Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 2013–16, No. 149, (18 April 2016), p. 4095.

[2]        See Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, Operation of the South Australian and Northern Territory container deposit schemes, November 2012; Senate Environment, Communications and the Arts Legislation Committee, Environment Protection (Beverage Container Deposit and Recovery Scheme) Bill 2009, September 2009; and Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Communications and the Arts, Management of Australia's waste streams (including consideration of the Container Recycling Bill 2008), September 2008.

[3]        Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, Stormwater management in Australia, December 2015.

Chapter 2 - Overview of marine plastic pollution

[1]        United Nations Environment Programme, Marine Litter – an analytical overview, 2005, http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/marinelitter/publications/docs/anl_oview.pdf, (accessed 22 February 2016), p. 3.

[2]        Dr Eric Woehler, Convenor, Birdlife Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 35.

[3]        Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 6.

[4]        Today's economic model is generally seen as linear: 'take, make, dispose' and relies on large quantities of cheap, easily accessible materials and energy. The circular economy focuses on preservation and enhancement of natural capital, optimisation of resource yields and fostering of system effectiveness. http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/overview/characteristics

[5]        World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 6.

[6]        Vegter AC, Barletta M, Beck C, Borrero J, Burton H, Campbell M, Costa F, Ericksen M, Ericksson C, Estrades A, Gilardi KVK, Hardesty BD, Ivar do Sul JA, Lavers JL, Lazar B, Lebreton L, Nicols WJ, Ribic CA, Ryan PG, Schuyler QA, Smith SDA, Takada H, Townsend KA, Wabnitz CCC, Wilcox C, Young LC, Hamann M, 'Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife', Endangered Species Research, 2014, 25: 225–247, http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr_oa/n025p225.pdf.

[7]        World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 7.

[8]        National Toxic Networks, Submission 4, discusses toxicity associated with plastics.

[9]        World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 6.

[10]      World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 7 and p. 10.

[11]      Statista, Distribution of global plastics materials production in 2014, by region http://www.statista.com/statistics/281126/global-plastics-production-share-of-various-countries-and-regions/ ; World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_N Plastics ew_ _Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 22; see also paragraph 2.7.

[12]      World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_N Plastics ew_ _Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 10.

[13]      Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, p. 1.

[14]      Associate Professor Mark Osborn, Submission 16, p. 2.

[15]      Reisser J, Shaw J, Wilcox C, Hardesty BD, Proietti M, et al., 'Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways', 2013, PLOS ONE, PLOS ONE 8(11), http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080466&representation=PDF (accessed 9 November 2015), p. 1.

[16]      Reisser J, et al., 'Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways', 2013, PLOS ONE, p. 1, PLOS ONE 8(11), http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080466&representation=PDF (accessed 9 November 2015).

[17]      Surfrider Foundation Australia, Submission 14, p. 3.

[18]      Jambeck, J. A, Andrady, R, Geyer, R, Marayan, M, Perryman, T, Siegler, C,  Wilcox C, 'Plastic waste input to the oceans from land', 13 February 2015, Science, Volume 347 Issue 6223, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/768 (accessed 22 February 2016), p. 1.

[19]      Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 2.

[20]      United Nations Environment Programme, Marine Litter An analytic overview, 2005, http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/marinelitter/publications/docs/anl_oview.pdf, p. ii.

[21]      Associate Professor Mark Osborn, Submission 16, p. 1.

[22]      Jambeck, J. A, et al, 'Plastic waste input to the oceans from land', 13 February 2015, Science, Volume 347 Issue 6223, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/768 (accessed 22 February 2016), p. 1.

[23]      World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_N Plastics ew_ _Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 7.

[24]      World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_N Plastics ew_ _Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 14.

[25]      Jambeck, J. A, et al., 'Plastic waste input to the oceans from land', 13 February 2015, Science, Volume 347 Issue 6223, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/768 (accessed 22 February 2016), p. 770.

[26]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 8.

[27]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 2.

[28]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 2.

[29]      Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Background Paper for the Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, p. 2.

[30]      Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Background Paper for the Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, p. 2; see also Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 3.

[31]      Reisser J, et al., 'Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways', 2013, PLOS ONE, PLOS ONE 8(11), http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080466&representation=PDF (accessed 9 November 2015), pp. 1–2.

[32]      Reisser J, et al., 'Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways', 2013, PLOS ONE, PLOS ONE 8(11), http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080466&representation=PDF (accessed 9 November 2015), p. 1.

[33]      Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 3.

[34]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 3.

[35]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, pp. 28, 32.

[36]      Waste Management Association Australia, Tasmanian Branch, Submission 13, p. 1.

[37]      Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 15.

[38]      Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science,, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 15.

[39]      Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science,, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 18.

[40]      Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Submission 60, p. 4.

[41]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 22.

[42]      Senator Peter Whish-Wilson, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 22.

[43]      Associate Professor Mark Osborn, Submission 16, p. 3.

[44]      Vegter, AC, et al., 'Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife', Endangered Species Research, 25: 225–247, 2014 http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr_oa/n025p225.pdf, p. 233.

[45]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Submission 68, p. 1.

[46]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Submission 68, p. 2.

[47]      Hardesty BD and Wilcox C, 'Ghostnets fish on: marine rubbish threatens northern Australian turtles', 31 January 2013, The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/ghostnets-fish-on-marine-rubbish-threatens-northern-australian-turtles-11585, (accessed 24 February 2016).

[48]      Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 3.

[49]      Hardesty BD and Wilcox C, 'Ghostnets fish on: marine rubbish threatens northern Australian turtles', 31 January 2013, The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/ghostnets-fish-on-marine-rubbish-threatens-northern-australian-turtles-11585, (accessed 24 February 2016).

[50]      Mr Brad Warren, OceanWatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 61.

[51]      Mr Brad Warren, OceanWatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 63.

[52]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 5.

[53]      Jambeck, J. A, et al., 'Plastic waste input to the oceans from land', 13 February 2015, Science, Volume 347 Issue 6223, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/768 (accessed 22 February 2016), p. 768.

[54]      Jambeck, J. A, et al., 'Plastic waste input to the oceans from land', 13 February 2015, Science, Volume 347 Issue 6223, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/768 (accessed 22 February 2016), p. 770.

[55]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 1.

[56]      Hardesty, B D, and Wilcox, C. Understanding the types, sources and at-sea distribution of marine debris in Australian waters, 2011, CSIRO, http://secure.environment.gov.au/coasts/pollution/marine-debris/publications/pubs/marine-debris-sources.pdf, (accessed 9 November 2015), p. 20.

[57]      Hardesty, B D, and Wilcox, C. Understanding the types, sources and at-sea distribution of marine debris in Australian waters, 2011, CSIRO, http://secure.environment.gov.au/coasts/pollution/marine-debris/publications/pubs/marine-debris-sources.pdf, (accessed 9 November 2015), p. 20.

[58]      Hardesty, B D, and Wilcox, C. Understanding the types, sources and at-sea distribution of marine debris in Australian waters, 2011, CSIRO, http://secure.environment.gov.au/coasts/pollution/marine-debris/publications/pubs/marine-debris-sources.pdf, (accessed 9 November 2015), p. 20.

[59]      CSIRO, Submission 7, p. 4.

[60]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 16.

[61]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 5.

[62]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 5; see also, Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p.11.

[63]      Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Submission 60, p. 3.

[64]      Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Board, Submission 20, p. 6.

[65]      Parks Victoria, Submission 79, p. 8.

[66]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 5.

[67]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 1.

[68]      Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland, Submission 5, p.

[69]      Liverpool City Council, Submission 61, p. 3.

[70]      Georges River Combined Councils' Committee, Submission 17, p. 1.

[71]      Jambeck, J. A, et al., 'Plastic waste input to the oceans from land', 13 February 2015, Science, Volume 347 Issue 6223, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6223/768 (accessed 22 February 2016), p. 768.

[72]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 4.

[73]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 10–11.

[74]      World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 22.

[75]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 21.

[76]      Hardesty, B D, and Wilcox, C. Understanding the types, sources and at-sea distribution of marine debris in Australian waters, 2011, CSIRO, http://secure.environment.gov.au/coasts/pollution/marine-debris/publications/pubs/marine-debris-sources.pdf, (accessed 9 November 2015), p. 20; see also paragraph 2.44.

[77]      CSIRO, Submission 7, p. 4.

[78]      Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 2.

[79]      OceanWatch Australia, Submission 75, p. 3.

[80]      OceanWatch Australia, Submission 75, p. 3.

[81]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 4.

[82]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 10.

[83]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 2.

[84]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 3.

[85]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 6.

[86]      This is discussed further in Chapter 3.

[87]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 2.

[88]      Section 146E of the Protection of the Environment Act 1999 (NSW)

[89]      Sunshine Coast Council, Fact Sheet – Helium Balloons, cms.sunshinecoast.qld.gov.au/addfiles/documents/laws_regulations/scc_local_laws_2011/fs_helium_balloons.pdf, (accessed 18 March 2016).

[90]      Ms Karyn Jones, Submission 117, p. 1.

[91]      Capricorn Conservation Council, Submission 32, p. 1.

[92]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 2.

[93]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 3.

[94]      Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 2.

[95]      Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, pp. 1–2.

[96]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 8.

[97]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 8.

[98]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 10.

[99]      Norwegian Environment Agency, Sources of microplastic-pollution to the marine environment, 4 December 2014, http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/Documents/publikasjoner/M321/M321.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 12.

[100]    Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 8.

[101]    Sydney Coastal Councils Group Inc., Submission 8, p. 3.

[102]    Norwegian Environment Agency, Sources of microplastic-pollution to the marine environment, 4 December 2014, http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/Documents/publikasjoner/M321/M321.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), pp. 13–14.

[103]    Norwegian Environment Agency, Sources of microplastic-pollution to the marine environment, 4 December 2014, http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/Documents/publikasjoner/M321/M321.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 40.

[104]    Boomerang Alliance, Submission 6, p. 9. The Boomerang Alliance acknowledged that to date there are no Australian studies conducted into sources such as tyre dust, and this figure represents an estimate.

[105]    Norwegian Environment Agency, Sources of microplastic-pollution to the marine environment, 4 December 2014, http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/Documents/publikasjoner/M321/M321.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 40.

[106]    Mr Dave West, Boomerang Alliance, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 53.

[107]    Surfrider Foundation Australia, Submission 14, p. 5.

[108]    Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 8.

[109]    Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, pp. 8–9.

[110]    Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 8.

[111]    Birdlife Australia, Submission 76, p. 6.

[112]    Ms Terri-Anne Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[113]    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 3.

[114]    Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 7.

[115]    Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 1.

[116]    Department of the Environment, Answer to questions on notice No. 5, 26 February 2016.

[117]    World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 13.

[118]    World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 14.

[119]    World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 10.

[120]    World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 10.

[121]    Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 5.

[122]    Georges River Combined Councils' Committee, Submission 17, p. 4.

[123]    Associate Professor Mark Osborn, Submission 16, p. 2.

[124]    United Nations Environment Programme and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, The Honolulu Strategy, p. 2, http://marinedebris.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/publications-files/Honolulu_Strategy.pdf, (accessed 22 March 2016).

[125]    The Fifth International Marine Debris Conference, The Honolulu Commitment , http://www.unep.org/pdf/PressReleases/Honolulu_Commitment-FINAL.pdf, (accessed 22 March 2016), p. 2.

[126]    Global Partnership on Marine Litter, Factsheet, http://unep.org/gpa/documents/gpml/GPMLFactsheet.pdf

[127]    United Nations Environment Programme, http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/marinelitter/about/mandate/default.asp

[128]    Global Partnership on Marine Litter, Marine Litter – The Issue, http://unep.org/gpa/gpml/issue.asp

Chapter 3 - The effects of marine plastic pollution

[1]        Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 2.

[2]        Dr Kathy Townsend and Dr Qamar Schuyler, Submission 141, p. 1; see also Humane Society International, Submission 22, p. 2.

[3]        Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 1.

[4]        Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 3.

[5]        Dr Kathy Townsend and Dr Qamar Schuyler, Submission 141, p. 1.

[6]        Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 3.

[7]        Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 10.

[8]        Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, p. 3.

[9]        Humane Society International, Submission 22, p. 2.

[10]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 9.

[11]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 1; see also CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 24.

[12]      CSIRO, Submission 7, p. 5.

[13]      'Lost years stage' turtles are younger turtles which float on the open ocean feeding on the first one to two metres of the surface. 'Benthic stage' turtles are slightly older juveniles which live in the benthic zones, feeding primarily from the ocean floor. See Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 6.

[14]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 10.

[15]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 24.

[16]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 1.

[17]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 10. See also Ms Kathrina Southwell, Australian Seabird Rescue, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 23.

[18]      Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland, Submission 5, p. 3.

[19]      Coolum and North Shore Coast Care, Submission 56, p. 3.

[20]      Coolum and North Shore Coast Care, Submission 56, p. 4.

[21]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Submission 29, p. 1.

[22]      Australian Seabird Rescue Inc., Submission 80, p. 2.

[23]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 24.

[24]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 5.

[25]      See for example CSIRO, Submission 7, Mr Ian Hutton, Submission 69, Dr Kathy Townsend and Dr Qamar Schuyler, Submission 141, Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 80.

[26]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 1.

[27]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 10.

[28]      Dr Heidi Auman, Submission 190, p. 1.

[29]      Mr Ian Hutton, Submission 69, p. 1.

[30]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 11.

[31]      CSIRO, Submission 7, p. 5.

[32]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 11.

[33]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 11.

[34]      Mr Ian Hutton, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 21.

[35]      Mr Ian Hutton, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 22.

[36]      Mr Ian Hutton, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 13.

[37]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 18.

[38]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 19.

[39]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 18.

[40]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 10.

[41]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 19.

[42]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 20.

[43]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 11.

[44]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 10; see also ANSTO, Submission 191.

[45]      Birdlife Australia, Submission 76, pp. 8–11.

[46]      Birdlife Australia, Submission 76, p. 13.

[47]      Dr Eric Woehler, Convenor, Birdlife Tasmania, 26 February 2016, p. 33.

[48]      Birdlife Australia, Submission 76, p. 13.

[49]      Boomerang Alliance, Submission 77, p. 25.

[50]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 22–23.

[51]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 8.

[52]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 10. See also http://www.coralcoe.org.au/news/great-barrier-reef-corals-eat-plastic.

[53]      James Cook University, 'Great Barrier Reef corals eat plastic', Media release, 2015, https://www.jcu.edu.au/news/releases/news-archive2/news-and-media1111111111111111115

[54]      Birdlife Australia, Submission 76, p. 11.

[55]      Birdlife Australia, Submission 76, p. 12.

[56]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 1.

[57]      Vegter, AC, et al., 'Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife', Endangered Species Research, 25: 225–247, 2014 http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr_oa/n025p225.pdf

[58]      Australian Institute for Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 3;

[59]      Eco Barge Clean Seas Inc. Submission 13, p. 3.

[60]      See for example, Eco Barge Clean Seas Inc., Submission 13, Mr Mick Morley, Submission 164, Wild Bird Rescues Gold Coast, Submission 110.

[61]      Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 80, p. 4.

[62]      Ms Kathrina Southwell, Australian Seabird Rescue, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 25.

[63]      Ms Kathrina Southwell, Australian Seabird Rescue, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 24.

[64]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3,' Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 14.

[65]      Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2015, p. 15.

[66]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 11.

[67]      Vegter, AC, et al., 'Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife', Endangered Species Research, 25: 225–247, 2014 http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr_oa/n025p225.pdf

[68]      Surfrider Foundation Australia, Submission 14, p. 4; OceanWatch Australia, Submission 75, p. 4.

[69]      National Toxics Network, Submission 4, p. 1.

[70]      Persistent organic pollutants are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation, and are known to bioaccumulate. Most persistent organic pollutants are currently or were in the past used as pesticides, solvents, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. For more information see https://www.environment.gov.au/protection/chemicals-management/pops.

[71]      National Toxics Network, Submission 4, p. 2.

[72]      National Toxics Network, Submission 4, p. 2.

[73]      Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, p. 2.

[74]      National Toxics Network, Submission 4, p. 3.

[75]      Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. It occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost.

[76]      Rochman C.M, Hoh E, Kurobe T, Swee J, 'Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress', 2013, Scientific Reports, 3:3263. See National Toxics Network, Submission 4, p. 3.

[77]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 9

[78]      Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, p. 2.

[79]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 6.

[80]      Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, p. 2. See also Professor Mark Osborne, Submission 16, p. 3; Humane Society International, Submission 22, p. 2.

[81]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 17.

[82]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 18.

[83]      Parks Victoria, Submission 79,

[84]      Dr Eric Woehler, Birdlife Tasmania, 26 February 2016, p. 34.

[85]      Dr Eric Woehler, Birdlife Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 33.

[86]      Dr Eric Woehler, Birdlife Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 33.

[87]      Birdlife Australia, Submission 76, p. 14.

[88]      Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 15.

[89]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 7.

[90]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 12.

[91]      See Bouwmeester H, Hollman PCH, Peters RJB, 'Potential Health Impact of Environmentally Released Micro- and Nanoplastics in the Human Food Production Chain: Experiences from Nanotoxicology', Environmental science and technology, 49(15), 2015, pp. 8932–9847.

[92]      See Van Cauwenberghe L and Janssen CR, 'Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption', Environmental Pollution, 193, 2014, pp. 65–70.

[93]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 6.

[94]      Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, p. 3.

[95]      See Hussain N, Jaitley V, and Florence AT, 'Recent advances in the understanding of uptake of microparticulates across the gastrointestinal lymphatics', Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 50, 2001, pp. 107–142 in Van Cauwenberghe L and Janssen CR, 'Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption', Environmental Pollution, 193, 2014, pp. 65-70.

[96]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 11.

[97]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 6.

[98]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 4.

[99]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 3; see also Dr Mariann Lloyd-Smith, National Toxics Network, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 10.

[100]    See Talsness CE, Andrade AJ, Kuriyama SN, Taylor JA, and vom Saal FS, 'Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 364(1526), 2009, pp. 2079-2096; Eds. Bergman A, Heindel JJ, Jobling S, Kidd KA and Zoeller RT, State of the science of endocrine disrupting chemicals 2012, United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization, 2013.

[101]    Dr Mariann Lloyd-Smith, National Toxics Network, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 13.

[102]    See Talsness CE, Andrade AJ, Kuriyama SN, Taylor JA, and vom Saal FS, 'Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 364(1526), 2009, pp. 2079-2096.

[103]    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 4.

[104]    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 4.

[105]    Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, pp. 2–3.

[106]    Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 3.

[107]    Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 3.

[108]    Dr Mark Browne, and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, pp. 2–3.

[109]    Vegter, AC, et al, 'Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife', Endangered Species Research, 25: 225–247, 2014 http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr_oa/n025p225.pdf

[110]    Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 3. See also, Mr Toby Stone, Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 26.

[111]    Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 3.

[112]    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Submission 11, p. 4.

[113]    Cited in Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland, Submission 5, p. 3.

[114]    Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 15.

[115]    Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 18.

[116]    Dr Mark Browne and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, pp 4–5.

[117]    Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 16.

Chapter 4 - Role of the Australian Government in addressing marine plastic pollution

[1]        Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 2.

[2]        Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 2.

[3]        Section 270A(2). See also Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 2.

[4]        Department of the Environment, Waters, Heritage and the Arts, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, p. 2.

[5]        Department of the Environment, Waters, Heritage and the Arts, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, pp. 3–8.

[6]        Department of the Environment, Waters, Heritage and the Arts, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, p. 2.

[7]        Department of the Environment, Waters, Heritage and the Arts, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, Appendix A.

[8]        Department of the Environment, Submission 18, pp. 2–3.

[9]        Department of the Environment, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 4.

[10]      Department of the Environment, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 32; see also Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 11; Mr Paul Murphy, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 13.

[11]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 11.

[12]      Department of the Environment, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 32.

[13]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 2.

[14]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 11.

[15]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 12.

[16]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 11.

[17]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 15.

[18]      EDOs of Australia, Submission 74, p. 7.

[19]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 67.

[20]      Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 25–26.

[21]      Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 28.

[22]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 18.

[23]      Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board, Submission 20, p. 7.

[24]      Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 27.

[25]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 67.

[26]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 56.

[27]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[28]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 17.

[29]      Mr Dave West, Boomerang Alliance, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 56.

[30]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 56.

[31]      Ms Kathrina Southwell, Australian Seabird Rescue, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 25.

[32]      Dr Frederieke Kroon, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 20.

[33]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 5.

[34]      Department of the Environment, Answer to question on notice No. 1, 26 February 2016 (received 4 April 2016).

[35]      Department of the Environment, Waters, Heritage and the Arts, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, p. 1.

[36]      Mr Paul Murphy, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 17.

[37]      Department of the Environment, Waters, Heritage and the Arts, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, p. 7.

[38]      Department of the Environment, Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 27.

[39]      Department of the Environment, Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 22.

[40]      Mr Paul Murphy, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 17.

[41]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 7.

[42]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 3; see also p. 23.

[43]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 8.

[44]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 8.

[45]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 10.

[46]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 19.

[47]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 19.

[48]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 4.

[49]      Mr Ian Hutton, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 4.

[50]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 4.

[51]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 4.

[52]      Department of the Environment, Australia's Marine Environment To Benefit from Plastic Waste Research, 29 February 2016, http://www.greghunt.com.au/Home/LatestNews/tabid/133/ID/3670/Australias-marine-environment-to-benefit-from-plastic-waste-research.aspx, (accessed 11 March 2016).

[53]      Dr Jennifer Lavers,  Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 16.

[54]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[55]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 31.

[56]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 30.

[57]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, pp. 29–30.

[58]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 32.

[59]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 31.

[60]      Mr Matt Johnston, Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 25.

[61]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Submission 68, p. 4.

[62]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 9.

[63]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 10.

[64]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 18.

[65]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 5.

[66]      Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board, Submission 20, p. 5.

[67]      Ms Kathrina Southwell, Australian Seabird Rescue, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 23.

[68]      Ms Leah Page, Submission 51, p. 3.

[69]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 31.

[70]      Ms Leah Page, Submission 51, pp. 3–4.

[71]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 10.

[72]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 31.

[73]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 12.

[74]      National Environment Protection Council, http://www.nepc.gov.au/, (accessed 7 March 2016).

[75]      Department of the Environment, http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/national-waste-policy/packaging-covenant, (accessed 7 March 2016)

[76]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 5.

[77]      Australian Packaging Covenant (2011), http://www.packagingcovenant.org.au/data/Resources/Aust_Packaging_Covenant_amended_10_October_2011.pdf, (accessed 30 November 2015).

[78]      Department of the Environment http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/national-waste-policy/packaging-covenant

[79]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 6.

[80]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 19.

[81]      Ms Rachel Walmsley, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 69.

[82]      Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 26. See also Chapter 5.

[83]      Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 28.

[84]      Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Submission 8, p. 7.

[85]      Port Phillip EcoCentre, Submission 81, p. 4.

[86]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 69.

[87]      Ms Rachel Walmsley, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 69.

[88]      Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 26.

[89]      Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 26.

[90]      See http://www.environment.gov.au/legislation/environment-protection-and-biodiversity-conservation-act/epbc-review-2008

[91]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 69.

[92]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 69.

[93]      National Environment Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 10 March 2016, p. 1.

[94]      National Environment Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 10 March 2016, p. 1.

[95]      National Environment Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 10 March 2016, p. 2.

[96]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 16.

[97]      Mr Andrew McNee, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 17.

[98]      Ms Ellen Geraghty, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 29.

[99]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 17.

[100]    Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Submission 8, pp. 7–8.

[101]    Department of the Environment, Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 19.

[102]    Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Submission 68, pp. 5–6.

Chapter 5 - Strategies for the removal of marine plastic pollution

[1]        Department of the Environment, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life, May 2009, p. 6.

[2]        Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 4.

[3]        Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 4.

[4]        Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 5.

[5]        Minister for the Environment, the Hon Greg Hunt MP, 2 March 2016, http://www.greghunt.com.au/Home/LatestNews/tabid/133/ID/3676/Tackling-waste-and-litter-to-keep-Australia-clean.aspx (accessed 8 March 2016).

[6]        Clean Up Australia Inc. Submission 9, p. 2.

[7]        Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[8]        Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[9]        Eco Barge Clean Seas Inc., Submission 13, p. 1.

[10]      For example Dr Fiona Whitelaw, Submission 62, p. 1; Ms Cheryl Cooper, Submission 82, p. 1; Mr Scott Bell-Ellercamp, Submission 84, p. 1.

[11]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 38

[12]      Eco Barge Clean Seas Inc., Submission 13, p. 1.

[13]      Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Submission 34, p. 3.

[14]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 58.

[15]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[16]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 38­–39.

[17]      Mr Dave West, Environmental Economist advising Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 38.

[18]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[19]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 50.

[20]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 18.

[21]      For more information see The Ocean Cleanup Project, http://www.theoceancleanup.com/.

[22]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 5.

[23]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 5.

[24]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[25]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 28.

[26]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 2.

[27]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 38.

[28]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Surfrider Foundation, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 60.

[29]      Yoshida S., Hiraga K., Takehana T., Taniguchi I., Yamaji H., Maeda Y., Toyohara K., Miyamoto K., Kimura Y., Oda K., 'A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)', Science, Vol 351 Issue 6278, 11 March 2016,  pp. 1196–1199.

[30]      Karl Mathiesen, 'Could a new plastic-eating bacteria help combat this pollution scourge?', The Guardian, 11 March 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/10/could-a-new-plastic-eating-bacteria-help-combat-this-pollution-scourge, (accessed 18 April 2016).

[31]      Karl Mathiesen, 'Could a new plastic-eating bacteria help combat this pollution scourge?', The Guardian, 11 March 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/10/could-a-new-plastic-eating-bacteria-help-combat-this-pollution-scourge, (accessed 18 April 2016).

[32]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 4.

[33]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Pollution from Fishing Vessels, https://www.amsa.gov.au/environment/legislation-and-prevention/pollution-fishing-vessels/index.asp#pollution, (accessed 8 March 2016).

[34]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 12.

[35]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 14.

[36]      Department of the Environment, Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life – Review 2009–2014, p. 11.

[37]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 27.

[38]      Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, The Australian Fishing Zone, http://www.agriculture.gov.au/fisheries/domestic/zone, (accessed 8 March 2016).

[39]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 29.

[40]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 27.

[41]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 27.

[42]      Mr Toby Stone, Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 26.

[43]      Mr Toby Stone, Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 14.

[44]      Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Submission 33, p. 2.

[45]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 28.

[46]      Department of the Environment, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009-2014, p. 2.

[47]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 14.

[48]      Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Indigenous Rangers – Working on Country, http://www.dpmc.gov.au/indigenous-affairs/about/jobs-land-and-economy-programme/indigenous-environment-branch/indigenous-rangers-working-country, (accessed 8 March 2016).

[49]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 29.

[50]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 29 and p.31.

[51]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 9. See also CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 14.

[52]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 14.

[53]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 4.

[54]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 12.

[55]      Ms Kerry Smith, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 28.

[56]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 4.

[57]      Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 4.

[58]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 12.

[59]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 4.

[60]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, p. 8.

[61]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 22.

[62]      Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 4.

[63]      Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 4.

[64]      Northern Territory Seafood Council, Submission 63, p. 4.

[65]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 17.

[66]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 5

[67]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 7.

[68]      Department of the Environment, Submission 18, p. 5

[69]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 18.

Chapter 6 - Source reduction – consumer behaviour and infrastructure

[1]        CSIRO, Submission 7, p. 11.

[2]        Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 23.

[3]        CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 11; see also  CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 3, 'Input to Department of Environment Threat Abatement Plan', p. 11.

[4]        Descriptive norms are typical patterns of behaviour, which are generally accompanied by the expectation that people will behave accordingly. These norms are generally informal and emerge through social interaction rather than being enforced by the criminal justice system or other formal authority.

[5]        Sydney Coastal Council Groups Inc., Submission 8, p. 6.

[6]        Mr Ian Kiernan, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 38.

[7]        Ms Rowan Hanley, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 62.

[8]        CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', pp. 10–11.

[9]        Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, answers to questions on notice, 10 March 2016, (received 24 March 2016), p. 2.

[10]      Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, answers to questions on notice, 10 March 2016, (received 24 March 2016), p. 2.

[11]      Dr Madhu Pudasaini, Liverpool City Council, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 42.

[12]      Sydney Coastal Council Groups Inc., Submission 8, p. 7.

[13]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 14

[14]      Mr Brad Warren, OceanWatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 61; see also OceanWatch Australia, Submission 75, p. 7.

[15]      Mr Brad Warren, OceanWatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February, p. 61.

[16]      Mr Brad Warren, OceanWatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February, p. 63.

[17]      Mr Brad Warren, Oceanwatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 63.

[18]      Mr Brad Warren, Oceanwatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 58.

[19]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 33.

[20]      Australian Seabird Rescue, Submission 80, p. 5.

[21]      Ms Susie Crick, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 62.

[22]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 33.

[23]      Mr Brad Warren, OceanWatch Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 58.

[24]      This is further discussed in Chapter 2.

[25]      Mr Ian Kiernan, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 32.

[26]      Associate Professor Mark Osborn, Submission 16, p. 2.

[27]      SPEL Environmental Integrated Water Solutions, Submission 138, p. 4.

[28]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 62.

[29]      Dr Madhu Pudasaini, Liverpool City Council, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 41.

[30]      Dr Madhu Pudasaini, Liverpool City Council, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 41.

[31]      Dr Madhu Pudasaini, Liverpool City Council, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 42

[32]      Professor Tony Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 12

[33]      SPEL Environmental Integrated Water Solutions, Submission 138, p. 5.

[34]      SPEL Environmental Integrated Water Solutions, Submission 138, p. 7.

[35]      SPEL Environmental Integrated Water Solutions, Submission 138, p. 6.

[36]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, pp. 6–7.

[37]      SPEL Environmental Integrated Water Solutions, Submission 138, p. 6. See also Take 3, Submission 72, p. 4.

[38]      Stormwater Australia, Submission 67, p. 2.

[39]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 29.

[40]      Department of the Environment, Threat Abatement Plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 46.

[41]      See Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, Stormwater Management in Australia, December 2015.

[42]      Ms Erin Rhoads, Submission 162, p. 1.

[43]      Mr Robert McAlpine, Submission 122, p.1.

[44]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 6.

[45]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 6.

[46]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 6.

[47]      Mr Dave West, environmental economist advising Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 39.

[48]      Coca-Cola Amatil, Submission 192, p. 4. See also, Environment Protection and Heritage Council, Litter Management in Australia, November 2008, http://www.nepc.gov.au/system/files/resources/020c2577-eac9-0494-493c-d1ce2b4442e5/files/wastemgt-rpt-litter-management-australia-200811.pdf, (accessed 31 March 2016), p. 4.

[49]      Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, p. 5.

[50]      CSIRO, Submission 7, p. 16.

[51]      For more information on the operation of these schemes see http://www.epa.sa.gov.au/environmental_info/container_deposit and http://www.ntepa.nt.gov.au/container-deposits.

[52]      See Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, Operation of the South Australian and Northern Territory container deposit schemes, November 2012; Senate Environment, Communications and the Arts Legislation Committee, Environment Protection (Beverage Container Deposit and Recovery Scheme) Bill 2009, September 2009; and Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Communications and the Arts, Management of Australia's waste streams (including consideration of the Container Recycling Bill 2008), September 2008.

[53]      Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, p. 6.

[54]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 5.

[55]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 2.

[56]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 73.

[57]      Dr Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 2.

[58]      CSIRO, Submission 7, Appendix 2, 'Executive Summary "Understanding the effects of marine debris on wildlife: Final report to Earthwatch Australia"', p. 11.

[59]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 7.

[60]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 48.

[61]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 73.

[62]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 73.

[63]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 36.

[64]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 7.

[65]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, pp. 4–5.

[66]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 40.

[67]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 66.

[68]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 50

[69]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, pp. 73–74.

[70]      Beachpatrol Australia, Submission 168, p. 3. See also: Environment Protection Authority South Australia, http://www.epa.sa.gov.au/environmental_info/container_deposit/testimonials.

[71]      Northern Territory Environment Protection Authority, Review of containers regulated under the NT Container Deposit Scheme, February 2014, p. 8, http://www.ntepa.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/352815/cds_review_containers_report_rawtec.pdf, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[72]      New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/waste/cds-intro.htm, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[73]      New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, NSW Container Deposit Scheme: Discussion Paper, 19 December 2015, http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/resources/waste/container/150286-CDS-discussion-paper.pdf, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[74]      Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, https://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/waste/container-deposit-scheme.html, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[75]      Dr Madhu Pudasaini, Liverpool City Council, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 41.

[76]      Mr Dave West, environmental economist advising Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 36.

[77]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 74.

[78]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 73.

[79]      Mr Ian Kiernan, Clean Up Australia Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 32.

[80]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 35.

[81]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 74.

[82]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 74.

[83]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 74.

[84]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 75.

[85]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 75.

[86]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 75.

[87]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 75.

[88]      Mr Geoff Parker, Australian Beverages Council, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 2.

[89]      Mr Geoff Parker, Australian Beverages Council, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 2.

[90]      Mr Robert Kelman, Association of Container Deposit Scheme Operators, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 75.

[91]      Coca-Cola Amatil, Submission 192, p. 2.

[92]      Coca-Cola Amatil, Submission 192, p. 4.

[93]      Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, p. 5.

[94]      Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, p. 6.

[95]      Coca-Cola Amatil, Submission 192, p. 3.

[96]      Boomerang Alliance, Supplementary Submission 77.1, p. 2.

[97]      Australian Beverages Council, Submission: NSW Container Deposit Scheme—Discussion Paper, http://australianbeverages.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Australian-Beverages-Council-NSW-CDS-Discussion-Paper-Submission1.pdf, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[98]      Mr Ian Kiernan, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 36.

[99]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 35.

[100]    Boomerang Alliance, Supplementary Submission 77.1, p. 3.

[101]    Mr Gary Dawson, Australian Food and Grocery Council, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, pp. 1–2.

[102]    Mr Geoff Parker, Australian Beverages Council, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 2.

[103]    Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, p. 5.

[104]    Ms Tanya Barden, Australian Food and Grocery Council, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 4.

[105]    Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, p. 3.

[106]    Mr Gary Dawson, Australian Food and Grocery Council, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 6.

[107]    Mr Geoff Parker, Australian Beverages Council, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 2.

[108]    Boomerang Alliance, Supplementary Submission 77.1, p. 4.

[109]    Boomerang Alliance, Supplementary Submission 77.1, p. 1.

[110]    Ms Liz McNamara, Coca-Cola Amatil, Committee Hansard, p. 3.

[111]    New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, NSW Container Deposit Scheme: Discussion Paper, 19 December 2015, p. 4, http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/resources/waste/container/150286-CDS-discussion-paper.pdf, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[112]    New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, NWS Container Deposit Scheme: Discussion paper, 19 December 2015, p. 4, http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/resources/waste/container/150286-CDS-discussion-paper.pdf, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[113]    Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, pp. 3–4. See also, Australian Packaging Covenant, correspondence dated 15 April 2016, p. 2.

[114]    Coca-Cola Amatil, Submission 192, p. 4.

[115]    Coca-Cola Amatil, Submission 192, p. 2.

[116]    Australian Food and Grocery Council, Submission 193, p. 6.

[117]    Ms Liz McNamara, Coca-Cola Amatil, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 7.

[118]    Mr Jeff Maguire, Statewide Recycling, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 7.

[119]    Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 33.

[120]    Boomerang Alliance, Submission 77, p. 29.

Chapter 7 - Source reduction – product stewardship and legislative and regulatory frameworks

[1]        Mr Stephen Mitchell, Submission 71, p. 3.

[2]        Department of the Environment, http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/national-waste-policy/product-stewardship, (accessed 10 March 2016).

[3]        This is further discussed in Chapter 4.

[4]        Ms Rachel Walmsley, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 69

[5]        Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 46.

[6]        Dr Sarah Waddell, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 30.

[7]        National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 6.

[8]        National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 6.

[9]        National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 6.

[10]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 33.

[11]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 2.

[12]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 5.

[13]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 January 2016, p. 46.

[14]      Boomerang Alliance, Submission 77, p. 21.

[15]      Boomerang Alliance, Submission 77, p. 22.

[16]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 48.

[17]      Boomerang Alliance, Submission 77, p. 21.

[18]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 68.

[19]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Surfrider Foundation, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 61.

[20]      Mr Brendan Donohoe, Surfrider Foundation, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 62.

[21]      Mr Ian Hutton, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 12.

[22]      For more information see  'Germany, Garbage,  and the Green Dot: Challenging the Throwaway Society', http://www.informinc.org/pages/research/waste-prevention/fact-sheets/germany-garbage-and-the-green-dot-challenging-the-throwaway-society-executive-summary.html

[23]      Professor Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 15.

[24]      Victorian Marine Animals Defence Conservation Society, Submission 174, p. 3.

[25]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 20.

[26]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 13.

[27]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 12.

[28]      TopInfo Consulting, Submission 10, p. 7.

[29]      TopInfo Consulting, Submission 10, pp. 7–8.

[30]      Mr Ian Kiernan, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[31]      Mr Dave West, environmental economist advising Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[32]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[33]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[34]      Ms Liz McNamara, Coca-Cola Amatil, Committee Hansard, 31 March 2016, p. 2.

[35]      Professor Stephen Smith, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 21.

[36]      Professor Stephen Smith, Submission 27, p. 7.

[37]      Department of the Environment, Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 28.

[38]      Department of the Environment, Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p. 28.

[39]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 1.

[40]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 2. See also Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[41]      Professor Underwood, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 21. See also, Mr Ian Kiernan, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[42]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 2.

[43]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 21.

[44]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 21.

[45]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 2.

[46]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 39.

[47]      Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[48]      Dr Kathy Townsend, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 2. See also Ms Terrie-Ann Johnson, Clean Up Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 34.

[49]      Dr Jennifer Lavers, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 21.

[50]      Department of the Environment, Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life Review 2009–2014, p 28.

[51]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 11.

[52]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 2.

[53]      Mr Andrew McNee, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 17.

[54]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 9.

[55]      Ms Rachel Walmsley, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 69.

[56]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 48.

[57]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 10.

[58]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 10.

[59]      Ms Rowan Hanley, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 62.

[60]      James Robertson and Lucy Cormack, 'Large states delay action on bag ban at environmental roundtable', The Sydney Morning Herald, http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/large-states-delay-action-on-bag-ban-at-environmental-roundtable-20160229-gn6mwk.html, (accessed 4 March 2016).

[61]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 16.

[62]      National Environmental Law Association, Submission 132, p. 20.

[63]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 8.

[64]      Mr Stephen Oxley, Department of the Environment, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 13.

[65]      For a list of industry announcements see: http://www.beatthemicrobead.org/en/industry.

[66]      Rachel Brown, 'Aldi joins Coles and Woolies in microbead ban', The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 January 2016, http://www.smh.com.au/business/consumer-affairs/aldi-joins-coles-and-woolies-in-microbead-ban-20160113-gm5hwk.html, (accessed 28 January 2016).

[67]      Environment and Climate Change Canada, 'Proposed Regulations for Microbeads in Personal Care Products Used to Exfoliate or Cleanse', https://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=3A8EA7D7-1&offset=1 (accessed 30 March 2016)

[68]      Milman, O, 'US to ban soaps and other products containing microbeads', The Guardian, 9 December 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/dec/08/us-to-ban-soaps-other-products-containing-microbeads (accessed 9 December 2015); and Milman, O, 'Congress to vote on bill to ban microbead hygiene products in US', The Guardian, 19 November 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/nov/18/congress-vote-ban-microbeads-beauty-soap-toiletries-plastic, (accessed 9 December 2015), See also, Ms Ellen Geraghty, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 29 and p. 31.

[69]      'NSW to push for national ban on micro-plastic pollutants', NSW Liberal Party, 28 August 2014, https://members.nsw.liberal.org.au/news/state-news/nsw-push-national-ban-micro-plastic-pollutants, (accessed 1 December 2015).

[70]      The Hon. Greg Hunt MP, 'Federal Government strengthens efforts to tackle plastic waste' 29 February 2016, http://www.environment.gov.au/minister/hunt/2016/pubs/mr20160229a.pdf (accessed 4 March 2016).

[71]      Householders' Options to Protect the Environment, Submission 3, p. 2.

[72]      Ms Ellen Geraghty, National Environmental Law Association, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 31.

[73]      Ms Susie Crick, Surfrider Foundation Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 65.

[74]      Clean Up Australia, Submission 9, p. 11.

[75]      Dr Mark Browne, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 9.

[76]      Mr Jeff Angel, Total Environment Centre, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 49.

[77]      Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989, paragraph(3)(b).

[78]      Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989, s. 81

[79]      Competition and Consumer Act 2010, Schedule 2, s. 114.

[80]      National Environmental Law Association, answers to question on notice, 28 February 2016 (received 29 March 2016), p. 6.

[81]      Dr Mark Browne and co-authors Professor Tony Underwood, Professor Gee Chapman, Professor Emma Johnston, Submission 21, p. 4; Tangaroa Blue, Submission 60, p. 2.

[82]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 68.

[83]      Mr Nari Sahukar, EDOs of Australia, Committee Hansard, 18 February 2016, p. 68.

[84]      National Environmental Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 18 February 2016, (received 29 March 2016), p. 8.

[85]      National Environmental Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 18 February 2016, (received 29 March 2016), p. 7.

[86]      National Environmental Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 18 February 2016, (received 29 March 2016), p. 8.

[87]      National Environmental Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 18 February 2016, (received 29 March 2016), p. 9.

[88]      National Environmental Law Association, Answer to question on notice, 18 February 2016, (received 29 March 2016), p. 7.

[89]      Total Environment Centre, Submission 1, p. 11; see also National Toxics Network, Submission 4, p. 5.

[90]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, pp. 32–33.

[91]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, pp. 32–33.

[92]      Ms Heidi Taylor, Tangaroa Blue Foundation, Committee Hansard, 10 March 2016, p. 33.

[93]      Take3, Submission 72, p. 5.

[94]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Submission 68, pp. 3–4.

[95]      Mr Matt Johnston, Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 23.

[96]      Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Submission 68, pp. 3–4.

[97]      Mr Toby Stone, Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 23.

[98]      Mr Toby Stone, Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Committee Hansard, 26 February 2016, p. 23.

Chapter 8 - Conclusion and recommendations

[1]        Associate Professor Mark Osborn, Submission 16, p. 1; World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_N Plastics ew_ _Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 14.

[2]        World Economic Forum, The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the future of plastics, January 2016, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf, (accessed 23 February 2016), p. 10.

[3]        http://www.packagingcovenant.org.au/pages/2015-projects.html

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