Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 2013–15, No. 99 (22 June 2015), pp. 2744–45.

Chapter 2 - Overview of the Australian video game industry

[1]        Witnesses advised that the Australian industry began in 1980 with the establishment of Beam Software, which was also produced the first Australian game that sold over a million copies. See Mr Antony Reed, Chief Executive Officer, Game Developers' Association of Australia (GDAA), Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 1 and Ms Fiona Cameron, Chief Operating Officer, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 10.

[2]        This chapter does not provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the industry, or the various successes and failures that have occurred within it. Several submissions to the committee document these matters clearly and eloquently, particularly the submissions from industry organisations and academics. The committee invites readers that are interested in these matters to peruse the written submissions, and relevant research papers attached to them, that the committee has published on its website: www.aph.gov.au/senate_ec

[3]        Interactive Games and Entertainment Association (IGEA), Submission 9, p. 5; J Brand and S Todhunter (2015), Digital Australia 2016, IGEA, www.igea.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/
Digital-Australia-2016-DA16-Final.pdf
(accessed 16 December 2015), p. 9.

[4]        M Zyda (2005), 'From visual simulation to virtual reality to games', Computer, vol. 38, no. 90, pp. 25–32; cited in Professor Stuart Smith, Submission 80, p. 4.

[5]        Professor Stuart Smith, Submission 80, p. 4.

[6]        IGEA, Submission 9, p. 22. Professor Jeffrey Brand, a Professor of Communication and Creative Media at Bond University, discussed this project in detail. See Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, pp. 8, 12.

[7]        Mr Ron Curry, Chief Executive Officer, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 2.

[8]        GDAA, Submission 55, p. 6.

[9]        Brisbane Chapter of the International Game Developers Association (BrIGDA), Submission 71, p. 3.

[10]      Professor Jeffrey Brand, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 9.

[11]      See BrIGDA, Submission 71, p. 3; Mr Ron Curry, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 1.

[12]      Professor Jeffrey Brand, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 9.

[13]      See Mr Nathan Anderson, Executive Producer, Start VR, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 18.

[14]      Mr Ron Curry, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 8.

[15]      Mr Antony Reed, Chief Executive Officer, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 4–5.

[16]      This figure includes box office, home entertainment, sell-through, video on demand and rental, but excludes actual advertising and rental.

[17]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 4. The figures cited by IGEA are from PricewaterhouseCoopers, The Australian Entertainment and Media Outlook 2015-2019, 14th Edition, 2015.

[18]      Mr Ron Curry, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 6.

[19]      Mr Nathan Anderson, Executive Producer, Start VR, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 17.

[20]      Professor Jeffrey Brand, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 8.

[21]      This figure excludes revenue generated from interactive game development or exports.

[22]      IGEA, Submission 9, pp. 4–5.

[23]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 6. The GDAA explained that this figure is based on its database of game development and supporting companies that only records companies registered with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.

[24]      This figure excludes the revenue of multinational studios that were based in Australia, as these studios did not provide revenue results as part of the survey. GDAA, Submission 55, p. 4.

[25]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 6; Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 3.

[26]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 4.

[27]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 12.

[28]      Including multiplier and spillover effects.

[29]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 4.

[30]      New Zealand Game Developers Association, 'Jobs in NZ Games Industry Grow in FY2015', http://nzgda.com/news/survey2015/ (accessed 2 November 2015); cited in IGEA, Submission 9, p. 16.

[31]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Member, Melbourne Chapter of the International Game Developers Association (IGDA Melbourne); Technical Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 14.

[32]      Ms Giselle Rosman, Chapter Leader, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 12.

[33]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 5.

[34]      Ms Kate Hynes, Chief Legal Officer, Halfbrick Studios, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 17.

[35]      Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 3.

[36]      Mr Adric Polkinghorne, Submission 24, p. 2.

[37]      Daniel Miller, 'Australian video game studios face obliteration', ABC News, www.abc.net.au/news/2011-10-17/australian-game-dev-studios-shutting-down/3575196 (accessed 2 November 2015).

[38]      A AAA game (or triple-A game), is generally a title developed by a large studio utilising large development and marketing budgets, and is expected to yield high sales.

[39]      Henry Belot, 'Game developer 2K Australia closes Canberra studio', Canberra Times,
16 April 2015, www.smh.com.au/digital-life/games/game-developer-2k-australia-closes-canberra-studio-20150416-1mmg3l.html (accessed 2 November 2015).

[40]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 7.

[41]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 7.

[42]      The QUT Digital Media Research Centre noted that in 2007, the Australian dollar bought US$0.75; however, in 2012 the Australian dollar bought US$1.02. See Submission 26, p. 3.

[43]      Sebastien Darchen, 'Next level thinking: a way forward for the Australian videogame industry', The Conversation, 10 February 2012, https://theconversation.com/next-level-thinking-a-way-forward-for-the-australian-videogame-industry-5280 (accessed 2 November 2015). See also QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 3; Daniel Miller 'Australian video game studios face obliteration', ABC News, 19 October 2011, www.abc.net.au/news/2011-10-17/australian-game-dev-studios-shutting-down/3575196/ (accessed 2 November 2015).

[44]      This evidence was quantified by Ms Giselle Rosman from IGDA Melbourne. Ms Rosman suggested that approximately 60 per cent of developers left the Australian industry either to pursue their career in another country, such as Canada, or to enter a different industry, such as finance. See Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 13.

[45]      Mr Ben Driehuis, Submission 19, p. 2. See also Name withheld, Submission 8, p. 1; IGEA, Submission 9, p. 16; QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 22.

[46]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016,
pp. 13–14. Ms Sabiene Heindl from SWH Legal and Business Consulting made a similar observation: see Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 7.

[47]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 16.

[48]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 2.

[49]      QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 34.

[50]      Dr Dan Golding, Submission 31, p. 17.

[51]      Dr Dan Golding, Submission 31, p. 18.

[52]      Dr Dan Golding, Submission 31, p. 18.

[53]      Mr Ben Driehuis, Submission 19, p. 2.

[54]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 10.

[55]      Mr Alexander Ocias, Submission 82, p. 2.

[56]      See Dr Dan Golding, Submission 31, p. 12.

[57]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 5.

[58]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 5.

[59]      Professor Stuart Cunningham, QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 5.

[60]      QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 45.

[61]      QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 42.

[62]      Mr Alexander Jeremy, Submission 17, p. 3.

[63]      Broken Chair Games, Submission 46, p. 4.

[64]      IGDA Sydney Chapter (SIGDA), Submission 34, p. 4.

[65]      ABS, Film, television and digital games 2011–12, cat. 8679.0, June 2013.

[66]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 11.

[67]      Dr Dan Golding, Submission 31, pp. 9–10.

[68]      QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 45.

[69]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 6.

[70]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 18.

[71]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 18.

[72]      Mr Benjamin Britten, IGDA Melbourne; Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 19.

[73]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 19.

[74]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 19.

[75]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 18.

[76]      This is widely recognised, including by the Australian Government. See, for example, the Australian Government's 2015 National Innovation and Science Agenda.

[77]      Dr Dan Golding, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 25.

Chapter 3 - Government support for the video game industry

[1]        Ms Fiona Cameron, Chief Operating Officer, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard,
18 March 2016, p. 10.

[2]        Mr Antony Reed, Chief Executive Officer, Game Developers' Association of Australia (GDAA), Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 2.

[3]        The Hon Simon Crean MP, 'Australian interactive games fund announced to support a global industry', Media Release, 15 November 2012; Australian Government, Budget 2014–15: Budget measures—Budget Paper No. 2, May 2014, p. 57; Screen Australia, 'News alert 2014: Screen Australia games programs discontinued', 14 May 2014, www.screenaustralia.gov.au/‌news_and_events/2014/ia_140514_games.aspx (accessed 29 September 2015).

[4]        Funds could be used 'to cover the cost of activities including prototyping, production, marketing and release of game titles, travel to industry events, porting titles to different platforms, commercialising middleware, expanding staff, internships, training or enhancing business skills, as well as infrastructure costs such as office set-up or equipment purchases that directly contribute to revenue-generating activities integral to the applicant's Games Enterprise proposal'. Screen Australia, Guidelines: Games programs, 9 December 2013 www.screenaustralia.gov.au/getmedia/943c1729-4701-4d5a-990d-4bb762e9ea0f/Glines_IMP_‌Games.pdf  (accessed 29 September 2015), p. 4.

[5]        Ms Fiona Cameron, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 10; Screen Australia, Guidelines: Games programs, p. 7.

[6]        Screen Australia, Guidelines: Games programs, pp. 4, 8.

[7]        Ms Fiona Cameron, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 10.

[8]        Screen Australia, Guidelines: Games programs, p. 3.

[9]        GDAA, Submission 55, p. 11. See also Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 1.

[10]      Mr Rennsion also provided information about how the program is administered; he explained that Tin Man Games is requreid to provide a report to Screen Australia every six months that 'is very detailed and shows all of our successes. It breaks down how much things have cost and how well we are doing and the publicity we gained'. Mr Neil Rennison, Founder and Creative Director, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 37.

[11]      For details on the experts who assisted Screen Australia, see Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 14.

[12]      Ms Fiona Cameron, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 10.

[13]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 1.

[14]      Interactive Games and Entertainment Association (IGEA), Submission 9, p. 13.

[15]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 12.

[16]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 1.

[17]      Mr Neil Rennison, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 39.

[18]      Mr Neil Rennison, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 36–37.

[19]      Mr Neil Rennison, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 36–37.

[20]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Member, Melbourne Chapter of the International Game Developers Association (IGDA Melbourne); Technical Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 13.

[21]      Ms Fiona Cameron, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, pp. 10–11.

[22]      Mr Morgan Jaffit, Creative Director, Defiant Development, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 21.

[23]      Mr Timothy Phillips, Senior Manager, Interactive and Multiplatform, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 13.

[24]      Ms Fiona Cameron, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 11.

[25]      The incentive has two components. For eligible entities with an aggregated turnover of less than $20 million (provided that they are not controlled by tax exempt entities), a 45 per cent refundable R&D tax offset is available. For all other eligible entities, a non‑refundable 40 per cent R&D tax offset is available. See Income Tax Assessment Act 1997, Division 355.

[26]      KPMG, Submission 105, p. 6.

[27]      KPMG, Submission 105, p. 6.

[28]      KPMG, Submission 105, pp. 15–16.

[29]      Australian Government, 'Tax incentive for early stage investors' www.innovation.gov.au/‌factsheets/tax-incentive-early-stage-investors (accessed 4 March 2016).

[30]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 8.

[31]      Australian Government, National Innovation and Science Agenda, 2015, http://innovation.gov.au/system/files/case-study/National%20Innovation%20and%20Science%
20Agenda%20-%20Report.pdf
(accessed 19 January 2016), p. 13.  

[32]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 4.

[33]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 6.

[34]      Industry participants indicated that support offered by other state government either did not existence or, in the case of New South Wales, was 'ad hoc'. See Mr Bruce Thomson, Business and Marketing Director, Nnooo, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 31 and
Mr Jon Hayward-Crichton, Festival Director, Perth Games Festival and Operations Manager, Let's Make Games; Mr Brendan Ragan, Treasurer, Let's Make Games, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 37.

[35]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 12. See also IGEA, Submission 9, p. 9.

[36]      See www.business.vic.gov.au/support-for-your-business/grants-and-assistance/international-technology.

[37]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 3.

[38]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Member, IGDA Melbourne; Technical Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 14.

[39]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 12.

[40]      Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 23.

[41]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 12.

[42]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 2.

[43]      QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 6.

[44]      Mr Benjamin Welsh and Mr Liam Harvey, Submission 77, p .2.

[45]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 2.

[46]      QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 6.

[47]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 3.

[48]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 3.

[49]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 3.

[50]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 12.

[51]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 4.

[52]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 12.

[53]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 4.

[54]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 12.

[55]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 4.

[56]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 12. See also QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 6. The effects associated with the introduction of incentives for video game development in Florida were outlined in detail in the IGEA submission: see Submission 9, pp. 26–28.

[57]      Mr Zachary Griffin, Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Black Delta, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 38.

[58]      5 Lives Studios, Submission 85, p. 4.

[59]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 11.

[60]      Mr Morgan Jaffit, Creative Director, Defiant Development, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 22.

[61]      Mr Leon Young, Chief Executive Officer, 2and2, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 30.

[62]      ODD Games, Submission 1, p. 2.

[63]      Black Lab Games, Submission 11, p. 4.

[64]      Mr Adric Polkinghorne, Submission 24, p. 2.

[65]      IGDA Gold Coast, Submission 59, p. 8.

[66]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 3.

[67]      Mr Geoffrey Hill, the chapter leader of the Sydney chapter of the International Game Developers Association, used the Canada-Australia Interactive Digital Media Initiative to demonstrate that game development is excluded from screen and media funding initiatives. Mr Hill observed that the Initiative 'sounds ideal—interactive digital media; that is what games are—except the terms explicitly state that the project must not be a game'.
See Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 28.

[68]      For example, see Mr Brendan Keogh, Submission 49, pp. 3–4.

[69]      Department of Communications and the Arts, Catalyst – Australian Arts and Culture Fund: Guidelines, November 2015, http://arts.gov.au/sites/default/files/funding/catalyst-guidelines-24Nov.pdf, p. 5.

[70]      The Government announced that it would 'significantly expand accelerated depreciation for small businesses by allowing small businesses with aggregate annual turnover of less than $2 million to immediately deduct assets they start to use or install ready for use, provided the asset costs less than $20,000'. This accelerated depreciation would only apply to assets that were acquired and installed ready for use between the Budget announcement on 12 May 2015 and 30 June 2017. Australian Government, Budget 2014–15: Budget Measures—Budget Paper No. 2, May 2015, p. 19.

[71]      Stirfire Studios, Submission 35, p. 2.

[72]      Nnooo, Submission 20, p. 2; QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Submission 26, p. 11.

[73]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, cover letter.

[74]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 1.

[75]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 3.

[76]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 2.

[77]      Mr Jack Kimberley, Submission 32, p. 2.

[78]      Ms Giselle Rosman, Chapter Leader, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 12.

[79]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 2.

[80]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 12.

[81]      Professor Stuart Cunningham, QUT Digital Media Research Centre, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 4.

[82]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Member, IGDA Melbourne; Technical Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 14.

[83]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 12.

[84]      Ms Giselle Rosman, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 12.

[85]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 14.

[86]      Mr Mark Goninon, Submission 44, p. 1.

[87]      Dr Dan Golding, Submission 31, pp. 4–5. The submission from QUT's Digital Media Research Centre also noted that international programs would need to adapted for Australian conditions. See Submission 26, p. 11.

[88]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 10.

[89]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 10.

[90]      Dr Dan Golding, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 23. A similar point was made by Associate Professor John Banks of QUT's Digital Media Research Centre. See Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 6.

Chapter 4 - Policy options for consideration

[1]        See Mr Nick Thiele, Submission 3, p. 2; IGEA, Submission 9, p. 3; Lumi Consulting, Submission 12, p. 1; Game Developers' Association of Australia (GDAA), Submission 55, p. 10; Secret Lab, Submission 61, p. 1; IGDA Melbourne, Submission 66, p. 2; Brisbane Chapter of the International Game Developers Association (BrIGDA), Submission 71, p. 6.

[2]        Interactive Games and Entertainment Association (IGEA), Submission 9, p. 13.

[3]        Black Lab Games, Submission 11, p. 2.

[4]        IGEA, Submission 9, p. 13.

[5]        Mr Neil Rennison, Founder and Creative Director, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 39.

[6]        Stirfire Studios, Submission 35, p. 4.

[7]        Ms Fiona Cameron, Chief Operating Officer, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 11.

[8]        Australian Taxation Office (ATO), 'The producer tax offset', www.ato.gov.au/Forms/Film-industry-incentives-2013-14/?page=3 (accessed 3 November 2015).

[9]        ATO, 'The producer tax offset'.

[10]      Ms Fiona Cameron, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 13.

[11]      Black Lab Games, Submission 11, p. 2. See also Nnooo, Submission 20, p. 2.

[12]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 13.

[13]      Mr Matthew Hancock, Manager, Strategy and Operations, Screen Producers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 20.

[14]      Screen Australia, Playing for Keeps: Enhancing sustainability in Australia's interactive entertainment industry, 2011.

[15]      Mighty Games Group, Submission 87, p. 6.

[16]      Ms Sabiene Heindl, Executive Director, SWH Legal and Business Consulting, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 3.

[17]      Ms Fiona Cameron, Screen Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 12.

[18]      Mr Matthew Hancock, Screen Producers Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 20.

[19]      This has been the subject of several inquiries, including the 2014 Financial System Inquiry, various inquiries by the Senate Economics References Committee (The post-GFC banking sector, 2012; competition within the Australian banking sector, 2010–11; and access of small business to finance, 2010); and the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services' 2011 inquiry into access for small and medium business to finance.

[20]      D Murray, K Davis, C Dunn, C Hewson and B McNamee, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. vii.

[21]      D Murray et al, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. 14.

[22]      Mr Antony Reed, Chief Executive Officer, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 8.

[23]      KPMG, Submission 105, p. 7.

[24]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 8.

[25]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 7.

[26]      Mr Antony Reed, GDAA, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 9.

[27]      D Murray et al, Financial System Inquiry: Final Report, November 2014, p. 16.

[28]      The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP (Prime Minister), 'Government response to the Financial System Inquiry', Media Release, 20 October 2015, www.pm.gov.au/media/2015-10-20/government-response-financial-system-inquiry (accessed 30 October 2015).

[29]      The Corporations Amendment (Crowd-sourced Funding) Bill 2015. Submissions to the Senate Economics Legislation Committee's inquiry on the bill, however, expressed concern that the bill was complex (see the submission to that inquiry from the Corporations Committee of the Law Council of Australia's Business Law Section) and would exclude over 99.7 per cent of companies (see the submission to that inquiry from Dr Marina Nehme). After being passed by the House of Representatives the bill was introduced into the Senate on 22 February 2016; however, the bill lapsed on 17 April 2016 following the prorogation of the Parliament.

[30]      5 Lives Studios, Submission 85, p. 1. See also Mr Michael Diskett, Director, 5 Lives Studios, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 34.

[31]      5 Lives Studios, Submission 85, p. 1. Another issue noted by 5 Lives Studios was the GST treatment of crowd-sourced funding. 5 Lives Studios explained that it needed to contact Kickstarter donors (of which there were 16,000) to determine whether they were located in Australia as Australian-based donations attract a GST liability whereas payments from overseas do not. See Mr Michael Diskett, 5 Lives Studios, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 34.

[32]      KPMG, Submission 105, pp. 15–16.

[33]      KPMG, Submission 105, pp. 15–16.

[34]      Mr Andrew Smith, Submission 86, pp. 1–2.

[35]      Screen Producers Australia, Submission 104, pp. 4–5.

[36]      Halfbrick Studios, Submission 57, p. 4.

[37]      See Halfbrick Studios, Submission 57, p. 4.

[38]      Name withheld, Submission 36, p. 5.

[39]      International Digital Games Research Association (Australian Chapter), Submission 58, p. 2.

[40]      See IGEA Submission 9, p. 17; Secret Lab, Submission 61, p. 1; Let's Make Games Inc, Submission 64, p. 2; Mr Gareth Pavlich, Submission 68, p. 2; Early Worm, Submission 74, p. 3; Kumobius, Submission 76, pp. 2, 5–6; 5 Lives Studios, Submission 85, p. 3; Mighty Games Group, Submission 87, pp. 5–6.

[41]      International Game Developers Association Gold Coast, Submission 59, p. 6.

[42]      Stirfire Studios, Submission 35, pp. 3–4.

[43]      Stirfire Studios, Submission 35, pp. 3–4.

[44]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Member, IGDA Melbourne; Technical Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 15.

[45]      Miss Lauren Clinnick, Marketing Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 39–40.

[46]      The key events identified were the Electronic Entertainment Expo, Tokyo Games Show, PAX conferences and the Game Developers Conference. Mighty Games Group, Submission 87, pp. 5–6.

[47]      Mr Leon Young, Chief Executive Officer, 2and2, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 30.

[48]      Mr Leon Young, 2and2, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 30.

[49]      Mr Leon Young, 2and2, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 30.

[50]      The committee visited The Arcade following its public hearing in Melbourne on 19 February 2016.

[51]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 16. The Sydney Chapter of the International Game Developers Association (SIGDA) advised that it 'has seen strong demand from Sydney-based developers for access to game development clusters, similar to The Arcade in Melbourne'. SIGDA, Submission 34, p. 11.

[52]      Miss Lauren Clinnick, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 42.

[53]      Mr Paul Stapelberg, Founder and Chief Operating Officer, Well Placed Cactus, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 43.

[54]      Mr Anthony Wood, Creative Director, Screwtape Studios, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[55]      Mr Rennsion added that The Arcade provides the artist with 'amazing' opportunities that might not be available if he had to travel between businesses at different locations. Mr Neil Rennison, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 43.

[56]      Miss Lauren Clinnick, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 42.

[57]      See Stirfire Studios, Submission 35, p. 4 and Screwtape Studios, Submission 63, p. 2.

[58]      Miss Lauren Clinnick, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 43.

[59]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 17.

[60]      IGEA, Submission 9, p. 14; GDAA, Submission 55, p. 17; and Halfbrick Studios, Submission 57, p. 8.

[61]      Screwtape Studios, Submission 63, p. 2.

[62]      Halfbrick Studios, Submission 57, p. 8.

[63]      Ms Kate Hynes, Chief Legal Officer, Halfbrick Studios, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 19.

[64]      Mr Jon Hayward-Crichton, Festival Director, Perth Games Festival; and Operations Manager, Let's Make Games, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 38.

[65]      As an example, IGEA referred to the Innovation Campus at the University of Wollongong. IGEA, Submission 9, p. 14. See also GDAA, Submission 55, p. 17.

[66]      Halfbrick Studios, Submission 57, p. 8.

[67]      Mr Ron Curry, Chief Executive Officer, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 4.

[68]      Black Delta, Submission 106, p. 3.

[69]      Mr Tigran Aganesov, Chief Operations Officer, Black Delta, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 37–38.

[70]      Mr Tigran Aganesov, Black Delta, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 37–38.

[71]      Miss Lauren Clinnick, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 38.

[72]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Member, IGDA Melbourne; Technical Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 16.

[73]      Mr Benjamin Britten; Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 16.

[74]      Mr Paul Stapelberg, Well Placed Cactus, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 40–41.

[75]      Mr Paul Stapelberg, Well Placed Cactus, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 40–41.

[76]      Mr Simon Lydiard, Submission 10, p. 6. Mr Lydiard also expressed a preference for
fibre-to-the-premises NBN over fibre-to-the-node NBN.

[77]      Ms Giselle Rosman, IGDA Melbourne, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 16.

[78]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Member, IGDA Melbourne; Technical Director, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 16.

[79]      Mr Benjamin Britten, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 16.

[80]      Mighty Kingdom, Submission 30, p. 2.

[81]      Miss Lauren Clinnick, Mighty Games Group, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 40.

[82]      Mr Neil Rennison, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 40.

[83]      Mr Zachary Griffin, Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Black Delta, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 40.

[84]      Mr Neil Rennison, Tin Man Games, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 40.

[85]      Mr Ben Driehuis, Submission 19, p. 2.

[86]      Mr Ron Curry, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 2.

[87]      Mr Ron Curry, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 3.

[88]      See Mr Joel Dignam, Submission 6, p. 1; Mr Daniel Pickering, Submission 7, p. 1; Mr Alexander Jeremy, Submission 17, pp. 1–2; Name withheld, Submission 36, p. 5.

[89]      Mr Joshua Sanderson, Submission 60, p. 4.

[90]      Mr Ron Curry, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 7.

[91]      Mr Ron Curry, IGEA, Committee Hansard, 18 March 2016, p. 8.

[92]      Dr Dan Golding, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 27.

[93]      Dr Dan Golding, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 27.

[94]      Dr Dan Golding, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 28.

[95]      The ALRC considered Australia's classification regime in a 2012 report. The ALRC recommended that a new National Classification Scheme should be developed that is based on new legislation that incorporates all classification obligations applying to media content. ALRC, Classification—Content Regulation and Convergent Media, Report 118, March 2012.

[96]      The Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Amendment (Classification Tools and Other Measures) Act 2014.

[97]      The Hon Michael Keenan MP (Minister for Justice), 'New trial for classification of online games', Media Release, 10 March 2015.

[98]      GDAA, Submission 55, p. 19.

[99]      Ms Laura Crawford, Lecturer, Games and Interactivity, Swinburne University of Technology, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 28.

[100]    Associate Professor James Verdon, the Department Chair of Film and Animation at Swinburne, observed that paid internships exist in 'the film industry and, to a lesser extent, within the television industry'. He suggested that a program for the video game industry could be based on the schemes supported by Film Victoria and Screen Australia. Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 30.

[101]    Ms Laura Crawford, Swinburne University of Technology, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 28.

[102]    See Ms Laura Crawford, Swinburne University of Technology, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, p. 33.

[103]    Mr Alexander Jeremy, Submission 17, p. 3.

[104]    IGDA Gold Coast, Submission 59, pp. 4–5.

[105]    IGDA Gold Coast, Submission 59, pp. 4–5.

[106]    Ms Laura Crawford, Swinburne University of Technology, Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 34–35.

[107]    IGEA, Submission 9, p. 15. This statement was also included in the GDAA's submission: see Submission 55, p. 17.

[108]    BrIGDA, Submission 71, p. 6.

[109]    Professor Jeffrey Brand, Submission 92, p. 2.

[110]    Professor Jeffrey Brand, Submission 92, p. 4.

[111]    Professor Jeffrey Brand, Submission 92, p. 4. How the video game industry could potentially assist workers in industries that are undergoing significant change, such as the automotive industry, was noted by Mr Reed from the GDAA. For example, Mr Reed observed that automotive designers and engineers could be retrained in the game development industry to help develop 'the best industry for making car-racing simulators'. See Committee Hansard, 19 February 2016, pp. 5–6.

[112]    Professor Jeffrey Brand, Submission 92, pp. 5–6.

[113]    Professor Jeffrey Brand, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 13.

Chapter 5 - Committee view and recommendations

[1]        Akamai, The State of the Internet, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Quarter 3, 2015), p. 22; and Vol. 8, No. 4 (Quarter 4, 2015), p. 30.

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