Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction and background

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 40, 10 May 2017, pp. 1330–1331.

[2]        Submission 14, p. 2.

[3]        The Commission on Freedom of the Press, A Free and Responsible Press: A General Report on Mass Communication: Newspapers, Radio, Motion Pictures, Magazines, and Books, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1947, pp. 20–21. For a discussion of these principles see Dr Denis Muller, Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Advancing Journalism, University of Melbourne and Professor Margaret Simons, Board Member, Public Interest Journalism Foundation, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 8.

[4]        ABC, Submission 58, p. 3.

[5]        Submission 1, p. 1. See also, for example, Schwartz Media, Submission 10, p. 3.

[6]        Public Interest Journalism Foundation, Submission 13, p. 2; Deakin University, Submission 19, p. 3; Freeline Group, Submission 51, p. 2. This definition is originally found in Steve Harris, 'Professional practice policy' in Australian Press Council News (February 1994), pp. 8–9. The need for good journalism to build trust with the reader was also noted by the ABC, Submission 58, p. 3.

[7]        ABC, Submission 58, p. 3, citing Mr Eric Beecher, Submission to the Independent Media Inquiry (2011), pp. 1–2.

[8]        Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 35.

[9]        Deakin University, Submission 19, p. 3.

[10]      Sub 1, p. 5. See also Mr Ray Bange, Submission 47, p. 6.

[11]      Submission 14, p. 2. See also Submission 14 attachment 2 (Margaret Simons, 'Trump, Fake News and shrinking newsrooms: does journalism still matter in the digital age?', The Guardian¸ May 29, 2017), p. 2.

[12]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 8.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 8.

[14]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 2.

[15]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. 39. Note the Convergence Review is discussed at greater length below.

[16]      See the Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, p. 279.

[17]      Australian Press Council, 'About the Council', www.presscouncil.org.au/about/ (accessed 19 October 2017).

[18]      Australian Press Council, 'About the Council', www.presscouncil.org.au/about/ (accessed 19 October 2017).

[19]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, p. 235.

[20]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, pp. 235–238.

[21]      See evidence given to the committee by Ms Tory Maguire, Editor-in-Chief, HuffPost Australia and Mr Simon Crerar, Editor-in-Chief, BuzzFeed Australia, which indicated that where the Huffpost is a member of the APC, BuzzFeed have chosen not to take up membership, as their own internal processes and editorial standards are articulated publically, and their corrections policy 'very strict'. Committee Hansard¸ 17 May 2017, pp. 56–57.

[22]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, pp. 235–237.

[23]      Mr Tim Burrowes, Founder and Content Director, Mumbrella, Committee Hansard 11 July 2017, p. 8. See the Independent Media Council's website at www.independentmediacouncil.com.au/index.html (accessed 30 January 2018).

[24]      Submission 28, p. 1.

[25]      Submission 28, p. 1.

[26]      Broadcasting Services Act 1992, Section 3(1)(g), Submission 28, p. 2.

[27]      Submission 28, p. 2.

[28]      ACMA noted it had registered codes made by the following industry bodies: Free TV Australia; Commercial Radio Australia; the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia (CBAA); the Australian Subscription Television and Radio; the Australian Narrowcast Radio Association; and the Australian Community Television Alliance. ACMA also noted that the public broadcasters ABC and SBS are required by their statues to develop codes, which are then notified–rather than registered with–the ACMA. Submission 28, p. 2.

[29]      Submission 28, p. 3.

[30]      Submission 28, p. 3.

[31]      Submission 28, p. 3.

[32]      Submission 28, p. 4.

[33]      A summary of this research was supplied as an attachment by the ACMA, Submission 28 attachment 2 ('ACMA Research-news and current affairs').

[34]      MEAA, Fact Sheet: The MEAA Journalist Code of Ethics, www.meaa.org/faqs-meaa-journalist-code-of-ethics/ (accessed 5 January 2017).

[35]      MEAA, Fact Sheet: The MEAA Journalist Code of Ethics, www.meaa.org/faqs-meaa-journalist-code-of-ethics/ (accessed 5 January 2017).

[36]      MEAA, Fact Sheet: The MEAA Journalist Code of Ethics, www.meaa.org/faqs-meaa-journalist-code-of-ethics/ (accessed 5 January 2017).

[37]      Dr Rhonda Jolly, Media reviews: all sound and fury? Background Note, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 5 October 2012, p. 1.

[38]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. 1.

[39]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. vii.

[40]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. x.

[41]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. 4.

[42]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, pp. 2–4.

[43]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, pp. 2 and 41.

[44]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, pp. ix, 2, and 10.

[45]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. 38.

[46]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. 38; Australian Law Reform Commission, Classification–Content Regulation and Convergent Media: Final Report, ALRC Report 118, February 2012, p. 24.

[47]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, pp. 51–53.

[48]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, pp. 51–53.

[49]      Australian Government, Convergence Review: Final Report, March 2012, p. x.

[50]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, pp. 8–9.

[51]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, pp. 10–11.

[52]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, p. 331.

[53]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, p. 11.

[54]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, pp. 331–333.

[55]      ACCC, 'ACCC commences inquiry into digital platforms', Media Release, 4 December 2017, www.accc.gov.au/media-release/accc-commences-inquiry-into-digital-platforms (accessed 5 December 2017).

[56]      ACCC, 'ACCC commences inquiry into digital platforms', Media Release, 4 December 2017, www.accc.gov.au/media-release/accc-commences-inquiry-into-digital-platforms (accessed 5 December 2017).

[57]      Full details of the inquiry, including its terms of reference, are available at: www.accc.gov.au/about-us/inquiries/digital-platforms-inquiry (accessed 15 December 2017).

[58]      Parliament of Australia, Broadcasting Legislation Amendment (Broadcasting Reform) Bill 2017, www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/
Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5907
(accessed 30 January 2018).

[59]      The Hon Malcolm Turnbull, Prime Minister, and Senator the Hon Mitch Fifield, Minister for Communications, 'Joint Prime Minister–A New Era For Australia's Media', Media Release, 14 September 2017, http://mitchfifield.com/Media/MediaReleases/tabid/70/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/1435/Joint-Prime-Minister--A-new-era-for-Australias-media.aspx (accessed 9 November 2017).

[60]      Department of Communications and the–answers to questions on notice (received 22 December 2017), p. 1.

[61]      See Lucy Battersby,'One Nation wins ABC changes in media reform deal', Sydney Morning Herald, 15 August 2017, www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/abc-sbs-funding-could-unlock-media-reform-say-greens-20170815-gxwgrq.html (accessed 8 January 2018); and Dennis Muller¸' How the government and One Nation may use media reforms to clip the ABC's wings', The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/how-the-government-and-one-nation-may-use-media-reforms-to-clip-the-abcs-wings-84615 (accessed 8 January 2018).

[62]      Senator the Hon Mitch Fifield, Transcript–Press Conference, Parliament House Canberra, 1 March 2016, http://mitchfifield.com/Media/MediaReleases/tabid/70/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/1105/TRANSCRIPT--Press-Conference.aspx (accessed 30 January 2018).

[63]      Attorney-General's Department - answers to questions on notice (received 21 December 2017), pp. 1–2.

[64]      For a more full discussion of the history, philosophy and ethics that underpin and inform ideas about freedom of speech the freedom of the press, particularly in the Australian media sector, see The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, pp. 23–53.

[65]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, p. 38.

[66]      The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, p. 53.

Chapter 2 - Challenges for news media in the digital age

[1]        Please note that the following chapter of this report looks at some of the ways that new technologies have had positive effects on the media landscape.

[2]        The Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, pp. 10–11.

[3]        Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 3.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 3.

[5]        Submission 13, p. 4.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 43.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 29.

[8]        See, for example the figures provided by Mr Christopher Walton, Managing Director, Nunn Media, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 57; and Associate Professor Mark Ritson–correction to evidence given at hearing Sydney 22 August 2017.

[9]        Based on Standard Media Index figures tabled by Mr Chris Walton, Managing Director, Nunn Media, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017.

[10]      Submission 10, p. 1.

[11]      Committee Hansard¸ 17 May 2017, pp. 10–11.

[12]      See, for example, Submission 37, p. 7; Submission 39 attachment 1, p. 30.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 29.

[14]      Mr Ross Mitchell, Director, Broadcasting Policy, Free TV Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 41.

[15]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 21.

[16]      For example, see Dr Christopher Berg, Submission 16, p. 5; Mr Tim Lloyd, Submission 17,  p. 1; MEAA, Submission 64, p. 3; Mr Chris Walton, Managing Director, Nunn Media, Committee Hansard¸ 22 August 2017, p. 57; Ms Ishtar Vij, Head, Public Policy and Government Relations, Google Australia Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 31.

[17]      MEAA, Submission 64, p. 3.

[18]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 57.

[19]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, pp. 20–21.

[20]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 30.

[21]      See Dr Denis Muller, Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Advancing Journalism, University of Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 1; also the New Beats Project, Submission 37, p. 3.

[22]      Mr Paul Murphy, Chief Executive, Media, Entertainment & Arts Alliance, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 10.

[23]      New Beats Project, Submission 37¸ pp. 8–14.

[24]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 32.

[25]      See, for example, Nolan et al, Submission 30, p. 29.

[26]      Submission 64, p. 8; See also Nolan et al, Submission 30, p. 10.

[27]      Mr Paul Murphy, Chief Executive, MEAA, Committee Hansard¸ 17 May 2017, p. 10; see also Ms Jane Canaway, Submission 48, p. 3.

[28]      Submission 37, p.5.

[29]      Dr Colleen Murrell, Co-Secretary, Journalism Education and Research Association of Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 48.

[30]      MEAA, Submission 37, p. 13.

[31]      MEAA, Submission 37, p. 14.

[32]      Submission 19, p. 5.

[33]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 2.

[34]      Submission 19, p. 5.

[35]      Submission 15¸ p. 2. This was also noted by the Civic Impact of Journalism Project, Submission 14, p. 5.

[36]      Submission 15, p. 2.

[37]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 52.

[38]      Ms Jane Canaway, Submission 48, pp. 1–3.

[39]      Submission 48, p. 1.

[40]      Submission 19, p. 5.

[41]      See, for example, Public Interest Journalism Foundation, Submission 13, p. 8; Ms Jane Canaway, Submission 48, pp. 1–3.

[42]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 3.

[43]      Submission 13, p. 6.

[44]      Submission 14, p. 5.

[45]      See, for example, Dr Tess Newton-Cain, Submission 8, p. 1; Dr David Nolan et al, Submission 30, p. 15; Ms Ashlee Betteridge, Submission 46, p. 3; MEAA, Submission 64, p. 13.

[46]      Mr Jim Carroll, Director, News and Current Affairs, SBS, Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 13.

[47]      Professor Fran Baum, Submission 20, pp. 1–4; Croakey, Submission 25, p.5; Mr Ray Bange, Submission 47, pp. 4–5.

[48]      Submission 47, pp. 4–5.

[49]      Submission 25, p. 4.

[50]      Mr Daniel Featherstone, Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 23.

[51]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 24.

[52]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 13.

[53]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 22.

[54]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 13.

[55]      Submission 41, p. 4.

[56]      For example, see Mr Michael Taylor, Managing Editor, The Australian Independent Media Network, Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 10. Regarding Australians with Pacific connections, see Dr Tess Newton-Cain, Submission 8, p. 1; Ms Ashlee Betteridge, Submission 46, p. 3; and Mr Ray Bange, Submission 47, p. 8.

[57]      See the perspectived voiced by the MEAA, Submission 64, p. 20; Ms Jane Canaway, Submission 48, p. 2; Mediascope, Submission 54, p. 11; and by a contributor to the New Beats Project, Submission 37, p. 6.

[58]      See the MEAA's submission to the Independent Inquiry into Media and Media Regulation, November 2011, cited by Dr Rhonda Jolly, Media reviews: all sound and fury? Background Note, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 5 October 2012, p. 14.

[59]      Ms Jane Canaway, Submission 48, p. 2; Mediascope, Submission 54, p. 11;

[60]      Committee Hansard¸ 21 August 2017, p. 37.

[61]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 48.

[62]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 1.

[63]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 11.

[64]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 11.

[65]      See, for example, Professor Peter Fray, Committee Hansard¸ 17 May 2017, p. 48; Civic Impact of Journalism Project, Submission 14 attachment 5 (Margaret Simons, 'Trump, fake news, and shrinking newsrooms: does journalism still matter in 2017?', The Guardian, 29 May 2017); Dr Alex Wake and Mr Gordon Farrer, Submission 26, p .3; Dr Joseph M. Fernandez, Submission 35, p. 4.

[66]      Committee Hansard¸ 17 May 2017, p. 47.

[67]      Ms Mia Garlick, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 2. See also Will Oremus, 'Facebook Has Stopped Saying 'Fake News'', Slate, www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2017/08/08/facebook_has_stopped_saying_fake_news_is_false_news_any_better.html (accessed 16 January 2018).

[68]      Committee Hansard¸ 17 May 2017, p. 47.

[69]      Submission 62, p. 7, citing www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/culture-media-and-sport-committee/inquiries/parliament-2015/inquiry2/.

[70]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 44.

[71]      Committee Hansard¸ 22 November 2017, p. 12. See also, for example, Dr Alex Wake and Mr Gordon Farrer, Submission 26, p .2 for a suggestion that 'fake news' may be merely an 'amorphous, fashionable and nefarious phrase' that 'may be a passing fancy...'; also the view of Professor Peter Fray outlined in Dr Joseph M. Fernandez, Submission 35, p. 7. See also Mr Jason Pellegrino, Managing Director, Google Australia Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 19; Dr Sora Park, Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 1.

[72]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 48.

[73]      For further detail, see the later chapter in this report which deals with international models. France has announced legislation looking to limit the use and spread of fake news during election campaigns. These laws would include both social media and traditional media platforms, and include emergency powers to delete content or block websites. The United States Congress is looking into alleged Russian interference in the 2016 Presidential elections, and in the UK, a parliamentary committee was looking at the influence of fake news in elections until the inquiry lapsed with the General Election of 2017. See also Mr Harley Comrie, Submission 72, pp. 5–6, for commentary on the situation in the Philippines.

[74]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet–answers to questions on notice (received 18 January 2018), p. 1.

Chapter 3 - New opportunities, new audiences and innovative approaches

[1]        Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 10.

[2]        Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 10.

[3]        Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 51.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 57.

[5]        Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 7.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 18.

[7]        Submission 40, p. 2.

[8]        Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 54.

[9]        Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 22.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 37.

[11]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 57.

[12]      Dr Andrea Carson and Dr Denis Muller, The Future Newsroom: Executive Summary, University Of Melbourne, September 2017, p. 5.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 20.

[14]      Mr Paul Murphy, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 13.

[15]      Mr Paul Murphy, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 13; Mr Campbell Reid, Director, Corporate Affairs and Editorial Management, News Corp Australia, Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 28.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 19.

[17]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 33.

[18]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 31.

[19]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 21.

[20]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 31.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 32.

[22]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 43.

[23]      Committee Hansard, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 5. The committee notes that during the preparation of this report it was reported that Crinkling News had announced its closure.

[24]      Submission 38, pp. 7–8.

[25]      For example, see Mr Paul Murphy, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 13; Professor Lawrie Zion, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 53; Dr Christopher Berg, Submission 16, p.5; ABC, Submission 58, p. 13; Digital Industry Group Inc., Submission 63, p. 2.

[26]      The Scott Trust, The Scott Trust: values and history, www.theguardian.com/the-scott-trust/2015/jul/26/the-scott-trust (accessed 11 January 2018).)

[27]      JERAA, Submission 39, Attachment 1 (Support for public interest journalism–an international summary), .p. 30. For further information see About Harper's Magazine, https://harpers.org/history/ and 'About us', www.csmonitor.com/About (both accessed 11 January 2018).

[28]      Submission 30, p. 20.

[29]      Submission 1¸p. 1. See also Mr Ray Bange, Submission 47, p. 4.

[30]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 51.

[31]      Submission 1¸ pp. 1–2.

[32]      See JERAA, Submission 39, Attachment 1 (Support for public interest journalism–an international summary), .p. 30. On the Global Mail, see Amanda Meade, 'Global Mail website to close less than two years after its launch', Guardian Online, 30 January 2014, www.theguardian.com/media/2014/jan/30/global-mail-website-to-close (accessed 11 January 2018). On the New Daily, see Peter Ryan, 'The New Daily emerges as an online media player, with backing from industry superannuation funds', ABC Online, www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-13/new-daily-launches/5087940 (accessed 11 January 2018). On Schwartz publishing, see James Button, 'The Art of the Deal', The Age, 21 March 2004 at http://fddp.theage.com.au/articles/2004/03/21/1079823222407.html?from=storyrhs (accessed 11 January 2018).

[33]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 34.

[34]      See, for example, Associate Professor Andrew Dodd, Chair, Public Interest Journalism Foundation, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 15. For a broader discussion see Victor Pickard, 'Can charity save journalism from market failure?', The Conversation, 28 April 2017, https://theconversation.com/can-charity-save-journalism-from-market-failure-75833 (accessed 17 January 2017).

[35]      Submission 1, pp. 3–4.

[36]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 51.

[37]      Submission 1, p. 4.

[38]      Submission 42, p. 3.

[39]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, pp. 31–32.

[40]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 34.

[41]      Mr Michael Taylor, Managing Editor, The Australian Independent Media Network, Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 9.

[42]      Submission 63, p. 2.

[43]      Submission 14¸ p. 5.

[44]      Submission 14, Attachment 5 (Margaret Simons, 'Trump, fake news, and shrinking newsrooms: does journalism still matter in 2017?', The Guardian, 29 May 2017), p. 6.

[45]      See Mr Ian Skurrie, Submission 33, pp. 1–2; Civic Impact of Journalism Project, Submission 14, p. 5; Deakin University, Submission 19, p. 6; and Professor Lawrie Zion, New Beats Project, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 53.

[46]      Submission 14, p. 5.

[47]      See evidence given by Mr Simon Crerar, Editor-in-Chief, BuzzFeed Australia, and Ms Tory Maguire, Editor-in-Chief, HuffPost Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 52 and p. 55.

[48]      Submission 20, p. 3.

[49]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, pp. 58–59.

[50]      Digital Industry Group Inc., Submission 63, p. 2.

[51]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 33.

[52]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 42.

Chapter 4 - Aggregators and the news media

[1]        Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 18.

[2]        Submission 38, pp. 3–4.

[3]        Submission 40, p. 3

[4]        See questions asked by Senator Nick Xenophon, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017,
pp. 29–30.

[5]        Michael Miller, 'Google is not journalism's friend and now it's trying to undermine paywalls', Australian Financial Review, 31 May 2017, www.afr.com/opinion/google-is-not-journalisms-friend-and-now-its-trying-to-undermine-paywalls-20170530-gwghgp#ixzz54aCGORKr (accessed 19 January 2018).

[6]        Michael Miller, 'Google is not journalism's friend and now it's trying to undermine paywalls', Australian Financial Review, 31 May 2017, www.afr.com/opinion/google-is-not-journalisms-friend-and-now-its-trying-to-undermine-paywalls-20170530-gwghgp#ixzz54aCGORKr (accessed 19 January 2018).

[7]        See questions asked by Senator Nick Xenophon, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, pp. 29–30.

[8]        Ms Ishtar Vij, Head, Public Policy and Government Relations, Google Australia Pty Ltd and Mr Jason Pellegrino, Managing Director, Google Australia Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 2 August 2017, p. 29 and p. 30 respectively.

[9]        Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 14.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 3.

[11]      Submission 38, p. 6.

[12]      Submission 40, p. 3.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p.19.

[14]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 13.

[15]      Jennifer Duke, 'Google, Fairfax join forces in advertising partnership', Sydney Morning Herald, 11 December 2017 available at www.smh.com.au/business/media-and-marketing/google-fairfax-join-forces-in-advertising-partnership-20171211-p4yxm3.html (accessed 12 December 2017).

[16]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 37.

[17]      Submission 38, p. 6. 

[18]      Submission 40, p. 9.

[19]      Submission 40, p. 6; see also Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, pp. 7–8.

[20]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 46.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 3.

[22]      Submission 38, pp. 9–10.

[23]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, pp. 23–24.

[24]      Senate Economics References Committee, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 25.

[25]      For example, Mr Paul Murphy, MEAA, 17 May 2017, p. 11; Ms Rebecca Costello, Schwartz Media, 21 November 2017, pp. 39–40; Professor Matthew Ricketson, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 3.

[26]      See the blog post written by Facebook's Chief Financial Officer, Mr Dave Wehner, 'Moving to a local selling model', 12 December 2017, available at https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2017/12/moving-to-a-local-selling-model/ (accessed 13 December 2017).

[27]      For example, see Dr Denis Muller, Submission 11, p. 2; michaelwest.com.au, Submission 23, p. 4; Croakey, Submission 25, pp. 7–8 ; Mr Ray Bange, Submission 47, p. 7; MEAA, Submission 64, p. 3 and pp. 11–12. The submission made by the Freeline Group noted both support and opposition to a levy on aggregators among its membership. Submission 51, p. 12.

[28]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 10.

[29]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 11.

[30]      Submission 10, p 2.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, pp. 17–18.

[32]      Submission 34, p. 5.

[33]      Mr Paul Murphy, Chief Executive, Media, Entertainment & Arts Alliance, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 15.

[34]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 15.

[35]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 15.

[36]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017.

[37]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 19.

[38]      Committee Hansard¸ 22 November 2017, p. 31.

[39]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, pp. 31–32.

[40]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 32. This evaluation was also backed up by Ms Jacqui Park, Chief Executive Officer, Walkley Foundation, 22 August 2017, p. 36 and Mr Jason Pellegrino, Managing Director, Google Australia Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 32.

[41]      Digital Industries Group Inc., Submission 63, p. 4.

[42]      Submission 55, p. 17.

[43]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 15.

Chapter 5 - Overseas experience

[1]        European Commission, 'European Commission and IT Companies Announce Code of Conduct on Illegal Online Hate Speech', Media release, 31 May 2016.

[2]        European Commission, 'Security Union: Commission steps up efforts to tackle illegal content online', Press Release, 28 September 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-3493_en.htm (accessed 9 November 2017).

[3]        European Parliament, Legislative Train Schedule: Connected Digital Single Market: Modernisation of European Copyright Rules: Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, 20 December 2017, www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-connected-digital-single-market/file-directive-on-copyright-in-the-digital-single-market (accessed 5 January 2018).

[4]        Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, Directorate General for Internal Policies of the Union, Strengthening the Position of Press Publishers and Authors and Performers in the Copyright Directive, September 2018, p. 18.

[5]        Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, Directorate General for Internal Policies of the Union, Strengthening the Position of Press Publishers and Authors and Performers in the Copyright Directive, September 2017, pp. 18–19, 33–34, 37.

[6]        MEAA, Submission 64, p. 5.

[7]        JERAA, Submission 39, p. 8; Sara Salinas, 'Social media companies could face huge fines from German hate speech law', CNBC, 2 January 2018, www.cnbc.com/2018/01/02/germanys-hate-speech-law-could-cost-internet-companies.html (accessed 11 January 2018).

[8]        The formal title of the legislation is the Netzwerkdurchsetzungsgesetz, abbreviated to NetzDG. The speech introducing the legislation to the Bundestag can be found at www.bmjv.de/SharedDocs/Reden/DE/2017/06302017_BT_NetzDG.html?nn=6704226 (accessed 11 January 2018).

[9]        Janet Burns, 'Germany To Social Media Sites: Remove Hate Speech In 24 Hours Or Face $57 Million Fines', Forbes Tech Online, 30 June 2017,www.forbes.com/sites/janetwburns/2017/06/30/germany-now-allows-up-to-57m-in-fines-if-facebook-doesnt-remove-hate-speech-fast/#7ac9f451761d (accessed 11 January 2018).

[10]      Janet Burns, 'Germany To Social Media Sites: Remove Hate Speech In 24 Hours Or Face $57 Million Fines', Forbes Tech Online, 30 June 2017, www.forbes.com/sites/janetwburns/2017/06/30/germany-now-allows-up-to-57m-in-fines-if-facebook-doesnt-remove-hate-speech-fast/#7ac9f451761d (accessed 11 January 2018).

[11]      As highlighted by JERAA, Submission 39, p. 9. See also Janet Burns, 'Germany To Social Media Sites: Remove Hate Speech In 24 Hours Or Face $57 Million Fines', Forbes Tech Online, 30 June 2017, www.forbes.com/sites/janetwburns/2017/06/30/germany-now-allows-up-to-57m-in-fines-if-facebook-doesnt-remove-hate-speech-fast/#7ac9f451761d (accessed 11 January 2018).

[12]      Guardian staff and agencies, 'Germany approves plans to fine social media firms up to €50m', Guardian Online, 30 June 2017, at www.theguardian.com/media/2017/jun/30/germany-approves-plans-to-fine-social-media-firms-up-to-50m (accessed 11 January 2018).

[13]      Sam Shead, 'Facebook said Germany's plan to tackle fake news would make social media companies delete legal content', Business Insider Australia, 30 May 2017, www.businessinsider.com/facebook-says-germany-fake-news-plans-comply-with-eu-law-2017-5#I76ZHethUh4pyXzp.99 (accessed 11 January 2018).

[14]      'Press Subsidies', KommAustralia, www.rtr.at/en/ppf/Pressefoerderung (accessed 11 January 2018); JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 6.

[15]      'Press Subsidies', KommAustralia, www.rtr.at/en/ppf/Pressefoerderung (accessed 11 January 2018).

[16]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 6.

[17]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), pp. 6–7.

[18]      JERAA, Submission 39, Attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 8; Tom Evens and Karin Raeymaeckers, Belgium: Media legislation, Media Landscapes: Expert Analyses of the State of Media, https://medialandscapes.org/country/belgium/policies/media-legislation (accessed 10 January 2018).

[19]      Tom Evens and Karin Raeymaeckers, Belgium: Introduction, Media Landscapes: Expert Analyses of the State of Media, https://medialandscapes.org/country/belgium (accessed 10 January 2018).

[20]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 8.

[21]      Peter Humphreys, 'Media Freedom and Pluralism in the United Kingdom (UK)', in Andrea Czepek, Melanie Hellwig and Eva Nowak (eds.), Press Freedom and Pluralism in Europe: Concepts and Conditions, Intellect, Bristol, UK, 2009, pp. 198–199.

[22]      The Right Honourable Lord Justice Leveson, An Inquiry into the Culture, Practices and Ethics of the Press, November 2012, Volume I, p. 4.

[23]      The Right Honourable Lord Justice Leveson, An Inquiry into the Culture, Practices and Ethics of the Press, November 2012, Executive Summary, pp. 37–40.

[24]      UK Parliament, 'Fake news', www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/digital-culture-media-and-sport-committee/inquiries/parliament-2017/fake-news-17-19/ (accessed 11 January 2018).

[25]      Digital Economy Act 2017 (UK), para 103.

[26]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 16, citing Tore Østeraas, 'Press Subsidies in Norway' (2006), p. 81.

[27]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 17.

[28]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 16.

[29]      Rune Ottosen and Jan Fredrik Hovden, Norwegian Press at a Crossroad: Free Market or Press Subsidy?, 2017, p. 11.

[30]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 16.

[31]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 17.

[32]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), pp. 17–18; NORDICOM: Nordic Information Centre for Media and Communication Research, Media VAT in the Nordic countries, 2 December 2016, www.nordicom.gu.se/en/latest/news/media-vat-nordic-countries (accessed 11 January 2018); Ingela Wadbring and Jonas Ohlsson, Sweden: Introduction, Media Landscapes: Expert Analyses of the State of Media, https://medialandscapes.org/country/sweden (accessed 11 January 2018).

[33]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 18.

[34]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment  1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), pp. 10–11.

[35]      MEAA, Submission 64, p. 5.

[36]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), pp. 11–12. 

[37]      Gareth Browne, 'Macron faces criticism after proposal to combat fake news', The National, 9 January 2018, www.thenational.ae/world/europe/macron-faces-criticism-after-proposal-to-combat-fake-news-1.693883# (accessed 10 January 2018).

[38]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), pp. 12–14. 

[39]      Paolo Mancini and Matteo Gerli, Italy: Media legislation, Media Landscapes: Expert Analyses of the State of Media, https://medialandscapes.org/country/italy/policies/media-legislation (accessed 10 January 2018).

[40]      Digital Industry Group Inc., Submission 63, pp. 3–4.

[41]      Professor Peter Fray and Professor Derek Wilding, Submission 34, pp. 4–5.

[42]      NERA Economic Consulting, Impacto del Nuevo Artículo 32.2 de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual Informe para la Asociación Española de Editoriales de Publicaciones Periódicas (AEEPP), July 2015, Executive summary (English), p. xiv.

[43]      Geoffrey Cowan and David Westphal, Public Policy and Funding the News, USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, January 2010, p. 1.

[44]      As discussed in an eariler chapter.

[45]      Dr Christopher Berg, Submission 16, p. 5; ABC, Submission 58, p. 13; Digital Industry Group Inc., Submission 63, p. 2. See also Mr Jason Pellegrino, Managing Director, Google Australia Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 19.

[46]      Devin Nunes and Adam Schiff, 'Joint Statement on Progress of Bipartisan HPSCI Inquiry into Russian Active Measures', Press release, 25 January 2017, https://intelligence.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=758 (accessed 11 January 2018).

[47]      Senator Richard Burr and Senator Mark Warner, 'Joint Statement on Committee Inquiry into Russian Intelligence Activities', Press release, 13 January 2017, www.intelligence.senate.gov/press/joint-statement-committee-inquiry-russian-intelligence-activities (accessed 11 January 2018).

[48]      Natasha Bertrand, 'Senators have a new plan to fix a major loophole that let Russia take advantage of Facebook and tech giants', Business Insider Australia, 20 October 2017, www.businessinsider.com.au/honest-ads-act-facebook-google-twitter-russia-2017-10?r=US&IR=T (accessed 11 January 2018).

[49]      House of Commons Canada, Disruption: Change and churning in Canada's media landscape, June 2017.

[50]      MEAA, Submission 64, p. 5; and Dr Bill Birnbauer, Submission 1 attachment 1 (Email to the committee), p. 1.

[51]      Government of Canada, Government Response to the Sixth Report of the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage Entitled Disruption: Change and Churning in Canada's Media Landscape, October 2017, p. 3; House of Commons Canada, Disruption: Change and churning in Canada's media landscape, June 2017, p. 38; MEAA, Submission 64, p. 22.

[52]      Government of Canada, Government Response to the Sixth Report of the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage Entitled Disruption: Change and Churning in Canada's Media Landscape, October 2017, p. 6.

[53]      Canada Media Fund, About us: Mandate and vision, www.cmf-fmc.ca/about-us (accessed 12 January 2018).

[54]      JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 (Support for Public Interest Journalism–an international summary), p. 29; Mr Adrian Jackson, Submission 5, p. 1; House of Commons Canada, Disruption: Change and churning in Canada's media landscape, June 2017, pp. 46–47.

[55]      Mr Harley Comrie, Submission 72, p. 4.

[56]      Mr Harley Comrie, Submission 72, pp. 5–6.

[57]      Julliane Love de Jesus, 'Senate to probe Facebook's taking down of posts violating "community standards"', Inquirer.net, 5 January 2018, http://technology.inquirer.net/71044/senate-probe-facebooks-taking-posts-violating-community-standards (accessed 12 January 2018).

[58]      Francis Chan, 'Indonesian police uncover "fake news factory"', Straits Times, 17 September 2017, www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/indonesian-police-uncover-fake-news-factory (accessed 11 January 2018).

[59]      Erin Cook, 'Social media as politics in Indonesia', Asian Times, 14 November 2017, www.atimes.com/article/social-media-politics-indonesia/ (accessed 12 January 2018); Constance Johnson, 'Indonesia: revised information law controversial', Global Legal Monitor, Library of Congress, 2 November 2016, www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/indonesia-revised-information-law-controversial/ (accessed 12 January 2018).

[60]      Johanna Chisholm, 'Indonesia launches cyber agency to combat country's extremism and fake news', Southeast Asia Globe, 5 January 2018, http://sea-globe.com/indonesia-cyber-security/ (accessed 11 January 2018).

[61]      Yenni Kwok, 'Where memes could kill: Indonesia's worsening problem of fake news', Time, 6 January 2017, http://time.com/4620419/indonesia-fake-news-ahok-chinese-christian-islam/ (accessed 11 January 2018).

Chapter 6 - Direct Commonwealth measures in support of public interest journalism

[1]        Respectively the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 (ABC Act) and SBS Act 1991.

[2]        Drawn from the ABC charter, which can be found in full in section 6 of the ABC Act and at http://about.abc.net.au/how-the-abc-is-run/what-guides-us/legislative-framework/ (accessed 20 January 2017).

[3]        ABC, Submission 58, p. 4.

[4]        SBS, Submission 62, p. 13.

[5]        2017–18 Budget—Communications and the Arts Portfolio Budget Statement: Australian Broadcasting Corporation, p. 71.

[6]        2017–18 Budget—Communications and the Arts Portfolio Budget Statement: Special Broadcasting Services Corporation, p.288 and p. 291.

[7]        Submission 58, p. 6.

[8]        Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 24.

[9]        Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 24.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 26.

[11]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 26.

[12]      Submission 58, p. 6, citing the Hon R. Finkelstein QC assisted by Professor M. Ricketson, Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Media and Media Regulation, 28 February 2012, p. 332.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 34.

[14]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 14.

[15]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, pp. 13–14.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 14.

[17]      By way of comparison, the trust rating for commercial TV networks was 25 per cent, daily newspapers 42 per cent, and internet blogs trusted by just 20 per cent of respondents. See Essential Trust in Media Report, 4 October 2017 at http://essentialvision.com.au/?s=media+trust&searchbutton=Search (accessed 20 January 2017).

[18]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 26.

[19]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 21.

[20]      See Dr Alexandra Wake and Mr Gordon Farrer, Submission 26, pp. 3–4.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 25.

[22]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 50.

[23]      Dr Alex Wake and Mr Gordon Farrer, Submission 26, p. 5, citing Alexios Mantzarlis, 'Fact-checking on TV: Australia's ABC Fact Check', Poynter, www.poynter.org/news/fact-checking-tv-australias-abc-fact-check (accessed 21 January 2018).

[24]      See chapter 2, citing: MEAA, Submission 37, p. 13; Mr Paul Murphy, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 12; and Dr Colleen Murrell, Co-Secretary, Journalism Education and Research Association of Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 48.

[25]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 19.

[26]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 48.

[27]      For example, see MEAA, Submission 37, p. 13; and Professor Matthew Ricketson, Professor of Communications, Deakin University Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 2.

[28]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 2.

[29]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 46.

[30]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 57.

[31]      See, for example, inkl, Submission 31, p. 3; Mr Paul Wallbank, Private Capacity, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 44.

[32]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 29.

[33]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 20.

[34]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 29 and p. 32.

[35]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, pp. 23–24.

[36]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 14.

[37]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 14.

[38]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 14.

[39]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 14.

[40]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, pp. 51–52.

[41]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 44.

[42]      Submission 29, p. 2.

[43]      Submission 29, p. 4.

[44]      Mr Jon Bisset, Chief Executive Officer, Community Broadcasting Association of Australia, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 47.

[45]      Department of Communications and the Arts–answers to questions on notice (received 22 December 2017), p. 2

[46]      Submission 64, p. 5. See the earlier chapter of this report that discusses international models.

[47]      Submission 13, p. 3.

[48]      Submission 64, p. 2. Note the arguments for and against a levy on aggregators can be found earlier in this report.

[49]      Submission 64, pp. 22–23.

[50]      Submission 13, p. 14.

[51]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 11.

[52]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 10.

[53]      Dr Colleen Murrell, Co-Secretary, Journalism Education and Research Association of Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 48.

[54]      Submission 30, p. 20. See following chapter for a discussion of these models.

[55]      Submission 10, p. 3.

[56]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 21.

[57]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 29. See also Ms Megan Brownlow, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 4.

[58]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 20.

[59]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 53.

[60]      Department of Communications and the Arts–answers to questions on notice (received 22 December 2017), pp. 2–3.

[61]      Committee Hansard, 22 November 2017, p. 13.

[62]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 4.

[63]      Submission 66, p. 15.

[64]      Submission 66, p. 15.

[65]      See, for example, Dr Colleen Murrell, Co-Secretary, Journalism Education and Research Association of Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, pp. 48–49.

[66]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 1.

[67]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 7.

[68]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 50.

[69]      Submission 72, pp. 3–4.

[70]      See, for example, Ms Elizabeth Murray, Submission 71, p. 8; inkl, Submission 31, p. 1.

Chapter 7 - Australia's taxation system and legal framework, and the potential for indirect assistance measures

[1]        The Treasury–answers to questions on notice (received 22 December 2017), p. 1.

[2]        For general support for indirect measures see: Dr Colleen Murrell, Co-Secretary, JERAA Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, pp. 49–50; Ms Jacqui Park, CEO, Walkley Foundation, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 36; Mr Paul Murphy, Chief Executive, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 12; Ms Megan Brownlow, Partner, PwC, Committee Hansard,11 July 2017, p. 4. See also Mr Ray Bange, Submission 47, p. 8; michaelwest.com.au, Submission 22, p. 6; The District Bulletin, Submission 23, p. 1; Professor Peter Fray and Professor Derek Wilding, Submission 34, pp. 6–7.

[3]        See, for example, Ms Brownlow, Partner, PwC, Committee Hansard, 11 July2017 , p. 5; Mr Tim Burrowes, Founder and Content Director, Mumbrella, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 5; Dr Christopher Berg, Submission 16, p. 5.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017 , p. 4

[5]        Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, pp. 55–56.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 21.

[7]        See, for example, Dr Bill Birnbauer, Submission 1, p. 4; Public Interest Journalism Foundation, Submission 13, p. 18; michaelwest.com.au, Submission 22, p. 6; Professor Peter Fray and Professor Derek Wilding, Submission 34, p. 7; JERAA, Submission 39 attachment 1 ('Support for public interest journalism–an international summary'), pp. 34–35; Independent Australia, Submission 55, pp. 5–6; Mr Andrew Elder, Submission 61, p. 5; The Conversation, Submission 68, p. 5; Dr Christopher Berg, Senior Fellow, Institute of Public Affairs, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, pp. 18 and 23.

[8]        Submission 39 attachment 1 ('Support for public interest journalism–an international summary'), pp. 34–35, citing the US Federal Communications Commission, The information needs of communities: The changing media landscape in a broadband age (2011).

[9]        See, for example, Indigenous X, Submission 42, p. 6; Independent Australia, Submission 55,  pp. 5–6.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 21 August, p. 7.

[11]      Submission 1, p. 4.

[12]      Submission 68, p. 5.

[13]      Submission 1, p. 5.

[14]      Submission 1, p. 6.

[15]      Submission 34, p. 7.

[16]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 18.

[17]      Submission 1, p. 3.

[18]      See Dr Bill Birnbauer, Submission 1, pp. 2–3; see also, for example, michaelwest.com.au, Submission 22, p. 5

[19]      Submission 1, p. 3.

[20]      The Treasury–answers to questions on notice (received 22 December 2017), pp. 4–5.

[21]      As well as the examples cited below, see: Mr John Jo (JJ) Eastwood, Chief Executive Officer, HuffPost Australia, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 52; Ms Megan Brownlow, Partner, PwC, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 4; Professor Matthew Ricketson, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 6; Mr Paul Murphy, Chief Executive, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017; JERAA, Submission 13, p. 18.

[22]      The Public Interest Journalism Foundation highlighted Division 376 of the Income Tax Assessment Act as being a potential model to support public interest journalism, Submission 13, p. 18

[23]      Australian Taxation Office, Research and development tax incentive, About the program, www.ato.gov.au/business/research-and-development-tax-incentive/about-the-program/ (accessed 13 December 2017).

[24]      Australian Taxation Office, Research and development tax incentive, About the program, www.ato.gov.au/business/research-and-development-tax-incentive/about-the-program/ (accessed 13 December 2017).

[25]      The Treasury–answers to questions on notice (received 22 December 2017), p. 5.

[26]      Division 376–2 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 outlines these refundable tax offsets for Australian expenditure on: making an Australian film (the 'producer offset' of 40 per cent for feature films and 20 per cent for other films); any film (the 'location offset' of 16.5 per cent of the company's qualifying Australian production expenditure); and for expenditure on post, digital and visual production (the 'PDV offset' of 30 per cent of the company's qualifying Australian production expenditure in relevant areas).

[27]      For example, see Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017 pp. 35–36; pp. 16–17; and pp. 53–54.

[28]      Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 18.

[29]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 34.

[30]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 39.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 39.

[32]      Ms Tamsin Creed, General Manager, Private Media and Ms Cassidy Knowlton, Editor, Crikey, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, pp. 27–28.

[33]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 59.

[34]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 23.

[35]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 55.

[36]      See ATO, Books periodicals and digital information, www.ato.gov.au/Individuals/Income-and-deductions/Deductions-you-can-claim/Other-deductions/Books,-periodicals-and-digital-information/ (accessed 14 December 2017).

[37]      See, for example, Mr Paul Murphy, Chief Executive, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 12; Ms Megan Brownlow, Partner, PWC, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 5; Ms Denise Shrivell, Founder, Mediascope, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 13; Ms Cassidy Knowlton, Editor, Crikey, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 26.

[38]      Mr Paul Murphy, Chief Executive, MEAA, Committee Hansard, 17 May 2017, p. 12.

[39]      Ms Megan Brownlow, Partner, PWC, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 5.

[40]      Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017, p. 39.

[41]      The Treasury–answers to questions on notice (received 22 December 2017), p. 5.

[42]      Professor Mark Pearson, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, pp. 32–33 (see also his Submission 7); Australian Lawyers' Alliance, Submission 24, p. 7; Public Interest Journalism Foundation, Submission 13, p. 4; MEAA, Submission 64, pp. 24–25.

[43]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 32.

[44]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 35.

[45]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 7.

[46]      Submission 24, p. 4.

[47]      Submission 24, p. 13.

[48]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 11.

[49]      Submission 24, pp. 8–9.

[50]      Submission 24, pp. 8–9.

[51]      Luke Royes, 'AFP officer accessed journalist's call records in metadata breach', ABC Online, 29 April 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-04-28/afp-officer-accessed-journalists-call-records-in-metadata-breach/8480804 (accessed 4 January 2018).

[52]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 9.

[53]      See, for example, Ms Rebecca Costello, Chief Executive Officer, Schwartz Media, Committee Hansard, 21 August 2017,  p. 41; Schwartz Media, Submission 10, pp. 1–2; Mr Ian Skurrie, Submission 33, p. 2; Professor Peter Fray and Professor Derek Wilding, Submission 34, p. 12; Freeline Group, Submission 51, p. 3; Ms Prue Davidson, Submission 52, p. 6; Ms Sally McCausland and Mr David Vaile, Submission 53, p. 2; MEAA, Submission 64, pp. 24–25.

[54]      Submission 22, p. 6.

[55]      Submission 16, p. 5.

[56]      Submission 55, p. 7. See also Freeline Group, Submission 51¸ p. 3.

[57]      See Submission 51, p. 6. See also Max Suich, 'Press Independence' in the Communications and Media Law Association (CAMLA), Communications Bulletin, vol. 10, no. 2, Winter 1990, p. 1.

[58]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 33.

[59]      Submission 7, pp. 1–2.

[60]      MEAA, Submission 64, p. 25.

[61]      Submission 10, p. 2.

[62]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, pp. 3–4.

[63]      Attorney-General's Department–answers to questions on notice (received 21 December 2017), p. 10.

[64]      See, for example, Professor Mark Pearson, Submission 7, pp 2–3 and Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, pp. 32–33; Professor Joseph M. Fernandez, Submission 35, p. 8; Ms Clare O'Neil, Director, Corporate Affairs, SBS, Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 21; Dr Andrew Morrison RFD, SC, Spokesperson and Ms Anna Talbot, Legal and Policy Adviser, Australian Lawyers Alliance, Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, pp. 9 and 11.

[65]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 9.

[66]      Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 9.

[67]      Interview with Mr Paul Dobbie, Communications Officer of the MEAA, cited in Submission 35, p. 8.

[68]      MEAA, The Chilling Effect: The Report into the State of Press Freedom in Australia in 2017, 2017, p. 55, cited in Submission 35, p. 8.

[69]      Evidence Act 1995, section 126K, cited by Professor Mark Pearson, Submission 7, p. 3.

[70]      Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 33. See also the view expressed by Ms O'Neil, SBS, Committee Hansard, 23 November 2017, p. 21.

[71]      Submission 7, p. 4.

[72]      Submission 35, p. 8.

[73]      See, for example, Mr Chris Snow, Submission 4, pp. 1–2; Submission 11, p. 1; Submission 17, p. 2; Submission 32, p. 7; Free TV Australia, Submission 45, p. 8; Ms Jane Canaway, Submission 48, p. 2; Freeline Group. Submission 51, p. 4; Digital Industry Group Inc., Submission 63, pp. 3–4; MEAA, Submission 64, p. 11; Mr Roger Colman, Submission 69, p. 10; Ms Jane Schulze, Committee Hansard, 11 July 2017, p. 22; Mr Ross Mitchell, Director, Broadcasting Policy, Free TV Australia, Committee Hansard¸ 11 July 2017, p. 41.

[74]      Submission 17, p. 2.

[75]      Submission 32, p. 7.

[76]      Submission 4, pp. 1–2.

[77]      Submission 51, p. 4.

[78]      Submission 32, p. 13. For a discussion of the fair dealing regime, see Australian Law Reform Commission, Copyright and the Digital Economy: Final Report, ALRC Report 122, November 2013, Chapters 5 and 6.

[79]      Ms Jacqui Park, Chief Executive Officer, Walkley Foundation, Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 36; and Mr Andrew Elder, Submission 61, pp. 4–5.

[80]      Committee Hansard, 22 August 2017, p. 36.

[81]      Submission 51, p. 12.

[82]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services, Whistleblower Protections, September 2017.

[83]      House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Whistleblower protection: a comprehensive scheme for the Commonwealth public sector, 25 February 2009, p. 178.

[84]      See the second reading speech made by Senator the Hon Mathias Cormann, Senate Hansard¸ 7 December 2017, p. 63.

[85]      Productivity Commission, Intellectual Property Arrangements, Productivity Commission Inquiry Report, No. 78, 23 September 2016. See also Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Productivity Commission into Intellectual Property Arrangements, August 2017.

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