Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 67, 24 November 2014, p. 1827.

[2]        Journals of the Senate, No. 80, 3 March 2015, p. 2223.

Chapter 2 - Background

[1]        See further Department of the Environment, Invasive species, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive-species (accessed 11 September 2014).

[2]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 5; see also State of the Environment 2011 Committee, Australia State of the Environment Report 2011 (Australia State of the Environment Report 2011), 2011, p. 617, http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/pages/683c24f9-2d89-4d81-a402-81e5a6c0b9c7/files/soe2011-report-biodiversity.pdf (accessed 16 September 2014).

[3]        Australia state of the environment report 2011, p. 637.

[4]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 9.

[5]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 9.

[6]        Convention on Biological Diversity, What Needs to be Done?, http://www.cbd.int/invasive/done.shtml (accessed 16 September 2014).

[7]        Convention on Biological Diversity, COP 10 Decision X/2 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 at http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/default.shtml?id=12268 (accessed 17 October 2014); see also 'Aichi' targets at: http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets (accessed 17 October 2014); see also Dr Judy Fisher, Theme Leader, Ecosystems and Invasive Species, IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 5.

[8]        As discussed below, the Minister for Agriculture introduced the Biosecurity Bill 2014 and associated bills on 27 November 2014. If passed, these bills would replace the current Quarantine Act.

[9]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 1.

[10]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 3.

[11]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 13.

[12]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 13.

[13]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 13.

[14]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 14.

[15]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 1.

[16]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 10; p. 12.

[17]      Department of Agriculture, Intergovernmental Agreement on Biosecurity, http://www.daff.gov.au/animal-plant-health/pihc/intergovernmental-agreement-on-biosecurity (accessed 11 September 2014); see also Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 14.

[18]      Dr Robert Klumpp, General Manager, Biosecurity Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 44.

[19]      Tasmanian Salmonid Growers Association, Submission 21, p. 2.

[20]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 15; see also Department of Agriculture, National Biosecurity Committee, http://www.daff.gov.au/animal-plant-health/pihc (accessed 17 September 2014).

[21]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, pp 15–16.

[22]      NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Submission 82, p. 1.

[23]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 33; see also Council of Australian Governments, National Environmental Biosecurity Response Agreement (NEBRA), http://www.coag.gov.au/node/74 (accessed 17 September 2014).

[24]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 34.

[25]      The Hon Barnaby Joyce MP, Minister for Agriculture, 'Historic Biosecurity Bill 2014 to safeguard Australia'¸ Media release, 7 July 2014, http://www.maff.gov.au/Pages/Media%20Releases/biosecurity-bill-2014.aspx (accessed 10 September 2014).

[26]      The Hon Barnaby Joyce MP, Minister for Agriculture, House of Representatives Hansard, 27 November 2014, p. 13426.

[27]      Senate Standing Committee on Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport, Biosecurity Bill 2012 and the Inspector-General of Biosecurity Bill 2012, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional_Affairs_and_Transport/Biosecurity2012 (accessed 18 September 2014); see also Parliament of Australia, Biosecurity Bill 2012 [2013], http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=s897 (accessed 10 September 2014).

[28]      Journals of the Senate, No. 84, 17 March 2015, p. 2307.

[29]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, p. xxxiv.

[30]      Australian Government, 'Role of the Interim Inspector-General of Biosecurity', http://www.igb.gov.au/Pages/role-of-the-iigb.aspx (accessed 20 February 2015).

[31]      Australian Government, 'Role of the Interim Inspector-General of Biosecurity', http://www.igb.gov.au/Pages/role-of-the-iigb.aspx (accessed 20 February 2015).

[32]      Australian Government, 'Role of the Interim Inspector-General of Biosecurity', http://www.igb.gov.au/Pages/role-of-the-iigb.aspx (accessed 20 February 2015).

[33]      Australian Government, 'Role of the Interim Inspector-General of Biosecurity', http://www.igb.gov.au/Pages/role-of-the-iigb.aspx (accessed 20 February 2015).

[34]      The Hon Barnaby Joyce MP, Minister for Agriculture, 'Shorten wrong on Inspector General of Biosecurity', Media Release, 19 February 2015, http://www.maff.gov.au/Pages/Media%20Releases/Inspector-General.aspx (accessed 20 February 2015); Biosecurity Bill 2014 Explanatory Memorandum, p. 13.

[35]      Biosecurity Bill 2014 Explanatory Memorandum, p. 371.

[36]      Biosecurity Bill 2014 Explanatory Memorandum, pp 335–336.

[37]      Senate Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Legislation Committee, Biosecurity Bill 2014 [Provisions], March 2015, pp 17–19.

[38]      Senate Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Legislation Committee, Biosecurity Bill 2014 [Provisions], March 2015, p. 19.

[39]      Senate Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Legislation Committee, Biosecurity Bill 2014 [Provisions], March 2015, p. 46 and p. 50.

[40]      Senator the Hon Richard Colbeck, Proof Senate Hansard, 11 May 2015, pp 61–62.

[41]      Senator the Hon Richard Colbeck, Proof Senate Hansard, 11 May 2015, p. 62.

[42]      EPBC Act, s. 183 and s. 188(3).

[43]      EPBC Act, Part 13, Division 5, Subdivision A, ss 267–284.

[44]      Department of the Environment, Listed Key Threatening Processes, http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicgetkeythreats.pl (accessed 10 September 2014); see also Department of the Environment, Threat Abatement Plans, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/threat-abatement-plans/approved (accessed 10 September 2014).

[45]      Department of the Environment, Novel biota and their impact on the Environment, http://www.environment.gov.au/node/14591 (accessed 10 September 2014).

[46]      EPBC Act, Part 13A and s. 528; see further Department of the Environment, Wildlife trade, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/wildlife-trade (accessed 11 September 2014).

[47]      The full list is available at: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2014C00744 (accessed 23 September 2014).

[48]      Convention on Trade in Endangered Species; see further Department of the Environment, CITES species, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/wildlife-trade/cites/cites-species (accessed 23 September 2014).

[49]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 23; see also Department of the Environment, Live import list, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/wildlife-trade/live/import-list (accessed 23 September 2014).

[50]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 23.

[51]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 11.

[52]      See further Plant Health Australia, http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/ (accessed 17 September 2014).

[53]      See further Animal Health Australia, http://www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/ (accessed 17 September 2014).

[54]      See Wildlife Health Australia, https://www.wildlifehealthaustralia.com.au/AboutUs.aspx (accessed 24 November 2014); Dr Rupert Woods, Chief Executive Officer, Wildlife Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30.

[55]      Dr Rupert Woods, Chief Executive Officer, Wildlife Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 30; see also Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 18.

[56]      See Wildlife Health Australia, https://www.wildlifehealthaustralia.com.au/AboutUs.aspx (accessed 24 November 2014).

[57]      Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010, Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2030, p. 10, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/conservation/strategy (accessed 17 September 2014).

[58]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 16.

[59]      Australian Government, Weeds in Australia: grants and government, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/government/policies.html#wide (accessed 16 April 2015).

[60]      Australia Government, Pest animal and weed management, http://www.nrm.gov.au/national/pest-animal-weed-management (accessed 16 April 2015).

[61]      Department of Agriculture, Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy, http://www.daff.gov.au/biosecurity/quarantine/naqs (accessed 17 September 2014).

[62]      Australian Government, Biosecurity Incursion Management, http://www.nrm.gov.au/national/biodiversity-incursion-management (accessed 16 April 2015).

[63]      Australia Government, Pest animal and weed management, http://www.nrm.gov.au/national/pest-animal-weed-management (accessed 16 April 2015).

[64]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 4.

[65]      Note also the 1996 Nairn Review: M.E. Nairn, Allen, P.G., Inglis, A.R. and Tanner, C., Australian Quarantine: a shared responsibility, 1996, http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/111969/nairn_report.pdf (accessed 18 September 2014); and the Joint Committee of Public Accounts and Audit, Review of Australia's Quarantine Function, 5 March 2003, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_Inquiries/jcpaa/aqis/contents (accessed 18 September 2014).

[66]      Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and Arts References Committee, Turning back the tide—the invasive species challenge, December 2004, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed%20inquiries/2004-07/invasivespecies/index (accessed 16 September 2014).

[67]      Australian Government, Response to Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and Arts References Committee Report, Turning back the tide—the invasive species challenge, September 2007, http://www.aph.gov.au/~/media/wopapub/senate/committee/ecita_ctte/completed_inquiries/2004-07/invasive_species/govt_response/invasive_species_govt_response.ashx (accessed 16 September 2014).

[68]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/2134795/bio-reform-final.pdf (accessed 10 September 2014).

[69]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, p. ix.

[70]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, pp xiii–xlvi.

[71]      Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Reform of Australia's biosecurity system — An update since the publication of One Biosecurity: a working partnership, March 2012, p. 2.

[72]      Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, The Australian Environment Act: report of the Independent review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, October 2009, (Hawke review), pp 183–187 and Appendix 6, http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/australian-environment-act-report-independent-review-environment-protection-and (accessed 11 September 2014).

[73]      Hawke review, recommendation 23, p. 149.

[74]      Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, pp 45–46, http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/australian-government-response-report-independent-review-environment-protection-and (accessed 11 September 2014).

[75]      Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, pp 45–46.

[76]      Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, Effectiveness of threatened species and ecological communities' protection in Australia, August 2013, pp 84–92, 112–114, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/threatenedspecies/report/index

[77]      The government response is available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/threatenedspecies/index

[78]      Senate Standing Committee on Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport, Biosecurity Bill 2012 and the Inspector-General of Biosecurity Bill 2012, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional_Affairs_and_Transport/Biosecurity2012

[79]      http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional Affairs_and_Transport/Biosecurity_2014/Report

Chapter 3 - Environmental biosecurity

[1]        Invasive Species Council, Supplementary Submission 74.2, p. 1; see also Submission 74, p. 6.

[2]        Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Submission 49, p. 3.

[3]        Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Submission 49, p. 4.

[4]        Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 15; also see Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Submission 49, p. 3.

[5]        Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 14.

[6]        Mr Richard Stoklosa, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 17.

[7]        Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 5.

[8]        Ms Anna-Marie Penna, Vice President, Australasian Council of Weed Societies, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 20.

[9]        Associate Professor Don Driscoll, ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, Australian National University, Submission 46, p. 1.

[10]      Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Submission 49, p. 3.

[11]      Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Submission 49, p. 3; see similar points made by Dr Carol Booth and Mr Andrew Cox, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp 32‑33.

[12]      Dr Lori Lach, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 62. See also discussion of benefit-cost analysis at Dr Lori Lach, Supplementary Submission 76.1, pp 4–5.

[13]      Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Submission 49, p. 4.

[14]      NEBRA, part 5, 6.1, p. 16.

[15]      NEBRA, schedule 4, attachment 4A, s. 3(c), p. 44; The Hon Dr John McVeigh, Submission 29, p. 4.

[16]      The Hon Dr John McVeigh, Submission 29, p. 5.

[17]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 7.

[18]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question taken on notice No.8, 31 October 2014 (received 18 November 2014)

[19]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question taken on notice No.8, 31 October 2014 (received 18 November 2014).

[20]      Mr Rodney Turner, General Manager Risk Management, Plant Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 48.

[21]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, p. xxiii.

[22]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, p. 144.

[23]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 67.

[24]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 11.

[25]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 11.

[26]      Plant Biosecurity Cooperative research Centre, Submission 32, p. 3.

[27]      Dr William Roberts, Principal Scientist, Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 11.

[28]      Dr Andy Sheppard, Research Director, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 17.

[29]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 13.

[30]      Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 29.

[31]      Dr Robert Klumpp, General Manager, Biosecurity Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 52.

[32]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 22; see also p. 23.

[33]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 1.

[34]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 30; see also p. 22.

[35]      Ms Marian Blake, Agriculture Section Secretary, Community and Public Sector Union, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 4.

[36]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 33.

[37]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 35.

[38]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 35.

[39]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 35.

[40]      Emergency Plant Pest Disease Response Deed, p. 20, http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/EPPRD-4-August-2014.pdf (accessed 8 December 2014); Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement, p. 20, http://www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/EADRA_Version_14-01_100714.pdf (accessed 8 December 2014).

[41]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 33.

[42]      See further Plant Health Australia, http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/ (accessed 17 September 2014) and Animal health Australia, http://www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/ (accessed 17 September 2014).

[43]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 16.

[44]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 34.

[45]      Council of Australian Governments, National Environmental Biosecurity Response Agreement (NEBRA), http://www.coag.gov.au/node/74 (accessed 12 November 2014).

[46]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, pp 66–69; see also Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 2.

[47]      Invasive Species Council, Supplementary Submission 74.2, p. 3.

[48]      Mr Andrew Cox, Chief Executive Officer, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 29.

[49]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 2, p. 8.

[50]      The committee notes that the Invasive Species Council submission was itself endorsed by 30 environment, national park and conservation groups. For details see Invasive Species Council, Supplementary Submission 74.1, p. 3. The proposal was also endorsed in the following submissions WWF-Australia, Submission 56, p. 1; Victorian National Parks Association, Submission 66, p. 1; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 25, p. 2; Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Submission 49, pp 5‑6; Dr Andrew Hingston, Submission 6, p. 1.

[51]      Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 4.

[52]      Mr Andreas Glanznig, Chief Executive Officer, Invasive Animal Cooperative Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 11.

[53]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 16.

[54]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 16.

[55]      Mr Stephen Oxley, First Assistant Secretary, Wildlife and Marine Division, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 25.

[56]      Mr Rodney Turner, General Manager, Risk Management, Plant Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 41.

[57]      Ms Plowman, Animal Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, pp 43–44.

[58]      Constitution of Plant Health Australia, p. 6, http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/PHAConstitutionAmended14Nov2012.pdf (accessed 9 December 2014); Constitution of Animal Health Australia, pp 2–4, http://www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Constitution-as-amended-10-November-2004.pdf (accessed 9 December 2014); also see discussion with Invasive Species Council at Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 36.

[59]      Plant Health Australia, Submission to the Australian Government Quarantine and Biosecurity Review, April 2008, p. 24, http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Submission-Quarantine-Biosecurity-Review-May-2008.pdf (accessed 9 December 2014).

[60]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 2, p. 16.

[61]      Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 32.

[62]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 2, p. 16.

[63]      Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Submission 55, p. 6.

[64]      Dr Sophie Riley, Submission 8, p. 6.

[65]      Dr Sophie Riley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 3.

[66]      Dr Sophie Riley, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 5.

[67]      Dr Judy Fisher, Theme Leader, Ecosystems and Invasive Species, IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 4.

[68]      Dr Judy Fisher, Theme Leader, Ecosystems and Invasive Species, IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 6.

[69]      Dr Judy Fisher, Theme Leader, Ecosystems and Invasive Species, IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 1.

[70]      Dr Judy Fisher, Theme Leader, Ecosystems and Invasive Species, IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 3 and see also p. 6.

[71]      Mr Andrew Maclean, Executive Director, Wet Tropics Management Authority, Committee Hansard,31 October 2014, p. 19.

[72]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, pp 11–12.

[73]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 15.

[74]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 31.

[75]      Mr Michael Milne, Acting Chief Executive Officer, Plant Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 43.

[76]      Mr Michael Milne, Acting Chief Executive Officer, Plant Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 44.

[77]      Mr Michael Milne, Acting Chief Executive Officer, Plant Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 44.

[78]      Mr Ian Thompson, First Assistant Secretary, Sustainability and Biosecurity Policy, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 31.

[79]      Mr Andreas Glanznig and Dr William Roberts, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014,     pp 11–12.

Chapter 4 - Recent environmental biosecurity performance

[1]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 9.

[2]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 12.

[3]        Mr Richard Stoklosa, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 17.

[4]        Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010, Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010–2030, pp 10, 46. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/conservation/strategy (accessed 11 December 2014).

[5]        Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 28.

[6]        Department of Agriculture, Answer to written question on notice No. 8 (received 18 November 2014).

[7]        Department of the Environment, Australia's Fifth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity: Draft for Public Consultation, March 2014, p. 26, (accessed 9 January 2015) http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/international/draft-fifth-national-biological-diversity-report

[8]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, pp 46–49.

[9]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 45.

[10]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, pp 46–49.

[11]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 5.

[12]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 5.

[13]      Dr Andy Sheppard, Research Director, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 19.

[14]      Invasive Species Council, 'Incursions detected since 2000', tabled document, 11 November 2014.

[15]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 9; pp 11–13.

[16]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, pp 13–14.

[17]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 9.

[18]      Wendy Henderson and Mary Bomford, Detecting and preventing new incursions of exotic animals in Australia, Invasive Animals CRC, 2011, pp 39–40.

[19]      Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Submission 55, p. 3.

[20]      Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Submission 55, p. 3.

[21]      Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Submission 55, p. 3.

[22]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 4.

[23]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, pp 4–5.

[24]      Dr David Guest, Submission 43, p. 1.

[25]      WWF-Australia, Submission 56, p. 2.

[26]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 1.

[27]      NSW Natural Resources Commission, Submission 70, Attachment 1.

[28]      NSW Natural Resources Commission, Submission 70, p. 1.

[29]      NSW Natural Resources Commission, Submission 70, p. 1, quoting Johnson paper here: http://nswweedsoc.org.au/items/839/17NSWWC%20Proceedings%202013.pdf

[30]      NSW Natural Resources Commission, Submission 70, p. 1.

[31]      Josh Dye, 'Red fire ant outbreak in Sydney could cost economy billions', Sydney Morning Herald, 8 December 2014, http://www.smh.com.au/environment/red-fire-ant-outbreak-in-sydney-could-cost-economy-billions-20141208-1212nb.html (accessed 12 December 2014)

[32]      The Hon Katrina Hodgkinson, 'Eradication of red imported fire ant underway', Media release, 5 December 2014, http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/537167/media_release_141205_eradication_red_fire_ants_underway.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[33]      The Hon Dr John McVeigh, Submission 29, p. 1.

[34]      The Hon Dr John McVeigh, Submission 29, p. 3.

[35]      Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 2.

[36]      Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 2.

[37]      Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 2.

[38]      Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 2.

[39]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 2.

[40]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 2.

[41]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 2.

[42]      Department of Agriculture and Food (WA), Submission 80, p. 2.

[43]      Department of Agriculture and Food (WA), Submission 80, p. 2.

[44]      Department of Agriculture and Food (WA), Submission 80, p. 2.

[45]      Tasmanian Farmers and Graziers Association, Submission 67, p. 6.

[46]      Tasmanian Farmers and Graziers Association, Submission 67, p. 6.

[47]      Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas), 'Fox Eradication Program', http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/invasive-species/current-programs/fox-eradication-program (accessed 12 December 2014).

[48]      Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas), 'Threats posed by Foxes in Tasmania', http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/invasive-species/current-programs/fox-eradication-program/fox-profile/threats-posed-by-foxes (accessed 12 December 2014).

[49]      Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas), 'Threats posed by Foxes in Tasmania', http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/invasive-species/current-programs/fox-eradication-program/fox-profile/threats-posed-by-foxes (accessed 12 December 2014).

[50]      Tasmanian Farmers and Graziers Association, Submission 67, p. 7.

[51]      Government of South Australia, Submission 86, p. 3.

[52]      Government of South Australia, Submission 86, p. 3.

[53]      Government of South Australia, Submission 86, p. 3.

[54]      Government of South Australia, Submission 86, p. 3.

[55]      Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 33, p. 2.

[56]      Department of the Environment, 'Myrtle Rust (Uredo rangelli)', http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive-species/diseases-fungi-and-parasites/myrtle-rust (accessed 15 December 2014).

[57]      Department of the Environment, 'Myrtle Rust (Uredo rangelli)', http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive-species/diseases-fungi-and-parasites/myrtle-rust (accessed 15 December 2014).

[58]      Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (Qld), https://www.daff.qld.gov.au/plants/health-pests-diseases/a-z-significant/myrtle-rust/facts-photos-maps/maps (accessed 15 December 2014); Department of Primary Industries (NSW), 'Myrtle rust', http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/biosecurity/plant/myrtle-rust (Accessed 15 December 2014); Department of Environment and Primary Industries (Vic), 'Myrtle rust', http://www.depi.vic.gov.au/agriculture-and-food/pests-diseases-and-weeds/plant-diseases/shrubs-and-trees/myrtle-rust (accessed 15 December 2014).

[59]      Anthony Cannon, Myrtle Rust – Forest Industry Issues Paper, Forest & Wood Products Australia, June 2011, p. 9, http://www.fwpa.com.au/images/resources/PRC218-1011_Myrtle_Rust_June_2011_0.pdf (accessed 15 December 2014); see also document tabled at 10 November 2014 hearing by Mr Robert Mackinson, Australian Network for Plant Conservation, 'Myrtle rust'.

[60]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 14.

[61]      Mr Anthony Cannon, Managing Director, ALIEMI Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp 9–10.

[62]      Anthony Cannon, Myrtle Rust – Forest Industry Issues Paper, Forest & Wood Products Australia, June 2011, pp 24–30, http://www.fwpa.com.au/images/resources/PRC218-1011_Myrtle_Rust_June_2011_0.pdf (accessed 14 April 2015).

[63]      Mr Anthony Cannon, Managing Director, ALIEMI Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9.

[64]      Mr Anthony Cannon, Managing Director, ALIEMI Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9; Anthony Cannon, Myrtle Rust – Forest Industry Issues Paper, Forest & Wood Products Australia, June 2011, p. 26. http://www.fwpa.com.au/images/resources/PRC218-1011_Myrtle_Rust_June_2011_0.pdf (accessed 15 December 2014).

[65]      Anthony Cannon, Myrtle Rust – Forest Industry Issues Paper, Forest & Wood Products Australia, June 2011, p. 30, http://www.fwpa.com.au/images/resources/PRC218-1011_Myrtle_Rust_June_2011_0.pdf (accessed 15 December 2014); Mr Anthony Cannon, Managing Director, ALIEMI Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 9.

[66]      Mr Anthony Cannon, Managing Director, ALIEMI Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 10.

[67]      Dr William Roberts, Principal Scientist, Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, pp 13–14.

[68]      Mr Anthony Cannon, Managing Director, ALIEMI Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 11.

[69]      Dr William Roberts, Principal Scientist, Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 12.

[70]      Mr Robert Makinson, Australian Network for Plant Conservation, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 6.

[71]      Mr Andrew Maclean, Wet Tropics Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 17.

[72]      Mr Andrew Maclean, Wet Tropics Management Authority Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 17.

[73]      Mr Rodney Turner, Plant Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 45.

[74]      Mr Rodney Turner, Plant Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, pp 45–46.

[75]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 37.

[76]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 37.

[77]      Department of the Environment, 'Tramp ants', p. 1, http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/49574b42-7256-4e82-981e-644102b3ec16/files/fs-tramp-ants.pdf (accessed 16 December 2014).

[78]      Department of the Environment, 'Tramp ants', p. 3, http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/49574b42-7256-4e82-981e-644102b3ec16/files/fs-tramp-ants.pdf (accessed 16 December 2014).

[79]      Department of the Environment, 'Tramp ants', p. 4, http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/49574b42-7256-4e82-981e-644102b3ec16/files/fs-tramp-ants.pdf (accessed 16 December 2014).

[80]      Christmas Island Crazy Ant Scientific Advisory Committee, Submission 78, p. 13.

[81]      Christmas Island Crazy Ant Scientific Advisory Committee, Submission 78, p. 13.

[82]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[83]      The Hon Katrina Hodgkinson, 'Eradication of red imported fire ant underway', Media release, 5 December 2014, http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/537167/media_release_141205_eradication_red_fire_ants_underway.pdf (accessed 12 December 2014).

[84]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 4.

[85]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 8.

[86]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 4.

[87]      Dr Lori Lach, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 61.

[88]      Department of the Environment and Heritage, Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, 2006, p. 6, http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/f120c0f6-5bf4-4549-b087-8e53864b315b/files/tramp-ants.pdf (accessed 18 December 2014).

[89]      Department of the Environment and Heritage, Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, 2006, p. 6, http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/f120c0f6-5bf4-4549-b087-8e53864b315b/files/tramp-ants.pdf (accessed 18 December 2014).

[90]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, pp 8–9.

[91]      Dr Lori Lach, Committee Hansard, 11 December 2014, p. 61.

[92]      Dr Kirsti Abbott, Submission 77, p. 1.

[93]      Mr Andrew Maclean, Executive Director, Wet Tropics Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 17. See also discussion of funding for yellow crazy ant programs in the wet tropics at Dr Lori Lach, Supplementary Submission 76.1, pp 2–3.

[94]      Dr Lori Lach, Committee Hansard, 11 December 2014, p. 61.

[95]      Tasmanian Land Conservancy, Submission 30 (Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, National Landcare Program inquiry), p. 2.

[96]      Tasmanian Land Conservancy, Submission 30 (Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, National Landcare Program inquiry), p. 2.

[97]      Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 10.

[98]      Government of South Australia, Submission 86, p. 9.

[99]      Department of Agriculture and Food (WA), Submission 80, p. 4.

[100]    Department of Agriculture and Food (WA), Submission 80, p. 4.

[101]    Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Submission 55, p. 3.

[102]    Christmas Island Crazy Ant Scientific Advisory Committee, Submission 78, p. 16.

[103]    Christmas Island Crazy Ant Scientific Advisory Committee, Submission 78, p. 16.

Chapter 5 - Risks and preparedness

[1]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, pp 6–7.

[2]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 7; see also Dr Robert Klumpp, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 45 regarding increasing biosecurity threats facing Tasmania.

[3]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 8.

[4]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, pp 7‑8.

[5]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 22.

[6]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 22.

[7]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 23.

[8]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 23.

[9]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 23; see also Australian Government, 'Preventing the entry of new potential weeds into Australia', http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/weeds/where/prevent.html (accessed 21 January 2015).

[10]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 23.

[11]      Department of Agriculture, Examination of the Import Risk Analysis (IRA) process, (accessed 9 January 2015) http://www.agriculture.gov.au/ba/ira/iraexamination

[12]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, pp 23–24; Further information on the risk return resource allocation model was provided to the committee on notice: Department of Agriculture, Answer to written question on notice No. 7 (received 18 November 2014).

[13]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 24.

[14]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 6.

[15]      Convention on Biological Diversity, 'Aichi Biodiversity Targets', (accessed 9 January 2015) http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/ ; CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 8.

[16]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 8.

[17]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 8.

[18]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 8, p. 16; also see Department of the Environment, 'National Environmental Alert List', (accessed 9 January 2015) http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/weeds/lists/alert.html

[19]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 30.

[20]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 30.

[21]      Wild Matters Pty Ltd, Submission 35, p. 5.

[22]      Wild Matters Pty Ltd, Submission 35, p. 5.

[23]      Farm Tree & Landcare Association Inc, Submission 44, pp 2–3. Frustration with the speed at which priority weed lists are updated was also expressed in evidence given to the committee during its recent inquiry into the National Landcare Program, see Mr Max Schlachter, Mount Alexander Region Landcare Facilitator, Connecting Country, Committee Hansard, 13 October 2014, p. 13.

[24]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 35.

[25]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No. 6 (received 18 November 2014).

[26]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 7.

[27]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 26.

[28]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 26

[29]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 40.

[30]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p 65.

[31]      eBay, Submission 18, p. 2.

[32]      Mr Andrew Cox, Chief Executive Officer, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 31.

[33]      Mr Andrew Cox, Chief Executive Officer, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 30.

[34]      Mr Robert Prince, Chief Executive Officer, Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 12.

[35]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No. 4 (received 18 November 2014).

[36]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No. 4 (received 18 November 2014).

[37]      Mr Stoklosa, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 21.

[38]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, pp 26–27.

[39]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 27.

[40]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 28.

[41]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 9.

[42]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, pp. 8–9; Dr Lori Lach, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 60.

[43]      Natural Resources Commission, Submission 70, p. 3.

[44]      Natural Resources Commission, Submission 70, p. 7.

[45]      Dr John Keniry, Commissioner, Natural Resources Commission, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 55.

[46]      Mr Robert Prince, Chief Executive Officer, Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 16.

[47]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 30.

[48]      Mr Bryce Wilde, Executive Director, Natural Resources Commission, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 55.

[49]      Dr John Keniry, Commissioner, Natural Resources Commission, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 54.

[50]      Mr Bryce Wilde, Executive Director, Natural Resources Commission, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 54. The introduction of permitted lists was also favoured by the Council of Australasian Weed Societies, see Submission 50, p. 4.

[51]      Mr Robert Prince, Chief Executive Officer, Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 10.

[52]      Mr Robert Prince, Chief Executive Officer, Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp 11–12; see also http://www.growmeinstead.com.au/ (accessed 14 April 2015).

[53]      Mr Robert Prince, Chief Executive Officer, Nursery and Garden Industry Australia, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 12.

[54]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 15; Department of Agriculture, Guidelines for the Import, Movement and Keeping of Non-indigenous Vertebrates in Australia, January 2014, http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/VPCGuidelinesJan14.pdf (accessed 6 January 2015).

[55]      Dr Carolyn Hogg, Manager, Science and Policy, Zoo and Aquarium Association, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 46.

[56]      Dr Carolyn Hogg, Manager, Science and Policy, Zoo and Aquarium Association, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 46.

[57]      Dr Carolyn Hogg, Manager, Science and Policy, Zoo and Aquarium Association, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp 46–47.

[58]      Dr Carolyn Hogg, Manager, Science and Policy, Zoo and Aquarium Association, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 47.

[59]      Dr Carolyn Hogg, Manager, Science and Policy, Zoo and Aquarium Association, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 46.

[60]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, pp 36–37.

[61]      Dr Andrew Peters, Submission 65, pp 2‑3.

[62]      Australian Museum, Submission 36, p. 2.

[63]      CPSU, Submission 72, p. 2.

[64]      Mr Rupert Evans, Deputy Secretary, CPSU, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 2.

[65]      Mr Rupert Evans, Deputy Secretary, CPSU, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 5.

[66]      Mr Rupert Evans, Deputy Secretary, CPSU, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 2.

[67]      Australasian Wildlife Management Society, Submission 11, p. 2.

[68]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 28.

[69]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 28.

[70]      Mr Greg Williamson, First Assistant Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 30.

[71]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 28.

[72]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No. 7 (received 18 November 2014).

[73]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No. 7 (received 18 November 2014). This answer also contains a list of all responses since 2001, both those under the three deeds and those undertaken off deed, broken down by deed.

[74]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 29.

[75]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 29.

[76]      Joint Select Committee on Northern Australia, Pivot North: Inquiry into the Development of Northern Australia: Final Report, September 2014, p. 180.

[77]      CPSU, Submission 72, p. 4.

[78]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 30.

[79]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 20.

[80]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 10.

[81]      Dr Lori Lach, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 60.

[82]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 51.

[83]      Mr Stephen Oxley, First Assistant Secretary, Wildlife Heritage and Marine Division, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 24.

[84]      Mr Stephen Oxley, First Assistant Secretary, Wildlife Heritage and Marine Division, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 24.

[85]      Mr Andreas Glanznig, Chief Executive Officer, Invasive Animals CRC, and Dr William Roberts, Principal Scientist, Plant Biosecurity CRC, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, pp 9–10.

[86]      Mr Andreas Glanznig, Chief Executive Officer, Invasive Animals CRC, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 9.

[87]      Dr William Roberts, Principal Scientist, Plant Biosecurity CRC, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 10.

[88]      Ms Anna-Marie Penna, Vice-President, Council of Australasian Weed Societies, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 19.

[89]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 76.

[90]      Dr Patricia Hutchings, Australian Museum, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 40.

[91]      Professor David Guest, University of Sydney, Submission 43, p. 2.

[92]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 27.

[93]      Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 9.

[94]      Dr Andy Sheppard, Research Director, CSIRO Biosecurity Flagship, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 17.

[95]      Dr Andy Sheppard, Research Director, CSIRO Biosecurity Flagship, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 17.

[96]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 3.

[97]      CSIRO, Australia's Biosecurity Future: preparing for future biological challenges, 2014, p. 44.

[98]      CSIRO, Australia's Biosecurity Future: preparing for future biological challenges, 2014, p. 45.

[99]      Dr Andy Sheppard, Research Director, CSIRO Biosecurity Flagship, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 17.

[100]    Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 25.

[101]    University of Melbourne, 'Centre of Excellence for Biosecurity Risk Analysis', (accessed 9 January 2015) http://cebra.unimelb.edu.au/about; Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 25.

[102]    Dr Shane Ahyong, Senior Research Scientist, Manager Marine Invertebrates, Australian Museum, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 38. Also see Australian Museum, Submission 36, p. 6.

[103]    Australian Museum, Submission 36, p. 6.

[104]    Australian Museum, Submission 36, pp 3–4; Also see discussion of the island apple snail by Dr Donald Colgan, Principal Research Scientist, Group Head Malacology, Australian Museum Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 40.

[105]    Dr Shane Ahyong, Senior Research Scientist, Manager Marine Invertebrates, Australian Museum, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 39.

[106]    Australian Museum, Submission 36, p. 6.

[107]    Intergovernmental Agreement on Biosecurity, 2012, p. 23

[108]    Dr Kirsten Parris and Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 75, p. 3.

[109]    CSIRO, Submission 48, pp 3‑4.

[110]    CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 4.

[111]    Australia state of the environment report 2011, p. 639; Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, p. xiii.

[112]    Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p. 3.

[113]    CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 6.

[114]    CSIRO, Australia's Biosecurity Future: preparing for future biological challenges, 2014, p. 48.

[115]    Dr Sophie Peterson, Research Coordinator, Plant Biosecurity CRC, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 13.

[116]    Mr Andreas Glanznig, Chief Executive Officer, Invasive Animals CRC, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 13.

[117]    Wet Tropics Management Authority, Submission 23, p 3; also see comments by the Wet Tropics Management Authority on the effect of cyclones at Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 19.

[118]    Ms Anne-Marie Penna, Vice-President of the Council of Australasian Weeds Societies (CAWS), Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 24.

[119]    Departments of Agriculture and the Environment, Submission 59, p. 26.

Chapter 6 - Marine, freshwater and island environmental biosecurity issues

[1]        CSIRO, Australia's Biosecurity Future: preparing for future biological challenges, 2014, p. 65, (accessed 12 January 2015) http://www.csiro.au/Organisation-Structure/Flagships/Biosecurity-Flagship/Biosecurity-Futures-Report.aspx

[2]        Department of Agriculture, 'Marine Pests', (accessed 12 January 2015), http://www.agriculture.gov.au/natural-resources/invasive/invasive_marine_species

[3]        See, for example, Dr Judy Fisher, Theme Leader, Ecosystems and Invasive Species, IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, pp 6, 7; Ports Australia, Submission 42; Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, pp 73–75.

[4]        Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73.

[5]        CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 8.

[6]        See, for example, Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73; Dr Judy Fisher, Theme Leader, Ecosystems and Invasive Species, IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 6.

[7]        Mr Michael McMullan, Acting Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 26; see also Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Background information, provided 8 October 2014.

[8]        Australian Government, National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions , www.marinepests.gov.au (accessed 22 October 2014); see also Shipping Australia, Submission 9, p. 2; Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 31.

[9]        Department of Agriculture, 'Marine Pest Sectoral Committee', http://www.agriculture.gov.au/animal-plant-health/pests-diseases-weeds/marine-pests/mp-sect-committee (accessed 12 January 2015).

[10]      Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 1.

[11]      Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 2.

[12]      Shipping Australia, Submission 9, p. 3.

[13]      Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 28.

[14]      VNPA, Submission 66, p. 3.

[15]      Victorian Auditor-General, Environmental Management of Marine Protected Areas, March 2011, p. vii, http://www.audit.vic.gov.au/publications/2010-11/20110302-Marine.pdf (accessed 12 January 2015).

[16]      See, for example, Departments of Agriculture and the Environment, Submission 59, pp 27–28.

[17]      Australian Museum, Submission 36, pp. 3–4; Also see discussion of the island apple snail by Dr Donald Colgan, Principal Research Scientist, Group Head Malacology, Australian Museum, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 40.

[18]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 2.

[19]      Mr Michael McMullan, Acting Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 26; see also GBRMPA, Submission 19, p. 2.

[20]      Dr Donald Colgan, Principal Research Scientist, Group Head Malacology, Australian Museum Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 40.

[21]      Tasmanian Salmonid Growers Association, Submission 21, p. 2.

[22]      See, for example, CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 7; Departments of Agriculture and the Environment, Submission 59, p. 27; Mr Michael McMullan, Acting Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 26; Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, pp 73–74.

[23]      Mr Michael McMullan, Acting Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 26; see also Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Background information, provided 8 October 2014, p. 2.

[24]      AMSA, Submission 37, p. 1.

[25]      Department of Agriculture, Australian Ballast Water Requirements, Version 5, 5 September 2013, p. 3, http://www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/aqis/airvesselmilitary/vessels/ballast/ballast-water-mgmt-requirements-v5.pdf (accessed 12 January 2015).

[26]      AMSA, Submission 37, p. 1. See further IMO, BWM Convention, http://www.imo.org/OurWork/Environment/BallastWaterManagement/Pages/BWMConvention.aspx (accessed 29 October 2014).

[27]      Department of Agriculture, Australian Ballast Water Requirements, Version 5, 5 September 2013, p. 3, http://www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/aqis/airvesselmilitary/vessels/ballast/ballast-water-mgmt-requirements-v5.pdf (accessed 12 January 2015).

[28]      AMSA, Submission 37, pp 1–2.

[29]      Shipping Australia, Submission 9, p. 5.

[30]      Environment Protection Authority Victoria, 'Ballast Water', http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/your-environment/water/ballast-water (accessed 12 January 2015).

[31]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, p. xxxi, recommendation 4 and see also pp 21–22.

[32]      See, for example, Shipping Australia, Submission 9, p. 4; Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73.

[33]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73.

[34]      Explanatory Memorandum, Biosecurity Bill 2014, p. 12.

[35]      Explanatory Memorandum, Biosecurity Bill 2014, p. 198; Biosecurity Bill 2014, clause 265.

[36]      Biosecurity Bill 2014, clause 270; note that, under section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth), one penalty unit is equal to $170.

[37]      See Biosecurity Bill 2014, clauses 271, 276, 277, 279, 282 and 283.

[38]      Australian Government, National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions, 'What is marine biofouling'. http://www.marinepests.gov.au/marine_pests/Pages/Biofouling-and-marine-pests.aspx (accessed 22 October 2014).

[39]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 74.

[40]      Department of Agriculture, Biofouling – the threat to Australia, http://www.agriculture.gov.au/animal-plant-health/pests-diseases-weeds/marine-pests/biofouling/biofouling-threat (accessed 22 October 2014).

[41]      Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 28.

[42]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 74.

[43]      Australian Museum, Submission 36, pp 4–5.

[44]      Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 3.

[45]      Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 3.

[46]      Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 2.

[47]      Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 2.

[48]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 74.

[49]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 74.

[50]      Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 30.

[51]      AMSA, Submission 37, p. 2; Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73; Shipping Australia, Submission 9, p. 4.

[52]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No. 3 (received 18 November 2014).

[53]      Department of Agriculture, Anti-fouling and in-water cleaning guidelines, http://www.agriculture.gov.au/animal-plant-health/pests-diseases-weeds/marine-pests/anti-fouling-and-inwater-cleaning-guidelines (accessed 22 October 2014); see also Shipping Australia, Submission 9, p. 3.

[54]      Australian Government, National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions, 'Publications', http://www.marinepests.gov.au/marine_pests/publications/pages/default.aspx (accessed 22 October 2014).

[55]      Australian Government, 'Marine Pests – Publications', http://www.marinepests.gov.au/marine_pests/publications/pages/default.aspx (accessed 12 January 2015).

[56]      Australian Government, 'Preventing new pests arriving in Australia', http://www.marinepests.gov.au/national-system/how-it-works/Pages/Prevention.aspx (accessed 12 January 2015).

[57]      See, for example, Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 2.

[58]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 75.

[59]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 74.

[60]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73.

[61]      Mr Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 28.

[62]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73.

[63]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 73.

[64]      Dr Adam Main, Chief Executive Officer, Tasmanian Salmonid Growers Association Limited and Mr Jungalwalla, Independent Executive Chair, National Aquaculture Council, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 38.

[65]      Dr Adam Main, Chief Executive Officer, Tasmanian Salmonid Growers Association Limited, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 38.

[66]      Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, recommendation 5, p. xxxi.

[67]      Department of Agriculture, National Marine Pest Biosecurity Review: Issues Paper, 2014, p. 1, http://www.agriculture.gov.au/animal-plant-health/pests-diseases-weeds/marine-pests/review-national-marine-pest-biosecurity (accessed 12 January 2015).

[68]      Australian Museum, Submission 36, p. 4.

[69]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, pp 74–75.

[70]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 74.

[71]      Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 29 and see also p. 31.

[72]      CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 12.

[73]      Shipping Australia, Submission 9, p. 2.

[74]      Ports Australia, Submission 42, p. 3.

[75]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 3.

[76]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 3.

[77]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 2.

[78]      See, for example, Departments of Agriculture and the Environment, Submission 59, p. 31; see also Shipping Australia, Submission 9, pp 2 and 3.

[79]      See, for example, Departments of Agriculture and the Environment, Submission 59, p. 31.

[80]      Ms Rona Mellor, Deputy Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 22; see also p. 35.

[81]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No 5 (received 18 November 2014).

[82]      Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No 4 (received 18 November 2014).

[83]      Mr Michael McMullan, Acting Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 27.

[84]      Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 28.

[85]      A Moore, N Marton and A McNee, A strategic approach to the management of ornamental fish in Australia: communication strategy and grey list review – a report to OFMIG, Bureau of Rural Sciences, March 2010, p. iv.

[86]      See discussion EPBC Act and live imports in chapter 2.

[87]      Biosecurity Bill 2014, clauses 171 to 181.

[88]      Biosecurity Bill 2014, clauses 173 and 174.

[89]      Department of the Environment, 'Exotic Fish Trade', http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/wildlife-trade/exotics/exotic-fish-trade (accessed 13 January 2015). For noxious and grey lists see Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, A strategic approach to the management of ornamental fish in Australia, November 2006, p. 27.

[90]      A Moore, N Marton and A McNee, A strategic approach to the management of ornamental fish in Australia: communication strategy and grey list review – a report to OFMIG, Bureau of Rural Sciences, March 2010, p. iv.

[91]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 57.

[92]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 9 and see also Table 2, pp 13–14 and pp 24, 27.

[93]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 53.

[94]      A Moore, N Marton and A McNee, A strategic approach to the management of ornamental fish in Australia: communication strategy and grey list review – a report to OFMIG, Bureau of Rural Sciences, March 2010, p. iv.

[95]      Condamine Alliance, Submission 40, p. 3. The Invasive Species Council also provided information on the invasive potential of Jack Dempsey cichlids, a member of the Chichlidae family. See case study at Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 50.

[96]      Dr John Harris, Submission 20, p. 1.

[97]      Dr John Harris, Submission 20, p. 2.

[98]      Dr John Harris, Submission 20, p. 2.

[99]      Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Background information, provided 8 October 2014, p. 5.

[100]    Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 28.

[101]    Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 31.

[102]    Ms Victoria Aitken, Biosecurity Section Leader, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 31.

[103]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 27; see also Attachment 1, p. 57.

[104]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 34.

[105]    Department of Agriculture, Annual Report 2013–14, p. 94.

[106]    Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 34.

[107]    Dr Andrew Burbidge AO, Submission 13, p. 1.

[108]    Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, Effectiveness of threatened species and ecological communities' protection in Australia, August 2013, recommendation 15.

[109]    Australian Government, Government response to Australian Government response to the Senate Environment and Communications References Committee report: Effectiveness of threatened species and ecological communities' protection in Australia, August 2014, p. 13.

[110]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 10.

[111]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 9; see also Andrew Burbidge AO, Submission 13, p. 1, and Submission 13, Attachment 1.

[112]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 70.

[113]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, pp 70–72.

[114]    Government of South Australia, Submission 86, p. 9.

[115]    Dr Andrew Burbidge and Professor John Woinarski, Submission 60, p. 1.

[116]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 9 and see also p. 17.

[117]    Dr Andrew Burbidge and Professor John Woinarski, Submission 60, p. 1.

[118]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 12; the committee also discussed the impact of yellow crazy ants on Christmas Island with Dr Lori Lach, see Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, pp 61–62.

[119]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 12. The biological control methods being employed on Christmas Island may also be relevant to controlling yellow crazy ant populations in other locations, for example, in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. See discussion with Mr Andrew Maclean, Executive Director, Wet Tropics Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 20.

[120]    Christmas Island Crazy Ant Scientific Advisory Committee, Submission 78, p. 3.

[121]    Christmas Island Crazy Ant Scientific Advisory Committee, Submission 78, pp 8–9.

[122]    Christmas Island Crazy Ant Scientific Advisory Committee, Submission 78, p. 9.

[123]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 15.

[124]    Mr Richard Stoklosa, Submission 53, p. 1. See also discussion of best practice pathway analysis at Dr Lori Lach, Supplementary Submission 76.1, pp 5–6.

[125]    Mr Richard Stoklosa, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp 15–16.

[126]    Mr Richard Stoklosa, Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, p. 18.

[127]    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 3.

[128]    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 2.

[129]    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Submission 19, p. 2.

[130]    Biosecurity Tasmania, Answer to question on notice, p. 1; see also discussion at Committee Hansard, 10 November 2014, pp 49‑50.

[131]    Biosecurity Tasmania, Answer to question taken on notice, p. 1.

[132]    Biosecurity Tasmania, Answer to question taken on notice, pp 1–2.

Chapter 7 - Conclusions and recommendations

[1]        See discussion in chapter 3.

[2]        Beale, Roger et al, One Biosecurity: a working partnership, September 2008, p. xx.

[3]        Department of Agriculture, Answer to question on notice No. 7 (received 18 November 2014).

[4]        Government of South Australia, Submission 86, p. 9; Department of Agriculture and Food (WA), Submission 80, p. 4.

[5]        Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 47.

[6]        See discussion in chapter 3.

[7]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 35.

[8]        See discussion in chapter 4.

[9]        See discussion in chapter 4.

[10]      Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, National Landcare Program, March 2015.

[11]      See discussion in chapter 5.

[12]      See discussion in chapter 5.

[13]      Joint Select Committee on Northern Australia, Pivot North: Inquiry into the Development of Northern Australia: Final Report, September 2014, pp 180–181 and recommendation 24.

[14]      See general discussion in chapter 5 and specific commentary on the tramp ant abatement plan in chapter 4.

[15]      See discussion chapter 5; also see CSIRO, Australia's Biosecurity Future: preparing for future biological challenges, 2014, pp 44–45.

[16]      See discussion in chapter 5.

[17]      See discussion in chapter 5.

[18]      See discussion in chapter 6; also see Australian Museum, Submission 36, p. 6.

[19]      See discussion in chapter 5; also see Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Attachment 1, p. 65.

[20]      See discussion in chapter 4.

[21]      See discussion in chapter 5.

[22]      See discussion in chapter 5.

[23]      See discussion in chapter 6.

[24]      See discussion in chapter 6.

[25]      See discussion in chapter 6 and Dr Andrew Burbidge AO, Submission 13 Attachment 1, p. 1.

Australian Greens Minority Report - Environmental Biosecurity

[1]        Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, p. 4.

[2]        WWF-Australia, Submission 56, p. 2, Dr David Guest, Submission 43, p. 1, Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 8 October 2014, p. 11, Plant Biosecurity Cooperative research Centre, Submission 32, p. 3.

[3]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 1.

[4]        Department of Agriculture and Department of the Environment, Submission 59, p. 16.

[5]        Invasive Species Council, Submission 74, Executive Summary, p. 1.

[6]        CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 13.

[7]        CSIRO, Submission 48, p. 8.

[8]        Wild Matters Pty Ltd, Submission 35, p. 5.

[9]        Mr Stephen Oxley, First Assistant Secretary, Wildlife and Marine Division, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, p. 25 and Ms Plowman, Animal Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 31 October 2014, pp 44–43.

[10]      The report is accessible here: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional_Affairs_and_Transport/Biosecurity_2014/Report

[11]      Dr Lori Lach, Submission 76 – Supplementary Submission, p. 4.

[12]      Dr Lori Lach, Submission 76 – Supplementary Submission, p. 5.

[13]      Dr Lori Lach, Committee Hansard, 11 November 2014, p. 63.

[14]      Dr Lori Lach, Submission 76 – Supplementary Submission, p. 2. 

Top