Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background

[1]        SEWPAC, Species Profile and Threats Database (SPRAT), http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl  (accessed 4 December 2012); see also Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010, Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030, Australian Government, 2010, p. 18.

[2]        Other Acts consolidated in the EPBC Act include: the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975; the Whale Protection Act 1980 and the World Heritage (Properties Conservation) Act 1983.

[3]        EPBC Act, ss. 3(1).

[4]        Note that actions that are likely to have a significant impact on the environment on Commonwealth land, or are undertaken by the Commonwealth and likely to have a significant impact on the environment, must also be approved by the Minister.

[5]        Section 523 of the EPBC Act defines an 'action' to include a project, development, undertaking, activity or series of activities, or an alteration of any of these.

[6]        Other matter of national environmental significance are: world heritage sites; national heritage places; wetlands of international importance ('Ramsar' wetlands); listed migratory species; Commonwealth marine areas; the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park; and nuclear actions.

[7]        EPBC Act, sections 75­­–77A. Note there is an important exception to the environmental assessment processes in ss38–42 for forestry operations taken in accordance with a Regional Forest Agreement (RFA).

[8]        As at 30 June 2012, assessment bilateral agreements were in place between the Commonwealth and all States and Territories except New South Wales. The New South Wales assessment bilateral agreement expired in January 2012, and a new agreement is being negotiated between the Commonwealth and New South Wales: SEWPAC, Annual Report 2011-12, p. 215.

[9]        EPBC Act, Part 10.

[10]      See further SEWPAC, Strategic Assessments, http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/assessments/strategic.html (accessed 27 November 2012).

[11]      SEWPAC, Listed threatened species and ecological communities, http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/protect/species-communities.html (accessed 21 November 2012).

[12]      SEWPAC, Annual Report 2011-12, p. 247.

[13]      EPBC Act, ss. 178(1). Note the lists may be found at:  http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/about/lists.html#species (accessed 12 November 2012).

[14]      EPBC Act, ss. 181(1). Note that 'ecological community' is defined under section 528 of the EPBC Act to mean 'an assemblage of native species that inhabits a particular area in nature...'.

[15]      See the simplified outline in EPBC Act, s. 194A.

[16]      EPBC Act, s. 194D.

[17]      EPBC Act, s. 194E and s.194F. Note that nominations may be rejected under ss. 194F(3).

[18]      EPBC Act, ss. 194G and 194H.

[19]      Note that, in finalising the list, the Minister may make changes to the list in accordance with the regulations to the Act: EPBC Act, s. 194K.

[20]      EPBC Act, s. 194M.

[21]      EPBC Act, ss. 194N and 194P.

[22]      EPBC Act, s. 194Q. See further SEWPAC, Nomination process flowchart, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/nominations-flowchart.html (accessed 27 November 2012).

[23]      SEWPAC, Listed threatened species and ecological communities, http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/protect/species-communities.html (accessed 21 November 2012).

[24]      EPBC, subdivision B of Division 1 of Part 13.

[25]      Based on data compiled using the SEWPAC Species Profile and Threats Database, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicreports.pl (accessed 30 July 2013).

[26]      EPBC Act, s. 266B; see also SEPWAC, Conservation Advices, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/conservation-advices.html (accessed 21 November 2012).

[27]      However, a new requirement was added for approved conservation advice to be in place.

[28]      Except those that are listed as extinct or conservation dependent.

[29]      EPBC Act, s. 269AA.

[30]      EPBC Act, s. 270. See further SEWPAC, Recovery Plans, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery.html (accessed 21 November 2012); and also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[31]      EPBC Act, s. 269A.

[32]      EPBC Act, s. 268.

[33]      EPBC Act, s. 281.

[34]      SEWPAC, Annual Report 2011-2012, p. 240.

[35]      EPBC Act, para. 207B(1)(c).

[36]      EPBC Act, s. 207C.

[37]      SEWPAC, Register of critical habitat, http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicregisterofcriticalhabitat.pl (accessed 20 November 2012).

[38]      EPBC Act, s. 183.

[39]      EPBC Act, ss. 188(3).

[40]      SEWPAC, Key threatening processes under the EPBC Act, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp.html (accessed 21 November 2012).

[41]      EPBC Act, ss. 270A(2).

[42]      EPBC Act, s. 271.

[43]      EPBC Act, s. 270A.

[44]      EPBC Act, ss. 270B and 274.

[45]      A full list and further discussion of key threatening processes is contained in Chapter 4.

[46]      ANEDO, Submission 137.

[47]      NSW Department of Environment and Heritage, Threatened Species Conservation Act, http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/tscact.htm (accessed 5 December 2012).

[48]      Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Threatened Species, http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/wildlife/threatened-species/index.html (accessed 5 December 2012).

[49]      Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Threatened Species, http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/themeNodes/RLIG-53kupv?open (accessed 5 December 2012).

[50]      South Australian Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, Threatened species in South Australia, http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/Plants_Animals/Threatened_species_ecological_communities/Threatened_species/Threatened_species_in_SA (accessed 5 December 2012).

[51]      Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Flora & Fauna Guarantee Act, http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/native-plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act  (accessed 5 December 2012).

[52]      West Australian Department of Environment and Conservation, Threatened Species,  http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/management-and-protection/threatened-species.html (accessed 5 December 2012). Note, however, that the West Australian Premier announced proposed new legislation to protect threatened species in October 2012: see further http://www.wa.liberal.org.au/article/new-act-protect-threatened-species (accessed 5 December 2012).

[53]      ACT Government Department of Environment and Sustainable Development, Listing of Threatened Species, Ecological Communities and Threatening Processes, http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/threatenedspecieslisting  (accessed 5 December 2012).

[54]      Northern Territory Government Department of Land Resource Management, Threatened Species, http://www.lrm.nt.gov.au/biodiversity-conservation/animals/home (accessed 5 December 2012).

[55]      The former Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Annual Report 2006-07, pp 68 and 182, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/about/publications/annual-report/06-07/index.html (accessed 30 July 2013).

[56]      SEWPAC, Annual Report 2011–12, pp 23, 60-61.

[57]      Australian government, Environmental Stewardship, http://www.nrm.gov.au/funding/stewardship/index.html (accessed 4 December 2012).

[58]      Australian government, Environmental Stewardship, http://www.nrm.gov.au/funding/stewardship/index.html (accessed 4 December 2012).

[59]      Prime Minister Julia Gillard, New biodiversity fund protects species from climate impacts, media release dated 10 July 2011, http://www.pm.gov.au/press-office/new-biodiversity-fund-protects-species-climate-impacts (accessed 7 December 2012).

[60]      SEWPAC, Biodiversity Fund, http://www.environment.gov.au/cleanenergyfuture/biodiversity-fund/index.html (accessed 7 December 2012).

[61]      SEWPAC, Biodiversity Fund, Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.environment.gov.au/cleanenergyfuture/biodiversity-fund/faqs.html (accessed 7 December 2012).

[62]      Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010, Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030, Australian Government, 2010, p. 8.

[63]      Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010, Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030, Australian Government, 2010, p. 14.

[64]      See further: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/publications/prospectus/index.html (accessed 25 January 2013).

[65]      See further: http://www.environment.gov.au/land/vegetation/nvf/index.html (accessed 25 January 2013).

[66]      ANAO, The Conservation and Protection of National Threatened Species and Ecological Communities, Audit Report No. 31 2006-07, p. 14, available at: http://www.anao.gov.au/uploads/documents/2006-07_Audit_Report_311.pdf (accessed 27 November 2012).

[67]      See further Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts, Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 1) 2006 [Provisions], November 2006.

[68]      ANAO, The Conservation and Protection of National Threatened Species and Ecological Communities, Audit Report No. 31 2006–07, pp 28–29.

[69]      Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts, The operation of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, First Report, March 2009, p. 1. 1.52        . The committee tabled a second and final report on 30 April 2009 which focused on the specific issue of the EPBC Act and its interactions with the Regional Forest Agreement Act 2002 (Cth).

[70]      See Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts, The operation of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, First Report, March 2009, pp 55–­61.

[71]      Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts, The operation of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, First Report, March 2009, p. 57.

[72]      Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts, The operation of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, First Report, March 2009, Recommendation 8, p. 61.

[73]      Australian government response to the Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Communications and the Arts Committee Report: Operations of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (First, Second and Final Reports), September 2011, p. 6, available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed%20inquiries/2008-10/epbcact/index (accessed 30 July 2013).

[74]      Australian government response to the Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Communications and the Arts Committee Report: Operations of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (First, Second and Final Reports), September 2011, p. 2, available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed%20inquiries/2008-10/epbcact/index (accessed 30 July 2013).

[75]      Department of the Environment, Heritage and the Arts, The Australian Environment Act: Report of the Independent review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, October 2009  (Hawke review), available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/review/publications/final-report.html (accessed 27 November 2012).

[76]      Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, August 2011, www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/pubs/epbc-review-govt-response.pdf (accessed 27 November 2012).

[77]      For the full list of recommendation, see Hawke review, pp 36–58. For particular discussion and recommendations relating more specifically to threatened species and ecological communities see Chapter 5 of the Hawke review, titled 'Biodiversity' pp 154–176.

[78]      For further discussion relating to this recommendation, see Hawke review, pp 100–116.

[79]      The Hon. Tony Burke MP, Reforms better for the environment, better for business, media release dated 24 August 2011, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/minister/burke/2011/mr20110824.html (accessed 21 November 2012).

[80]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7.

[81]      Australian government, Budget 2013-14, at: http://www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/bp2/html/bp2_expense-22.htm (accessed 30 July 2013).

[82]      COAG Communique, 13 April 2012, p. 2, at: http://www.coag.gov.au/sites/default/files/2012-13-04.pdf  (accessed 30 July 2013),

[83]      COAG Communique, 7 December 2012, p. 4, http://www.coag.gov.au/node/475 (accessed 30 July 2013).

[84]      Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Retaining Federal Approval Powers) Bill 2012, March 2013, p. 11.

[85]      Graham Lloyd, "Rudd to keep 'green tape' power", The Australian, 17 July 2013, p. 2.

[86]      Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, The koala—saving our national icon, September 2011, recommendation 5, p. 50.

[87]      Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, The koala—saving our national icon, September 2011, recommendation 3, p. 50.

[88]      Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, The koala—saving our national icon, September 2011, p. 126.

[89]      SEWPAC, Annual Report 2011-12, p. 246; see further http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=85104 (accessed 21 November 2012).

[90]      Senator Larissa Waters, Senate Hansard, 13 October 2011, p. 7336.

[91]      Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Emergency Listings) Bill 2011, March 2012, pp 17-21 and 30.

[92]      Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Emergency Listings) Bill 2011, March 2012, see recommendations 1 and 2, pp 25 and 30.

[93]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7.

[94]      Australian government, Budget 2013-14, at: http://www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/bp2/html/bp2_expense-22.htm (accessed 30 July 2013).

[95]      Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Retaining Federal Approval Powers) Bill 2012, March 2013, see discussion at pp 8–11.

[96]      Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Retaining Federal Approval Powers) Bill 2012, March 2013, pp 28–20.

[97]      Graham Lloyd, "Rudd to keep 'green tape' power", The Australian, 17 July 2013, p. 2.

Chapter 2 - Management of the Listing Process

[1]        Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 6.

[2]        International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM, see further: http://www.iucnredlist.org/

[3]        SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7.

[4]        Australasian Native Orchid Society and the Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, pp 4–5; Mr Rob Brewster, Submission 13; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 5; Friends of Tootgarook Wetland Reserves, Submission 17, p. 2; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 7; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 2; Dr Greg Clancy, Submission 52, p. 2; Lawyers for Forests, Submission 70, p. 11; Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 8; Mr Philip Rance, Submission 105, p. 1; Earth Learning Inc, Submission 124, p. 5; Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28; Wildlife Disease Association Australasia, Submission 117, p. 2; Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 5.

[5]        Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 4.

[6]        Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 22; see also Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28.

[7]        Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 9.

[8]        BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13.

[9]        Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 22; see also Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 2; Earth Learning Inc, Submission 124, p. 3.

[10]      Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 5; see also Threatened Plant Action Group, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 157, p. 6.

[11]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 4.

[12]      National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 12.

[13]      That is, after amendments made to the EPBC Act by the Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1) 2006 which made changes to the listing process.

[14]      SEPWAC, Answers to questions on notice, Question 137, Supplementary Budget Estimates, October 2012, at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=ec_ctte/estimates/supp_1213/sewpac/program_5-1.pdf (accessed 4 March 2013).

[15]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing 15 February 2013, p. 7 [Q. 6].

[16]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing 15 February 2013, p. 7 [Q. 6].

[17]      Friends of Tootgarook Wetland Reserves, Submission 17, p. 2; Mr Craig Thomson, Submission 64, p. 2; Lawyers for Forests, Submission 70, p. 11; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 5; Threatened Plant Action Group, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 157, p. 6; Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, p. 4.

[18]      Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Emergency Listings) Bill 2011, March 2012, pp 17–21 and 30.

[19]      Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Emergency Listings) Bill 2011, March 2012, see recommendations 1 and 2, pp 25 and 30; see also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7.

[20]      Hawke review, recommendation 16.

[21]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7.

[22]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7.

[23]      Australian government, Budget 2013-14, at: http://www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/bp2/html/bp2_expense-22.htm (accessed 30 July 2013).

[24]      TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, received 26 February 2013, p. 2.

[25]      See, for example, Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 2; WWF-Australia, Attachment 2, p. 6;  see also Hawke review recommendation 14.

[26]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, pp 7–8.

[27]      See for example, Mr Ian Wheatland, Mr Kai May, Dr Katherine Phillips and Mrs Nina Kriegish, Submission 34, p. 4; Lawyers for Forests, Submission 70, p. 12; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13; WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 6; Friends of Grasslands, Submission 86, p. 4; Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 3; Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, p. 4; Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7.

[28]      Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Submission 162, p. 6.

[29]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7.

[30]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1.

[31]      Garnett, S. T., Szabo, J. K., and Dutson, G. The action plan for Australian birds 2010, CSIRO: Melbourne, 2011. See also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13 and Appendices 1–4; Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, pp 6–7; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 64, p. 2.

[32]      The IUCN Red List is discussed in further detail later in this chapter.

[33]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, pp 6–7.

[34]      Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7.

[35]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, pp 6–7.

[36]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2.

[37]      See, for example, WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7; Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7.

[38]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 8.

[39]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 3.

[40]      Department of Land Resource Management, NT Government, Submission 159, p. 4.

[41]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing 15 February 2013, p. 2 [Q. 2].

[42]      TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, received 26 February 2013, p. 1.

[43]      Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1) 2006, section 359; see also Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, Report on the provisions of the Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 1) 2006, pp 45–46 and 78.

[44]      Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Submission 162, p. 6.

[45]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 8; see also Earth Learning Inc, Submission 124, p. 2.

[46]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 4.

[47]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 4.

[48]      Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 8; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 2; ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment 1, p. 7; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 14.

[49]      See, for example, Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7; Wildlife Disease Association Australasia, Submission 117, p. 2; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13.

[50]      Friends of Tootgarook Wetland Reserves, Submission 17, pp 1– 2; see also Mr Ian Wheatland, Mr Kai May, Dr Katherine Phillips and Mrs Nina Kriegish, Submission 34, p. 4; Mr Craig Thomson, Submission 64, p. 2; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 3.

[51]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 3.

[52]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1.

[53]      Earth Learning Inc, Submission 124, p. 3.

[54]      Earth Learning Inc, Submission 124, p. 5.

[55]      Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 22; see also HSI, Submission 88, p. 7; and Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 3.

[56]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 7.

[57]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 3; see also Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 4.

[58]      TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, 26 February 2013, p. 2.

[59]      EPBC Act, para. 194G(2)(b).

[60]      SEPWAC, Answers to questions on notice, Question 137, Supplementary Budget Estimates, October 2012. Note that the TSSC does not appear to have nominated any ecological communities.

[61]      Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 22.

[62]      Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 3.

[63]      Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 1) 2006 [Provisions], November 2006, p. 50.

[64]      Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 1) 2006 [Provisions], November 2006, p. 50.

[65]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 68; see also SEPWAC, Answers to questions on notice, Question 137, Supplementary Budget Estimates, October 2012, at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=ec_ctte/estimates/supp_1213/sewpac/program_5-1.pdf (accessed 4 March 2013).

[66]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 2 [Q. 2].

[67]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 7.

[68]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 3.

[69]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, pp 7–8; HSI, Submission 88, p. 8; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 10.

[70]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 7.

[71]      Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 2; see also National Parks Association of New South Wales (NPA NSW), Submission 145, p. 11.

[72]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 8.

[73]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, pp 7–8.

[74]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 7; Earth Learning Inc, Submission 124, p. 6.

[75]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 7.

[76]      Earth Learning Inc, Submission 124, p. 6.

[77]      Threatened Plant Action Group, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 157, pp 6–7; see also HSI, Submission 88, p. 8.

[78]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 7.

[79]      NSW Council of Freshwater Anglers, Submission 125, p. 3.

[80]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 67.

[81]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65.

[82]      See for example, concerns raised by Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 4.

[83]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 67; see also the Hon. Tony Burke MP, Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, 2011 Finalised Priority Assessment List announced, Media release, 14 September 2011, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/minister/burke/2011/mr20110914b.html (accessed 26 February 2013).

[84]      Professor Keith Walker, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 68.

[85]      Professor Keith Walker, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 68.

[86]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 2 [Q.2].

[87]      SEPWAC, Answers to questions on notice, Question 137, Supplementary Budget Estimates, October 2012.

[88]      SEPWAC, Answers to questions on notice, Question 137, Supplementary Budget Estimates, October 2012.

[89]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 7 [Q. 6].

[90]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 7; Lawyers for Forests, Submission 70, p. 11; Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 3; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 11; Threatened Plant Action Group, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 157, p. 7; TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, received 26 February 2012, p. 1.

[91]      Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 3.

[92]      Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 3.

[93]      Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 3.

[94]      TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, received 26 February 2012, p. 2.

[95]      TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, received 26 February 2012, p. 2.

[96]      AFMA, Submission 148, p. 8.

[97]      AFMA, Submission 148, pp 8–9.

[98]      AFMA, Submission 148, Attachment 2, p. 2.

[99]      AFMA, Submission 148, p. 9.

[100]    Hawke review, recommendation 41.

[101]    See further: Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Review of the Harvest Policy Strategy and Guidelines at: www.daff.gov.au/fisheries/domestic/harvest_strategy_policy/review (accessed 22 April 2013); and Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, August 2011, www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/pubs/epbc-review-govt-response.pdf (accessed 27 November 2012), pp 74–75.

[102]    See for example, Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 2; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 4; Yarra Ranges Council, Submission 69, p. 3; Dr Jasmyn Lynch, Submission 74, p. 1; PGV Environmental, Submission 166, p. 2; WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7; Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13 and Appendices 1–4; see also ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 46; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13.

[103]    NFF, Submission 167, p. 1.

[104]    Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 25; see also Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 46.

[105]    Hawke review, recommendation 5.

[106]    The Hon. Tony Burke MP, Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Reforms better for the environment, better for business, media release, 24 August 2011, http://www.environment.gov.au/minister/burke/2011/mr20110824.html (accessed 21 November 2012).

[107]    See, for example, NFF, Submission 167, p. 1; see also Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 25.

[108]    NFF, Submission 167, p. 1.

[109]    See, for example, Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 46; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13.

[110]    Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 2.

[111]    Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 46.

[112]    Ms Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 4.

[113]    Dr Jasmyn Lynch, Submission 74, p. 2.

[114]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 4; see also SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 63 and SEWPAC, Annual Report 2011-12, pp 246–247.

[115]    Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 9.

[116]    Department of Land Resource Manager, NT Government, Submission 159, p. 4.

[117]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 6 [Q. 5].

[118]    SEWPAC, Annual Report 2011-12, pp 246–247.

[119]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 6 [Q. 5].

[120]    Professor Helene Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 63.

[121]    Dr Jasmyn Lynch, Submission 74, p. 2.

[122]    Professor Helene Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 63.

[123]    SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 63; and see also p. 64; see also SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 6 [Q. 5].

[124]    Professor Helene Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 66.

[125]    Professor Helene Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 63.

[126]    Submission 137, Attachment 1, p. 29.

[127]    EPBC Act, s. 528.

[128]    Senate Environment and Communications References Committee, The koala—saving our national icon, September 2011, available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed%20inquiries/2010-13/koalas/report/index

[129]    See Determination that a distinct population of biological entities is a species for the purposes of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, 27 April 2012, at: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2012L00960 (accessed 4 March 2013).

[130]    Professor Helene Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65; see also Professor Keith Walker, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 66.

[131]    SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 66.

[132]    IUCN, Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM, at: http://www.iucnredlist.org/. See for example, Friends of Tootgarook Wetland Reserves, Submission 17, p. 1; Dr Jasmyn Lynch, Submission 74, p. 2.

[133]    Wildlife Disease Association Australasia, Submission 117, p. 2; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13.

[134]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13.

[135]    Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3.

[136]    Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 8.

[137]    Professor Helen Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 62.

[138]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 8 [Q. 7].

[139]    Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 9.

[140]    See EPBC Act, s. 179(5).

[141]    IUCN, IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, p. 15, at : http://jr.iucnredlist.org/documents/redlist_cats_crit_en.pdf (accessed 30 July 2013).

[142]    Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 9.

[143]    BirdLife Australia, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 20 February 2013, p. 5.

[144]    Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 9; and see Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Qld), s. 79.

[145]    Hawke review, p. 161.

[146]    EPBC Act, s. 503. See further TSSC, Submission 154, pp 1–2.

[147]    EPBC Act, s. 194R.

[148]    Professor Helene Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 62.

[149]    Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 8; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 14; Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72, p. 1.

[150]    See, for example, WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7; and see also Threatened Plant Action Group, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 157, p. 7; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 2.

[151]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 10; see also Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72, p. 1.

[152]    Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 15.

[153]    Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 3.

[154]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 3.

[155]    Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 8.

[156]    Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 2.

[157]    TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, received 26 February 2013, p. 2.

[158]    TSSC, Answers to questions on notice, received 26 February 2013, p. 2.

Chapter 3 - Recovery Planning

[1]        Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 1.

[2]        EPBC Act, s. 270. See further SEWPAC, Recovery Plans, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery.html (accessed 21 November 2012); and also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[3]        SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[4]        except those that are listed as extinct or conservation dependent.

[5]        EPBC Act, s. 266B; see also SEPWAC, Conservation Advices, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/conservation-advices.html (accessed 21 November 2012).

[6]        SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[7]        SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[8]        See, for example, Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 1; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3; Australasian Native Orchid Society and the Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, p. 2; Monaro Acclimatisation Society, Submission 6, pp 3–4; HSI, Submission 88, pp 2–3; WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 5; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 2; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1; Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55, p. 2; Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, pp 1–2; Birdlife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 2.

[9]        HSI, Submission 88, p. 2.

[10]      Listed as 'vulnerable' under the EPBC Act: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=82790 (accessed 15 April 2013).

[11]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 6.

[12]      See, for example, Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3; Ms Vanessa Bleyer, Lawyers for Forests, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 22.

[13]      NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 5; see also Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 2; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8 and Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 10; ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment A, p. 27.

[14]      See for example, ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment A, p. 15; also Ms Yasmin Kelsall, Submission 100, p. 1.

[15]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4.

[16]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8.

[17]      Premier of WA, Submission 169, p. 2.

[18]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[19]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[20]      Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3.

[21]      Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3.

[22]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 1.

[23]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 4.

[24]      Department of Land Resource Management, NT government, Submission 159, p. 3.

[25]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 11 [Q.10].

[26]      See, for example, Wildflower Society of Western Australia, Submission 21, p. 2; Dr Emma Rooksby and Dr Keith Horton, Submission 41, p. 2; see also Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 1; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 4; Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, pp 1–3; S. Burgess and E. Bradley, Submission 101, pp 1–2; Name Withheld, Submission 120, p. 1; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 6; see also ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 3.

[27]      NCC NSW, Submission 134, p. 2; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 5; HSI, Submission 88, p. 2; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 1.

[28]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 4.

[29]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 2; see also Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, pp 4–6.

[30]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 6 and Table 2.

[31]      Name withheld, Submission 120, p. 1.

[32]      AFMA, Submission 148, Attachment 2, p. 1.

[33]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 2; see also Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF), Submission 147, p. 6.

[34]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8.

[35]      See, for example, Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 4; Mr Bruce Boyes, Submission 107; and see also SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 69.

[36]      Professor Stephen Garnett, Birdlife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 8.

[37]      Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 14; see also Conondale Range Committee, Submission 96, p. 2.

[38]      Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 14.

[39]      Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 14.

[40]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 2.

[41]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8.

[42]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[43]      Hawke review, recommendation 18, see pp 166–67.

[44]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 1; Mr Kevin Bradley, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 4; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, pp 3–4; Monaro Acclimatisation Society, Submission 6, pp 3–4; Friends of Grasslands, Submission 86, pp 2–3; Dr Emma Rooksby and Dr Keith Horton, Submission 41, p. 2; Mr Philip Collier, Submission 30, p. 2; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, pp 1–2; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 4; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 3; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 5; Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 3; Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, pp 1–3; Ms Kerryn Parry-Jones, Submission 87, p. 3; S. Burgess and E. Bradley, Submission 101, pp 1–2; Ms Glenda Pickersgill, Submission 102; Dr Tanzi Smith, Submission 103, p. 2; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 2; Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 2; Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 1; NSW Council of Freshwater Anglers, Submission 125, p. 4; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, pp 5, 8–10 and Appendix 2; NCC NSW, Submission 134, p. 2; ANEDO, Submission 137, pp 3–4; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 9; The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, p. 5.

[45]      Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 1.

[46]      Birdlife Australia, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 20 February 2013, p. 4.

[47]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8.

[48]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1.

[49]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[50]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 2.

[51]      ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 3.

[52]      Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 22.

[53]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 3.

[54]      Department of Land Resource Management, NT government, Submission 159, p. 2.

[55]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 4.

[56]      Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 2.

[57]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 4; see also Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1.

[58]      EPBC Act, ss. 268 and 269.

[59]      Mr Leigh Howard, YLS Law Reform Committee, Law Institute of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 23.

[60]      A pipistrelle is a small bat. The Christmas Island pipistrelle was Australia's smallest species of bat: see further http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=64383 (accessed 15 April 2013).

[61]      Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 8.

[62]      Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 8.

[63]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 7.

[64]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Director, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 1 and see also p. 3.

[65]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 7.

[66]      Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 8.

[67]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 7.

[68]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, pp 7–8.

[69]      Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 2.

[70]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 10; see also Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72, p. 9.

[71]      See, for example, Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, pp 1–2; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 5; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 1; Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 1; HSI, Submission 88, p. 2; Ms Glenda Pickersgill, Submission 102; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 2.

[72]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1.

[73]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 6.

[74]      EPBC Act, ss. 179(2).

[75]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 3.

[76]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 3.

[77]      See, for example, Ms Vanessa Bleyer, Lawyers for Forests, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 24.

[78]      Lawyers for Forests, Submission 70, p. 2; see also Ms Vanessa Bleyer, Lawyers for Forests, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 22; LIV Young Lawyers' Section, Law Institute of Victoria, Submission 84; Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3; Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, pp 2–3; Healesville Environment Watch Inc, MyEnvironment Inc and Friends of Leadbeater's Possum, Submission 92; Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 2.

[79]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, pp 1–2.

[80]      Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, pp 1–2, citations in original.

[81]      Monaro Acclimatisation Society, Submission 6, p. 6.

[82]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3.

[83]      Department of Land Resource Management, NT government, Submission 159, p. 2.

[84]      See eg Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 1; HSI, Submission 88, p. 2; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2; Professor John Woinarksi, Submission 48, p. 4; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 3.

[85]      Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, 15 February 2013, p. 32.

[86]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 1.

[87]      Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, p. 1; see also Mr David Blair, Submission 79, pp 1–2.

[88]      Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 2.

[89]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 2; see also Ms Vanessa Bleyer, Lawyers for Forests, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 25.

[90]      The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, p. 1.

[91]      Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3, citing Bottrill, M. C. et al. "Does recovery planning improve the status of threatened species?" Biol. Conserv. 144, 1595–1601, (2011); see also eg WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 5; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 1 cf Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 4.

[92]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 5 and Attachment 1, citing Bottrill M et al. (2011) Does recovery planning improve the status of threatened species? Biological Conservation 144, pp 1595-1601 and Taylor M, Suckling KF, Rachlinski JJ (2005) The Effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act: A Quantitative Analysis. BioScience 55, pp 360–367.

[93]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 4.

[94]      SEWPAC, Australian State of the Environment Report 2011, p. 592.

[95]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, pp 9 and 10 [Q.s 8 and 9].

[96]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 10; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 2; Birdlife Australia, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 20 February 2013, p. 4.

[97]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1.

[98]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1; see also Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2.

[99]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 1; Professor Stephen Garnett, Birdlife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7.

[100]    Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 1 citing Taylor, M. F. J., K. F. Suckling and J. J. Rachlinski (2005). "The effectiveness of the endangered species act: a quantitative analysis." Bioscience 55(4): 360–367; and Crouse, D. T., L. A. Mehrhoff, M. J. Parkin, D. R. Elam and L. Y. Chen (2002). "Endangered species recovery and the SCB study: A US Fish and Wildlife Service perspective." Ecological Applications 12(3): 719–723.

[101]    Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 3.

[102]    Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 2.

[103]    See also Regent Honeyeater Recovery Project, Submission 12; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, pp 1–4.

[104]    Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 2.

[105]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 1.

[106]    Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 4.

[107]    Premier of Western Australia, Submission 169, p. 2.

[108]    CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 4, citing Lindenmayer D.B., Gibbons P., Bourke M., Burgman M., Dickman C.R., Ferrier S., Fitzsimons J., Freudenberger D., Garnett S. T., Groves C., Hobbs R.J., Kingsford R.T., Krebs C., Legge S., Lowe A J., Mclean R., Montambault J., Possingham H., Radford J., Robinson D., Smallbone L., Thomas D., Varcoe T., Vardon M., Wardle G., Woinarski J. and Zerger A. 2012. "Improving biodiversity monitoring" Austral Ecology, 37: 285–294.

[109]    Mr Atticus Fleming, Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 20; see also Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 30.

[110]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 6.

[111]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, pp 9 and 10 [Q.s 8 and 9].

[112]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, pp 9 and 10 [Q.s 8 and 9].

[113]    Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 2.

[114]    Mr Kevin Bradley, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 4.

[115]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, pp 9 and 10 [Q.s 8 and 9].

[116]    Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, pp 4–5.

[117]    Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 1.

[118]    Professor Stephen Garnett, Birdlife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7.

[119]    Professor Stephen Garnett, Birdlife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 8.

[120]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, pp 9 and 10 [Q.s 8 and 9].

[121]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, pp 9 and 10 [Q.s 8 and 9].

[122]    ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 3.

[123]    Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 1.

[124]    Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3.

[125]    Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 4.

[126]    See, for example, The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, p. 4; NPA NSW, Submission 145, pp 5–6; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 8.

[127]    See, for example, The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, p. 4.

[128]    WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 5.

[129]    WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 5.

[130]    Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, pp 4–5.

[131]    Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 4; Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 3.

[132]    Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 5.

[133]    Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3.

[134]    See Hawke review, recommendation 18.

Chapter 4 - Management of key threats to  threatened species and ecological communities

[1]        Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1.

[2]        Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010, Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030, Australian Government, 2010, p. 8; see also SEWPAC, Australian State of the Environment Report 2011, p. 617, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/2011/ (accessed 22 April 2013).

[3]        SEWPAC, Australian State of the Environment Report 2011, p. 617, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/2011/ (accessed 22 April 2013).

[4]        SEWPAC, Australian State of the Environment Report 2011, p. 617, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/2011/ (accessed 22 April 2013).

[5]        See, for example, WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 3; Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55, pp 1–2; Island Conservation, Submission 20, p. 3; Threatened Plant Action Group, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 157, p. 2; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113; Ms Kerryn Parry-Jones, Submission 87, pp 1–2; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 4.

[6]        See, for example, Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 1; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Island Conservation, Submission 20; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140; Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 35; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 6; ACF, Submission 147, p. 2.

[7]        See, for example, East Gippsland Wildfire Taskforce, Submission 11; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 1; Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 1; Department of Land Resource Management, NT Government, Submission 159, p. 1; Friends of Hoddles Creek, Submission 109.

[8]        See, for example, WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 4; CSIRO, Submission 77, pp 6–7; ACF, Submission 147, pp 2–3; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 6; Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 35; Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 11; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 6; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 4; see also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 11.

[9]        See, for example, Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 3; Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 13.

[10]      See, for example, Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 3; Mr Jonathan Meddings, Submission 58.

[11]      See further: Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Submission 168; and also Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 13; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89.

[12]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 3; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 6.

[13]      Biodiversity Strategy, p. 22.

[14]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 3.

[15]      See, for example, Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55, p. 1; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 4.

[16]      Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 13.

[17]      Dr Adrian Manning, Submission 30, p. 1.

[18]      See, for example, Brisbane Region Environment Council, Submission 173, p. 10.

[19]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 3; also Premier of Western Australia, Submission 169, p. 2.

[20]      Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55, p. 2.

[21]      ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 3; see also Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, pp 46–47.

[22]      See, for example, Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 3; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 5; Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 2.

[23]      See, for example, Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 5; Mr Frank Manthey, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, pp 1–3; Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 2.

[24]      See, for example, Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 5; Mr Frank Manthey, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, pp 1–3; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 2. But also camels: Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 2; pigs: Australian Deer Association, Submission 83, p. 6; cattle and donkeys: Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 6.

[25]      Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 1; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140; Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 35; also Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, pp 1 and 5.

[26]      Biodiversity Strategy, p. 24.

[27]      Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 9; and see also Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, pp 4–5.

[28]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 7.

[29]      Island Conservation, Submission 20; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1; Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72, pp 9–10.

[30]      Island Conservation, Submission 20, p. 1.

[31]      Island Conservation, Submission 20, p. 1; see also Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 6.

[32]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 6.

[33]      Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 6.

[34]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 6.

[35]      Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 4. In contrast, Christmas Island was cited as an example where invasive species, particularly Yellow Crazy Ants, are still causing considerable problems: BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, pp 5–6; Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 9.

[36]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 3; Mr Kevin Bradley, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 4; see also Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72, p. 9.

[37]      The Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 4.

[38]      Mr Atticus Fleming, Australian Wildlife Conservancy, 22 February 2013, p. 19.

[39]      Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Submission 162, p. 4.

[40]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1.

[41]      Dr Adrian Manning, Supplementary Submission 30, p. 3.

[42]      The Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 7.

[43]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 4; see also Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 5.

[44]      See, for example, Premier of Western Australia, Submission 169, p. 2; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1.

[45]      Premier of Western Australia, Submission 169, p. 23; and see further WA Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Shield, at: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/management-and-protection/programs/western-shield.html (accessed 22 April 2013).

[46]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 3.

[47]      See, for example, Mr Frank Manthey, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 2; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 18; Department of Land Resource Management, NT Government, Submission 159, p. 2; Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 6.

[48]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 18.

[49]      Mr Frank Manthey, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 2.

[50]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 15 [Q. 14]; cf Mr Frank Manthey, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 2.

[51]      Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 7; see also Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 2.

[52]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 4.

[53]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 8; Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 3.

[54]      Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 8.

[55]      S. Burgess and E. Bradley, Submission 101, p. 1; Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 2.

[56]      Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 3.

[57]      See further Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Weeds Management, available at: http://www.daff.gov.au/natural-resources/invasive/weeds (accessed 29 April 2013).

[58]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[59]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 11, citing Paul Downey, Tim Scanlon and John Hosking, "Prioritizing Weed Species Based on Their Threat And Ability to Impact on Biodiversity: A Case Study from New South Wales", Plant Protection Quarterly, 2010, vol. 25, no. 3, pp 111–126.

[60]      Advice to the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (the Committee) on Amendments to the List of Key Threatening Processes under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, pp 4–5, at : http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp/pubs/garden-plants-listing-advice.pdf (accessed 2 August 2013).

[61]      Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts References Committee, Turning back the tide – the invasive species challenge, report on the regulation, control and management of invasive species and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Invasive Species Bill), December 2004.

[62]      Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts References Committee, Turning back the tide – the invasive species challenge, report on the regulation, control and management of invasive species and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Invasive Species Bill), December 2004, recommendation 6, p. 215.

[63]      Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108, p. 2.

[64]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 12; see also Dr Emma Rooksby and Dr Keith Horton, Submission 41, p. 2.

[65]      Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 11.

[66]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 15 [Q.14].

[67]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 15 [Q.14].

[68]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 15 [Q.14].

[69]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 24 [Q.21].

[70]      Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108; Wildlife Disease Association Australasia, Submission 117, p. 1.

[71]      Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108, p. 2.

[72]      See, for example, Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108, p. 2.

[73]      Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108, p. 3.

[74]      Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108, p. 4.

[75]      Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108, p. 2.

[76]      Australian Wildlife Health Network, Submission 108, p. 3.

[77]      Wildlife Disease Association Australasia, Submission 117, p. 1.

[78]      Wildlife Disease Association Australasia, Submission 117, p. 1.

[79]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 4; CSIRO, Submission 77, pp 6–7; ACF, Submission 147, p. 3; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 6; Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 35; Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 11; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 6; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 4; Dr Chris McGrath, Submission 78, pp 1–2; The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, pp 1–2; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 3.

[80]      Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 5.

[81]      CSIRO, Submission 77¸ p. 6, citing Dunlop M., Hilbert D.W., Ferrier S., House A., Liedloff A., Prober S.M., Smyth A., Martin T.G., Harwood T., Williams K.J., Fletcher C., and Murphy H.  2012. The Implications of Climate Change for Biodiversity Conservation and the National Reserve System: Final Synthesis. A report prepared for SEWPAC, and the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship, Canberra.

[82]      CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 8.

[83]      CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 9.

[84]      See, for example, ACF, Submission 147, p. 5, citing Steffan, W. (et al) Australia's Biodiversity and Climate Change: Summary for Policy makers 2009, Australian Government, Department of Climate Change, Canberra 2009.

[85]      Mr Graham Tupper, ACF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 23; also Ms Claire Parkes, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 35.

[86]      Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 36.

[87]      Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 36.

[88]      ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 3; and see also additional information provided by the Australian Network of Environmental Defenders' Offices: Report on Climate change and the legal framework for biodiversity protection in Australia: a legal and scientific analysis (from public hearing, Canberra, 15 February 2013).

[89]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 14 [Q.13].

[90]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 14 [Q.13].

[91]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 14 [Q.13]; and see Hawke review, recommendation 20.

[92]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, Attachment A, p. 1.

[93]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, Attachment A, p. 1.

[94]      See further: House Standing Committee on Climate Change, Environment and the Arts, Inquiry into Australia's biodiversity in a changing climate, at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=ccea/ccbio/index.htm (accessed 28 March 2013).

[95]      See, for example, East Gippsland Wildfire Taskforce, Submission 11; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 1; Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 1; Department of Land Resource Management, NT Government, Submission 159, p. 1; Friends of Hoddles Creek, Submission 109. For further discussion and explanation of changed fire regimes, see the Biodiversity Strategy, pp 28–29.

[96]      Queensland Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection, Submission 130, p. 2.

[97]      Queensland Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection, Submission 130, p. 2.

[98]      Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 2.

[99]      Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, pp 5 and 6.

[100]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 8.

[101]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, pp 5–6; see also Premier of Western Australia, Submission 169, p.  12.

[102]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 5.

[103]    Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 9; see also Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, pp 4–5.

[104]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, Attachment A, p. 1.

[105]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 9.

[106]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 9.

[107]    See, for example, Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, pp 11–12.

[108]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 4; see also Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 5.

[109]    WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 4; see also Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 7.

[110]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 10.

[111]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 3.

[112]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, pp 8–9.

[113]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 5; quoting Low, T. 1999 Feral Future: The Untold Story of Australia's Exotic Invaders. Penguin.

[114]    SEWPAC, Australian State of the Environment Report 2011, p. 627.

[115]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1; see also Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1.

[116]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1.

[117]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 1.

[118]    See, for example, Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 2.

[119]    Mr Atticus Fleming, Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Committee Hansard, p. 19.

[120]    Director of National Parks, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 62. Note that landscape-scale approaches are discussed further in Chapter 6 of this report.

[121]    Director of National Parks, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 62.

[122]    Director of National Parks, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 61.

[123]    Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 1.

[124]    Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 2.

[125]    Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 1.

[126]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 81¸ pp 1–4.

[127]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7.

[128]    Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 2.

[129]    Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 2.

[130]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1; see also HSI, Submission 88, p. 2.

[131]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 7.

[132]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 18 [Q.17].

[133]    Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 2.

[134]    Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, p. 2.

[135]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 10.

[136]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, see especially pp 12–15.

[137]    See further www.ceed.edu.au (accessed 15 April 2013). The Centre is supported by the Australian Government Australian Research Council.

[138]    CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 2, citing Julien M., Runge M.C., Nichols J.D., Lubow B.C. and Kendall W.L. 2009 "Structured decision making as a conceptual framework to identify thresholds for conservation and management" Ecological Applications 19: 1079–1090; and Margules, C.R. and Pressey R.L. 2000. "Systematic Conservation Planning" Nature 405: 243–253.

[139]    CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 3.

[140]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 3.

[141]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 3.

[142]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[143]    EPBC Act, ss 183, 270A–284.

[144]    Table compiled using information sourced from SEWPAC, Key threatening processes under the EPBC Act, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp.html (accessed 2 April 2013).

[145]    ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 3 cf Premier of Western Australia, Submission 169.

[146]    ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 3.

[147]    See, for example, Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 3; HSI, Submission 88, p. 2; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, pp 8–9; Dr Carol Booth, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 7; Name Withheld, Submission 71, p. 1 Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 7.

[148]    Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 3.

[149]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 7.

[150]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 8.

[151]    HSI, Submission 88, p. 2.

[152]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 8.

[153]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[154]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 10.

[155]    Hawke review, recommendation 19, see also pp 167–169.

[156]    See further SEWPAC, Novel biota and their impact on biodiversity, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp/novel-biota.html (accessed 30 July 2013).

[157]    Advice to the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (the Committee) on Amendments to the List of Key Threatening Processes under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), p. 1, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp/pubs/novel-biota-listing-advice.pdf (accessed 30 July 2013).

[158]    Advice to the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee (the Committee) on Amendments to the List of Key Threatening Processes under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), p. 4, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp/pubs/novel-biota-listing-advice.pdf (accessed 30 July 2013).

[159]    SEWPAC, Novel biota and their impact on biodiversity, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ktp/novel-biota.html (accessed 5 April 2013).

[160]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[161]    Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 10.

[162]    Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 10.

[163]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 10.

[164]    Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 10.

[165]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 5.

[166]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1; HSI, Submission 88, p. 2; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 4; Dr Rupert Baker, Submission 141, p. 1; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 2; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 3; FrogWatch, Submission 158, p. 2; Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 7.

[167]    HSI, Submission 88, p. 2.

[168]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[169]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[170]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[171]    Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 10.

[172]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1.

[173]    Dr Rupert Baker, Submission 141, p. 1.

[174]    Name withheld, Submission 71, p. 1.

[175]    Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 1; HSI, Submission 88, p. 16.

[176]    HSI, Submission 88, p. 16.

[177]    Island Conservation, Submission 20, p. 2.

[178]    See, for example, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 2.

[179]    NPA NSW, Submission 145, pp 4–5.

[180]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 10.

[181]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 13 [Q.12]; and see Hawke review, recommendation 20.

[182]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 6; see also SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 13 [Q.12].

[183]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 6.

[184]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 13 [Q.12].

[185]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 13 [Q.12].

[186]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[187]    Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts References Committee, Turning back the tide – the invasive species challenge, report on the regulation, control and management of invasive species and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Invasive Species Bill), December 2004, recommendation 6, pp 137–139, 155, 214–215.

[188]    Australian Government Response, to the Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts References Committee, Turning back the tide – the invasive species challenge, report on the regulation, control and management of invasive species and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Invasive Species Bill), received September 2007, available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed_inquiries/2004-07/invasivespecies/index (accessed 28 March 2013).

[189]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 9.

[190]    Hawke review, p. 185.

[191]    Hawke review, p. 185.

[192]    Hawke review, recommendation 23(1); see also Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 8.

[193]    Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, August 2011, www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/pubs/epbc-review-govt-response.pdf (accessed 27 November 2012), p. 45.

[194]    Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Intergovernmental Agreement on Biosecurity, http://www.daff.gov.au/bsg/biosecurity-reform/activities-and-achievements2/intergovernmental-agreement-on-biosecurity-igab-and-national-environmental-biosecurity-response-agreement-nebra (accessed 5 April 2013).

[195]    See further Senate Standing Committee on Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Rural_and_Regional_Affairs_and_Transport/Biosecurity2012 (accessed 5 April 2013).

[196]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 11.

[197]    See Hawke review, recommendation 23.

[198]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 15 [Q 14].

[199]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 6.

Chapter 5 - Critical Habitat and other issues

[1]        Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 5.

[2]        Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 1.

[3]        EPBC Act, ss. 207A(4).

[4]        Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20.

[5]        See, for example, Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2; Professor John Woinarksi, Submission 48, p. 5; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 6; Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 47; Port Campbell Community Group, Submission 31, p. 3; Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 47; HSI, Submission 88, p. 3; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 11.

[6]        ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4; see also Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 4.

[7]        Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 47; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4.

[8]        Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 47; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 2; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4.

[9]        Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 47; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4.

[10]      SEWPAC, Register of Critical Habitat, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicregisterofcriticalhabitat.pl (accessed 9 April 2013); see also HSI, Submission 88, pp 3 and 5; and Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 6.

[11]      EPBC Act, ss. 207B(1)(c) and s. 207C.

[12]      Hawke review, p. 156.

[13]      Hawke review, recommendation 12.

[14]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 2; HSI, Submission 88, pp 4–5; see also Ms Vanessa Bleyer, Lawyers for Forests, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, pp 24–25.

[15]      Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 5; Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 47.

[16]      HSI, Submission 88, pp 3–4, see also p. 5.

[17]      HSI, Submission 88, p. 5.

[18]      Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, pp 46–47.

[19]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 21; see also Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 8.

[20]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 4; see also, for example, CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 4.

[21]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 25, citing Taylor M, Suckling KF, Rachlinkski JJ (2005) The Effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act: A Quantitative Analysis, Bioscience 55, 360–367; see also Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 3.

[22]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 21.

[23]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 16 [Q.15]; also SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 5.

[24]      Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20; see also HSI, Submission 88, p. 5; Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, p. 3; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 8.

[25]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 16 [Question 015]; see also SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65.

[26]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 16 [Question 015]; see also SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65.

[27]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65.

[28]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65.

[29]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7 and Attachment A; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 4; ACF, Submission 147, p. 3; Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 7; Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 3; Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 4; Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 4.

[30]      Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3, citing Taylor, M. J. et al. "What works for threatened species recovery? An empirical evaluation for Australia" Biodivers. Conserv. 20, pp 767‐777 (2011).

[31]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20.

[32]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 10.

[33]      SEWPAC, National Reserve System, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/nrs/index.html (accessed 30 July 2013); see also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 10; Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 4.

[34]      SEWPAC, Collaborative Australian Protected Area Database (CAPAD), Terrestrial Protected Area Summary: 2010 National Summary, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/nrs/science/capad/2010/index.html (accessed 31 July 2013).

[35]      SEWPAC, CAPAD, Terrestrial Protected Area Summary: 2010 National Summary, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/nrs/science/capad/2010/index.html (accessed 31 July 2013).

[36]      ACF, Submission 147, p. 3.

[37]      The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, p. 3.

[38]      Wildlife Queensland, Submission 76, p. 2.

[39]      Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 3.

[40]      NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 7; see also Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 6.

[41]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3; Friends of Grasslands, Submission 86, p. 3; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 7; see also Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 10.

[42]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 5; Mr Philip Collier, Submission 32, p. 3.

[43]      See further Species Profile and Threats Database, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl (accessed 12 March 2013).

[44]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3; see also Ms Rachel Lowry, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 4.

[45]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 9; see also Island Conservation, Submission 20 for further discussion of issues on Norfolk Island and suggestions for improvements.

[46]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10.

[47]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20.

[48]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20; see also WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 2.

[49]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, [Q.19.]

[50]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, [Q.19]; see also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 10.

[51]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, [Q.19].

[52]      See, for example, Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 1.

[53]      Wildlife Queensland, Submission 76, p. 2.

[54]      Wildlife Queensland, Submission 76, p. 2; HSI, Submission 88, p. 3.

[55]      SEWPAC, National Wildlife Corridors Plan: A framework for landscape-scale conservation, 2012, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/wildlife-corridors/index.html (accessed 16 April 2013); Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 5; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 4.

[56]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 11.

[57]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 4.

[58]      See, for example, Wildlife Queensland, Submission 76, p. 2; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 2.

[59]      Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3.

[60]      Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10.

[61]      Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 3.

[62]      See, for example, Mr Philip Collier, Submission 32, p. 2; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 4; Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 23; Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 1; see also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 12.

[63]      Mr Philip Collier, Submission 32, p. 3.

[64]      Mr Philip Collier, Submission 32, p. 4.

[65]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 23.

[66]      Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 1.

[67]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 23.

[68]      Mr Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 1; see also Ms Claire Parkes, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, 15 February 2013, p. 36.

[69]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 9.

[70]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 18 [Q.17].

[71]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 12.

[72]      ACF, Submission 147, p. 3; Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 2; see also SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7.

[73]      ACF, Submission 147, p. 3.

[74]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 8.

[75]      SEWPAC, Submission 142, p. 1.

[76]      Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 12, see also p. 16.

[77]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 4; Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 21.

[78]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 65.

[79]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 16 [Q.15].

[80]      Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 3; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 2; Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Submission 162; Mr Kevin Bradley, Save the Bilby Fund, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 4; Mr Nigel Sharp, Submission 59; Greenfleet, Submission 94; Wildlife Queensland, Submission 76, p. 4; see also Mr Barry Rowe, Candlebark Community Nursery, Submission 95; Finch Society of Australia, Submission 37; Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72, p. 8; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10.

[81]      Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 1; Mr Barry Rowe, Candlebark Community Nursery, Submission 95.

[82]      Mr Atticus Fleming, Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 19.

[83]      Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Submission 162, p. 4.

[84]      Mr Atticus Fleming, Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 21.

[85]      Mr Atticus Fleming, Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 21.

[86]      NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 11.

[87]      NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 10; see also Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72, p. 10.

[88]      SEWPAC, submission 143, p. 12.

[89]      Mr Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 1; see also Ms Claire Parkes, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 36.

[90]      See, for example, Zoos Victoria, Submission 42; Finch Society of Australia, Submission 37, pp 2–3; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7; see also Mr Greg Miles, Submission 72.

[91]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 1.

[92]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Director, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 1; Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 1.

[93]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 1.

[94]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 1.

[95]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 6.

[96]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Director, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 1.

[97]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3; see also Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 2; Save the Bilby Fund, Supplementary Submission 16.

[98]      Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 10.

[99]      Mr Peter Cochrane, Director of National Parks, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 70.

[100]    Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 10.

[101]    Dr Tanzi Smith, Submission 103, p. 2; see also Regent Honeyeater Project, Submission 12, Attachment 1.

[102]    NPA NSW, Submission 145, pp 3–4.

[103]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7.

[104]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7.

[105]    Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 3; also Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 6.

[106]    Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 4.

[107]    Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 4.

[108]    Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67, p. 3.

[109]    Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 48.

[110]    Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 48.

[111]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 16.

[112]    Australian Wildlife Conservancy, Submission 162; Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 21.

Chapter 6 - Policy and funding arrangements

[1]        Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 32.

[2]        SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 8.

[3]        Biodiversity Strategy, p. 13.

[4]        Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council 2010, Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030, Australian Government, 2010, p. 14.

[5]        See further SEWPAC, Australian Government Biodiversity Policy – Consultation draft, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/consultation-draft-biodiversity-policy.html, (accessed 18 April 2013).

[6]        ACF, Submission 147, p. 2.

[7]        WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 6.

[8]        WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 6; see also Convention on Biological Diversity, COP 10 Decision X/2 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 at http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/default.shtml?id=12268 (accessed 5 April 2013). See also 'Aichi' targets at: http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets (accessed 5 April 2013).

[9]        Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 11.

[10]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 7.

[11]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 7.

[12]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 17.

[13]      Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 33.

[14]      Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 19.

[15]      Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, pp 21–22.

[16]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 8.

[17]      For example Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 10; WWF-Australia, Submission 81, pp 2, 6–7; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 3; Zoos Victoria, Submission 41, p. 4; Professor David Lindenmeyer, Submission 15, p. 3; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 12; AWC, Submission 162, p. 4.

[18]      See, for example, BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 1; WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 2 and see also p. 6.

[19]      See for example, Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 1; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 3; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 4; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2; Yarra Ranges Council, Submission 69, p. 2; Blue Mountains Conservation Society, Submission 75, pp 1–2; HSI, Submission 88, p. 6; Urban Bushland Council WA, Submission 114, p. 4; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 13; Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 11.

[20]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 2; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 1.

[21]      Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20.

[22]      For example Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 2; cf ACF, Submission 147, p. 6.

[23]      ACF, Submission 147, p. 6.

[24]      See further: Caring for our Country 20132018, http://www.nrm.gov.au/about/caring/overview.html (accessed 22 April 2013).

[25]      Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 21.

[26]      For example Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 2, citing McCarthy, M. A., Thompson, C. J. & Garnett, S. T. "Optimal investment in conservation of species" J. Appl. Ecol. 45, 1428–1435, (2008) and Carwardine, J. et al. Prioritizing threat management for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Letters 5, pp 196–204, (2012). And see also the discussion on prioritisation approaches later in this chapter.

[27]      SEWPAC, Submission 159, p. 2.

[28]      Regent Honeyeater Project, Submission 12, p. 1.

[29]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 9.

[30]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 9.

[31]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 9.

[32]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 9.

[33]      Australian government, Budget 2013-14, Budget Paper No. 2, Part 2: Expense Measures, Sustainability, Environment, Water Population and Communities, at:  http://www.budget.gov.au/2013-14/content/bp2/html/bp2_expense-22.htm  (accessed 30 July 2013).

[34]      The Hon Mark Butler MP, Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Water, "Australia to move to a floating price on carbon pollution in 2014", Joint media release with the Prime Minister, the Hon Kevin Rudd MP, and the Treasurer, the Hon Chris Bowen MP, 16 July 2013, at: http://minister.innovation.gov.au/markbutler/mediareleases/pages/australiatomovetoafloatingpriceoncarbonpollutionin2014.aspx (accessed 2 August 2013).

[35]      ACF, Submission 147, p. 2.

[36]      SEWPAC, Submission 143¸ p. 1.

[37]      SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 62.

[38]      See, for example, Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, pp 2–3; cf  Mr Graham Tupper, ACF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 22; AWC, Submission 162, p. 4; Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 21; Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 1; Dr Rupert Baker, Submission 141, p. 2; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 12.

[39]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 2 and also Submission 46, p. 2.

[40]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 2.

[41]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2.

[42]      Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7.

[43]      Department of Land Resource Management, NT Government, Submission 159, p. 4.

[44]      AWC, Submission 162, p. 4; see also Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 21.

[45]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3.

[46]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, pp 3–4.

[47]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 3; Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, pp 3–4.

[48]      Submission 42, p. 2.

[49]      Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 3.

[50]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 2.

[51]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, Attachment A, p. 1.

[52]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 6.

[53]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 12.

[54]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 7.

[55]      AWC, Submission 162, p. 4; see also p. 1; and Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 21.

[56]      AWC, Submission 162, p. 5.

[57]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 6.

[58]      Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 2.

[59]      Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 2.

[60]      See, for example, Dr Tanzi Smith, Submission 103, p. 2; Name Withheld, Submission 120, p. 2; Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 2; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 4.

[61]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 23.

[62]      Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 4.

[63]      Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 2.

[64]      Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 4.

[65]      Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 10.

[66]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 6.

[67]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 18 [Q.17].

[68]      See for example Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 3; Dr Greg Clancy, Submission 52, p. 1; Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 4; see also Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; Dr Adrian Manning, Submission 30, p. 1; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 1; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 3; WWF, Submission 81, p. 6; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7; Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 2; Mr David Hudson, Submission 99, p. 1; Yarra Ranges Council, Submission 69, p. 2; Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 3.

[69]      WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 6.

[70]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 23.

[71]      Wildlife Disease Association Australasia, Submission 117, p. 2.

[72]      Mr Graham Tupper, ACF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 23.

[73]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 2.

[74]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 11; see also Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 8.

[75]      Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 8 February 2013, p. 8.

[76]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7.

[77]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 12; see also Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 8.

[78]      Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, pp 3–4; Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, pp 8–9; Ms Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 13; Mr Philip Collier, Submission 32, p. 4; Dr Peter Kyne, Submission 51, p. 1; Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 4; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 3; Yarra Ranges Council, Submission 69, p. 3; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 12; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4; see also Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 119, pp 2–3; Ms Rachel Lowry, Zoos Victoria, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 2.

[79]      Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, pp 25–26; see also Mr Graham Tupper, ACF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 25.

[80]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 1.

[81]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 2.

[82]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 9.

[83]      Department of Land Resource Management, NT Government, Submission 159, p. 4.

[84]      Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 22.

[85]      Arid Lands Environment Centre, Submission 151, p. 1.

[86]      Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 7.

[87]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 20 [Q.18].

[88]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 20 [Q.18].

[89]      Director of Commonwealth Parks, Submission 144, p. 5.

[90]      See SEWPAC, Australian State of the Environment Report 2011, pp 579–581; and also Mr Graham Tupper, ACF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 26; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 3; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 1.

[91]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 1; see also Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 2; see also Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 2.

[92]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, pp 12–13.

[93]      Professor John Woinarski, Submission 48, p. 9.

[94]      Biodiversity Conservation Strategy, p. 14.

[95]      Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 33.

[96]      Hawke review, recommendation 67 and pp 384–392.

[97]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 7; see also Professor Stephen Garnett, BirdLife Australia, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 9.

[98]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 24 [Q.21].

[99]      SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 24 [Q.21]; see also TERN at: www.tern.org.au (accessed 23 April 2013).

[100]    Dr Martin Taylor, WWF-Australia, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 26.

[101]    Mr Philip Collier, Submission 32, p. 2; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 4; and see further http://www.ala.org.au/about-the-atlas/atlas-background/ (accessed 8 April 2013).

[102]    Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 2; see also Ms Lee Curtis, Submission 48, p. 2; see further SEWPAC, Species Profile and Threats Database, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl (accessed 23 April 2013).

[103]    SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 12; see also SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 20 [Q.18]; Professor Helene Marsh, TSSC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 66; Director of National Parks, Submission 144, pp 4 and 7.

[104]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 20 [Q.18].

[105]    Director of Commonwealth Parks, Submission 144, p. 3; SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 12.

[106]    Director of Commonwealth Parks, Submission 144, p. 5.

[107]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28; see also, for example, Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127; Dr Greg Clancy, Submission 52, p. 3; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 12; The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, p. 4; Ms Claire Parkes, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, 15 February 2013, p. 36.

[108]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 15.

[109]    See further: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triage (accessed 6 March 2013).

[110]    Bottrill et. Al., "Is conservation triage just smart decision making?", p. 1 at: http://www.uq.edu.au/spatialecology/docs/Publications/2008_Bottrill_etal_IsConservationTriage.pdf (accessed 23 April 2013).

[111]    Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 5.

[112]    Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 5.

[113]    Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 13.

[114]    Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 22.

[115]    Mr Atticus Fleming, AWC, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 20.

[116]    See, for example, Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 2; CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 5.

[117]    See, for example, CSIRO, Submission 77, p. 5; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10; The Wilderness Society, Submission 129, p. 4.

[118]    Wildlife Queensland, Submission 76, p. 4.

[119]    Wildlife Queensland, Submission 76, p. 3.

[120]    Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 2.

[121]    Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 2.

[122]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 30.

[123]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28.

[124]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 31.

[125]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28.

[126]    Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 10. See also Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, Back on Track species prioritisation framework, at: http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/wildlife/prioritisation-framework/ (accessed 16 April 2013).

[127]    Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 10.

[128]    Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 10.

[129]    Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 15 and also p. 9.

[130]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 11.

[131]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 28.

[132]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 29.

[133]    Dr Todd Soderquist and Dr Deborah Ashworth, Submission 2, p. 1.

[134]    Dr Todd Soderquist and Dr Deborah Ashworth, Submission 2, p. 2.

[135]    Ms Rachel Lowry, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, pp 4–5; see also BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 12.

[136]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 12.

[137]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, pp 32 and 30.

[138]    Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, pp 28 and 32.

[139]    AFMA, Submission 148, Attachment 2, p. 1.

[140]    Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 9.

[141]    Mr Peter Cochrane, Director of National Parks, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 71.

[142]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 23 [Q.20].

[143]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 23 [Q.20].

[144]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 23 [Q.20].

[145]    SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 69.

[146]    For example Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 3; Zoo and Aquarium Association, Submission 27, p. 1; NPAC, Submission 142, p. 3; Mr Leigh Howard, Young Lawyers' Section, Law Institute of Victoria, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 23; see also Tim Flannery, After The Future: Australia's New Extinction Crisis, Quarterly Essay Issue 48, p. 76.

[147]    Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Submission 57, p. 4; see also Ms Claire Parkes, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 37.

[148]    Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 13.

[149]    Dr John Clulow, Submission 97, pp 1–2.

[150]    See, for example, Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 4.

[151]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice, public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 23 [Q 20].

Chapter 7 - Regulatory arrangements at all levels of government

[1]        ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 5.

[2]        Note that the committee received very little evidence about the role of local government in protecting threatened species and ecological communities: see Mr Philip Collier, Submission 32, p. 3; Yarra Ranges Council, Submission 69, p. 2; Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 2.

[3]        For example Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 2; Australasian Native Orchid Society and the Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, p. 6; Dr Emma Rooksby and Dr Keith Horton, Submission 41, p. 2; Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Submission 57, p. 1; Associate Professor Mark Lintermans, Submission 60, p. 1; WWF Australia, Submission 81, pp 2, 8; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 10; Friends of Grasslands, Submission 86, p. 3; HSI, Submission 88, p. 6; Conondale Range Committee, Submission 96; Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 11; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 3; Mr Philip Rance, Submission 105, p. 2; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 8; Bendigo and District Environment Council, Bendigo Field Naturalists Club and Bendigo Sustainability Group, Submission 73; Ms Jasmyn Lynch, Submission 74, p. 1; Blue Mountains Conservation Society, Submission 75, pp 2–5; Greater Mary Association, Submission 104, p. 1; Caldera Environment Centre, Submission 106, p. 1; Urban Bushland Council WA, Submission 114, p. 5; Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 1; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 5; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, p. 14; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 11; National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 12 cf NFF, Submission 167, p. 1; PGV Environmental, Submission 166, pp 2–3.

[4]        See further Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Retaining Federal Approval Powers) Bill 2012, March 2013.

[5]        See, for example, Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 14; ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 5; ACF, Submission 147, p. 4; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 3; Blue Mountains Conservation Society, Submission 75¸ pp 3–4.

[6]        ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4; see also Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, pp 43–44.

[7]        See, for example, NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 8; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 1; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, pp 2–3; HSI, Submission 88, p. 6; National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 4; ACF, Submission 147, p. 3.

[8]        ACF, Submission 147, p. 5.

[9]        Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, pp 43–44; see also for example, Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 1.

[10]      Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 44.

[11]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, pp 3–4; Urban Bushland Council WA, Submission 114, pp 1–2.

[12]      Premier of Western Australia, Submission 169, p. 2.

[13]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, pp 3–4.

[14]      ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 5.

[15]      Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 8.

[16]      Professor John Woinarski, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 8.

[17]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Submission 46, p. 3; see also Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 2.

[18]      BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 13.

[19]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 13.

[20]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 2; Save the Bilby Fund, Submission 16, p. 3; Australian Deer Association, Submission 83; Dr Emma Rooksby and Dr Keith Horton, Submission 41, p. 2; Earth Learning Incorporated, Submission 124, p. 1; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 2; see also Tim Flannery, After The Future: Australia's New Extinction Crisis, Quarterly Essay Issue 48, p. 32.

[21]      'National' parks managed by the Commonwealth Director of National Parks include Booderee, Kakadu and Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Parks, each jointly managed with their Indigenous owners through statutory boards of management; and Christmas Island, Norfolk Island and Pulu Keeling National Parks located in Australia’s external territories: see Director of National Parks, Submission 144, p. 3.

[22]      National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 5.

[23]      Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 7.

[24]      WWF, Submission 81, p. 8; see also Dr Greg Clancy, Submission 52, p. 3.

[25]      See, for example, Dr Andrew Burbidge, Committee Hansard, 7 March 2013, p. 2; Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 2; BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, pp 9 and 15; Mr Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 17; Mr Edward Fensom, Brisbane Region Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 2 April 2013, pp 16–17; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 2; Mr Philip Rance, Submission 105, p. 2; Dr Tanzi Smith, Submission 103, p. 1; Australasian Bat Society, Submission 110, pp 15–16; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 11.

[26]      Mr Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 17; see also Mr Edward Fensom, Brisbane Region Environment Council, 2 April 2013, pp 16–17; Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, 22 February 2013, p. 17.

[27]      Mr Andrew Heaver, Submission 134, p. 3.

[28]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 2.

[29]      North East Forest Alliance, Submission 174, p. 62; Mr Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 17; Logan & Albert Conservation Association, Submission 165, p. 2; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 5; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, pp 6–7; Dr Greg Clancy, Submission 52, p. 3; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 3; Caldera Environment Centre, Submission 106, p. 5; National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 5; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 8.

[30]      NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 14; citing Carol Booth (2009) Is recreational hunting effective for feral animal control? Invasive Species Council; see also the Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 8.

[31]      Australian Deer Association, Submission 83, p. 8.

[32]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 3, p. 3; Australasian Native Orchid Society and Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, p. 4; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 6; Mr Philip Rance, Submission 105, p. 2; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 5; NPA NSW, Submission 145, p. 9; Bendigo and District Environment Council, Bendigo Field Naturalists Club and Bendigo Sustainability Group, Submission 73, p. 2; National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 5.

[33]      See further: SEWPAC, Alpine National Park, at http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/notices/assessments/victoria-alpine-national-park/ (accessed 9 April 2013).

[34]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 3, p. 3.

[35]      National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 5.

[36]      Threatened Plant Action Group of the Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 157, p. 3; Australasian Native Orchid Society and Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, p. 4; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 3; National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 5; NPA NSW, Submission 145, pp 14–15.

[37]      Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, pp 4–5.

[38]      Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 7.

[39]      WWF, Submission 81, p. 8.

[40]      Minister for Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland, Submission 130, p. 9.

[41]      Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 3; Dr Adrian Manning, Submission 30, pp 1–2; see also Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 4; Bendigo and District Environment Council, Bendigo Field Naturalists Club and Bendigo Sustainability Group, Submission 73, pp 4–5; see also Urban Bushland Council WA, Submission 114, p. 3.

[42]      Dr Adrian Manning, Submission 30, pp 1–2.

[43]      For example Professor David Lindenmayer, Submission 15, p. 2; Ms Harriett Swift, Submission 19; South East Forest Rescue, Submission 62; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63; Lawyers for Forests, Submission 70; LIV Young Lawyers' Section, Law Institute of Victoria, Submission 84; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 6; Healesville Environment Watch, MyEnvironment Inc and Friends of Leadbeater's Possum, Submission 92; Mr Mark Selmes, Submission 126; Mr Wayne Gumley, Submission 133; Environment East Gippsland, Submission 149, pp 1–2; North Coast Environment Council, Submission 161; MyEnvironment, Submission 163; South East Region Conservation Alliance, Submission 164; The Wilderness Society (Victoria), Submission 172; North East Forest Alliance, Submission 174. Note some submissions also raised concerns about private native forestry and its impacts on threatened species, see, for example, Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 5.

[44]      See, for example, North East Forest Alliance, Submission 174; South East Region Conservation Alliance, Submission 164; MyEnvironment, Submission 163.

[45]      See, for example, Healesville Environment Watch, MyEnvironment Inc and Friends of Leadbeater's Possum, Submission 92; Ms Pamela Miskin, Submission 61; The Wilderness Society (Victoria), Submission 172; North Coast Environment Council, Submission 161; Mr Don Butcher, Submission 146; Ms Sera Blair, Submission 67; Mr David Blair, Submission 79.

[46]      Ms Harriet Swift, Submission 19, pp 1–2.

[47]      Ms Vanessa Bleyer, Lawyers for Forests, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 26.

[48]      South East Region Conservation Alliance, Submission 164, p. 4; North Coast Environment Council, Submission 161; Lawyers for Forests, Submission 70, pp 16–19; ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment, p. 83.

[49]      Ms Vanessa Bleyer, Lawyers for Forests, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 22 and see also p. 25.

[50]      Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts, Second and final report: The operation of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, April 2009, para 1.106.

[51]      See further Hawke review, Chapter 10 and p. 252 for full recommendation.

[52]      Hawke review, p. 253.

[53]      Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, August 2011, p. 71.

[54]      ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment 1, p. 81, citing SEWPAC, Annual Report 2010-2011, p. 148 which stated that 130 out of 240 controlled actions in 2010-11 relating to listed threatened species or ecological communities.

[55]      See, for example, ACF, Submission 147, p. 2; HSI, Submission 88, pp 1–2; Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55; Greater Mary Association, Submission 104, p. 6; Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 4; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 3; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 10; Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20.

[56]      Professor Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 3; see also Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 12; Ms Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 12.

[57]      Professor Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 3; see also Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 12; Ms Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 12.

[58]      Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Submission 57, p. 1.

[59]      Dr Greg Clancy, Submission 52, p. 2; see also Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 3.

[60]      Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 6.

[61]      Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55, p. 1.

[62]      Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 22.

[63]      Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20.

[64]      See, for example, Ms Alexia Wellbelove, HSI, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 20; Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55, p. 2; Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 2; Dr Greg Clancy, Submission 52, p. 2; Blue Mountains Conservation Society, Submission 75, pp 5–6.

[65]      Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Submission 57, p. 1; and pp 6–7 of the 'Statement on Changes to Commonwealth Powers to Protect Australia's Environment' contained in that submission; see also EPBC Act, Part 12, Division 2 (bioregional plans) and Part 10, Division 1 (strategic assessments).

[66]      WWF, Submission 81, p. 8; see also Mr Bruce Boyes, Submission 107.

[67]      Hawke review, recommendation 6 (1).

[68]      Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, August 2011, p. 15.

[69]      SEWPAC, Submission 142, p. 1.

[70]      SEWPAC, Submission 142, p. 7.

[71]      See further SEWPAC, Strategic assessments, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/assessments/strategic.html (accessed 18 April 2013).

[72]      See, for example, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Submission 57; WWF, Submission 81, p. 8; Zoos Victoria, Submission 42, p. 2; Mr Peter Cosier, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 34; Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 13; Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150¸ pp 4–5.

[73]      Professor Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 3.

[74]      Professor Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 4.

[75]      See, for example, Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, pp 5–6; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 10.

[76]      National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 6.

[77]      National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 9.

[78]      National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 9.

[79]      Ms Yasmin Kelsall, Submission 100, p. 2.

[80]      Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 3; see also National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, pp 10–11.

[81]      Friends of Grasslands, Submission 86, p. 3.

[82]      Ms Clair Parkes, Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 35.

[83]      Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 45.

[84]      ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment, p. 83.

[85]      Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 45.

[86]      Professor Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 4.

[87]      Available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/guide-to-strategic-assessments.html (accessed 18 April 2013).

[88]      SEWPAC, A Guide to undertaking strategic assessments, pp 7–9.

[89]      See, for example: Dr Martine Maron, Submission 50, p. 3; Friends of Grasslands, Submission 86, p. 2; Professors Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 4; Gecko - Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Submission 156, pp 9–10;  Mr Edward Fensom, Brisbane Region Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 16; Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, pp 5–6; Australasian Native Orchid Society and the Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, p. 8; Clarence Environment Centre, Submission 63, p. 7; Bendigo and District Environment Council, Bendigo Field Naturalists Club and Bendigo Sustainability Group, Submission 73; Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 11, pp 10–11; Blue Mountains Conservation Society, Submission 75, p. 1; WWF, Submission 81, Attachment 2, p. 6; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 2; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 2; Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 9; National Parks Australia Council, Submission 142, p. 9.

[90]      Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 11.

[91]      SEWPAC, Submission 143, p. 7; see also SEWPAC, EPBC Act environment offsets policy, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/pubs/offsets-policy.pdf (accessed 2 April 2013).

[92]      SEWPAC, EPBC Act environment offsets policy, at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/pubs/offsets-policy.pdf (accessed 2 April 2013), p. 7.

[93]      Dr Martine Maron, Submission 55, p. 3.

[94]      Professors Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 4.

[95]      Professors Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 4.

[96]      Ms Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 12; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 2.

[97]      See, for example, Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 12.

[98]      Blue Mountains Conservation Society, Submission 75, p. 1; Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 8.

[99]      Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 1.

[100]    Urban Bushland Council WA, Submission 114, p. 4; see also Bendigo and District Environment Council, Bendigo Field Naturalists Club and Bendigo Sustainability Group, Submission 73, pp 4–5; and Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, pp 5–6.

[101]    Professor Lee Godden, Committee Hansard, 20 February 2013, p. 11.

[102]    WWF-Australia, Submission 81, Attachment 2, p. 6; see also Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Submission 134, p. 12; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 2.

[103]    Ms Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 5.

[104]    Ms Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 5.

[105]    SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 69.

[106]    SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 69.

[107]    SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 69.

[108]    SEWPAC, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 69.

[109]    NFF, Submission 167, p. 2; see also Ms Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 3.

[110]    Australasian Native Orchid Society and the Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, pp 1–2.

[111]    As set out in ss.391(2) of the EPBC Act.

[112]    See, for example, Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 3; Blue Mountains Conservation Society, Submission 75, p. 7; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 6; Caldera Environment Centre, Submission 106, p. 4 cf NSW Council of Freshwater Anglers, Submission 125, p. 1.

[113]    NSW Council of Freshwater Anglers, Submission 125, p. 3.

[114]    Ms Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 15; Mr Wayne Gumley, Submission 133, p.  5; Canberra Ornithologists Group, Submission 113, p. 3.

[115]    Australasian Native Orchid Society and the Australian Orchid Council, Submission 4, p. 7.

[116]    Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 5.

[117]    Hunter Bird Observers Club, Submission 176, p. 9; see also Mr Jonathan Meddings, Submission 58, pp 6–7.

[118]    WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 8.

[119]    S. Burgess and E. Bradley, Submission 101, p. 2; see also Dr Tanzi Smith, Submission 103, p. 3; Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 2.

[120]    Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, pp 5–6.

[121]    Hawke review, recommendation 62.

[122]    SEWPAC, Cost Recovery under the EPBC Act, http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/consultation-draft-cost-recovery.html (accessed 4 April 2013).

[123]    WWF-Australia, Submission 81, p. 8.

[124]    BirdLife Australia, Submission 82, p. 11; see also Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 10.

[125]    NFF, Submission 167, p. 2; Ms Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 4.

[126]    Ms Deborah Kerr, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 4; see also NFF, Submission 167, p. 2.

[127]    Mr Matt Linnegar, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 6.

[128]    SEWPAC, Answers to questions on notice from public hearing, 15 February 2013, p. 17 [Q.16].

[129]    Professors Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 4.

[130]    Professors Lee Godden and Jacqueline Peel, Submission 123, p. 5.

[131]    ACF, Submission 147, p. 4.

[132]    Mr Matt Linnegar, NFF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 6; cf Mr Graham Tupper, ACF, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 25; and see also Hawke review, recommendation 46.

[133]    Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Submission 150, p. 4.

[134]    ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment, p. 84.

[135]    ANEDO, Submission 137, p. 4.

[136]    The Colong Foundation for Wilderness, Submission 43, p. 2; see also ACF, Submission 147, p. 6; Mr Brendan Sydes, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 49.

[137]    Ms Rachel Walmsley, ANEDO, Committee Hansard, 15 February 2013, p. 44.

[138]    Ms Petrina Maizey, Gold Coast and Hinterland Environment Council and Save Bahrs Scrub Alliance, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 15; see also Port Campbell Community Group, Submission 31, pp 2 and 5; and ANEDO, Submission 137, Attachment, p. 83.

[139]    See SEWPAC, Report a breach of the EPBC Act, at:  http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/breach.html (accessed 5 April 2013).

[140]    Clarence Valley Conservation Coalition, Submission 38, p. 6; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 2; Greater Mary Association, Submission 104, p. 4; Mary River Catchment Coordinating Committee, Submission 115, p. 5; Batwatch Australia, Submission 139, p. 10.

[141]    Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 2.

[142]    Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, p. 2.

[143]    Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, pp 13–15.

[144]    See further Dr Chris McGrath, Submission 78, pp 3–5; Mr Roger Currie, Wide Bay Burnett Environment Council, Committee Hansard, 22 February 2013, p. 13; Mr Jeremy Tager, Submission 89, pp 2–3 and Supplementary Submission 89.

[145]    Mr Jeremy Tager, Supplementary Submission 89, p. 1.

[146]    Mr Jeremy Tager, Supplementary Submission 89, p. 1.

[147]    Mr Jeremy Tager, Supplementary Submission 89, p. 2.

[148]    AFMA, Submission 148, p. 7.

[149]    AFMA, Submission 148, pp 1–2 and also p. 6.

[150]    AFMA, Submission 148, Attachment 2, p. 1.

[151]    AFMA, Submission 148, p. 6.

[152]    Hawke review, recommendation 40.

[153]    Australian Government, Australian Government Response to the Report of the Independent Review of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, August 2011, p. 73.

[154]    AFMA, Submission 148, p. 7 and Attachment 3.

[155]    ANAO, Audit Work Program July 2013, p. 117.

Australian Greens' additional comments

[1]        Senate Environment and Communications Legislation Committee inquiry into Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Retaining Federal Approval Powers) Bill 2012, March 2013, available: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed%20inquiries/2010-13/epbcfederalpowers/index.  

[2]        Invasive Species Council, Submission 140, p. 8; see also Dr Carol Booth, Invasive Species Council, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 10. 

[3]        Professor Hugh Possingham and Associate Professor Michael McCarthy, Submission 127, p. 3. 

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