Footnotes

[1]        Journals of the Senate, 2016, No. 11 (13 October 2016), p. 329.

Chapter 2 - Electricity markets and the role of coal fired power stations

[1]        Climate Change Authority, Policy options for Australia's electricity supply sector: Special review research report, August 2016, p. 24.

[2]        Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO), Fact Sheet: The National Electricity Market, p. 1. Available at: https://www.aemo.com.au/-/media/Files/PDF/National-Electricity-Market-Fact-Sheet.pdf (accessed 6 November 2016).

[3]        Climate Change Authority, Policy options for Australia's electricity supply sector: Special review research report, August 2016, p. 24.

[4]        Climate Change Authority, Policy options for Australia's electricity supply sector: Special review research report, August 2016, p. 24.

[5]        Clean Energy Council, Submission 13, p. 2.

[6]        Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's electricity supply sector: Special review research report, August 2016, p. 15. Available at: http://www.climatechangeauthority.gov.au/sites/prod.climatechangeauthority.gov.au/files/files/SR%20Electricity%20research%20report/Electricity%20research%20report%20-%20for%20publication.pdf (accessed 3 November 2016).

[7]        Climate Council, Australia's Electricity Sector: aging, inefficient and unprepared, 2014, p. 70. Available at: http://www.climatecouncil.org.au/uploads/f9ba30356f697f238d0ae54e913b3faf.pdf (accessed 6 November 2016).

[8]        Submission 16, p. 6. See also Associate Professor Frank Jotzo, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 13; 350.org, Submission 19, pp. 7–8; La Trobe Valley Sustainability Group, Submission 56, p. 3.

[9]        The size of each circle represents the capacity of each generator. Victorian generators = brown circles; NSW = blue circles; QLD = maroon circles; SA = gold circles. Power stations that have closed in the past two years are represented by the diagonal lines through the circles. The graph only shows power stations in the NEM, not power stations in Western Australia which are part of the SWIS.

[10]      Roger Dargaville, The case for shutting down Hazelwood power station – some facts and figures, 5 July 2012, Available at: https://theconversation.com/the-case-for-shutting-down-hazelwood-power-station-some-facts-and-figures-7940 (accessed 3 November 2016).

[11]      Dylan McConnell, Closing Victoria's Hazelwood power station is no threat to electricity supply, 26 September 2016. Available at: https://theconversation.com/closing-victorias-hazelwood-power-station-is-no-threat-to-electricity-supply-66024 (accessed 7 November 2016).

[12]      Roger Dargaville, The case for shutting down Hazelwood power station – some facts and figures, 5 July 2012.

[13]      Submission 53, pp. 11–12. See also CEN, Submission 34, p. 2; The Australia Institute, Submission 73, Attachment 1, p. 3.

[14]      Submission 69, pp. 3–4.

[15]      Submission 69, p. 4.

[16]      Submission 56, p. 4.

[17]      Submission 62, p. 3.

[18]      United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Paris Agreement, 12 December 2015, Article 2. As of 22 November 2016, there are 197 signatories of the Agreement and 112 parties who have ratified it domestically.

[19]      Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon Julie Bishop MP, 'Ratification of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol', Media release, 10 November 2016. Available at: http://foreignminister.gov.au/releases/Pages/2016/jb_mr_161110a.aspx?w=tb1CaGpkPX%2FlS0K%2Bg9ZKEg%3D%3D (accessed 18 November 2016). Pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol, Australia has agreed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by five per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2020.

[20]      See: Rob Gillies, Associated Press, 'Canada to phase out coal-fired electricity by 2030', 21 November 2016. Available at http://hosted2.ap.org/APDEFAULT/cae69a7523db45408eeb2b3a98c0c9c5/Article_2016-11-21-CN--Canada-Coal%20Phase%20Out/id-ed19c7d510034c66a42e64902df91a43 (accessed 22 November 2016).

[21]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Australia's 2030 climate change target, 2015. Available at: https://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/publications/factsheet-australias-2030-climate-change-target (accessed 7 November 2016).

[22]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Australia's 2030 climate change target, 2015.

[23]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Australia's 2030 climate change target, 2015.

[24]      Submission 69, p. 5.

[25]      Submission 16, p. 4.

[26]      Department of the Environment and Energy, Australia's 2030 climate change target, 2015.

[27]      See Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's electricity supply sector: Special review research report, August 2016, p. 20.

[28]      Clean Energy Regulator, About the Renewable Energy Target, 15 September 2016. Available at: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/RET/About-the-Renewable-Energy-Target (accessed 6 November 2016).

[29]      Clean Energy Regulator, How the scheme works, 28 October 2015. Available at: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/RET/About-the-Renewable-Energy-Target/How-the-scheme-works (accessed 6 November 2016).

[30]      Clean Energy Regulator, About the Emissions Reduction Fund, 15 February 2016. Available at: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/ERF/About-the-Emissions-Reduction-Fund (accessed 7 November 2016).

[31]      Clean Energy Regulator, How does it work, 21 October 2016. Available at: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/ERF/About-the-Emissions-Reduction-Fund/How-does-it-work (accessed 7 November 2016).

[32]      Clean Energy Regulator, The safeguard mechanism, 13 January 2016. Available at: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/ERF/About-the-Emissions-Reduction-Fund/the-safeguard-mechanism (accessed 7 November 2016).

[33]      Submission 16, p. 9.

[34]      Submission 16, p. 6.

[35]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's electricity supply sector: Special review research report, August 2016, p. 21.

[36]      Climate Change Authority, Towards a Climate Policy Toolkit: Special Review on Australia's Climate Goals and Policy, August 2016, pp. 110 and 115.

[37]      Jacobs Group, Climate Change Authority Report: Modelling illustrative electricity sector emissions reduction policies (iteration with CGE modelling), June 2016. Available at: http://climatechangeauthority.gov.au/sites/prod.climatechangeauthority.gov.au/files/files/SR%20Modelling%20reports/Jacobs%20modelling%20report%20-%20CGE%20scenarios.pdf (accessed 22 November 2016).

[38]      Submission 16, p. 6.

[39]      See Associate Professor Frank Jotzo, Submission 4, Attachment 2, p. 1, and Professor John Wiseman, Submission 5, p. 8. Emphasis in original. Article 4 of the Paris Agreement provides that Parties shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures with the aim of achieving he objectives of such contributions.

[40]      Submission 5, pp. 2–3.

[41]      Climate Change Authority, Towards a Climate Policy Toolkit: Special Review on Australia's Climate Goals and Policy, August 2016, p. 50. Available at: http://climatechangeauthority.gov.au/sites/prod.climatechangeauthority.gov.au/files/files/Special%20review%20Report%203/Climate%20Change%20Authority%20Special%20Review%20Report%20Three.pdf (accessed 21 November 2016).

[42]      The Climate Institute, Policy Brief: A switch in time: Enabling the electricity sector's transition to net zero emissions, April 2016, p. 1. Available at: http://www.climateinstitute.org.au/verve/_resources/TCI_A-Switch-In-Time_Final.pdf (accessed 7 November 2016).

[43]      The Climate Institute, Policy Brief: A switch in time: Enabling the electricity sector's transition to net zero emissions, April 2016, p. 1.

[44]      The Climate Institute, Submission 58, pp. 3–4.

[45]      Submission 39, p. 2.

[46]      Clean Energy Council, Power Shift: A blueprint for a 21st century energy system, p. 15. Available at: http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/dam/cec/policy-and-advocacy/reports/2016/power-shift.pdf (accessed 7 November 2016).

[47]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 1.

[48]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 17.

[49]      Submission 67, p. 2.

[50]      Mr Dylan McConnell, FactCheck: does Australia have too much electricity? 10 September 2014. Available at: https://theconversation.com/factcheck-does-australia-have-too-much-electricity-31505 (accessed 7 November 2016).

[51]      Submission 69, p. 10.

[52]      Dr Roger Dargaville, The case for shutting down Hazelwood power station – some facts and figures, 5 July 2012, Available at: https://theconversation.com/the-case-for-shutting-down-hazelwood-power-station-some-facts-and-figures-7940 (accessed 3 November 2016).

[53]      Submission 16, p. 6.

[54]      Dr Richard Denniss and Rod Campbell, 'Two birds. one little black rock: Solving the twin problems of incentives for retirement of coal fired generation and funding rehabilitation liabilities', Policy Brief, The Australia Institute, December 2015, p. 8. Available at: http://www.tai.org.au/sites/defualt/files/P157%20Two%20birds%20one%20little%20black%20rock%20%5BPRINT%5D_1.pdf (accessed 3 November 2016).

[55]      Clean Energy Council, Submission 13, p. 4.

[56]      Submission 69, p. 6.

[57]      Submission 64, p. 8.

[58]      The Hon Josh Frydenberg MP, Minister for the Environment and Energy, 'Ministers agree to independent review to develop a national energy security blueprint', Media release, 7 October 2016. Available at: http://www.joshfrydenberg.com.au/siteData/uploadedData/Minister%20Frydenberg%20-%20Media%20Release%20-%20Ministers%20Agree%20to%20Independent%20Review%20of%20the%20National%20Electricity%20Market%20(7%20October%202016)_fa799071-3c5b-46d0-a180-b72b3e78fa62.pdf (accessed 6 November 2016).

[59]      The Hon Josh Frydenberg MP, Minister for the Environment and Energy, 'Ministers agree to independent review to develop a national energy security blueprint', Media release, 7 October 2016.

[60]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 1.

[61]      Australian Energy Market Commission, National Electricity Market, http://www.aemc.gov.au/Australias-Energy-Market/Markets-Overview/National-electricity-market#NEO (accessed 21 November 2016).

[62]      See for example, Mr Andrew Stock, Climate Councillor, Climate Council, Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 1.

[63]      Proof Committee Hansard, 17 November 2016, p. 59.

[64]      Dr Timothy Nelson, Head of Economic Policy and Sustainability, AGL Energy, Proof Committee Hansard, 17 November 2016, p. 7.

[65]      Proof Committee Hansard, 17 November 2016, p. 15.

Chapter 3 - Options for the retirement of coal fired power stations

[1]        Australian Energy Market Commission, Advice to the COAG Energy Council: Barriers to Generators Exiting the Market, June 2015, p. 3, available at http://www.aemc.gov.au/Markets-Reviews-Advice/Barriers-to-Generators-Exiting-the-Market# (accessed 1 November 2016).

[2]        Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 3. [Submission 4, Attachment 1]

[3]        Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 3. [Submission 4, Attachment 1]

[4]        Tim Nelson, Cameron Reid and Judith McNeill, 'Energy-only markets and renewable energy targets: complementary policy or policy collision?', AGL Applied Economics and Policy Research Working Paper No. 43, August 2014, p. 2.

[5]        Australian Energy Market Commission, Advice to the COAG Energy Council: Barriers to Generators Exiting the Market, June 2015, pp. 22–23; Tim Nelson, Cameron Reid and Judith McNeill, 'Energy-only markets and renewable energy targets: complementary policy or policy collision?', AGL Applied Economics and Policy Research Working Paper No. 43, August 2014, p. 16.

[6]        Submission 4, p. 4. See also: Clean Energy Finance Corporation, Submission 64, p. 7; Clean Energy Council, Submission 13, p. 1.

[7]        Submission 44, p. 6.

[8]        Submission 12, p. 3.

[9]        COAG Energy Council, Meeting Communiqué, Adelaide, 11 December 2014.

[10]      Australian Energy Market Commission, Advice to the COAG Energy Council: Barriers to Generators Exiting the Market, June 2015, p. 3.

[11]      Australian Energy Market Commission, Advice to the COAG Energy Council: Barriers to Generators Exiting the Market, June 2015, p. 24.

[12]      Submission 76, p. 3.

[13]      Submission 76, p. 3.

[14]      See, for example: Clean Energy Finance Corporation, Submission 64, p. 8.

[15]      Submission 12, p. 2.

[16]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 4.

[17]      See: Climate Change Authority, 'Special Review', http://climatechangeauthority.gov.au/reviews/special-review (accessed 4 November 2016).

[18]      Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism, Contracts for Closure: Program Administrative Guidelines, 30 September 2011. Available at http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:y34kDVBKYJ8J:www.industry.gov.au/Energy/Documents/cei/CFC/Program-Administrative-Guidelines.doc+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=au (accessed 7 November 2016).

[19]      Dr Jenny Riesz, Mr Ben Noone and Associate Professor Iain MacGill, 'Payments for closure: Should Direct Action include payments for closure of high emission coal-fired power plants?', Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets, Working Paper, October 2013, p. 9.

[20]      Deutsche Welle, 'The end of lignite coal for power in Germany', 27 October 2015. Available at: http://www.dw.com/en/the-end-of-lignite-coal-for-power-in-germany/a-18806081 (accessed 2 November 2016).

[21]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 7. [Submission 4, Attachment 1]

[22]      COAG Energy Council, Meeting Communiqué, Adelaide, 11 December 2014, p. 1.

[23]      Submission 27, pp. 4-5.

[24]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 32.

[25]      Submission 44, p. 7.

[26]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 65.

[27]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 65.

[28]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 66.

[29]      Jacobs, Consultation Paper: Modelling illustrative electricity sector emissions reduction policies, 29 May 2015, p. 93.

[30]      Jacobs, Consultation Paper: Modelling illustrative electricity sector emissions reduction policies, 29 May 2015, p. 94.

[31]      Jacobs, Consultation Paper: Modelling illustrative electricity sector emissions reduction policies, 29 May 2015, p. 9.

[32]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 73.

[33]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 76.

[34]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 63.

[35]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 17. [Submission 4, Attachment 1].

[36]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 6. [Submission 4, Attachment 1].

[37]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 18.

[38]      Submission 53, p. 15.

[39]      Climate Change Authority, Policy Options for Australia's Electricity Supply Sector: Special Review Research Report, August 2016, p. 52.

[40]      Jacobs, Modelling illustrative electricity sector emissions reduction policies: Final Report, 25 August 2016, p. 4. The full list of policy scenarios modelled by Jacobs for the CCA's review are: carbon pricing via a carbon tax or cap and trade scheme; an emissions intensity target scheme; a new large-scale renewable energy target; a low emissions target with wider eligibility than the RET; a feed-in-tariff scheme incorporating contracts for differences; regulated closures of high-emissions generators; and an absolute baselines scheme applied to individual facilities.

[41]      Climate Change Authority, Towards a climate policy toolkit: special review on Australia's climate goals and policies, August 2016, p. 7.

[42]      Jacobs, Modelling illustrative electricity sector emissions reduction policies: Final Report, 25 August 2016, pp. 24–25.

[43]      Jacobs, Modelling illustrative electricity sector emissions reduction policies: Final Report, 25 August 2016, p. 59.

[44]      Submission 39, p. 1.

[45]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015. [Submission 4, Attachment 1].

[46]      This is because Australia's brown coal plants have lower short run marginal costs than their black coal counterparts, enabling them to potentially remain viable for longer periods.

[47]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 8. [Submission 4, Attachment 1].

[48]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 8. [Submission 4, Attachment 1].

[49]      Jotzo and Mazouz note (at p. 10) that strategic bidding strategies may be employed to distort the optimal outcome of the auction, requiring the regulator to carefully customise design of the auction.

[50]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, pp. 10–11. [Submission 4, Attachment 1].

[51]      Frank Jotzo and Salim Mazouz, ANU Centre for Climate Economics and Policy, CCEP Working Paper 1510, 'Brown coal exit: a market mechanism for regulated closure of highly emissions intensive power stations', November 2015, p. 16. [Submission 4, Attachment 1].

[52]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 18.

[53]      Frontier Economics, Sudden Impact: Scrutinising the wholesale price impact of assisted closure of brown coal power stations, May 2016.

[54]      Frontier Economics, Sudden Impact: Scrutinising the wholesale price impact of assisted closure of brown coal power stations, May 2016, pp. 11–12.

[55]      See, for example: Environment Victoria, Submission 16, p. 2; Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 69, p. 12.

[56]      WWF-Australia, Submission 77, pp. 5–6.

[57]      Submission 4, p. 7.

Chapter 4 - Options for managing the transition away from coal fired power stations

[1]        Submission 11, p. 4.

[2]        Submission 11, pp. 9–10.

[3]        Submission 27, p. 5.

[4]        Submission 2, p. 5.

[5]        Submission 44, p. 6.

[6]        Submission 67, p. 6.

[7]        Submission 17, Attachment 1, p. 18. The Electrical Trades Union outlined a plan for the establishment of a similar body, a 'Just Transition Commission', see Submission 2, pp. 10–11.

[8]        Submission 17, Attachment 1, p. 18.

[9]        Submission 17, Attachment 1, p. 18.

[10]      Submission 17, p. 2.

[11]      Submission 17, Attachment 1, pp. 18–19.

[12]      These bodies are: the Australian Energy Market Commission, the Australian Energy Regulator and the Australian Energy Market Operator.

[13]      Submission 17, Attachment 1, p. 17.

[14]      Submission 17, p. 2.

[15]      Submission 17, Attachment 1, p. 5.

[16]      WWF–Australia, Submission 77, p. 9. See also Electrical Trades Union of Australia, Submission 2, p. 10.

[17]      Renew Australia Bill 2016, clause 11 and Schedule 1; Explanatory Memorandum, pp. 2–3.

[18]      Geoff Evans, 'A Just Transition to a Renewable Energy Economy', Chain Reaction, No. 103, September 2008, p. 13.

[19]      Geoff Evans, 'A Just Transition to a Renewable Energy Economy', Chain Reaction, No. 103, September 2008, p. 13.

[20]      Submission 2, p. 6. See also International Labour Organisation, ILO adopts guidelines on sustainable development decent work and green jobs, 5 November 2015. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/green-jobs/news/WCMS_422575/lang--en/index.htm (accessed 21 November 2016).

[21]      United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Paris Agreement, 12 December 2015.

[22]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 27. See also Electrical Trades Union of Australia, Submission 2, pp. 6–7.

[23]      Submission 18, p. 9.

[24]      Submission 60, p. 4.

[25]      Proof Committee Hansard, 9 November 2016, p. 23.

[26]      Electrical Trades Union of Australia, Submission 2, p. 4.

[27]      Melissa Davey and Reuters, 'Australia's dirtiest power station may be closed or sold, French owner says', The Guardian, 26 May 2016. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/may/26/hazelwood-power-station-may-be-closed-or-sold-off-french-owner-says (accessed 16 November 2016).

[28]      Melissa Davey and Reuters, 'Australia's dirtiest power station may be closed or sold, French owner says', The Guardian, 26 May 2016.

[29]      ENGIE, 'Hazelwood', Media statement, 26 May 2016. Available at: http://www.gdfsuezau.com/media/UploadedDocuments/News/Hazelwood%20statement%20-%20Media%20Release%202.pdf (accessed 16 November 2016).

[30]      Ben Potter, 'Hazelwood closure could mark beginning of end for Victoria's brown coal', Australian Financial Review, 26 May 2016. Available at: http://www.afr.com/business/energy/french-energy-giant-engie-mulls-closure-of-hazelwood-power-station-20160525-gp426a (accessed 16 November 2016).

[31]      Josh Gordon and Adam Morton, 'Hazelwood shutdown: Victoria's dirtiest power station set to close next year', The Age, 24 September 2016. Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/hazelwood-shutdown-victorias-dirtiest-power-station-set-to-close-early-next-year-20160923-grn0ph.html (accessed 16 November 2016).

[32]      ENGIE Australia, 'Hazelwood to close in March 2017', Media release, 3 November 2016. Available at: http://www.gdfsuezau.com/media/UploadedDocuments/News/Hazelwood%20Clousure/Hazelwood%20closure%20-%20Media%20release.pdf (accessed 10 November 2016).

[33]      ENGIE Australia, 'Hazelwood to close in March 2017', Media release, 3 November 2016.

[34]      ENGIE Australia, Open letter to the community, 3 November 2016. Available at: http://www.gdfsuezau.com/media/newsitem/Hazelwood-to-close-in-March-2017 (accessed 16 November 2016).

[35]      ENGIE Australia, Open letter to the community, 3 November 2016.

[36]      ENGIE Australia, 'Hazelwood to close in March 2017', Media release, 3 November 2016.

[37]      Proof Committee Hansard, 17 November 2016, p. 29.

[38]      Proof Committee Hansard, 17 November 2016, p. 29.

[39]      Submission 24, pp. 1–2.

[40]      Submission 2, pp. 7–8.

Chapter 5 - Committee view

[1]        Environment Victoria, Appendix to Submission 16 tabled at a public hearing on 17 November 2016.

Coalition Senators' Interim Dissenting Report

[1]        http://www.industry.gov.au/Office-of-the-Chief-Economist/Publications/Pages/Australian-energy-statistics.aspx

[2]        WEO Executive Summary, IEA October 2016, p. 5.

[3]        http://strom-report.de/renewable-energy/.

[4]        http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=26372.

[5]        Submission 45, p. 9.

[6]        http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/mining-energy/canada-to-phase-out-coal-power-by-2030/news-story/f059b2f2bc3dac0b5fbd808991390133

[7]        https://www.neb-one.gc.ca/nrg/ntgrtd/ftr/2016/fslctrct-eng.html

[8]        https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/513224/Press_Notice_March_2016.pdf 

[9]        http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/electricity-infrastructure/about-electricity/7359     

[10]      https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/513244/Press_Notice_March_2016.pdf

[11]      https://www.ft.com/content/b8e24306-48e5-11e6-8d68-72e9211e86ab

[12]      Clean Energy Regulator, 'Competition keeps price low at fourth Emissions Reduction Fund auction', Media release, 24 November 2016, http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/ERF/Pages/News%20and%20updates/News-Item.aspx?ListId=19b4efbb-6f5d-4637-94c4-121c1f96fcfe&ItemId=319

[13]      Submission 12, p. 3.

[14]      Submission 44, p.7.

[15]      Submission 57, p. 1.

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