on 16 November 2006, pp 2-3.

[23]      Quoted in PIAC's submission, Submission 76, p. 7.

[24]      Submission 82, p. 5.

[25]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 21.

[26]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 48.

[27]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 25 October 2006, p. 46.

[28]      Committee Hansard, 16 November 2006, p. 40; see also Mr Ted Carlton, Committee Hansard, 16 November 2006, p. 36.

[29]      Professor Anna Haebich, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 31.

[30]      Submission 9, p. 11.

[31]      See Dr Ros Kidd, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 5; Professor Anna Haebich, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 29; Mr Anthony Westmore, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 33.

[32]      Submission 77, p. 1.

[33]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 29.

[34]      Ms Mabel Ann Hopkins, Submission 111.

[35]      Submission 93.

[36]      Mr Conrad Yeatman, Submission 28, p. 1; Ms Mabel Hopkins, Submission 111, p. 1.

[37]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 64.

Chapter 6 - Previous inquiries into stolen wages and access to records

[1]        Professor Anna Haebich, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 32.

[2]        Submission 49, p. 34.

[3]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 11.

[4]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 11.

[5]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 15.

[6]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p.12.

[7]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 12.

[8]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, p. 12.

[9]        Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, pp 17-18.

[10]      QPILCH, Submission 50, p. 16.

[11]      Submission 116A, The Consultancy Bureau, Final Report: Investigation of the Aborigines Welfare Fund and the Aboriginal Accounts, March 1991 (The Consultancy Bureau Report).

[12]      The Consultancy Bureau Report, pp 3-4.

[13]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, pp 28-29.

[14]      Submission 98, Attachment A, pp 48-49.

[15]      Public Service Board, Aborigines Protection: Report and Recommendations of the Public Service Board of NSW, Government Printer, 1940.

[16]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 29.

[17]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 48.

[18]      ILC, Submission 98, Attachment A, p. 54.

[19]      Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR), Submission 78, p. 14; and A. Goodstone, 'Stolen Aboriginal wages', PIAC Bulletin, No. 19, June 2004, p. 3. This 1998 document formed the basis of a 2001 draft Cabinet Minute which, although not presented to Cabinet, sought endorsement for the establishment of a scheme to reimburse Aboriginal Trust Funds monies to rightful claimants.

[20]      Submission 49, p. 22.

[21]      V.J. White (Secretary, Native Affairs Branch) Aboriginal Trust Account Investigation, 12 June 1940, 4-6; National Archives (Darwin): CRS F1, Item 42/40, see cover letter to Patrol Officer Stehlow, District Officer Alice Springs.

[22]      V.J. White (Secretary, Native Affairs Branch) Aboriginal Trust Account Investigation, 12 June 1940, 4-6; National Archives (Darwin): CRS F1, Item 42/40, pp 1-2.

[23]      See Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 3. The Berndt report was initially suppressed and not published until 1987.

[24]      Castan Centre, Submission 11, p. 16.

[25]      Submission 30, p. 16; Submission 30C, p. 2.

[26]      In 1904 there was the 'Royal Commission on the Administration of Aborigines and the condition of the Natives', also known as the Roth Royal Commission. The 'Royal Commission in relation to Condition and Treatment of Aborigines', or the Moseley Royal Commission, was held in 1934. Finally, in 1948 the Bateman Royal Commission was established to investigate into Aboriginal affairs in Western Australia.

[27]      See Dr Ros Kidd, Submission 49, pp 3 and 7; and ALSWA, Submission 30B, pp 5, 7, 26 and 29.

[28]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 12.

[29]      Submission 14, p. 7; Dr Cameron Rayne in correspondence to the committee also stated that he was not aware of any previous investigations by the South Australian Government.

[30]      Submission 84, p.3.

[31]      Submission 94, p. 1.

[32]      Submission 84, p. 1.

[33]      Submission 9A, p. 2.

[34]      Submission 9A, p. 2.

[35]      Submission 9A, p. 2.

[36]      Submission 9A, p. 2.

[37]      The Queensland Government's reparations offer, and the earlier process for the reparations of underpaid award wages, are further discussed in Chapter 7.

[38]      Submission 116, p. 2.

[39]      The Consultancy Bureau, Final Report: Investigation of the Aborigines Welfare Fund and the Aboriginal Accounts, March 1991, p. 4.

[40]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 74.

[41]      The Consultancy Bureau, Final Report: Investigation of the Aborigines Welfare Fund and the Aboriginal Accounts, March 1991, p. 9.

[42]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 83.

[43]      Submission 40.

[44]      See Dr Ros Kidd, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 6; Mr Bob Weatherall, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 27.

[45]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 15.

[46]      Submission 22, p. 2.

[47]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 50.

[48]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 4.

[49]      The NSW Government's Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme is discussed in Chapter 7.

[50]      Submission 92, p. 3.

[51]      Submission 91, p. 12, see in particular the State Records of NSW, Guide to New South Wales State Archives relating to Aboriginal people, available at: http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/publications/aboriginalguide/aboriginalguidetoc.htm, accessed 29 November 2006.

[52]      State Records of NSW, Archives in Brief 78 – Access to Aboriginal records, available at http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/archives_in_brief_78_2139.asp, accessed 21 November 2006.

[53]      PIAC, Submission 76, p. 13.

[54]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 44.

[55]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 19.

[56]      Submission 91, p. 5.

[57]      Submission 91, p. 5.

[58]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 31.

[59]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 31.

[60]      ALSWA, Submission 30B, p. 42.

[61]      ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 19.

[62]      See further Submission 30C.

[63]      Submission 30, pp 5-6.

[64]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 50.

[65]      Dr Cameron Raynes, Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 3.

[66]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, pp 5-6.

[67]      Dr Cameron Raynes, Submission 8, p. 6.

[68]      Submission 14, p. 7.

[69]      Submission 10, p. 1.

[70]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, pp 12-13 and 15. For more information on records held by the National Archives of Australia, and information on accessing these records see National Archives of Australia, Indigenous Records, at http://www.naa.gov.au/the_collection/indigenous_records.html, accessed 22 November 2006.

[71]      Submission 84, p. 1.

[72]      Committee Hansard, Canberra, 28 November 2006, p. 7.

[73]      Submission 84, p. 3.

[74]      Committee Hansard, Canberra, 28 November 2006, p. 10.

[75]      See National Archives of Australia, Indigenous Records, at http://www.naa.gov.au/the_collection/indigenous_records.html, accessed 22 November 2006. Records of Indigenous people in Victoria are held in the National Archives because the Victorian Government handed over responsibility for Aboriginal Affairs to the Commonwealth Government in 1975.

[76]      See, Public Record Office Victoria, Koori Records Unit, at http://www.prov.vic.gov.au/about/kru/default.asp, accessed 22 November 2006.

[77]      Committee Hansard, Canberra, 28 November 2006, p. 13.

[78]      Submission 126, p. 2.

[79]      Committee Hansard, Canberra, 28 November 2006, p. 18.

Chapter 7 - Repayment of monies by Governments

[1]        Ms Valerie Linow, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October, pp 21-22.

[2]        Bligh & Ors v State of Queensland [1996] HREOCA 28.

[3]        Bligh & Ors v State of Queensland [1996] HREOCA 28, part 11.

[4]        Bligh & Ors v State of Queensland [1996] HREOCA 28, part 9.

[5]        Bligh & Ors v State of Queensland [1996] HREOCA 28, parts 9 and 16.

[6]        HREOC, Submission 41, para. 18.

[7]        HREOC, Submission 41, para. 20

[8]        Queensland Government, Submission 116, Attachment 7, Indigenous Wages and Savings (1890s-1980s) Reparation Process Information Sheet, September 2003.

[9]        Queensland Government, Submission 116, p. 6.

[10]      HREOC, Submission 41, para 20.

[11]      HREOC, Submission 41, paras 26-38.

[12]      Baird v State of Queensland [2006] FCAFC 162.

[13]      HREOC, Submission 41, paras 39-41; and Mr Jonathon Hunyor, HREOC, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 2.

[14]      The Hon. Peter Beattie, Premier of Queensland, Legislative Assembly Hansard, 16 May 2002, p. 1715.

[15]      The Hon. Peter Beattie, Premier of Queensland, Legislative Assembly Hansard, 16 May 2002, p. 1716.

[16]      The total amount of the offer was $55.6 million, however the Queensland Government gave $200,000 to the Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Legal Services Secretariat (QAILSS) to conduct consultation on the offer. This consultation is discussed later in this chapter.

[17]      Submission 116, p. 3.

[18]      Submission 116, p. 5.

[19]      Submission 116, p. 5.

[20]      Submission 116, p. 5.

[21]      Queensland Public Interest Law Clearing House (QPILCH), Submission 50, p. 21.

[22]      Queensland Government, Submission 116, Attachment 7, Indigenous wages and savings reparations process: How will it work?.

[23]      The Hon. Peter Beattie, 'Historic Reparations Offer to Indigenous Queenslanders To Proceed', Press Release, 20 November 2002.

[24]      Queensland Government, Submission 116, p. 6.

[25]      See Dr Ros Kidd, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, pp 5-6; Ms Yvonne Butler, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 21; Dr Rev. David Pitman, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 38; Mrs Alexandra Gater, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 44; and Ms Tammy Williams, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 66.

[26]      Ms Yvonne Butler, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 22.

[27]      Mr Victor Hart, Queensland Stolen Wages Campaign Working Group, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 58.

[28]      The Hon. Peter Beattie, Premier of Queensland, Legislative Assembly Hansard, 16 May 2002, p. 1716.

[29]      The Hon. Peter Beattie, Premier of Queensland, Legislative Assembly Hansard, 16 May 2002, p. 1716.  Peter Gunner and Lorna Cubillo were the unsuccessful claimants in a 'stolen generation' case; they were seeking compensation for being removed from their families.

[30]      See the Hon. Peter Beattie, Premier of Queensland, Legislative Assembly Hansard, 16 May 2002, p. 1716.

[31]      Mrs Yvonne Butler, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 21; see also ANTaR, Submission 78, p. 13.

[32]      See Dr Ros Kidd, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 2; Mr Victor Hart, Queensland Stolen Wages Campaign Working Group, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 60.

[33]      Dr William Jonas, '"Stolen Wages" case should be delayed, says Social Justice Commissioner', Press Release, 8 November 2002; Stolen Wages Working Group, Press release, 15 May 2005.

[34]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 5.

[35]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 6.

[36]      Submission 116B, p. 2.

[37]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane 25 October 2006, p. 7; see also Committee Hansard, Brisbane 25 October 2006, pp 70, 75 and 80.

[38]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 48.

[39]      Submission 18.

[40]      Submission 46.

[41]      Submission 116, p. 5.

[42]      The Hon. Peter Beattie, Premier of Queensland, Legislative Assembly Hansard, 16 May 2002, p. 1716.

[43]      Ms Lin Morrow and Mr Andrew Dunstone, Submission 26B, Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Legal Services Secretariat (QAILSS), Document prepared for the purposes of negotiations containing the demands of claimants in relation to the Aboriginal Welfare Fund, associated accounts and issues, 26 June 2000, p. 10 (The QAILSS Proposal).

[44]      The QAILSS Proposal, covering letter.

[45]      Queensland Stolen Wages Campaign Working Group, Submission 117A, answers to Question on Notice.

[46]      Mrs Ruth Hegarty, Queensland Stolen Wages Campaign Working Group, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 60.

[47]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 50.

[48]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 73.

[49]      Submission 41A, answers to Questions on Notice, the Report on Consultations with Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islanders of Queensland Regarding Queensland Government offer of Reparations (Report on QAILSS Consultations).

[50]      See Schedule 1 of the Report on QAILSS Consultations.

[51]      Submission 116, p. 2.

[52]      Report on QAILSS Consultations, p. 6.

[53]      Report on the QAILSS Consultations, pp 6-8.

[54]      Report on QAILSS Consultations, p. 16.

[55]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, pp 52-53.

[56]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 4.

[57]      Report on the QAILSS Consultations, p. 6.

[58]      Report on the QAILSS Consultations, p. 14.

[59]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 53.

[60]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 15.

[61]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 26

[62]      Report of the QAILLS Consultations, p. 4. Emphasis in original.

[63]      Submission 116, Attachment 7, Indigenous Wages and Savings (1890s-1980s) Reparation Process Information Sheet, September 2003.

[64]      Queensland Government, Submission 116, Attachment 7, Indigenous wages and savings reparations process: How will it work?

[65]      Submission 41, para. 23.

[66]      Mrs Ettie Gleeson, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 50.

[67]      Pastor Henry Collins, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 49; see also Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 50.

[68]      Mr Peter Bird, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, pp 50-51.

[69]      Mrs Ruth Hegarty, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 54.

[70]      Submission 116B, p. 3.

[71]      Submission 116B, pp 3 and 5.

[72]      Submission 116B, p. 4.

[73]      Submission 116B, p. 4.

[74]      Submission 116B, p. 5.

[75]      Submission 116, p. 6.

[76]      See the section on Queensland, under the heading 'Disclosure of evidence and public access' in Chapter 6.

[77]      Submission 61, pp 2-3.

[78]      Submission 18.

[79]      Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 50.

[80]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 3.

[81]      Submission 123.

[82]      Queensland Government, Submission 116, p. 6.

[83]      Submission 116, p. 6.

[84]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, pp 63-64.

[85]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 64.

[86]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 43.

[87]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 59.

[88]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 76.

[89]      Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 14.

[90]      Hon. Bob Carr, Premier of NSW, Legislative Assembly Hansard, 11 March 2006, p. 7164.

[91]      NSW Cabinet Office, Submission 92, p. 1.

[92]      The Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, Submission 79, p. 2.

[93]      The Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, Submission 79, p. 3.

[94]      See Brian Gilligan, Terri Janke, Sam Jeffries, Report of the Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, October 2004, available at http://www.premiers.nsw.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/A1F8674E-2742-457C-825B-9C74413E89A3/0/ATFfinalreportDec05.doc, accessed 19 November 2006.

[95]      Brian Gilligan, Terri Janke, Sam Jeffries, Report of the Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, October 2004, sections 2.5.1 and 2.6.

[96]      Brian Gilligan, Terri Janke, Sam Jeffries, Report of the Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, October 2004, section 1.2.

[97]      Brian Gilligan, Terri Janke, Sam Jeffries, Report of the Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, October 2004, section 1.3.

[98]      NSW Cabinet Office, Submission 92, p. 2.

[99]      PIAC, Submission 76, p. 3; The Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, Submission 79, p. 3.

[100]    NSW Cabinet Office, Submission 92, pp 2-3.

[101]    Submission 92, p. 2.

[102]    Submission 92, Attachment A.

[103]    Submission 92, p. 2.

[104]    Submission 76, p. 10.

[105]    NSW Cabinet Office, Submission 92, p. 3.

[106]    The Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, Submission 79, p. 4.

[107]    The Aboriginal Trust Fund Repayment Scheme Panel, Submission 79, p. 5.

[108]    NSW Cabinet Office, Submission 92, p. 2.

[109]    Submission 76A, p. 1.

[110]    See Mr Darren Dick, HREOC, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 3; Mr Sean Brennan, ILC, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 35.

[111]    Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 18.

[112]    Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 8.

[113]    Submission 76, p. 11.

[114]    Submission 76, pp 12-15.

[115]    Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 54.

[116]    Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 35.

[117]    Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 26.

[118]    Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 27.

[119]    Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 26.

[120]    Submission 78, p. 18; Submission 91, p. 15.

[121]    Submission 91, p. 15.

[122]    Submission 22, p. 2.

[123]    Submission 21, p. 8.

[124]    Submission 49, p. 35.

[125]    M. Synar, Misplaced Trust: The Bureau of Indian Affairs Mismanagement of the Indian Trust Fund, Seventeenth Report by Committee on Government Operations (HR 102-499, 102d Cong, 2d Sess), April 1992.

[126]    Submission 49, p. 35.

[127]    Submission 49, p. 35. The committee understands that the United States case of Cobell v Secretary of the Interior (also known as the Individual Indian Monies case) has dealt with the issue of the United States Government's accounting for money held on trust for Native American Indians. In the late 1800s, the United States Government divided up tribal lands and allocated Native American Indians with personal allotments. The United States Government was the statutory trustee of the legal title for each of the allotments and income from allotments (derived through exploitation of natural resources) was held in 'Individual Indian Money' (IIM) accounts for the owners of the allotments. In 1996, six applicants commenced an action against the United States Government on behalf of around 500,000 people, alleging that the government had breached its duty as trustee of the IIM accounts. A brief overview of the proceedings is available on the plaintiffs' website: 'Indian Trust, Cobell v Norton: an overview', at http://www.indiantrust.com/index.cfm?FuseAction=Overview.Home accessed 10 July 2006

[128]    Submission 49, p. 35.

[129]    Submission 11, p. 25; Submission 80, p. 9. However, the Australian Lawyers for Human Rights noted that 'Indigenous people in Australia have had very little success in bringing claims based upon fiduciary duty, largely by reason of the fact that Australian courts have been reluctant to find that a relevant fiduciary relationship existed. It cannot, in those circumstances, be said that this avenue constitutes an 'accessible and effective remedy' for those seeking redress in relation to stolen wages': Submission 80, p. 10.

[130]    Submission 19, p. 5.

[131]    Submission 21, p. 8.

[132]    Submission 21, p. 8.

[133]    The QAILSS Proposal, pp 36-37.

[134]    For further information, see http://www.treatyofwaitangi.govt.nz/, accessed 30 November 2006.

[135]    Submission 21, p. 8; Submission 48, p. 5. The native inhabitants of the island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean (known as the Ilois or the Chagossians) were forced to relocate between 1967 and 1973 so that the island could be turned into a United States military base. In 2000, a British court ruled that the order to evacuate Diego Garcia's inhabitants was invalid, but the court also upheld the island's military status, which permits only personnel authorised by the military to inhabit the island. The Chagossians also sued the British Government for compensation, but in October 2003 a British judge ruled that their claims were unfounded. Further, and as a result of strong pressure from the United States, the British Government issued an 'Order of Council' in 2004, prohibiting islanders from ever returning to Diego Garcia. However, in May 2006, the British High Court ruled that the Chagossians may return to other Chagossian islands, and called the British Government's conduct in the case, 'outrageous, unlawful and a breach of accepted moral standards': see further B. Brunner, 'Where in the World Is Diego Garcia?' at http://www.infoplease.com/spot/dg.html accessed 29 November 2006.

 

Chapter 8 - Summary and Conclusions

[1]        Mr Kenneth Bone, Mayor, Cherbourg Aboriginal Community, Committee Hansard, 25 October 2006, p. 43.

[2]        ALSWA, Submission 30C, Attachment 3; Dr Cameron Raynes, Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, pp 3-7.

[3]        Mr Bob Weatherall, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 27.

[4]        Committee Hansard, Canberra, 28 November 2006, pp 12-13.

[5]        Submission 127, p. 21.

[6]        Mr Gary Highland, ANTaR, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 48. See also ALSWA, Submission 30, p. 10; National Tertiary Education Union, Submission 60, p. 7.

[7]        Mr Bob Weatherall, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, pp 21-22. See also Mrs Pat Kopusar and Mrs Oriel Green, Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 November 2006, p. 46.

[8]        Ms Yvonne Butler, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 27.

[9]        Mr Darren Dick, Director, HREOC, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 5.

[10]      Mr Patrick Hay, counsel instructed by QPILCH, Committee Hansard, Brisbane, 25 October 2006, p. 14; see also Dr Thalia Anthony, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 13.

[11]      Bligh & Ors v State of Queensland [1996] HREOCA 28.

[12]      Mr Robert Haebich, Submission 77, p. 3; see also Dr Thalia Anthony, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 27 October 2006, p. 13.

[13]      Bligh & Ors v State of Queensland [1996] HREOCA 28.

[14]      Baird v State of Queensland [2006] FCAFC 162.

Additional comments by the Australian Greens

[1]        Submissions 30 and 60; Mr Gary Highland, National Director, Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, Committee Hansard, 27 October 2006, p. 48.

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