Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Journals of the Senate, No. 73—3 December 2014, pp 1965–1966.

[2]        See: http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care

Chapter 2 - Young people in residential care and unmet need—trends and statistics

[1]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Young Australians: their health and wellbeing 2011. 2011. Cat. no. PHE 140. Canberra, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737419259 (accessed 20 January 2015).

See also: ABS 4430.0, Glossary. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4430.0Glossary602012?opendocument&tabname=Notes&prodno=4430.0&issue=2012&num=&view= (accessed 22 January 2015).

[2]        Young People in Nursing Homes—National Alliance, Our Members. http://www.ypinh.org.au/about/our-members (accessed 21 January 2015).

[3]        Young People in Nursing Homes, Submission 93,          pp 36–37. See also: Australian Huntington's Disease Association, Submission 79; Multiple Sclerosis Ltd, Submission 65; Parkinson's Western Australia, Submission 101.

[4]        Down Syndrome Victoria, Submission 48, p. 1.

[5]        Young People in Nursing Homes—National Alliance, Our Members. http://www.ypinh.org.au/about/our-members (accessed 21 January 2015).

[6]        Australian Government Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015, p. 417, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/community-services/services-for-people-with-disability/rogs-2015-volumef-chapter14.pdf (accessed 15 February 2015). See also: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 141, p. [5].

[7]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 141, p. [5].

[8]        Summer Foundation, Submission 109, pp 25–32; Young People in Nursing Homes, Submission 93, p. 47. See also: Australian Government Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015, p. 417, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/community-services/services-for-people-with-disability/rogs-2015-volumef-chapter14.pdf (accessed 15 February 2015).

[9]        Aged and Community Services Australia, Submission 73, p.4.

[10]      Dr Ron Chalmers, Director General, Western Australia Disability Services Commission, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 32.

[11]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Submission 77a, p. 4.

[12]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4430—Disability, Ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2012: Explanatory Notes, November 2013, http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4430.0Explanatory%20Notes5002012?opendocument&tabname=Notes&prodno=4430.0&issue=2012&num=&view= (accessed 4 June 2015).

[13]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Submission 41, p. [5].

[14]      Australian Government Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015, p. 417, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/community-services/services-for-people-with-disability/rogs-2015-volumef-chapter14.pdf (accessed 15 February 2015).

[15]      Australian Government Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2015, p. 417, http://www.pc.gov.au/research/recurring/report-on-government-services/2015/community-services/services-for-people-with-disability/rogs-2015-volumef-chapter14.pdf (accessed 15 February 2015). See also: Tasmanian Government, Submission 118; Brightwater Care Group, Submission 115, pp 2–4.

[16]      See also: Submission 55, pp 4–5.

[17]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Quality and equity in aged care, June 2005, p. 127, http://www.aph.gov.au/~/media/wopapub/senate/committee/clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/2004_07/aged_care04/report/report_pdf.ashx (accessed 22 January 2015).

[18]      Department of Social Services, Submission 55, pp 7–8. It is clear that the precipitous fall in numbers for those aged under 30 years of age has been driven by this program.

[19]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Younger people with disability in residential aged care 2010–11. 2012. Bulletin no. 103. Cat. no. AUS 155. Canberra, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737421563 (accessed 22 January 2015).

[20]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Younger people with disability in residential aged care 2010–11. 2012. Bulletin no. 103. Cat. no. AUS 155. Canberra, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737421563 (accessed 22 January 2015).

[21]      Dianne Winkler, Louise Farnsworth, Sue Sloan, Ted Brown, 'Young People in aged care: progress of the current national program', Australian Health Review, vol. 35, pp 320–326.

[22]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Care and management of younger and older Australian living with dementia and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD), March 2014, p. xi, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Dementia/Report/~/media/Committees/Senate/committee/clac_ctte/dementia/report/report.pdf  (accessed 3 February 2015).

[23]      Australian Bureau of Statistics, Submission 77, p. 3.

[24]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Current and future demand for specialist disability services, 2007, pp 1–2, http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=6442455539 (accessed 8 April 2015). Undermet demand is when services are not providing enough hours or costing too much and hence not being utilised as required

[25]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 23.

[26]      Answer to Question on Notice, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3 June 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents, (accessed 4 June 2015).

[27]      Children with Disability Australia, Submission 102, p. 8. See also: Focus ACT, Submission 45, pp 3–4.

Chapter 3 - Residential aged care facilities as an accommodation option for severely disabled young people

[1]        There are many submissions that outline these issues. See, for example: Mr Peter Szentirmay, Submission 5; Ms Kirrily Hayward, Submission 6; Ms Joan D'Abreo, Submission 8; Mr Chris Le Cerf, Submission 10; Mrs Leona Jones, Submission 13; Ms Vicky Smith, Submission 16.

[2]        Youth Disability Advocacy Service, Submission 62, p. 4.

[3]        ACT Disability, Aged and Carer Advocacy Service Inc., Submission 131, p. [1]. See, for example: Community Safeguards Coalition, Submission 12; Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 67; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 133; Disability Advocacy Network Australia, Submission 128.

[4]        JFA Purple Orange, Submission 143, p. 8.

[5]        JFA Purple Orange, Submission 143, p. 8.

[6]        Youth Disability Advocacy Service, Submission 62, p. 2.

[7]        Occupational Therapists Australia, Submission 146, pp 5–7.

[8]        Name withheld, Submission 41, p. [1].

[9]        See, for example: Ms Katy Skene, Submission 19, p. 1; Ms Karen Higgins, Submission 25; Ms Bev Shalders, Submission 32.

[10]      Ms Susan Shapland, General Manager—Client Services, Multiple Sclerosis Society SA & NT, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 12. See, for example: Dr Ken Baker, Chief Executive, National Disability Services, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 6. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychologists, Submission 50, p. 2.

[11]      Ms Jennifer Nolan, Submission 66, p. [2].

[12]      Mr Terry and Mr Darrell Bainbridge, Submission 71, p. [2].

[13]      Ms Sandra Walker, General Manager—Service Innovation, Multiple Sclerosis Ltd, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 31. See also, Mr Terry and Mr Darrell Bainbridge, Submission 71, p. [3].

[14]      Mr Terry and Mr Darrell Bainbridge, Submission 71, p. [3].

[15]      Mrs Ann Newland, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 46.

[16]      Ms Nicole Everingham, Submission 111, p. [4].

[17]      Ms Nicole Everingham, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 33.

[18]      Mrs Leona Jones, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 44. See also: Name withheld, Submission 22, p. [2]; Ms Kirrily Hayward, Submission 6. Ms Hayward lives in a nursing home as a result of pressure sores that require on-going treatment—this is a health issue rather than one of disability.

[19]      Ms Marina Nikolova, Submission 152, p. [3].

[20]      Ms Deborah Farrell, Senior Manager, NDIS Futures, Multiple Sclerosis Limited, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 31.

[21]      Mrs Yvonne Kromkamp, Chief Executive Officer, Mt St Vincent Nursing Home and Therapy Centre Inc., Committee Hansard, Hobart, 12 March 2015, p. 12.

[22]      Mrs Gail Palmer, Manager—Community Programs, Multiple Sclerosis Society WA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 16 February 2015, p. 16.

[23]      ADACAS, Submission 131, p. 2.

[24]      ADACAS, Submission 131, p. 2. See, for example: Ms Nicole Everingham, Submission 111, p. [2]. Ms Everingham's son, Daniel, shares a room with a man 'in his 80's...who recently stopped wearing underwear and pants which has put an end to my younger son wanting to visit [Daniel]'.

[25]      Queensland Aged and Disability Advocate, Submission 92, p. 4.

[26]      Mr Daniel Black, Submission 21, pp 4–5. See also: Mrs Leona Jones and Mr Daniel Black, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, pp 42–44; Ms Nicole Everingham, Submission 111, p. [2]. Ms Everingham's son, Daniel, 'displays signs of being abused and neglected.' Children with Disability Australia, Submission 102, pp 12–13. 'CDA is concerned that children and young people who are living in residential aged care facilities are extremely vulnerable to abuse.'

[27]      Mrs Gail Palmer, Manager—Community Programs, Multiple Sclerosis Society WA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 16.

[28]      Dr Adrienne Withall, Senior Lecturer, UNSW, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 45. See also: ADACAS, Submission 131, p. 2.

[29]      Catholic Social Services Victoria, Submission 132, p. 10.

[30]      Mrs Keryn Hickey, Submission 106, p. [1].

[31]      Occupational Therapists Australia, Submission 146, p. 8.

[32]      Anglicare Australia, Submission 164, p. 3. See also: Salvation Army National Secretariat, Submission 33, pp 3–4; Catholic Health Australia, Submission 58, p. 2; Northcott, Submission 70, pp 4–5; HammondCare, Submission 87, p. 1.

[33]      Aged and Community Services Australia, Submission 73, p. 5.

[34]      Mr Daniel Black, Submission 21, p. 6. See also: Mr Russell de Burgh, Branch Manager, Policy and Evaluation Branch, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 41. Mr de Burgh told the committee that a facility can charge a basic daily fee of 85 per cent of the single rate of the aged pension or $47.49 per day. This contribution is on top of the Commonwealth funded contribution of $56 000 per person living in residential care.

[35]      Mr Daniel Black, Submission 21, p. 3. See also: Mr Daniel Black, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 42; Additional Information, Ms Yvonne Kromkamp, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents (accessed 15 April 2015).

[36]      Ms Lorraine Gibbs, Team Leader and Senior Advocate, Aged and Disability Advocacy Service, Darwin Community Legal Service, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 3

[37]      Ms Maddy Archer, Submission 4, p. [1]. She would like to transition to a 2 bedroom unit independent unit in order to live more independently when housing is available. See also, Mr James Bailey, Submission 30, p. [2].

[38]      Ms Yvonne Kromkamp, Submission 84, p. 1.

[39]      Inability Possibility, Submission 82, p. 4.

[40]      People with Disabilities WA, Submission 158, p. 10. Challenging behaviour is defined as behaviour of such intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety of the person or others is placed in serious jeopardy or behaviour which is likely to seriously limit or deny access to the use of ordinary community facilities.          

[41]      Professor Brian Draper and Dr Adrienne Withall, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 46. See also: Professor Brian Draper, Submission 3, pp 1–2.

[42]      People with Disabilities WA, Submission 158, p. 10.

[43]      Down Syndrome Victoria, Submission 48, p. 1. See also: NSW Council for Intellectual Disabilities, Submission 75, p. 1; UNSW Department of Developmental Disability Neuropsychiatry, Submission 153, pp 1–3.

[44]      For example, see Multiple Sclerosis, Submission 46; Alzheimer's Australia NSW, Submission 60; Australian Huntington's Disease Association, Submission 79; Motor Neurone Disease Australia, Submission 123.

[45]      Melba Support Services, Submission 78, p. 3.

[46]      Ms Kathryn Bruce, Submission 145, pp [1–2].

[47]      Office of the Public Advocate Queensland, Submission 134, p. 2.

[48]      BaptistCare, Submission 130, p. 2.

[49]      Office of the Public Advocate Victoria, Submission 110, p. 3.

[50]      BaptistCare, Submission 130, p. 2.

[51]      Families Australia, Submission 42, p. 2.

[52]      Mr James Bailey, Submission 30, p. [3]. Although Mr Bailey currently lives in an aged care facility, he has his own room and bathroom. He also lives with considerably more freedom than other young people living in aged care.

[53]      Supported accommodation services can include group homes, community residential units, and support to live individually or in a family home. Support may range from several hours per week up to full-time care. Support is 'based on individual needs and promotes community participation, relationship building, skill development and maintenance. Accommodation is usually offered in shared housing with the residents supported by a team of staff who usually work according to a roster'. See Victorian Department of Health and Human Services, Disability Supported Accommodation, http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-service-providers/disability/accommodation/supported-accommodation (accessed 5 June 2015).

[54]      Australian Home Care Services, Submission 94, p. 1. See, for example: Melba Support Services, Submission 78.

[55]      Mr Chris Anastasiou, Submission 72, pp 1–2. See also: Office of the Public Advocate Queensland, Submission 134, p. [3]. 'In many cases it does not make good economic sense to care for people in acute hospital beds, for example, when that same person could be receiving more appropriate support in a community-based setting at a significantly reduced cost'.

[56]      Mr Chris Anastasiou, Submission 72, p. 2. See also: Mr Darryl Bainbridge, Submission 71, p. [5]. Mr Bainbridge stated that: 'Terry is so much happier at home, his brother gets him up in the morning and makes him a cup of coffee and he yells out "What's going on?"—and he is just so much happier.'

[57]      Ms Anita Geach-Bennell, Submission 61, p. 3.

[58]      Ms Leona Jones, Submission 13, p. [5]. Karroong is a supported accommodation facility. 'Karroong' is the Aboriginal word for 'Home'.

[59]      Mr Gregory McMahon, Chief Executive Officer, Carpentaria Disability Services Incorporated, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 15

[60]      Mr Scott Avery, Policy and Research Director, First Peoples Disability Network, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 2. See, for example: Mr Graeme Samuel AC, President, Alzhiemer's Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 13.

[61]      Answer to Questions on Notice, Australian Bureau of Statistics, June 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents, (accessed 4 June 2015). This equates to over 143 000 parent carers who have not accessed respite care.

[62]      Dr Withall, Senior Lecturer, UNSW, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 48. See, for example: Mrs Anita Geach-Bennell, Submission 61; Children with Disability Australia, Submission 102, p. 13. Young children are being relinquished 'as an absolute last resort by families who are at breaking point due to the lack of support they receive to care for children.'

[63]      Ms Robyn Joy Keyte, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, pp 25–26.

[64]      Ms Natalie Ryan, Independent Living Coordinator, Royal Rehab, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 36.

[65]      Dr Adrienne Withall, Senior Lecturer, UNSW, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 42.

[66]      Dr Adrienne Withall, Senior Lecturer, UNSW, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 47.

[67]      Mrs Vicki Brous, Submission 37, pp 3–4.

[69]      Mr Gordon Trewern, Chief Executive Officer, Nulsen Disability Services, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 45.

[70]      Ms Stephanie Gotlib, Chief Executive Officer, Children with Disability Australia, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 27.

 Chapter 4 - Current systems of care for young people living with severe disability

[1]        National Complex Needs Alliance, Submission 121, p. 1. In its submission to the committee, the Alliance noted: 'While the experience of a single disadvantage can create difficulties for people, the experience of multiple disadvantages can have a compounding and persistent effect, reinforcing barriers to getting ahead and increasing the likelihood of other related problems later in life.'

[2]        Developmental Disability WA and People with Disability WA, Submission 158, p. 7.

[3]        Developmental Disability WA and People with Disability WA, Submission 158, p. 7.

[4]        See, for example: Ms Kirstine Bruce, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 11; Mrs Gail Palmer, General Manager, MS Society WA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 19.

[5]        Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director—Young People in Nursing Homes national Alliance, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 27.

[6]        Ms Sue Hodgson, Submission 112, p. 2. See, for example: Mrs Michelle Newman, HACC Transition Program Manager, Aged and Community Services Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, pp 20–21. 'People within the system find it difficult to navigate, so for people outside of the system I think it is even more complicated and more complex. Those who do not have family or friends that are able to do that for them absolutely fall through the cracks.'

[7]        Mrs Sue Everingham, Submission 111, p. [2].

[8]        Ms Nicole Everingham, Submission 111, p. [2]. See, for example: YoungCare, Submission 154, p. 17.

[9]        See, for example: Ms Carol Bennett, National Chief Executive Officer, Alzheimer's Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, pp 14–15. "We know that people with dementia fall between the cracks of aged care and disability services'. Mrs Natasha Chadwick, Managing Director, Synovum Care Group, appearing on behalf of Leading Age Services Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 20. Create Foundation, Submission 80. Create notes the lack of coordination between the disability and child protection sectors.

[10]      Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director—Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 25.

[11]      Ms Lyn Morgain, Chair, National Complex Needs Alliance, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 5.

[12]      Developmental Disability WA & People with Disabilities WA, Submission 158, p. 7.

[13]      Name withheld, Submission 41, p. [2]. See also: Name withheld, Submission 97, p. 1. An intellectually disabled young man was allowed to leave a hospital after treatment with no communication with parents or other providers in the system to ensure he would be safe. There needs to be a 'handover' to another provider in the system.

[14]      Dr Ron Chalmers, Director-General, WA Disability Services Commission, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 31.

[15]      Mrs Caroline Watt, Executive Director, Operations, Nulsen Disability Services, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 40. See also: Ms Tracy Foulds, Executive Officer, Headwest, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 9.

[16]      Centre for Disability Research and Policy, University of Sydney (CDRP) and Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance (YPINHNA) 2014. Service coordination for people with high and complex needs: Harnessing existing cross-sector evidence and knowledge, p. 1, http://sydney.edu.au/health-sciences/cdrp/discussion-paper-complexneeds-july2014.pdf (accessed 25 May 2015).

[17]      Centre for Disability Research and Policy, University of Sydney (CDRP) and Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance (YPINHNA) 2014. Service coordination for people with high and complex needs: Harnessing existing cross-sector evidence and knowledge, p. 2, http://sydney.edu.au/health-sciences/cdrp/discussion-paper-complexneeds-july2014.pdf (accessed 25 May 2015).

[18]      Mrs Fiona May, CEO, ACT Disability, Aged and Carer Advocacy Service, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 27.

[19]      Office of the Public Guardian (Queensland), Submission 134, p. 8.

[20]      Office of the Public Advocate Queensland, Submission 134, p. 2. See also: Mrs Marian Dalrymple, Manager, Wesley Neurological Support Services, Wesley Mission, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 4.

[21]      Victorian Government Health Information, Fees and Charges for Acute Health Services in Victoria, November 2014, http://health.vic.gov.au/feesman/fees1.htm (accessed 26 May 2015). This is in a shared ward.

[22]      See: Mr Russell de Burgh, Branch Manager, Policy and Evaluation Branch, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 41. Mr de Burgh told the committee that a facility can charge a basic daily fee of 85 per cent of the single rate of the aged pension or $47.49 per day. This contribution is on top of the Commonwealth funded contribution of $56 000 per person living in residential care.

[23]      This in turn is another driver whereby the cost of caring for that individual is shifted from the state's ledger to the Commonwealth's.

[24]      Headwest, Submission 103, p. 4.

[25]      Office of the Public Advocate Queensland, Submission 134, p. 6. See also: Submission 31, p. [2]. Gordon noted that 'after some time in hospital, I found myself living in a nursing home'.

[26]      Alfred Health, Submission 137.

[27]      Mrs Janet Wagland, Manager—Services for Young People, Brightwater Care Group Inc, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 2.

[28]      Ms Deborah Farrell, Senior Manager, NDIS Futures, Multiple Sclerosis Limited, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 31. This scheme is the Alberta Assessment and Placement Instrument which 'enable health professionals to conduct a comprehensive, validated, consistent and rigorous evaluation of client care and accommodation needs.

[29]      Leading Age Services Australia, Submission 43, p. 3.

[30]      Mr Terry and Darryl Bainbridge, Submission 71, p. [3].

[31]      Mrs Helen Barker, Submission 74, p. 2. 'If Angela had been given the appropriate care, accommodation and rehabilitation in the early days, we believe she would have achieved these milestones much earlier and may not have needed as much care and supervision.'

[32]      Mrs Gail Palmer, Manager—Community Programs, MS Society WA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 13. See also: Mr and Mrs Kev and Lyn Isaacs, Submission 86, p. [1]. Paul Issacs was discharged from a rehabilitation centre as 'he was not making enough progress to be retained as in-patient", receiving no rehabilitation living at home with his parents.

[33]      For example, traditional rehabilitation may relate to a supported recovery from a physical injury, such as a broken leg or arm, in the absence of any other co-morbidities, whereas slow stream is more appropriate for those who have a combination of factors leading to a likely slower recovery due to cognitive and physical (movement) constraints.

[34]      Mr Peter Bewert, Executive Manager, Care Services, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 2.

[35]      Ms Lyn Morgain, Chair, National Complex Needs Alliance, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 4.

[36]      Brightwater Care Group, Submission 115, pp 1–2. See, for example: South Australian Government, Submission 157, p. [6]. The South Australian Government, in its submission explains how its fourth generation rehabilitation services 'can help people living with a disability reach their rehabilitation goals through access to a range of integrated rehabilitation services'. These services are available through supported disability accommodation, SA Health Hospital Rehabilitation Services and the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit.

[37]      Greystanes Disability Services, Submission 17, p. [2].

[38]      See: Mrs Keryn Hickey, Submission 106, p. [2].

[39]      See: Australian Government Department of Social Services, ACAT Assessments, http://www.myagedcare.gov.au/eligibility-and-assessment/acat-assessments (accessed 19 May 2015). The ACAT teams are funded by the Commonwealth and operated by state governments.

[40]      Mr Russell De Burgh, Branch Manager, Policy Branch, Aged Care Policy and Reform Group, Ageing and Aged Care Services, Department of Social Services, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 46.

[41]      Mr Graham Prior, CEO, Hall & Prior, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 6.

[42]      Mrs Nicola Rosenthal, Business Development and Community Services Manager, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 6.

[43]      Mrs Janet Wagland, Manager—Services for Young People, Brightwater Care Group Inc, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 1.

[44]      Ms Vicki Wilkinson, Submission 107, pp [4–5].

[45]      Ms Vicki Wilkinson, Submission 107, p. [5].

[46]      Mr Terry Bainbridge and Mr Darryl Bainbridge, Submission 71, p. 4.

[47]      MS Australia, Submission 46, p. 5.

[48]      Mr Ben Thompson, Submission 52, pp [1–2].

[49]      Ms Lauren Bellert, Submission 44, pp 5–6.

[50]      National Disability Services, Submission 90, p. [2].

[51]      Mrs Nicola Rosenthal, Business Development and Community Services Manager, The Salvation Army, Aged Care Plus,

[52]      See: National Disability Services, Submission 90, p. [2]; Mrs Helen Barker, Submission 74, p. [2].

[53]      Focus ACT, Submission 45, p. 2.

[54]      Ms Sam Petersen, Submission 27, p. [1]. See also: Ms June Reimer, Deputy Director, First Peoples Disability Network, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 5.

[55]      People with Disability Australia, Submission 147, pp 4–5.

[56]      Australian Home Care Services, Submission 94, p. 1. See also: Visionary Design Development, Submission 95, p. 3. This submission argues that 'the inability of the built environment to satisfy the accessibility needs of people with disabilities, thereby creating major barriers, is seldom recognised'. This submission describes the benefits of using Universal Design, 'a design approach that advocates for holistic environments able to be accessed, understood and used to the greatest degree possible by all people regardless of their age, size, ability or disability'.

[57]      Mrs Gail Palmer, Manager, Community Programs, Multiple Sclerosis Society WA, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 13.

[58]      Ms Kirstine Bruce, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, pp 11–12.

[59]      Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, pp 11–12.

[60]      MS Australia, Submission 65c, pp 3–6.

[61]      MS Australia, Submission 46, p. 5.

[62]      Summer Foundation, Submission 109, pp 75–79.

[63]      Summer Foundation, Submission 109, pp 77–78.

[64]      Youth Disability Advocacy Service, Submission 62, pp 2–3.

[65]      Greystanes Disability Services, Submission 17.

[66]      Melba Support Services, Submission 78.

[67]      See: Tabled Document, Freedom Housing versus Traditional models of care and Accommodation for Persons with Disabilities: A structured comparative analysis evaluating the models' degree of compatibility with the relevant Objects and Principles of the NDIS Act 2013, March 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents (accessed 2 June 2015). See also: Mr Christos Iliopoulos, CEO, Freedom Housing Pty Ltd, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, pp 55–56.

[68]      L'Arche Australia, Submission 160.

[69]      Tabled Document, Rowallan Park Intentional Community, March 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents  (accessed 2 June 2015).

[70]      Mrs Delia Gray, Executive Manager, Community Services, Royal Rehab and Ms Natalie Ryan, Independent Living Co-ordinator, Royal Rehab, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, pp 27–41.

[71]      Mrs Sue Hodgson, Submission 112.

[72]      Ms Yvonne Kromkamp, Submission 84.

[73]      Brotherhood of St Lawrence, Submission 59, p. 6.

[74]      Occupational Therapists Australia, Submission 146, p. [12].

[75]      Reverend David Parker, Chairperson, UnitingCare Tasmania, Hobart, 12 March 2015, p. 14.

[76]      Mrs Lucia Fitzgerald, Manager—Development Projects, Uniting Church in Australia, Synod of Victoria/Tasmania, Committee Hansard, Hobart, 12 March 2015, pp 5–6. See also: Mrs Delia Gray, Executive Manager, Community Services, Royal Rehab, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 37.

[77]      Department of Social Services, Supported Accommodation Innovation Fund (SAIF), https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/disability-and-carers/program-services/for-service-providers/supported-accommodation-innovation-fund-saif (accessed 19 June 2015).

[78]      Department of Social Services, Submission 55, p. 13.

[79]      Australian Government Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Occasional Paper no. 39, Effectiveness of individual funding approaches for disability support, 2010, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/op29.pdf (accessed 9 June 2015).

[80]      Summer Foundation, Submission 109, p. 64.

[81]      Mr Colin Rose, Board Member, Melba Support Services, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 6.

[82]      Mr Glenn Foard, CEO, Melba Support Services, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, pp 5–6.

[83]      Mr Denis Fitzgerald, Executive Director, Catholic Social Services Victoria, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 6.

[84]      Ms Lindy O'Neill, CEO, UnitingCare Tasmania, Committee Hansard, Hobart, 12 March 2015, p. 5.

[85]      Associate Professor Andrew Way, Chief Executive Officer, Alfred Health, Committee Hansard, 11 March 2015, p. 7.

[86]      Mr Gordon Trewern, CEO, Nulsen Disability Services, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 43.

See also: Mrs Yvonne Kromkamp, CEO, Mt St Vincent Nursing Home and Therapy Centre Inc., Committee Hansard, Hobart, 12 March 2015, p. 6. The nursing home has funded a separate wing of the nursing home dedicated to young people with appropriate supports and activities. This has been funded through a mortgage facility extended on the nursing home.

Mr Christos Iliopoulos, CEO, Freedom Housing, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 56. Mr Iliopoulos cites the defence Housing model as an example of funding. Defence housing finances the building, but then sells to investors who keep the property for nine years' with a guaranteed tenant.

[87]      Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director—Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 15.

[88]      Ms June Reimer, Deputy Director, First Peoples Disability Network, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 3.

[89]      Independent Advocacy Townsville, Submission 1, p. [1].

[90]      Ms Jane Thomas, Submission 85, p. [1].

[91]      National Rural Health Alliance, Submission 136, p. [2].

[92]      National Rural Health Alliance, Submission 136, p. [2].

[93]      National Rural Health Alliance, Submission 136, p. [2].

[94]      Mr Trevor Sanders, General Manager, Anyinginyi Health Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 27.

[95]      Mr Trevor Sanders, General Manager, Anyinginyi Health Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 23.

[96]      Mr Trevor Sanders, General Manager, Anyinginyi Health Aboriginal Corporation,, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 19.

[97]      Mr Trevor Sanders, General Manager, Anyinginyi Health Aboriginal Corporation, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 20.

[98]      Ms Elizabeth Massey Bodill, Director, Research and Community Services, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 21. See also: BaptistCare, Submission 130, p. 1. Even when a RACF is available, often the additional support services are not available. This submission states that 'It is [our] experience that there is virtually no support available for young people in residential aged care in rural and regional communities'.

[99]      Ms June Reimer, Deputy Director, First Peoples Disability Network, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 5.

[100]    See, for example: Ms Massey Bodill and Mr Trevor Sanders, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, pp 21–23.

[101]    National Rural Health Alliance, Submission 136, p. [2].

[102]    Hendricus (Rick) van de Paverd, Submission 88, p. 4.

[103]    Queensland Aged and Disability Advocate, Submission 92, p. 2.

[104]    Ms Sally Korbel, Submission 99, p. [1].

[105]    Mrs Sonia Di Mezza, Deputy CEO, ADACAS, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 26.

[106]    Life Without Barriers, Submission 148, p. 2.

[107]    Mrs Natasha Chadwick, Managing Director, Synovum Care Group, appearing on behalf of Leading Age Services Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 20.

[108]    Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director, Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 16.

[109]    Mr Alan Blackwood, Policy Director, YPINH, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 24.

[110]    Mr Alan Blackwood, Policy Director, YPINH, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 24.

[111]    Alzheimer's Australia, National Younger Onset Dementia Key Worker Program, https://fightdementia.org.au/support-and-services/services-and-programs-we-provide/national-younger-onset-dementia-key-worker-program (accessed 19 May 2015).

[112]    Alzheimer's Australia, Submission 57, p. 6.

[113]    Mrs Fiona May, ADACAS, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 27.

[114]    Ms Mary Mallett, CEO, DANA, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 25.

[115]    Ms Helen Bedford, Policy Officer, Families Australia, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 12.

[116]    Victorian Ombudsman, What we can and cannot investigate, https://www.ombudsman.vic.gov.au/Complaints/What-We-Can-and-Cannot-Investigate (accessed 15 June 2015). Ombudsman WA, What you can complain about, http://www.ombudsman.wa.gov.au/Complaints/What.htm (accessed 15 June 2015).

[117]    Ombudsman NSW, What we do, http://www.ombo.nsw.gov.au/what-we-do/about-us/what-we-do (accessed 15 June 2015).

[118]    ACT Government, Submission 140, p. 2.

[119]    Dr Nicholas Hartland, Branch Manager, Department of Social Services, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, pp 52–54. See also Ms Mary Mallett, CEO, DANA, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, pp 23–24.

[120]    Ms Mary Mallett, Chief Executive Officer, Disability Advocacy Network Australia, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 20.

[121]    Alzheimer's Australia, Submission 57, p. 7.

[122]    Dr Ellen Skladzien, National General Manager, Policy and Programs, Alzheimer's Australia, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 15.

[123]    Ms Lorraine Gibbs, Team Leader and senior Advocate, Darwin Community Legal Service, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 8

[124]    Ms Mary Mallett, CEO, ADACAS, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 27.

[125]    Mr David Bowen, Chief Executive Officer, NDIA, Committee Hansard, Canberra, 15 May 2015, p. 51.

[126]    The full rollout of the NDIS is expected to take up to five years from now. Western Australia has not signed up to the NDIS at this stage.

[127]    Mr Joseph Smith, Manager—Step-out Community Access Service, Committee Hansard, Darwin, 1 April 2015, p. 26. See, for example: Mrs Keryn Hickey, Submission 106, p. [2].

[128]    Ms Jennifer Nolan, Submission 66, p. [2].

[129]    Occupational Therapists Australia, Submission 146, p. [2].

[130]    Brotherhood of St Lawrence, Submission 59, p. 5.

[131]    Dr Adrienne Withall, Senior Lecturer, University of New South Wales, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 42.

[132]    Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director—Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 27.

Chapter 5 - The Younger People with Disability in Residential Aged Care Initiative, the National Disability Agreement and the National Disability Insurance Scheme

[1]        The YPIRAC Initiative was one of many programs funded under the Commonwealth State Territory Disability Agreement (CSTDA). The CSTDA provided the national framework for the delivery, funding and development of specialist disability services for people with disabilities. The CSTDA has now been replaced with the National Disability Agreement which will be discussed further in this chapter.

[2]        Commonwealth Department of Social Services, Younger People with Disability in Residential Aged Care Initiative, 7 November 2014, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/disability-and-carers/program-services/for-people-with-disability/younger-people-with-disability-in-residential-aged-care-initiative (accessed 8 May 2015). As discussed in Chapter 2, this has resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers of young people under the age of 50 living in RACF whereas those aged 50 to 64 years have increased. 

[3]        Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Younger people with disability in residential aged care 2010–11. 2012. Bulletin no. 103. Cat. no. AUS 155. Canberra. http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737421563 (accessed 22 January 2015).

[4]        Dianne Winkler, Louise Farnsworth, Sue Sloan, Ted Brown, 'Young People in aged care: progress of the current national program', Australian Health Review, vol. 35, pp 320–326.

[5]        Youngcare, Submission 154, pp 13–14.

[6]        Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance , Submission 93c, pp 8–9.

[7]        MS Queensland, Submission 96, p. 5. See also: Young People in Nursing Homes, Submission 93c, p. 8.

[8]        Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director, Young people Living in Nursing Homes National Alliance, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 39. This money was provided over the life of the agreement resulting in the Commonwealth providing approximately $24.4 million per annum. This money continues to be provided to the states although it is not attached to a specific program.

[9]        Department of Social Services, Submission 55, p. 9.

[10]      MS Queensland, Submission 96, p. 7.

[11]      Department of Social Services, Submission 55, p. 9.

[12]      Council of Australian Governments, National Disability Agreement, http://www.federalfinancialrelations.gov.au/content/npa/disability/national-agreement.pdf (accessed 31 March 2015).

[13]      Council of Australian Governments, National Disability Agreement, http://www.federalfinancialrelations.gov.au/content/npa/disability/national-agreement.pdf (accessed 31 March 2015).

[14]      Australian Government Department of Social Services, 2010–2020 National Disability Strategy: An initiative of the Council of Australian Governments, p. 8, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/national_disability_strategy_2010_2020.pdf (accessed 9 June 2015).

[15]      Australian Government Department of Social Services, 2010–2020 National Disability Strategy: Report to the Council of Australian Governments 2012: Laying the Groundwork 2011–2014, p. 106, https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/01_2013/nds_first_year_final_-_20_12_12_2.pdf (accessed 9 June 2015).

[16]      Australian Government Productivity Commission, Disability Care and Support, Productivity Commission Inquiry Report—Overview and Recommendations, No. 54, 31 July 2011, http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disability-support/report/disability-support-overview-booklet.pdf (accessed 10 June 2015).

[17]      Department of Social Services, Submission 55, p. 13.

[18]      Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director, Young People living in Nursing Homes National Alliance, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, pp 28–29.

[19]      Media Release, Senator the Hon Mitch Fifield, COAG Disability Reform Council Communique, 24 April 2015, http://mitchfifield.dss.gov.au/media-releases/coag-disability-reform-council-communiqu (accessed 1 June 2015).

[20]      Department of Social Services, Submission 55, p. 14.

[21]      The Salvation Army National Secretariat, Submission 33, p. 6.

[22]      The Salvation Army National Secretariat, Submission 33, p. 6.

[23]      Name withheld, Submission 97, p. [2]. See also: NSW HACC Development Officers Network, Submission 89, p. 4.

[24]      Department of Social Services, Submission 55, pp 15–16.

[25]      This works on the assumption of an interest rate of 5 per cent. See also: Department of Social Services, Submission 55, p. 13. The Commonwealth committed $60 million to fund 150 supported accommodation places through this fund. 'Projects included renovations to existing homes, pooled resources to build contemporary accommodation services close to community and health services, or the modification of established buildings.'

[26]      National Disability Services, Submission 90, p. [3]. See also: Dr Nick Hartland, Group Manager, Department of Social Services, Proof Estimates Hansard, 4 June 2015, p. 134. Dr Hartland acknowledged that the Productivity Commission recommended that a figure of approximately $550 million be made available to the NDIS for specialised disability housing.

[27]      MS Queensland, Submission 96, p. 7.

[28]      Media Release, Senator the Hon Mitch Fifield, COAG Disability Reform Council Communique, 24 April 2015, http://mitchfifield.dss.gov.au/media-releases/coag-disability-reform-council-communiqu (accessed 1 June 2015).

[29]      See: Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p 62; Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, pp 12–13. See also: Answers to Questions on Notice No. 6,Department of Social Services, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents, (accessed 19 June 2015).

[30]      Alzheimers Australia, Submission 57, p. 2.

[31]      Mrs Natalie Butler, NDIS Connections Officer, Summer Foundation, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 51.

[32]      Mrs Natalie Butler, NDIS Connections Officer, Summer Foundation, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, p. 51.

[33]      Answer to Question on Notice, National Disability Insurance Agency, 4 June 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents (accessed 9 June 2015).

[34]      National Disability Insurance Scheme, A Framework for Information, Linkages and Capacity Building, p. 1, http://www.ndis.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/ILC%20Policy%20Framework_0.pdf (accessed 10 June 2015).

[35]      National Disability Insurance Scheme, A Framework for Information, Linkages and Capacity Building, p. 8, http://www.ndis.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/ILC%20Policy%20Framework_0.pdf (accessed 10 June 2015).

[36]      Suncorp, Submission 100.

[37]      Australian Government Productivity Commission, Disability Care and Support, Productivity Commission Inquiry Report—Overview and Recommendations, No. 54, 31 July 2011, p. 10, http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disability-support/report/disability-support-overview-booklet.pdf (accessed 10 June 2015).

[38]      Australian Government Productivity Commission, Disability Care and Support, Productivity Commission Inquiry Report—Overview and Recommendations, No. 54, 31 July 2011, p. 3, http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/disability-support/report/disability-support-overview-booklet.pdf (accessed 10 June 2015).

[39]      Australian Government, The Treasury, National Injury Insurance Scheme—Consultation Regulation Impact Statement, p. 1, http://www.treasury.gov.au/~/media/Treasury/Consultations%20and%20Reviews/Consultations/2015/NIIS%20Workplace%20Accidents/Key%20Documents/PDF/NIIS-RIS-03-2015.ashx (accessed 12 June 2015).

[40]      Suncorp, Submission 100, p. 2.

[41]      Associate Professor Andrew Way, Chief Executive Officer, Alfred Health, Committee Hansard, Melbourne, 11 March 2015, p. 7.

[42]      Suncorp, Submission 100, p. 2.

[43]      Australian Government The Treasury, National Injury Insurance Scheme—Workplace Accidents, http://www.treasury.gov.au/ConsultationsandReviews/Consultations/2015/NIIS-Workplace-Accidents, (accessed 12 June 2015).

[44]      Department of Family and Community Services (Ageing, Disability and Home Care), Care and Support Pathways for People with an ABI: Referral and Service Options in NSW, pp 3–9, May 2011. http://www.adhc.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/file/0007/237751/ADHC-ABIPathways-R10.pdf (accessed 22 January 2015).

[45]      Department of Family and Community Services (Ageing, Disability and Home Care), Home and Community Care services. http://www.adhc.nsw.gov.au/individuals/help_at_home/home_and_community_care_services (accessed 23 January 2015). This service is available to those with a 'moderate, severe or profound disability or [those] caring for someone with a disability'.

[46]      NSW Council for Intellectual Disability, Submission 75, p. 3.

[47]      Brightwater Care Group, Submission 115, pp [23–24].

[48]      Referral to an ACAT can also be undertaken by hospital doctors, medical specialists, self-referral by the young person themselves, their family, carer, community worker or community agency.

[49]      Brightwater Care Group, Submission 115, pp [15–27].

[50]      Dr Ron Chalmers, Director-General, WA Disability Services Commission, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 31.

[51]      See: Mrs Caroline Watt, Executive Director, Operations, Nulsen Disability Services, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 40. See also: Ms Tracy Foulds, Executive Officer, Headwest, Committee Hansard, Perth, 17 February 2015, p. 9.

[52]      Answer to question taken on notice, South Australian Department of  Communities and Social Inclusion, p. 3, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Young_people_in_aged_care/Additional_Documents (accessed 10 June 2015).

[53]      Tasmanian Government, Submission 118, pp [1–2].

[54]      Ms Ingrid Hanley, Director, Disability and Community Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Committee Hansard, Hobart, 12 March 2015, p. 16.

[55]      Dr Bronwyn Morkham, National Director, Young People living in Nursing Homes National Alliance, Committee Hansard, Sydney, 19 February 2015, pp 28–29.

[56]      Mrs Joan D'Abreo, Submission 8, p. [2].Joan's husband, John was offered a place in one of the pilot shared supported accommodation facilities. See also: Mr Stephen Naughtin, Submission 23, pp [2–3]. Stephen's son, Ryan, was offered a My future, my choice placement. This involved him having to move from his home in Bendigo to supported accommodation in Melbourne where he was distant from family and his condition regressed. Although the placement was not suitable, he could not move without forfeiting the funding associated with the placement. This account highlights the need for flexibility in the funding and location of these placements.

Chapter 6 - Conclusion and Recommendations

[1]        Brotherhood of St Lawrence, Submission 59, p. [6].

[2]        See Chapter 2.

[3]        See Chapter 4.

[4]        See Chapter 4.

[5]        See Chapters 3 & 4.

[6]        See Chapters 4 & 5.

[7]        See Chapters 4 & 5.

[8]        See Chapter 4.

[9]        Centre for Disability Research and Policy, University of Sydney (CDRP) and Young People in Nursing Homes National Alliance (YPINHNA) 2014. Service coordination for people with high and complex needs: Harnessing existing cross-sector evidence and knowledge, p. 1, http://sydney.edu.au/health-sciences/cdrp/discussion-paper-complexneeds-july2014.pdf (accessed 25 May 2015).

[10]      See Chapters 3, 4 & 5.

[11]      See Chapter 4.

[12]      See Chapter 4.

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