Footnotes

Footnotes

[1] NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, p. 1.

[2] National Heart Foundation, Submission 45, pp 1–2; VicHealth, Submission 54, pp 5–6; Sports Medicine Australia, Submission 19, pp 1–2.

[3] National Heart Foundation, Submission 45, p. 1.

[4] VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 5. See also Dr Fullagar, Submission 2, pp 1–14.

[5] AE Bauman, ' Updating the evidence that physical activity is good for health: an epidemiological review 2000-2003', Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7(1), 2005; 6–19. See also Green Prescription, Physical Activity and Health: the benefits of physical activity on minimising the risk of disease morbidity and mortality, August 2001.

[6] US Surgeon General, Physical Activity and Health, 1996.

[7] AIHW, Australia's Health 2006, pp 146,162. See also VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 5.

[8] J. Stephenson et. al., The Costs of Illness Attributable to Physical Inactivity in Australia, Commonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care and the ASC, 2000, pp vii–viii.

[9] A. Bauman et. al., Getting Australia Active, National Public Health Partnership, 2002, p. vi.

[10] M. Pratt et. al., 'Higher Direct Medical Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity', The Physician and Sportsmedicine, vol 28, no.10, October 2000, p. 1.

[11] National Heart Foundation, Submission 45, p. 2. See also Sports Medicine Australia, Submission 19, p. 1.

[12] NHMRC, Acting on Australia's Weight, 1997, p. 85.

[13] National Obesity Taskforce, Health-Weight 2008, Department of Health and Ageing, 2003, p. 2.

[14] US Centers for Disease Control, 'Obesity Costs States Billions in Medical Expense', Press Release, 21 January 2004.

[15] AIHW, Australia's Young People: Their Health and Well Being, 2003, p. 100.

[16] AIHW, The Burden of Disease and Injury in Australia, 1999, p. 71. See also www.womhealth.org.au

[17] VicHealth, Submission 54, pp 5–6; NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, p. 1.

[18] AIHW, Australia's Health 2006, p. 162.

[19] National Heart Foundation, Submission 45, p. 1.

[20] VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 5.

[21] AIHW, Australia's Health 2006, p. 164.

[22] VicHealth, Submission 54, pp 5–6. See also Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 3.

[23] Bowls Australia, Submission 70, p. 2.

[24] VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 5.

[25] www.healthyactive.gov.au

[26] Minister for Health and Ageing, 'Better Health for all Australians', Media Release, 10 February 2006.

[27] www.healthyactive.gov.au

[28] Sport and Recreation Tasmania, Submission 51, p. 3.

[29] Queensland Government, Submission 49, pp 2–5; Queensland Womensport, Submission 39, p. 6.

[30]   WA Department of Sport and Recreation, Submission 48, p. 3.

[31] 'Organised sport' is defined in the survey as sports played or trained for outside of school hours which were organised by a club, association or school. The club or association need not be a sporting body, for example, it may be a church group or a local gym. Any organised or structured training or practice sessions are included as long as they have been set by an instructor or coach. See ABS, Children's Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities, Cat. No. 4901.0, April 2003, p. 49.

[32] ABS, Children's Participation, p. 5.

[33] ABS, Children's Participation, pp 5–6, 14.

[34] ABS, The Young and the Restful (Re-Visited) – The Effects of Recreational Choices and Demographic Factors on Children's Participation in Sport, 2005, pp 11, 15.

[35] 'Organised sport and physical activities' refers to sport and physical activities that were organised in full or in part by a club, association or other type of organisation. See Australian Sports Commission, Participation in Exercise, Recreation and Sport, Annual Report 2004, (ERASS survey), p. 61.

[36] 'Organised sport and physical activities' refers to sport and physical activities which were organised by a club or association. The club or organisation did not need to be a sporting body – it may be a social club, church group or gym. Whether an activity was regarded as a sport or physical activity was left to the opinion of the respondent. However prompt cards listed the following –fitness/health activities; other leisure physical activities; ball sports; racquet sports; other team sports; water sports; other sports; and any other physical activities. See ABS, Participation in Sport and Physical Activities, Cat. No. 4177.0, 2002, p. 38.

[37] ABS, Involvement in Organised Sport and Physical Activity, Cat. No. 6285.0, April 2004.

[38] ASC, Submission 30B.

[39] Relates to people aged 15 years and over who participated in any organised physical activities for exercise, recreation and sport over a 12-month period prior to interview in 2004. See ERASS survey, p. 2.

[40] ERASS survey, p. 6. The report presents information regarding the level and frequency of participation in organised and non-organised activity for exercise, recreation and sport; type of participation in physical activity; and trends in participation over time.

[41] ERASS survey, p. 33.

[42] These figures combine those who reported in engaging only in organised sport and those who participated in both organised and non-organised sport.

[43] ABS, Participation in Sport and Physical Activities 2002, pp 3–5.

[44] Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 5.

[45] Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 14.

[46] Ms Justin, Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 19.

[47] Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 5.

[48] M. Lo Casio et. al., Busy Mums Wanted: A Qualitative Study of Mothers and Physical Activity, 1999, cited in NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, p. 5.

[49] Ms Gilchrist, Submission 11, p. 3.

[50] Ms Gilchrist, Submission 11, pp 2–4.

[51] AFL, Submission 69.

[52] Sport and Recreation Queensland, Submission 49, p. 3.

[53] Ms Boon, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 25; Sport and Recreation Queensland, Submission 49.

[54] Ms Jolly, VicHealth, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 2.

[55] Jackie Kiewa, Terry Brown and Ray Hibbins, South East Queensland Outdoor Recreation Demand Study, Queensland Outdoor Recreation Federation, 2001.

[56] Jackie Kiewa, Terry Brown and Ray Hibbins, South East Queensland Outdoor Recreation Demand Study, Queensland Outdoor Recreation Federation, 2001, p. 37.

[57] Queensland Department of Communication and Information, Local Government, Planning and Sport and Department of Natural Resources, The Central Queensland Outdoor Recreation Demand Study, The Departments, 2000.

[58] See Queensland Department of Communication and Information, Local Government, Planning and Sport and Department of Natural Resources, The Central Queensland Outdoor Recreation Demand Study, The Departments, 2000, p. 12; Jackie Kiewa, Terry Brown and Ray Hibbins, South East Queensland Outdoor Recreation Demand Study, Queensland Outdoor Recreation Federation, 2001, p. 85.

[59] Outdoor Industry Foundation, Outdoor Recreation Participation Study, Eighth Edition, 2006, http://www.outdoorindustryfoundation.org/resources.research.participation.html, accessed August 2006.

[60] Outdoor Council of Australia, Submission 75.

[61] Fitness Australia, Submission 74.

[62] Fitness First Australia, Submission 73.

[63] Zest Health Clubs, Submission 79.

[64] Fernwood Women's Health Clubs, Submission 78.

[65] Dr Colvin, ACHPER, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 83.

[66] Ms Jolly, VicHealth, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 6.

[67] Ms Kerr, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 6.

[68] ASC, National Policy on Women and Girls in Sport, Recreation and Physical Activity, 1999, p. 3.

[69] ERASS survey, pp 9–12, 47–48.

[70] National Policy on Women and Girls in Sport, pp 3–4; ASC, Why Don’t Girls Play Sport?, 2001; ASC, Body Image and Participation in Sport, 2001; House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Equity for Women in Sport: A Discussion Paper, September 1991, pp 21–23; Wimmera Regional Sports Assembly, Submission 34; Fitness Australia, Submission 74.

[71] ASC, Body Image and Participation in Sport, p. 1.

[72] ASC, Why Don't Girls Play Sport?

[73] Ms Boon, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 30.

[74] Ms Justin, Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 21.

[75] Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 5.

[76] Wimmera Regional Sports Assembly, Submission 34.

[77] ASC, Why Don't Girls Play Sport?, p. 4.

[78] VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 12; WA Netball, Submission 13, p. 2.

[79] Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 5; Confederation of Australian Sport, Submission 60, p. 4.

[80] Department of Education, Science and Training, Active School Curriculum, http://www.healthyactive.gov.au/internet/healthyactive/publishing.nsf/Content/active_school_curriculum.pdf/$File/active_school_curriculum.pdf, accessed August 2006.

[81] Ms Gilchrist, Submission 11, p. 1.

[82] Wimmera Regional Sports Assembly, Submission 34, p. 2.

[83] Dr Fullagar, Submission 2.

[84] Department of Sport and Recreation WA, Submission 48, p. 1.

[85] Recreation SA, Submission 38, p. 1.

[86] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 11.

[87] Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 4.

[88] Recreation SA, Submission 38, p. 1.

[89] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 4; Recreation SA, Submission 38, pp 1–2.

[90] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 4.

[91] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 11; VicSport, Submission 31, p. 5.

[92] Sport 2000 Taskforce, Shaping Up: A Review of Commonwealth Involvement in Sport and Recreation in Australia, 1999, pp 90–93; House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Half Way to Equal: Report of the Inquiry into Equal Opportunity and Equal Status for Women in Australia, April 1992, pp 114–17.

[93] Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 5; Confederation of Australian Sport, Submission 60, p. 4.

[94] Department of Education, Science and Training, Active School Curriculum, http://www.healthyactive.gov.au/internet/healthyactive/publishing.nsf/Content/active_school_curriculum.pdf/$File/active_school_curriculum.pdf, accessed August 2006.

[95] www.healthyactive.gov.au, accessed August 2006.

[96] WA Sports Federation, Submission 37, p. 4.

[97] WA Netball, Submission 13, p. 2.

[98] Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts, Physical and Sport Education, December 1992, pp xiii–xvi; Half Way to Equal, pp 114–17; Shaping Up, pp 90–91.

[99] ACHPER, Submission 17, p. 3.

[100] Recreation SA, Submission 38, p. 4.

[101] Active After-School Communities, http://www.healthyactive.gov.au/internet/healthyactive/publishing.nsf/Content/initiatives-a, accessed August 2006.

[102] Miss West, Bowls Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 98.

[103] Ms Dix, Netball Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 99.

[104] Mrs Trotter, Wimmera Regional Sports Assembly, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 30.

[105] Ms Crow, Softball Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 99.

[106] Mr Lozan, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 31.

[107] NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, p. 5.

[108] Womensport and Recreation NSW, Submission 20, pp 3–4; NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, p. 5; ASC, How to Include Women and Girls in Sport, Recreation and Physical Activity, 1999, p. 8; NSW Department of Sport and Recreation, 'Increasing the participation of women and girls', Information Sheet, 2002; House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Equity for Women in Sport: A Discussion Paper, 1991, pp 12–15.

[109] ASC, How to Include Women, p. 8.

[110] VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 12.

[111] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, Appendix 5.

[112] Fitness Australia, Submission 74.

[113] Ms Boon, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 24.

[114] Cited in SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, Appendix 5.

[115] Ms Sheehan, Netball Victoria, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 47.

[116] Recreation SA, Submission 38, p. 1.

[117] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 4

[118] Fitness First Australia, Submission 73; Zest Health Clubs, The Zest Difference – How Do I Choose?, http://www.zesthealthclubs.com.au/pages.asp?page=zest&pubid=17&issid=61&artid=307&pgid=343, accessed August 2006.

[119] Ms Roffey, VicSport, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 15.

[120] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 5; VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 9. See also Mr Lozan, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 23; Ms Jolly, VicHealth, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 2.

[121] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 11.

[122] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 11.

[123] VicHealth, Submission 54, p. 9; Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 11.

[124] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 6.

[125] ABS, The Young and the Restful, p. 15.

[126] ABS, Sport and Related Recreational Physical ActivityThe Social Correlates of Participation and Non-Participation by Adults, 2005, pp 11–12.

[127] ASC, Active Australia: The Numbers Game, 2000, pp 18–27.

[128] ASC, Active Australia, p. 26.

[129] Recreation SA, Submission 38, pp 3–4.

[130] K. Ball et. al., 'How can Socio-Economic Differences in Physical Activity among Women be Explained?', Women and Health, vol. 43, no. 1, 2006, pp 108–111. The study involved interviews with 19 high-,19 mid- and 18 low-SES women in three suburbs in the Melbourne metropolitan area.

[131] OfW, Submission 32, pp 2–3.

[132] M. Booth et.al., 'Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Older Australians', Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, vol.10, pp 271–280, 2002. See also WA Department of Sport and Recreation, Submission 48, pp 1–2.

[133] Ms Pickup, ACHPER, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 90.

[134] NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, p. 5.

[135] Ms Pickup, ACHPER, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 90.

[136] Ms Willis, Yowani Country Club, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, pp 29–30.

[137] ABS, Sport and Physical Recreation Participation Among Persons with a Disability, July 2006, pp 9–10.

[138] Half Way to Equal, pp 203–04.

[139] WWDA, Submission 25, pp 5–7.

[140] Ms Salthouse, WWDA, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 5.

[141] Ms Salthouse, WWDA, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 5.

[142] Ms Salthouse, WWDA, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 3.

[143] Disabled WinterSport Australia, Submission 9, p. 1.

[144] WWDA, Submission 25, pp 4–7. See also Women's Centre for Health Matters, Submission 33, pp 1–5.

[145] ABS, General Social Survey: Summary Results, 2002, p. 54.

[146] OfW, Submission 32, pp 4–5.

[147] ASC, Active Australia, pp 15–16.

[148] Professor Tracy Taylor, 'Identifying Best Practices in Sport and Recreation for Women from non-English Speaking Backgrounds', Submission 29, pp iii–vi.

[149] Professor Tracy Taylor, Identifying Best Practices, Submission 29, pp iii–vi.

[150] Professor Tracy Taylor, Identifying Best Practices, Submission 29, p. vi. See also Mr Lozan, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 31.

[151] Womensport and Recreation NSW, Submission 20, p. 3.

[152] Professor Tracy Taylor, Identifying Best Practices, Submission 29, pp 20-21.

[153] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 14.

[154] ABS, Aboriginal and Torres Trait Islander Peoples – Aspects of Sport and Recreation, September 2004, p. 4.

[155] ASC, Submission 30, p. 18.

[156] Sport 2000 Taskforce, Shaping Up: A Review of Commonwealth Involvement in Sport and Recreation in Australia, 1999, pp 93–94; ASC, Submission 30, p. 18.

[157] WA Netball, Submission 13, p. 1. See also Ms Jennings, NT Department of Local Government, Housing and Sport, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, pp 39–41.

[158] ABS, Participation in Sport and Physical Activities, pp 4, 11.

[159] Social Correlates of Participation, pp 11–12.

[160] Mrs Trotter, Wimmera Regional Sports Assembly, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, pp 26–27.

[161] NT Department of Local Government, Housing and Sport, Submission 58, pp 3–5.

[162]    Ms Jennings, NT Department of Local Government, Housing and Sport, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, pp 40, 45.

[163] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 57.

[164] Mr Adamson, Hockey Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 89.

[165] Big V Basketball, Submission 18, p. 3; Big V Basketball, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 35.

[166] Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 14.

[167] Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 3.

[168] ANPA/AWU, Submission 62, pp 5–8; Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 14; Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 3.

[169] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 16.

[170] AOC, Submission 27, p. 2.

[171] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 57.

[172] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 61.

[173] ANPA/AWU, Submission 62, pp 5–6.

[174] Netball Australia, Submission 65, p. 2.

[175] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 13.

[176] Hockey Australia, Submission 43, p. 4.

[177] Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 2.

[178] Mr Shorten, AWU, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 63.

[179] ANPA/AWU, Submission 62, pp 7–8. See also www.sparc.org.nz, accessed August 2006.

[180] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, pp 61–62.

[181] Ms Dick, ANPA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 58.

[182] Ms Kitchin, ANPA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, pp 58–59.

[183] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 62.

[184] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 62.

[185] Ms Dick, ANPA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 58.

[186] See, for example, SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, pp 10–11.

[187] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 57.

[188] FFA, Submission 47, p. 19.

[189] FFA, Submission 47, Appendix 1, p. 19. See also Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, pp 20–21.

[190] Mr Boultbee, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 17.

[191] Ms Dick, ANPA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 60.

[192] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 13.

[193] ASC, Submission 30, p. 18.

[194] www.ausport.gov.au, accessed August 2006.

[195] ASC, Submission 30, p. 19.

[196] www.ais.org.au, accessed August 2006.

[197] ASC, Submission 30, p. 4.

[198] ASC, Submission 30, p. 4.

[199] Athletes who are 'carded' are eligible for funding and services, as determined by their National Sports Organisation.

[200] www.sparc.org.nz, accessed August 2006.

[201] Ms Quigley, Softball Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 97.

[202] Ms Mitchell, Women in Sport Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 45.

[203] Ms Trotter, Wimmera Regional Sports Assembly, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 31.

[204] Miss Quigley, Softball Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 97.

[205] Netball Australia, Submission 65, p. 2.

[206] Netball Australia, Submission 65, p. 1.

[207] Kaiser Family Foundation and Children NOW, Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Two-Part Study on Gender and Media, 1977. See also V. Barry, 'Adolescents' Uses of Media for Self-Socialisation', Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 24, no. 5, 1995, pp 519-33.

[208] Ms Vescio, Women in Sport Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 51.

[209] Ms Vescio, Women in Sport Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 49.

[210] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 15.

[211] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 15.

[212] ANPA/AWU, Submission 62, pp 10–12.

[213] Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 3.

[214] FFA, Submission 47, p. ii.

[215] FFA, Submission 47, p. ii.

[216] FFA Submission 47, p. ii. See also Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 13.

[217] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 15.

[218] Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 3.

[219] Netball Victoria, Submission 21, p. 14; Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 3.

[220] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 16.

[221] ANPA/AWU, Submission 62, p. 9.

[222] AOC, Submission 27, p. 2.

[223] FFA, Submission 47, attachment 1, p. 16.

[224] Ms Dick, ANPA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 59.

[225] FFA, Submission 47, attachment 1, p. 4.

[226]    Cricket NSW, Submission 40.

[227] ASC, Submission 30, p. 21.

[228] Hockey Australia, Submission 43, pp 2–3.

[229] Mr Adamson, Hockey Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 82.

[230] AOC, Submission 27, Attachment 3, p. 18.

[231] AOC, Submission 27, p. 3.

[232] Ms Brownlee, AOC, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 6.

[233] Bowls Australia, Submission 70, p. 3.

[234] PGA, Submission 52, p. 4.

[235] Mr Bird, Big V Basketball, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 45.

[236] Mr Woodman, AFL, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 91.

[237] http://www.paralympic.org.au/apc_sub.asp?id=292, accessed August 2006.

[238] Mr Brown, Cricket Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 90.

[239] ACTSport, Submission 36, pp 7–8.

[240] ASC, Submission 30A, pp 2, 4.

[241] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 10.

[242] AOC, Submission 27, p. 3.

[243] Ms Reid, Submission 26, p. 1.

[244] Ms Reid, Submission 26, p. 3.

[245] Ms Brownlee, AOC, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, pp 7–8.

[246] Ms Boon, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, pp 26–27.

[247] Ms Brownlee, AOC, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 2.

[248] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 20.

[249] AWRA, Submission 71, p. 7. See also Mrs Crosswhite, AWRA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 76.

[250] Womensport Queensland, Submission 39, p. 17; Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 9.

[251] Softball Australia, Submission 24, p. 5. See also Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 5.

[252] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 20.

[253] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, pp 20–21.

[254] Ms Vescio, Women in Sport Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 55.

[255] Womensport Queensland, Submission 39, p. 17; Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, pp 9–10.

[256] AWRA, Submission 71, pp 7–8; Womensport Queensland, Submission 39, pp 17–18; SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 20.

[257] AWRA, Submission 71, p. 7.

[258] Womensport and Recreation Victoria, Submission 55, p. 10.

[259] SA Premier's Council for Women, Submission 57, p. 20.

[260] Ms Roffey, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 13.

[261] Ms Brownlee, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, pp 5–6.

[262] AWRA, Submission 71, p. 6.

[263] Ms Roffey, VicSport, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, pp 12–13.

[264] CAS, Submission 60, p. 8.

[265] Mrs Crosswhite, AWRA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 75.

[266] AOC, Submission 27, p. 4.

[267] AOC, Submission 27, p. 4.

[268] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 11. See also Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 6.

[269] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 11.

[270] AOC, Submission 27, p. 5.

[271] AOC, Submission 27, p. 5.

[272] Womensport Queensland, Submission 39, p. 16.

[273] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 8.

[274] NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, pp 9–10; Ms Jenkins, NSW Sport and Recreation, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, pp 92–93.

[275] Queensland Government, Submission 49, pp 2–3.

[276] WA Department of Sport and Recreation, Submission 48, p. 6.

[277] ASC, Submission 30, p. 13.

[278] ACHPER, Submission 17, p. 7.

[279] Womensport and Recreation NSW, Submission 20, p. 5.

[280] AWRA, Submission 71, p. 8.

[281] ACHPER, Submission 17, pp 7–8.

[282] VicSport, Submission 31, p. 9.

[283] Softball Australia, Submission 24, p. 5.

[284] Hockey Australia, Submission 43, pp 5–6.

[285] Bowls Australia, Submission 70, p. 3.

[286] Cricket Australia, Submission 44, p. 5.

[287] CAS, Submission 60, p. 7; Womensport and Recreation NSW, Submission 20, pp 4–5.

[288] Hockey Australia, Submission 43, p. 6.

[289] Mr Adamson, Hockey Australia, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 89.

[290] AWRA, Submission 71, p. 8; CAS, Submission 60, p. 7; Womensport and Recreation NSW, Submission 20, pp 4–5; Cricket Australia, Submission 44, pp 5–6; See also ASC, How to Include Women and Girls in Sport, Recreation and Physical Activity, 1999, p. 8; Sport 2000 Taskforce, Shaping Up: A Review of Commonwealth Involvement in Sport and Recreation in Australia, 1999, pp 80–81.

[291] Hockey Australia, Submission 43, p. 6.

[292] PGA, Submission 52, p. 5.

[293] VicSport, Submission 31, pp 8–9.

[294] NSW Sport and Recreation, Submission 53, p. 9.

[295]    WA Department of Sport and Recreation, Submission 48, p. 6.

[296] Greg Baum, 'Count me out: women must earn coverage', The Age, 5 August 2006, p. 6 (sport).

[297] Channel 7, Sunrise, 3 August 2006.

[298] 4 gold, 3 silver and 2 bronze to the men's 3 gold 2 silver and 1 bronze. See Australian Olympic Committee, Aquatics – swimming, http://www.olympics.com.au/sports.cfm?SportID=1&DisciplineID=14, accessed August 2006.

[299] Hockey Australia, Hockeyroos Major Achievements, http://www.hockey.org.au/natteams/hockeyroos.asp, accessed September 2006.

[300] Women's National Basketball Association, http://www.wnba.com, accessed August 2006.

[301] Nabila Ahmed, ' Goss still living with her instant of fame that has lasted a decade', The Age, 7 December 2003, http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/12/06/1070625580792.html?from=storyrhs, accessed August 2006.

[302] Swimming Australia, 'World record bonanza to close short course champs', 28 August 2006, http://www.swimming.org.au/News/Latest%20News.aspx?nwid=%7B6E4C15A3-2CB8-448C-AF97-1FFFD7957A29%7D, accessed August 2006.

[303] Amanda Lulham, 'Swifts target unbeaten season', The Australian, 31 August 2006.

[304] See Helen Menzies, 'Women's sport: treatment by the media', in K Dwyer (ed.) Sportswomen Towards 2000: A Celebration, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 1989, pp 220–31.

[305] Murray Phillips, An Illusory Image: A Report on the Media Coverage and Portrayal of Women's Sport in Australia, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra, 1996.

[306] Ms Pat Mickan, SA Premier's Council for Women, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 50.

[307] Murray Phillips, An Illusory Image: A Report on the Media Coverage and Portrayal of Women's Sport in Australia, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra, 1996, p. 8.

[308] House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Half Way to Equal, April 1992, p. 118.

[309] Murray Phillips, An Illusory Image: A Report on the Media Coverage and Portrayal of Women's Sport in Australia, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra, 1996, p. 14.

[310] Mr Malone, CEO, Premier Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 33.

[311] Note this does not take account of regional sport telecasts, about which the committee did not receive data.

[312] * projected figures to end Financial Year; ** includes 34 hours broadcast on ABC2; *** Women’s sport as a percentage of total National sport broadcast.

[313] Ms Reid, ACTSport, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 10.

[314] Patrick Smith, 'Webb greatest of all but unable to break through grass ceiling', The Australian, 2 August 2006, p. 19.

[315] Mrs Tullberg, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 66.

[316] Lois Bryson, A Sociological Perspective on Women and Sport in Australia, in Equity for Women in Sport Seminar papers, 28 February 1991.

[317] Mr Lozan, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 27.

[318] Margaret Henley, 'Going mainstream: women's televised sport through a case study of the 1999 Netball World Championships', in Roger Horrocks and Nick Perry (eds), Television in New Zealand: Programming the Nation, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp 167–183.

[319] Alina Bernstein, 'Is it Time for a Victory Lap?: Changes in the Media Coverage of Sport', International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 37, no. 3–4, 2002, p. 423.

[320] Patrick Smith, 'Webb greatest of all but unable to break through grass ceiling', The Australian, 2 August 2006, p. 19.

[321] National Basketball Association, http://www.nba.com/history/awards_mvp.html, accessed August 2006.

[322] Mr Marquard, Premier Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 42.

[323] Ms Boon, Womensport and Recreation NSW, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 27.

[324] WNBA, History of the WNBA, http://www.wnba.com/about_us/historyof_wnba.html, accessed August 2006.

[325] Margaret Henley, 'Going mainstream: women's televised sport through a case study of the 1999 Netball World Championships', in Roger Horrocks and Nick Perry (eds), Television in New Zealand: Programming the Nation, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 178.

[326] Chris Isidore, 'WNBA: lovable money loser', 17 August 2001, CNNfn, http://money.cnn.com/2001/08/17/companies/column_sportsbiz/, accessed August 2006.

[327] Ms Reid, ACTSport, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 12.

[328] Mrs Tullberg, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 66.

[329] Ms Janice Crosswhite, Submission 6; Ms Mickan, SA Premier's Council for Women, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, pp 53–54.

[330] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 59.

[331] Ms Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 60.

[332] VicSport - The Sports Federation of Victoria, Submission 31, p. 7.

[333] Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 13.

[334] Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 13.

[335] Channel 7, Sunrise, 3 August 2006.

[336] Mark O'Keefe, 'Sexploitation or pride? Female Olympians' revealing poses stir debate', Newhouse News Service, 15 September 2000, http://www.newhouse.com/archive/story1a091500.html, accessed August 2006.

[337] Murray Phillips, An Illusory Image: A Report on the Media Coverage and Portrayal of Women's Sport in Australia, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra, 1996, p. 24.

[338] Ms Reid, ACTSport, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 11.

[339] Murray Phillips, An Illusory Image: A Report on the Media Coverage and Portrayal of Women's Sport in Australia, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra, 1996, pp 8–11, 14, 17, 20–21.

[340] Ms Jennifer Riatti, Submission 23.

[341] Dianne Jones, 'Half the Story? Olympic Women on ABC News Online', Media International Australia, vol. 110, pp 132–146, 2004.

[342] Alina Bernstein, 'Is it Time for a Victory Lap?: Changes in the Media Coverage of Sport', International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 37, no. 3–4, pp 415–428, 2002.

[343] Mr Blandthorn, AWU, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 57.

[344] Mrs Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 61; Mr Blandthorn, AWU, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 57.

[345] Mrs Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 61.

[346] TVNZ – TV One, Submission 81 and attachments.

[347] Mrs Ellis, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 61.

[348] Mr Blandthorn, AWU,  Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 53; Ms Roffey, VicSport, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 15.

[349] Mr Shorten, AWU, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 56.

[350] Ms Roffey, VicSport, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 15.

[351] Mr Blandthorn, AWU, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 57.

[352] See, for example, Margaret Henley, 'Going Mainstream: women's' televised sport through a case study of the 1999 Netball World Championships', In Television in New Zealand: Programming the Nation, Roger Horrocks & Nick Perry (Eds), Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 2004; Margaret Henley, 'Sports Media: Our world on their Shoulders?', In Media Studies in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Luke Goode & Nabeel Zuberi (Eds), Pearson Longman, Auckland, 2004.

[353] Margaret Henley, Submission 80, p. 1.

[354] Margaret Henley, Submission 80; TVNZ – TV One, Submission 81; ANPA / AWU, Submission 62.

[355] Ms Mickan, SA Premier's Council for Women, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 51. See also Mrs Crosswhite, AWRA, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, p. 73.

[356] ABC, Submission 59, p. 1.

[357] ASC, Submission 30, pp 13, 22.

[358] Senator the Hon Helen Coonan, Media Release, 'New Media Framework for Australia', 13 July 2006, http://www.minister.dcita.gov.au/media/media_releases/new_media_framework_for_australia, accessed August 2006.

[359] ABC, Submission 59, p. 5.

[360] Australian Subscription Television & Radio Association (ASTRA), Submission 72, p. 2.

[361] See ratings data produced by OzTam, http://www.oztam.com.au/archives.aspx?Year=2005, accessed August 2006.

[362] For example, Mrs Janice Crosswhite, Submission 6; Women in Sport Media Group, Submission 16, Ms Mitchell, Women in Sport Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 46; Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER), Submission 17; Womensport & Recreation NSW, Submission 20; Australian Womensport & Recreation Association, Submission 71.

[363] House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Half Way to Equal, April 1992, p. 146.

[364] Government response to 'Halfway to Equal' by the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, presented by the Hon. Paul Keating Prime Minister and the Hon. Wendy Fatin, Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Status of Women, 17 December 2002, p. 63.

[365] Stephen Nugent, Linda Sheldon, Kate Aisbett, Cherie Harkness and Nick Herd, What we want from our TVs, Australian Broadcasting Tribunal Monograph Series, No. 4, 1992.

[366] http://www.acma.gov.au/acmainterwr/aba/tv/content/documents/broadcasting%20svces%20-%20australian%20content%20standard%202005.pdf, accessed August 2006.

[367] Greg Baum, 'Count me out: women must earn coverage', The Age, 5 August 2006, p. 6 (sport).

[368] WA Sports Federation, Submission 37, p. 3.

[369] Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 15.

[370] Thomas Heath, 'A matter of value instead of profit', Washington Post, 12 July 2006, p. E01.

[371] Bowls Australia, Submission 70.

[372] Ms Buckley, FFA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 19.

[373] Submission 16, p. 3.

[374] ASC, Submission 30, p. 22.

[375] APC, Submission 77, p. 2.

[376] Ms Salthouse, WWDA, Proof Committee Hansard, 4 August 2006, p. 3.

[377] Ms Mitchell, WWDA, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 46.

[378] Murray Phillips, An Illusory Image: A Report on the Media Coverage and Portrayal of Women's Sport in Australia, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra, 1996; Dr Lynne Embrey, Submission 15; Mrs Tullberg, Proof Committee Hansard, 3 August 2006, pp 67–69.

[379] Mr Malone, Premier Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006.

[380] Ms Mitchell, Women in Sport Media Group, Proof Committee Hansard, 2 August 2006, p. 51.

[381]    Professional Golfers Association, Submission 52, section 4.3.

[382] Dr Lyn Embrey, Submission 15.

[383]    Australian Sports Commission, National Policy on Women and Girls in Sport, Recreation and Physical Activity, 1999, http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/1999/ascpub/national_policy_women.pdf, accessed September 2006.

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