footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1

[1]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 1.

[2]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 1.

[3]        World Health Organisation, Genomic resource centre, Gender and genetics: Genetic Components of Sex and Gender, http://www.who.int/genomics/gender/en/index1.html (accessed 22 July 2013).

[4]        Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, pp. 2–3.

[5]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 3; Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 54, p. 2; Martine Cools, Stenvert L. S. Drop, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Wolter Oosterhuis and Leendert H. J. Looijenga, 'Germ cell tumors in the intersex gonad: old paths, new directions, moving frontiers', Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, p. 470.

[6]        World Health Organisation, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 Version: 2010, http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en (accessed 22 July 2013).

[7]        OII Intersex Network, What is intersex? 2011, http://oiiinternational.com/intersex-library/intersex-articles/what-is-intersex-oii-australia/ (accessed 2 July 2013).

[8]        NHS, Disorders of sex development, http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/disorders-sex-development/Pages/Introduction.aspx (accessed 28 June 2013).

[9]        Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 1.

[10]      Jacqueline K. Hewitt and Garry L. Warne, 'Mixed sex chromosome and ovo-testicular DSD', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 81.

[11]      Garry L. Warne and Jacqueline K. Hewitt, '46,XX Disorders of Sex Development', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 53.

[12]      Jacqueline K. Hewitt and Garry L. Warne, 'Mixed sex chromosome and ovo-testicular DSD', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 81.

[13]      Naomi S. Crouch, Lih Mei Liao, Christopher R.J. Woodhouse, Gerard S. Conway and Sarah M. Creighton, 'Sexual function and genital sensitivity following feminizing genitoplasty for congenital adrenal hyperplasia', Journal of Urology, Vol. 179, 2008, p. 634.

[14]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 1.

[15]      Melanie Blackless, Anthony Charuvastra, Amanda Derryck, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Karl Lauzanne and Ellen Lee, 'How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis', American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2000, p. 161.

[16]      Leonard Sax, 'How common is intersex? A response to Anne Fausto-Sterling', Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2002, pp. 174–178.

[17]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 4.

[18]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 8.

[19]      Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, Complete AIS, http://www.aissg.org/22_CAIS.HTM (accessed 23 September 2013). 

[20]      Garry L. Warne, 'Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Patients', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 291.

[21]      Garry L. Warne, 'Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Patients', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 291.

[22]      Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, Complete AIS, http://www.aissg.org/22_CAIS.HTM (accessed 23 September 2013). 

[23]      Garry L. Warne, 'Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Patients', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 283.

[24]      Garry L. Warne, 'Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Patients', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 283.

[25]      Garry L. Warne, 'Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Patients', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 283.

[26]      Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, Complete AIS, http://www.aissg.org/22_CAIS.HTM (accessed 23 September 2013).

[27]      Quigley et al: Androgen Receptor Defects: Historical, Clinical and Molecular Perspectives. Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp  271-321 (1995), reproduced in Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group, What is AIS, http://www.aissg.org/21_OVERVIEW.HTM (accessed 23 September 2013).

[28]      Cares Foundation, Overview – What is Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)? http://www.caresfoundation.org/productcart/pc/overview_cah.html, (accessed 23 September 2013).

[29]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 11.

[30]      Accord Alliance, Frequently asked questions, http://www.accordalliance.org/learn-about-dsd/faq.html, (accessed 2 September 2013).

[31]      Cares Foundation, Overview – What is Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)? http://www.caresfoundation.org/productcart/pc/overview_cah.html, (accessed 23 September 2013).

[32]      Cares Foundation, Overview – What is Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)? http://www.caresfoundation.org/productcart/pc/overview_cah.html, (accessed 23 September 2013).

[33]      Genetics Home Reference, How many chromosomes do people have? http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/howmanychromosomes, (accessed 26 September 2013).

[34]      Jacqueline K. Hewitt and Garry L. Warne, 'Mixed Sex Chromosome and Ovo-Testicular DSD', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 81.

[35]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 13.

[36]      Accord Alliance, Frequently asked questions, http://www.accordalliance.org/learn-about-dsd/faq.html, (accessed 2 September 2013).

[37]      Accord Alliance, Frequently asked questions, http://www.accordalliance.org/learn-about-dsd/faq.html, (accessed 2 September 2013).

[38]      Jacqueline K. Hewitt and Garry L. Warne, 'Mixed Sex Chromosome and Ovo-Testicular DSD', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 85.

[39]      Accord Alliance, Frequently asked questions, http://www.accordalliance.org/learn-about-dsd/faq.html, (accessed 2 September 2013).

[40]      Jacqueline K. Hewitt and Garry L. Warne, 'Mixed Sex Chromosome and Ovo-Testicular DSD', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 82.

[41]      Accord Alliance, Frequently asked questions, http://www.accordalliance.org/learn-about-dsd/faq.html, (accessed 2 September 2013).

[42]      John. M. Hutson, 'Non-hormonal DSD', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 89.

[43]      Accord Alliance, Frequently asked questions, http://www.accordalliance.org/learn-about-dsd/faq.html, (accessed 2 September 2013).

[44]      Perrin C. White and Phyllis W. Speiser, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency, Endocrine Reviews, vol. 21, no. 3, 2000, pp. 245-291, http://edrv.endojournals.org/content/21/3/245.long (accessed 26 September 2013).

[45]      Hewitt and Warne, "Management of disorders of sexual development", Paediatric Health, Feb 2009, p. 54.

[46]      Perrin C. White and Phyllis W. Speiser, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency, Endocrine Reviews, vol. 21, no. 3, 2000, pp. 245-291, http://edrv.endojournals.org/content/21/3/245.long (accessed 26 September 2013).

[47]      S. Williams; Gender confirming surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), Welsh Paediatrics Society, 2008, http://www.welshpaediatrics.org.uk/gender-confirming-surgery-females-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-cah%20 (accessed 25 September 2013).

[48]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice (received 27 September 2013).

[49]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 3.

[50]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice, (received 27 September 2013).

[51]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 4.

[52]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice, (received 27 September 2013).

[53]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice, (received 27 September 2013).

[54]      Garry L. Warne, 'Long-term outcomes of disorders of sexual development (DSD): a world view', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, pp 281–285; Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice, (received 27 September 2013).

[55]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[56]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 3.

[57]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 20; Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 6; Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 4.

[58]      John M. Hutson, 'The neonate with ambiguous genitalia', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 103.

[59]      Louise Newman, 'Questions about gender: children with atypical gender development', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 33.

[60]      Alice Dreger, 'Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood: Inconclusive Advice to Parents', Hastings Center Report, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2009, pp 26–29.

[61]      Georgiann Davis, '"DSD is a perfectly fine term": reasserting medical authority through a shift in intersex terminology', Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 12, 2011, p. 176.

[62]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 2.

[63]      Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, pp 4–5.

[64]      Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 139.

[65]      Cited in Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 138.

[66]      Louise Newman, 'Questions about gender: children with atypical gender development', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 34.

[67]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Commencement Proclamation 2013.

[68]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 2.

[69]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013, Schedule 1, item 7.

[70]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 12.

[71]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013, Schedule 1, item 6.

[72]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 12.

[73]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013, Explanatory Memorandum, p. 21.

[74]      Australian Government, Australian government guidelines on the recognition of sex and gender, July 2013, p. 8.

[75]      Australian Government, Australian government guidelines on the recognition of sex and gender, July 2013, p. 3.

[76]      The Hon. Tanya Plibersek MP, Minister for Health, Minister for Medical Research; Senator the Hon. Jan McLucas, Minister for Human Services, All Gender Discrimination to be Removed from Medicare, Media release, 24 July 2013.

[77]      The Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory, Beyond the binary: Legal recognition of sex and gender diversity in the ACT – Government response, 2013, p. ii.

Chapter 2 - Intersex, not disordered

[1]        See, for example, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23; A Gender Agenda, Submission 85, p. 8; Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 54.

[2]        For example Milton Diamond, 'Intersexuality', in Erwin J. Haeberle (ed.), Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia, 2006, http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/biblio/articles/2010to2014/2010-intersexuality.html#nonhuman (accessed 19 June 2013).

[3]        See for example World Health Organisation, Genomic resource centre, Gender and genetics: Genetic Components of Sex and Gender, http://www.who.int/genomics/gender/en/index1.html (accessed July 2013).

[4]        See for example  Gita Sen, Piroska Östlin, and Asha George, Unequal, Unfair, Ineffective and Inefficient Gender Inequity in Health: Why it exists and how we can change it? Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network, September 2007, http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/csdh_media/wgekn_final_report_07.pdf (accessed July 2013).

[5]        Commonwealth Department Health and Ageing, National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Ageing and Aged Care Strategy, 2012, p. 18.

[6]        Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013.

[7]        Victoria. Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, 2013, p. 2.

[8]        Commonwealth Department Health and Ageing, National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Ageing and Aged Care Strategy, 2012, p. 18.

[9]        Milton Diamond and Hazel Beh, 'Changes in the management of children with intersex conditions', Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2008, p. 5.

[10]      Sarah S. Topp, 'Against the quiet revolution: The rhetorical construction of intersex individuals as disordered', Sexualities, Vol. 16, No. 1–2, 2013, p. 180.

[11]      Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics, On the management of differences of sex development: Ethical issues relating to 'intersexuality', Opinion No. 20/2012, Berne, November 2012, p. 8.

[12]      Though two intersex advocates were also invited to participate, including Cheryl Chase, founder of Intersex Society of North America. See Katrina Karzakis, Fixing Sex, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 3.

[13]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 19 June 2013).

[14]      Jennifer Conn, Lynn Gillam, and Gerard S. Conway, 'Revealing the diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome in adulthood', BMJ, Vol. 331, 2005. http://www.bmj.com/content/331/7517/628.full?ijkey=e94755c1047020e887a5ac54fc2fe10c663b6b6f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha (accessed 19 June 2013).

[15]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 1.

[16]      Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Support Group Australia, What is CAH? http://www.cah.org.au/v2/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=34 (accessed 20 June 2013).

[17]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 1.

[18]      Intersex Society of North America, Dear ISNA Friends and Supporters, 2008, http://www.isna.org/farewell_message (accessed 28 June 2013).

[19]      Intersex Society of North America, Why is ISNA using "DSD"? 2006, http://www.isna.org/node/1066 (accessed 28 June 2013).

[20]      See for example, Accord Alliance, Frequently Asked Questions about: terminology and frequency, http://www.accordalliance.org/learn-about-dsd/faq.html#faqh2 (accessed 28 June 2013).

[21]      Katrina Karzakis, Fixing Sex, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 259.

[22]      Organisation Intersex International USA, http://oii-usa.org/ (accessed July 2013).

[23]      Bodies Like Ours, http://www.bodieslikeours.org/ (accessed July 2013).

[24]      See for example, Advocates for Informed Choice, http://aiclegal.org/ (accessed July 2013); Amnesty International Australia, http://www.amnesty.org.au/features/comments/32251/ (accessed July 2013); National LGBTI Health Alliance, http://www.lgbthealth.org.au/ (accessed July 2013).

[25]      Georgiann Davis, '"DSD is a perfectly fine term": reasserting medical authority through a shift in intersex terminology', Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 12, 2011, p. 178.

[26]      Alyson Spurgas, '(Un)Queering Identity: The Biosocial Production of Intersex/DSD', in Morgan Holmes (ed.), Critical Intersex, Ashgate Publishing, 2009, pp 110–111.

[27]      Australian Government, Australian Government Guidelines on the Recognition of Sex and Gender, July 2013, http://www.ag.gov.au/Publications/Documents/AustralianGovernmentGuidelinesontheRecognitionofSexandGender/AustralianGovernmentGuidelinesontheRecognitionofSexandGender.PDF (accessed July 2013).

[28]      Milton Diamond, 'Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones', Hormones and Behavior, Vol. 55, 2009, p. 625; Milton Diamond and Hazel Beh, 'Changes in the management of children with intersex conditions', Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2008, p. 5; Sarah S. Topp, 'Against the quiet revolution: The rhetorical construction of intersex individuals as disordered', Sexualities, Vol. 16, No. 1–2, pp 180–194; C. Wiesemann, S. Ude-Koeller, G.H. Sinnecker, U. Thyen, 'Ethical principles and recommendations for the medical management of differences of sex development (DSD)/intersex in children and adolescents'. European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 169, 2010, pp 671–679.

[29]      Intersex Society of North America, Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.isna.org/faq/printable (accessed 22 July 2013).

[30]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 1.

[31]      Gina Wilson, 'Making the Invisible Visible: Intersex Rights are human rights which should be protected under new equality laws', Equality law reform project, Human Rights Law Centre, 2012, http://www.equalitylaw.org.au/elrp-guest-blogs/making-the-invisible-visible-intersex-rights-are-human-rights-which-should-be-protected-under-new-eq (accessed 22 July 2013).

[32]      Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee, Report on Exposure Draft of the Human Rights and Anti-Discrimination Bill 2012, 21 February 2013, para 7.21.

[33]      Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013.

[34]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006, pp 490–491, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 19 June 2013).

[35]      Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 5.

[36]      Gina Wilson, 'Equal Rights for Intersex People', The Equal Rights Review, Vol. 10, 2013, p. 138.

[37]      Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 4.

[38]      Katrina Karzakis, Fixing Sex, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 98; Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics, On the management of differences of sex development: Ethical issues relating to 'intersexuality', Opinion No. 20/2012, Berne, November 2012, pp 9–10; Human Rights Commission of the City and County of San Francisco, A Human Rights Investigation into the Medical 'Normalization' of Intersex People, San Francisco, April 2005, p. 18; C. Wiesemann, S. Ude-Koeller, G.H. Sinnecker, U. Thyen, 'Ethical principles and recommendations for the medical management of differences of sex development (DSD)/intersex in children and adolescents'. European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 169, 2010, p. 674.

[39]      Cited in Katrina Karzakis, Fixing Sex, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 98.

[40]      Mr Gavi Ansara, Health Policy Officer, National LGBTI Health Alliance, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 6.

[41]      See, for example, Katrina Karzakis, Fixing Sex, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, pp 3–5.

[42]      Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 3.

[43]      Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 4.

[44]      Mr Gavi Ansara, Health Policy Officer, National LGBTI Health Alliance, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 6.

[45]      Karsten Schützmann, Lisa Brinkmann, Melanie Schacht and Hertha Richter, 'Psychological Distress, Self-Harming Behaviour, and Suicidal Tendencies in Adults with Disorders of Sex Development', Archives of Sexual Behaviour, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2009, p. 20.

[46]      See, for example, Alice Dreger, 'The Dex Diaries, Part 9: The Real Silent Majority', 30 October 2013, Psychology Today, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fetishes-i-dont-get/201210/the-dex-diaries-part-9-the-real-silent-majority (accessed July 2013).

[47]      Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 3.

[48]      J.L. Rees and N. Flanagan, 'Pigmentation, melanocortins and red hair', QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Vol. 92, No. 3, 1999, pp 125–131; Kerri Smith, ' Redhead pigment boosts skin-cancer risk', Nature News, 2012, 11711, http://www.nature.com/news/redhead-pigment-boosts-skin-cancer-risk-1.11711 (accessed July 2013).

Chapter 3 - Surgery and the assignment of gender

[1]        Urology Care Foundation, Cloacal exstrophy, http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=92 (accessed 28 June 2013).

[2]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 6.

[3]        Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, pp 36–38; Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, 'Gender assignment and reassignment in intersexuality: controversies, data, and guidelines for research', in Zderic et al (eds), Pediatric Gender Assignment: A Critical Reappraisal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2002, pp 199–200; Lisa Brinkmann, Karsten Schuetzmann and Hertha Richter-Appelt, 'Gender Assignment and Medical History of Individuals with Different Forms of Intersexuality: Evaluation of Medical Records and the Patients' Perspective', J Sex Med, Vol. 4, 2007, p. 965.

[4]        Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, pp 38–40.

[5]        Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, pp 43–47; Georgiann Davis, '"DSD is a perfectly fine term": reasserting medical authority through a shift in intersex terminology', Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 12, 2011, p. 160.

[6]        Ms Bonnie Hart, President, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 7.

[7]        Australian Human Rights Commission, Surgery on intersex infants and human rights, 2009, p. 6.

[8]        Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics, On the management of differences of sex development: Ethical issues relating to the intersexuality, Opinion No. 20/2012, November 2012, p. 8.

[9]        Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, 'Gender assignment and reassignment in intersexuality: controversies, data, and guidelines for research', in Zderic et al (eds), Pediatric Gender Assignment: A Critical Reappraisal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2002, p. 200.

[10]      Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, 'Gender assignment and reassignment in intersexuality: controversies, data, and guidelines for research', in Zderic et al (eds), Pediatric Gender Assignment: A Critical Reappraisal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2002, p. 201.

[11]      Australian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 2.

[12]      Lisa Brinkmann, Karsten Schuetzmann and Hertha Richter-Appelt, 'Gender Assignment and Medical History of Individuals with Different Forms of Intersexuality: Evaluation of Medical Records and the Patients' Perspective', J Sex Med, Vol. 4, 2007, p. 965.

[13]      S.M. Creighton, 'Long-term outcome of feminization surgery: the London experience', British Journal of Urology International, Vol. 93, Supplement 3, 2004, p. 44.

[14]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 5.

[15]      Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, 'Gender assignment and reassignment in intersexuality: controversies, data, and guidelines for research', in Zderic et al (eds), Pediatric Gender Assignment: A Critical Reappraisal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2002, p. 201.

[16]      Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, 'Gender assignment and reassignment in intersexuality: controversies, data, and guidelines for research', in Zderic et al (eds), Pediatric Gender Assignment: A Critical Reappraisal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2002, p. 202.

[17]      Australian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 2.

[18]      Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 2.

[19]      Georgiann Davis, '"DSD is a perfectly fine term": reasserting medical authority through a shift in intersex terminology', Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 12, 2011, pp 162–172.

[20]      Alice Domurat Dreger, 'Ambiguous Sex'—or Ambivalent Medicine? Ethical Problems in the Treatment of Intersexuality, The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1998, p. 32.

[21]      W.G. Reiner, 'Psychosexual development in genetic males assigned female: the cloacal exstrophy experience', in M. Diamond and A. Yates (eds), Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America: sex and gender, Vol. 13, 2004, pp 657–674; William G. Reiner, 'Gender identity and sex-of-rearing in children with disorders of sexual differentiation', Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 18, 2005, pp 549–553.

[22]      William G. Reiner, 'Gender identity and sex-of-rearing in children with disorders of sexual differentiation', Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 18, 2005, p. 549.

[23]      Tom Mazur, 'Gender dysphoria and gender change in androgen insensitivity or micropenis', Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2005, p. 411.

[24]      Three out of 11 cases in Mazur's study.

[25]      Tom Mazur, 'Gender dysphoria and gender change in androgen insensitivity or micropenis', Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2005, p. 419.

[26]      H.F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, C.J. Migeon, G.D. Berkovitz, J.P. Gearhart, C.Dolezal and A.B. Wisniewski, 'Attitudes of adult 46,XY intersex persons to clinical management policies', Journal of Urology, Vol. 171, 2004, pp 1615, 1617.

[27]      S.M. Creighton, 'Long-term outcome of feminization surgery: the London experience', British Journal of Urology International, Vol. 93, Supplement 3, 2004; pp 44–46.

[28]      S.M. Creighton, 'Long-term outcome of feminization surgery: the London experience', British Journal of Urology International, Vol. 93, Supplement 3, 2004; pp 45–46.

[29]      Garry Warne, Sonia Grover, John Hutson and others, 'A long-term outcome study of intersex conditions', Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2005, pp 555–567.

[30]      Milton Diamond, 'Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones', Hormones and Behavior, Vol. 55, 2009, p. 625.

[31]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[32]      See, for example, Australian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 2; Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 3; Garry L. Warne and Jacqueline K. Hewitt, 'The medical management of disorders of sexual development', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 159.

[33]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[34]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[35]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[36]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[37]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[38]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[39]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[40]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[41]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[42]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[43]      Organisation Intersex International, Submission 23.1.

[44]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. iii; 3; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[45]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 7; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[46]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 4; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[47]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 4; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[48]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 15; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[49]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 5; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[50]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 4.

[51]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 7; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[52]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 8; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[53]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, pp 21–22; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[54]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, pp 5, 14–15.

[55]      Morgan Carpenter, Secretary, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 2; Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.1, pp 5–6.

[56]      Milton Diamond and Hazel G. Beh, 'Changes in the management of children with intersex conditions', Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2008, pp 4–5.

[57]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 5.

[58]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 5.

[59]      Georgiann Davis, '"DSD is a perfectly fine term": reasserting medical authority through a shift in intersex terminology', Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 12, 2011, p. 176.

[60]      National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 60.2, p. 2.

[61]      Garry L. Warne, 'Long-term outcomes of disorders of sexual development (DSD): a world view', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 283.

[62]      Jacqueline Hewitt, 'Management of virilisation in CAH: where to from here?', Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group Annual Scientific Meeting, Sydney 2013.

[63]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 5.

[64]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 6.

[65]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 5.

[66]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 7.

[67]      National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 60.2, p. 2.

[68]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 6.

[69]      Mr Gavi Ansara, Health Policy Officer, National LGBTI Health Alliance, Committee Hansard, p. 6.

[70]      Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 54, pp. 3–4; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 60.2, p. 2; Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 6.

[71]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[72]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[73]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 4.

[74]      A Gender Agenda, Submission 85, p. 5; the submission does not provide details of the authors, title or publication date of the journal article in which the review findings are published.

[75]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 14.

[76]      Naomi S. Crouch, Lih Mei Liao, Christopher R.J. Woodhouse, Gerard S. Conway and Sarah M. Creighton, 'Sexual function and genital sensitivity following feminizing genitoplasty for congenital adrenal hyperplasia', Journal of Urology, Vol. 179, 2008, pp 634–638.

[77]      Naomi S. Crouch, Lih Mei Liao, Christopher R.J. Woodhouse, Gerard S. Conway and Sarah M. Creighton, 'Sexual function and genital sensitivity following feminizing genitoplasty for congenital adrenal hyperplasia', Journal of Urology, Vol. 179, 2008, pp 634, 638.

[78]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 6.

[79]      Lisa Brinkmann, Karsten Schuetzmann and Hertha Richter-Appelt, 'Gender Assignment and Medical History of Individuals with Different Forms of Intersexuality: Evaluation of Medical Records and the Patients' Perspective', J Sex Med, Vol. 4, 2007, p. 977.

[80]      Karsten Schuetzmann, Lisa Brinkmann, Melanie Schacht, and Hertha Richter-Appelt, 'Psychological Distress, Self-Harming Behavior, and Suicidal Tendencies in Adults with Disorders of Sex Development', Arch Sex Behav, Vol. 38, 2009, p. 32.

[81]      Birgit Kohler, Eva Kleinemeier, Anke Lux, Olaf Hiort, Annette Gruters, Ute Thyen, and the DSD Working Group, 'Satisfaction with genital surgery and sexual life of adults with XY disorders of sex development: results from the German clinical evaluation study', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 97, No. 2, 2012.

[82]      Wei Ling Lean, Aniruddha Deshpande, John Hutson, and Sonia R. Grover, 'Cosmetic and anatomic outcomes after feminizing surgery for ambiguous genitalia', Journal of Pediatric Urology, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2005, p. 1856.

[83]      'Surgery carried out to give genitalia that were originally ambiguous a more female appearance. Usually involves clitoral reduction (removal of erectile tissue) and surgery to create a vaginal opening separate from the urethra'.

[84]      'A genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase in the adrenal cortex, and the commonest adrenal disorder of childhood. Cause of virilisation in an affected female fetus'.

[85]      'Mental distress caused by unhappiness with one’s own sex and the desire to be identified as the opposite sex'.

[86]      Garry L. Warne and Jacqueline K. Hewitt, 'Disorders of sex development: current understanding and continuing controversy', Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 190, No. 11, 2009, p. 612.

[87]      For example, Christopher P. Houk and Lynne L. Levitsky, 'Management of the infant with ambiguous genitalia', in Denise S. Basow (ed.), Up To Date, 2013.

[88]      For example, Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 4.

[89]      See, for example, Phyllis W. Speiser et al, 'Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 95, 2010, pp 4143–4144.

[90]      There is evidence that some procedures have been abandoned or modified, such as surgical female gender assignment in cases of micropenis, and clitorodectomy in CAH. As Meyer-Bahlburg notes, however, 'to what extent more recent techniques of clitoral resection and recession improve the picture remains to be studied'. Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, 'Gender assignment and reassignment in intersexuality: controversies, data, and guidelines for research', in Zderic et al (eds), Pediatric Gender Assignment: A Critical Reappraisal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2002, p. 209.

[91]      See, for example, Naomi S. Crouch, Lih Mei Liao, Christopher R.J. Woodhouse, Gerard S. Conway and Sarah M. Creighton, 'Sexual function and genital sensitivity following feminizing genitoplasty for congenital adrenal hyperplasia', Journal of Urology, Vol. 179, 2008, p. 637.

[92]      See, for example, Wei Ling Lean, Aniruddha Deshpande, John Hutson, and Sonia R. Grover, 'Cosmetic and anatomic outcomes after feminizing surgery for ambiguous genitalia', Journal of Pediatric Urology, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2005, pp 1856–1860.

[93]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.4, p. 7.

[94]      See, for example, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 7; Christopher P. Houk and Lynne L. Levitsky, 'Management of the infant with ambiguous genitalia', in Denise S. Basow (ed.), Up To Date, 2013; Lisa Brinkmann, Karsten Schuetzmann and Hertha Richter-Appelt, 'Gender Assignment and Medical History of Individuals with Different Forms of Intersexuality: Evaluation of Medical Records and the Patients' Perspective', J Sex Med, Vol. 4, 2007, p. 978.

[95]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 4.

[96]      Garry L. Warne, 'Long-term outcomes of disorders of sexual development (DSD): a world view', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 279.

[97]      K.I. Glassberg, 'Gender assignment and the pediatric urologist', Journal of Urology, Vol. 161, pp 1308–1310.

[98]      Alice Dreger, 'The Dex Diaries, Part 9: The Real Silent Majority', Psychology Today, 2012, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fetishes-i-dont-get/201210/the-dex-diaries-part-9-the-real-silent-majority (accessed September 2013).

[99]      Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 54, p. 3.

[100]    Gina Wilson, 'Equal Rights for Intersex People', The Equal Rights Review, Vol. 10, 2013, p. 137.

[101]    Mr Gavi Ansara, Health Policy Officer, National LGBTI Health Alliance, Committee Hansard, p. 6; Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 6.

[102]    Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 3.

[103]    Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 10.

[104]    This tripartite typology was originally devised by Henry Shue in his book Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence and U.S. Foreign Policy (2nd ed, 1996). It has since been adopted by various UN human rights treaty bodies and is accepted by the Australian Government as being an accurate categorisation of its obligations under international human rights law – see, for example, In Our Hands: A Guide to Human Rights for Australian Public Servants, p. 9, http://www.ag.gov.au/RightsAndProtections/HumanRights/PublicSector/Pages/HumanRightsInOurHands.aspx (accessed 26 September 2013).

[105]    See, for example, MG v Germany, Communication No. 1428/2006, CCPR/C/93/D/1482/2006 (23 July 2008), para 10.2.

[106]    For a discussion of the scope of the right to privacy, see Manfred Nowak, UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR commentary, 2nd rev. edn, NP Engel, Kehl, 2005, pp 385–392.

[107]    Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, p. 180.

[108]    See, for example, Morgan Carpenter, Secretary, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 2.

[109]    Ms Zoe Brain, Submission 86, p. 1; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 60, p. 2.

[110]    Australian Human Rights Commission, Surgery on intersex infants and human rights, 2009, p. 3.

[111]    Australian Human Rights Commission, Surgery on intersex infants and human rights, 2009, p. 5.

[112]    Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 12, available at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx (accessed 30 July 2013).

[113]    Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 6, available at Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx (accessed 30 July 013).

[114]    Paul Mason, Commissioner for Children, Tasmania, Pink or blue - A rights-based framework for medical intervention with intersex infants, Paper for the 5th World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 2009, p. 22.

[115]    Paul Mason, Commissioner for Children, Tasmania, Pink or blue - A rights-based framework for medical intervention with intersex infants, Paper for the 5th World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 2009, p. 22.

[116]    See, for example, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.3, pp 2–4; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 60.2, p. 1.

[117]    Paul Mason, Commissioner for Children, Tasmania, Pink or blue - A rights-based framework for medical intervention with intersex infants, Paper for the 5th World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 2009, pp 22–23.

[118]    Morgan Carpenter, Secretary, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 2.

[119]    Human Rights Commission of the City and County of San Francisco, A human rights investigation into the medical' normalisation' of intersex people, San Francisco, April 2005, p. 17.

[120]    Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics, On the management of differences of sex development: Ethical issues relating to the intersexuality, Opinion No. 20/2012, Berne, November 2012, p. 12.

[121]    See generally, Juan E. Mendez, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, A/HR/22/53, 1 February 2013. See also UN Committee against Torture, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Germany, CAT/C/DEU/CO/5 (2011), para 20.

[122]    Juan E. Mendez, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, A/HR/22/53, 1 February 2013, p. 19.

[123]    Juan E. Mendez, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, A/HR/22/53, 1 February 2013, p. 18.

[124]    Juan E. Mendez, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, A/HR/22/53, 1 February 2013, Recommendation 3, p. 23.

[125]    International and comparative human rights jurisprudence has consistently applied these criteria for assessing whether limitations on rights are permissible. For further information see Attorney-General's Department, Information Sheet on Permissible Limitations, at http://www.ag.gov.au/RightsAndProtections/HumanRights/PublicSectorGuidanceSheets/Pages/Permissiblelimitations.aspx (accessed 26 September 2013). The Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights has also adopted a similar approach for testing whether legislation is compatible with human rights; see PJCHR, Practice Note No 1 at http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Human_Rights/Practice_Notes/practicenote1/index (accessed 26 September 2013).

[126]    Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.4, p. 15.

[127]    Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 54, p. 3.

[128]    Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 5.

[129]    Jillian Lloyd, Naomi S. Crouch, Catherine L. Minot, Lih-Mei Liao and Sarah M. Creighton, 'Female genital appearance: 'normality' unfolds', BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 112, 2005, pp 643–646.

[130]    John M. Hutson, 'Surgical treatment in infancy', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 174.

[131]    W. Reitsma, M.J. Mourits, M. Koning, A. Pascal, and B. van der Lei, 'No (wo)man is an island – the influence of physicians' personal predisposition to labia minora appearance on their clinical decision making: a cross-sectional survey', The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 8, 2011, pp 2377–2385.

[132]    Jillian Lloyd, Naomi S. Crouch, Catherine L. Minot, Lih-Mei Liao and Sarah M. Creighton, 'Female genital appearance: 'normality' unfolds', BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 112, 2005, p. 645.

[133]    'A child with this condition will have the bladder and a portion of the intestines, exposed outside the abdomen, with the bony pelvis open like a book. In males the penis is either flat and short or sometimes split. In females the clitoris is split and there may be two vaginal openings. Also, frequently the intestine is short and the anus is not open'. From Urology Care Foundation, Cloacal Exstrophy, http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=92 (accessed 25 June 2013).

[134]    Milton Diamond, 'Clinical implication of the organizational and activational effects of hormones', Hormones and Behavior, Vol. 55, 2009, p. 627.

[135]    Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 93.

[136]    Cited in Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008, p. 93.

[137]    Jean D. Wilson, Marco A. Rivarola, Berenice B. Mendonca, Garry L. Warne, Nathalie Josso, Stenvert L.S. Drop, and Melvin M. Grumbach, ‘Advice on the Management of Ambiguous Genitalia to a Young Endocrinologist From Experienced Clinicians’, Semin Reprod Med., Vol. 30, No. 5, 2012, pp 339–350.

[138]    Ms Zoe Brain, Submission 86, p. 1.

[139]    Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group,  Correspondence to the committee, received 27 September 2013.

[140]    Jacqueline Hewitt, 'Management of virilisation in CAH: where to from here?', Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group Annual Scientific Meeting, Sydney 2013.

[141]    Jacqueline Hewitt, 'Management of virilisation in CAH: where to from here?', Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group Annual Scientific Meeting, Sydney 2013.

[142]    See, for example, Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 6.

[143]    Intersex Society of North America, Tips for Parents, 2004, http://www.isna.org/articles/tips_for_parents (accessed 2 July 2013).

[144]    Morgan Carpenter, Secretary, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 1.

[145]    Councillor Tony Briffa, Committee Member, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Committee Hansard, 28 March 2013, p. 7.

[146]    A Gender Agenda, Submission 85, p. 5; Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 54, pp 3–4; Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, pp 16–17; Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23. 2, p. 7; Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23. 3, p. 4.

[147]    Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.1, p. 7.

[148]    See, for example, Christopher P. Houk and Lynne L. Levitsky, 'Management of the infant with ambiguous genitalia', in Denise S. Basow (ed.), Up To Date, 2013.

[149]    Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.1, p. 7.

[150]    Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, pp 20–21.

[151]    A Gender Agenda, Submission 85; Alastair Lawrie, Submission 91.

[152]    Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 5.

[153]    Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 5.

[154]    Wei Ling Lean, Aniruddha Deshpande, John Hutson, and Sonia R. Grover, 'Cosmetic and anatomic outcomes after feminizing surgery for ambiguous genitalia', Journal of Pediatric Urology, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2005, pp 1856–1860.

[155]    Wei Ling Lean, Aniruddha Deshpande, John Hutson, and Sonia R. Grover, 'Cosmetic and anatomic outcomes after feminizing surgery for ambiguous genitalia', Journal of Pediatric Urology, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2005, p. 1858.

[156]    Wei Ling Lean, Aniruddha Deshpande, John Hutson, and Sonia R. Grover, 'Cosmetic and anatomic outcomes after feminizing surgery for ambiguous genitalia', Journal of Pediatric Urology, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2005, p. 1859.

[157]    Agneta Nordenskjöld, Gundela Holmdahl, Louise Frisén, Henrik Falhammar, Helena Filipsson, Marja Thorén, Per Olof Janson, and Kerstin Hagenfeldt, 'Type of Mutation and Surgical Procedure Affect Long-Term Quality of Life for Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2008, p. 385.

[158]    Agneta Nordenskjöld, Gundela Holmdahl, Louise Frisén, Henrik Falhammar, Helena Filipsson, Marja Thorén, Per Olof Janson, and Kerstin Hagenfeldt, 'Type of Mutation and Surgical Procedure Affect Long-Term Quality of Life for Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2008, pp 385–386.

[159]    V. Pasterski, P. Prentice, and I. A. Hughes, ' Consequences of the Chicago consensus on disorders of sex development (DSD): current practices in Europe', Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol. 95, 2010, pp 618–623.

[160]    Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 7.

[161]    Lynn Gillam, Jaqueline K. Hewitt, and Garry L. Warne, 'Ethical Principles for the Management of Children with Disorders of Sex Development: A systematic Approach for Individual Cases', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, pp 153–154.

[162]    See Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, 'Gender assignment and reassignment in intersexuality: controversies, data, and guidelines for research', in Zderic et al (eds), Pediatric Gender Assignment: A Critical Reappraisal, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2002, p. 202; Georgiann Davis, '"DSD is a perfectly fine term": reasserting medical authority through a shift in intersex terminology', Advances in Medical Sociology, Vol. 12, 2011, pp 171–178.

Chapter 4 - Intersex and cancer

[1]        J.W. Oosterhuis and L.H. Looijenga, 'Testicular germ-cell tumours in a broader perspective', Nature Reviews Cancer, Vol. 5, 2005, pp 210–222.

[2]        See also Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, Answers to questions on notice, received 27 September 2013.

[3]        Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Wolter Oosterhuis and Leendert H.J. Looijenga, 'Germ cell tumors in the intersex gonad: old paths, new directions, moving frontiers', Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, p. 468.

[4]        M. Cools, J. Pleskacova, H. Stoop, P. Hoebeke, E. Van Laecke, S.L.S. Drop, J. Lebl, J.W. Oosterhuis, L.H.J. Looijenga, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, and the Mosaicism Collaborative Group, 'Gonadal pathology and tumor risk in relation to clinical characteristics in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 7, 2011.

[5]        Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 2.

[6]        Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 7.

[7]        Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[8]        Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Wolter Oosterhuis and Leendert H.J. Looijenga, 'Germ cell tumors in the intersex gonad: old paths, new directions, moving frontiers', Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, pp 468–484.

[9]        Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006, p. 493.

[10]      Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Remko Hersmus, J. Walter Oosterhuis, Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop and Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, 'Tumor risk in disorders of sex development (DSD)', Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, pp 480–495.

[11]      Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Remko Hersmus, J. Walter Oosterhuis, Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop and Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, 'Tumor risk in disorders of sex development (DSD)', Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, p. 480.

[12]      Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Remko Hersmus, J. Walter Oosterhuis, Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop and Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, 'Tumor risk in disorders of sex development (DSD)', Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, p. 491.

[13]      Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Remko Hersmus, J. Walter Oosterhuis, Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop and Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, 'Tumor risk in disorders of sex development (DSD)', Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, p. 490.

[14]      Garry L. Warne and Jacqueline K. Hewitt, 'Disorders of sex development: current understanding and continuing controversy', Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 190, No. 11, p. 612.

[15]      Garry L. Warne and Jacqueline K. Hewitt, 'Disorders of sex development: current understanding and continuing controversy', Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 190, No. 11, pp 612–13.

[16]      Martine Cools, Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel,  and Sten L.S. Drop, 'Disorders of sex development: update on the genetic background, terminology and risk for the development of germ cell tumors', World Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2009, pp 93–102.

[17]      J. Pleskacova, R. Hersmus, J.W. Oosterhuis, B.A. Setyawati, S.M. Faradz, M. Cools, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Lebl, S.L. Drop, and L.H. Looijenga, 'Tumor Risk in Disorders of Sex Development', Sexual Development, Vol. 4, No. 4–5, 2010, p. 7 (online version).

[18]      J. Pleskacova, R. Hersmus, J.W. Oosterhuis, B.A. Setyawati, S.M. Faradz, M. Cools, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Lebl, S.L. Drop, and L.H. Looijenga, 'Tumor Risk in Disorders of Sex Development', Sexual Development, Vol. 4, No. 4–5, 2010, pp 259–269.

[19]      M. Cools, J. Pleskacova, H. Stoop, P. Hoebeke, E. Van Laecke, S.L.S. Drop, J. Lebl, J.W. Oosterhuis, L.H.J. Looijenga, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, and the Mosaicism Collaborative Group, 'Gonadal pathology and tumorrisk in relation to clinical characteristics in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 7, 2011, pp E1171–E1180.

[20]      M. Cools, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, S.L.S. Drop, J.W. Oosterhuis and L.H.J. Looijenga,  'Gonadal development and tumor formation at the crossroads of male and female sex determination', Sexual Development, Vol. 5, 2011, p. 177.

[21]      M. Cools, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, S.L.S. Drop, J.W. Oosterhuis and L.H.J. Looijenga,  'Gonadal development and tumor formation at the crossroads of male and female sex determination', Sexual Development, Vol. 5, 2011, p. 178.

[22]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, pp 3–4.

[23]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, pp 3–4.

[24]      Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Remko Hersmus, J. Walter Oosterhuis, Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop and Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, 'Tumor risk in disorders of sex development (DSD)', Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, p. 490.

[25]      Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Wolter Oosterhuis and Leendert H.J. Looijenga, 'Germ cell tumors in the intersex gonad: old paths, new directions, moving frontiers', Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, p. 471.

[26]      Martine Cools, Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel,  and Sten L.S. Drop, 'Disorders of sex development: update on the genetic background, terminology and risk for the development of germ cell tumors', World Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2009, p. 100; J. Pleskacova, R. Hersmus, J.W. Oosterhuis, B.A. Setyawati, S.M. Faradz, M. Cools, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Lebl, S.L. Drop, and L.H. Looijenga, 'Tumor Risk in Disorders of Sex Development', Sexual Development, Vol. 4, No. 4–5, 2010, p. 7 (online version).

[27]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 8.

[28]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, pp 8–9.

[29]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 3.

[30]      See Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.3 (30 June), pp  5–6.

[31]      See, for example, Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Submission 92, p. 4.

[32]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.3 (30 June), p. 6, citing soon-to-be published research: Nakhal et al, Radiology, Vol. 268, 2013 (in press).

[33]      For the RCH Melbourne team's position, see Submission 92, p. 4.

[34]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice (received 27 September 2013).

[35]      See, for example, Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Remko Hersmus, J.Walter Oosterhuis, Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop and Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, 'Tumor risk in disorders of sex development (DSD)', Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, p. 491.

[36]      Histochemistry is the study of the chemistry of organic tissue through observing chemical reactions. Immunohistochemistry studies the reaction patterns associated with the antibodies produced by the immune system. Immunohistochemistry is widely used to detect specific structures in tissues and in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in tumours.

[37]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice (received 27 September 2013), emphasis in original.

[38]      Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Wolter Oosterhuis and Leendert H.J. Looijenga, 'Germ cell tumors in the intersex gonad: old paths, new directions, moving frontiers', Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, p. 479.

[39]      See also Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice (received 27 September 2013).

[40]      M. Cools, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, S.L.S. Drop, J.W. Oosterhuis and L.H.J. Looijenga,  'Gonadal development and tumor formation at the crossroads of male and female sex determination', Sexual Development, Vol. 5, 2011, p. 178.

[41]      See, for example, Martine Cools, Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel,  and Sten L.S. Drop, 'Disorders of sex development: update on the genetic background, terminology and risk for the development of germ cell tumors', World Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2009, p. 100.

[42]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Garry Warne, answer to questions on notice, (received 27 September 2013), p. 9.

[43]      Martine Cools, Stenvert L. S. Drop, Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Wolter Oosterhuis and Leendert H. J. Looijenga, 'Germ cell tumors in the intersex gonad: old paths, new directions, moving frontiers', Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, p.  468, emphasis added.

[44]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[45]      Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Remko Hersmus, J. Walter Oosterhuis, Martine Cools, Stenvert L.S. Drop and Katja P. Wolffenbuttel, 'Tumor risk in disorders of sex development (DSD)', Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2007, pp 480–495.

[46]      Guardianship and Administration Act 2000 (Qld), s. 80B (Example), emphasis added.

Chapter 5 - Intersex: protection of rights and best practice in health

[1]        Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia, July 2013.

[2]        Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 21; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[3]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, pp 2–3.

[4]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.1, p. 15.

[5]        See for example Chapters 5 and 6 of the Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia, July 2013.

[6]        S. Brady, The sterilisation of girls and young women with intellectual disabilities in Australia: An audit of Family Court and Guardianship Tribunal cases between 1992-1998. Australian Human Rights Commission, 2001. http://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/sterilisation, (accessed 3 September 2013).

[7]        Ms Diana Bryant, Submission 36.1.

[8]        A Gender Agenda, Submission 85, p. 7.

[9]        Family Law Amendment Bill (Shared Parental Responsibility) Bill 2005, p. 3.

[10]      Australian Institute for Family Studies, Parental Authority and its Constraints
The Case of 'Marion',
http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/fm1/fm32mh.html, (accessed 26 August 2013.

[11]      Australian Institute for Family Studies, Parental Authority and its Constraints
The Case of 'Marion',
http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/fm1/fm32mh.html, (accessed 26 August 2013.

[12]      Australian Institute for Family Studies, Parental Authority and its Constraints
The Case of 'Marion',
http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/fm1/fm32mh.html, (accessed 26 August 2013.

[13]      Bryant CJ, Finn & Strickland JJ (2013) FamCAFC 110 (Re Jamie), at 140.

[14]      Bryant CJ, Finn & Strickland JJ (2013) FamCAFC 110 (Re Jamie), at 186.

[15]      Bryant CJ, Finn & Strickland JJ (2013) FamCAFC 110 (Re Jamie), at 151.

[16]      Guardianship Act 1987 (NSW), Part 5; Guardianship and Administration Act 1993 (SA), Part 5.

[17]      Australian Human Rights Commission, The Sterilisation of Girls and Young Women in Australia: issues and progress, Chapter One – The legal framework. http://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/sterilisation-chapter-one, (accessed 3 September 2013).

[18]      S. Brady, The sterilisation of girls and young women with intellectual disabilities in Australia: An audit of Family Court and Guardianship Tribunal cases between 1992-1998. Australian Human Rights Commission, 2001.  http://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/sterilisation, (accessed 3 September 2013).

[19]      Australian Human Rights Commission, The Sterilisation of Girls and Young Women in Australia: issues and progress, Chapter One – The legal framework. http://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/sterilisation-chapter-one, (accessed 3 September 2013).

[20]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia, July 2013, p. 112.

[21]      Office of the Public Advocate, Submission 14.1, p. 3.

[22]      Office of the Public Advocate, Submission 14.1, p. 6.

[23]      Office of the Public Advocate, Submission 14.1, p. 9.

[24]      Office of the Public Advocate, Submission 14.1, p. 9.

[25]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia, July 2013, p. 149.

[26]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia, July 2013, p. 147.

[27]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia, July 2013, p. 149.

[28]      Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 54, p. 4.

[29]      Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 19 June 2013).

[30]      For example, Milton Diamond and Hazel Beh, 'Changes in the management of children with intersex conditions', Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2008, p. 5.

[31]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 5.

[32]      A. Dreger, D. Sandberg, E. Feder, 'Ethical Principles for the Management of Infants with Disorders of Sex Development', in Hormone Research  in Paediatrics, Vol. 74, 2010; pp. 412–418, DOI: 10.1159/000316940, http://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/316940, (accessed 7 July 2013); submitted by Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.4, p. 8. 

[33]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Submission 92, p. 3.

[34]      Disorder of Sex Development multidisciplinary team at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Submission 92, pp 4–5.

[35]      Lynn Gillam, Jaqueline K. Hewitt, and Garry L. Warne, 'Ethical Principles for the Management of Children with Disorders of Sex Development: A Systematic Approach for Individual Cases', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 153.

[36]      Lynn Gillam, Jaqueline K. Hewitt, and Garry L. Warne, 'Ethical Principles for the Management of Children with Disorders of Sex Development: A Systematic Approach for Individual Cases', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 153.

[37]      Lynn Gillam, Jaqueline K. Hewitt, and Garry L. Warne, 'Ethical Principles for the Management of Children with Disorders of Sex Development: A Systematic Approach for Individual Cases', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 148.

[38]      Lynn Gillam, Jaqueline K. Hewitt, and Garry L. Warne, 'Ethical Principles for the Management of Children with Disorders of Sex Development: A Systematic Approach for Individual Cases', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, pp 149–153.

[39]      Lynn Gillam, Jaqueline K. Hewitt, and Garry L. Warne, 'Ethical Principles for the Management of Children with Disorders of Sex Development: A Systematic Approach for Individual Cases', in John M. Hutson, Garry L. Warne and Sonia R. Grover (eds), Disorders of Sex Development: An Integrated Approach to Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, p. 155.

[40]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, pp 2–6; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[41]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 6; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[42]      Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 21; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[43]      Mason CJ, Dawson, Toohey and Gaudron JJ, Secretary, Department of Health and Community Services (NT) v JWB and SMB (1992) ALJR 300 (Re Marion), at 48.

[44]      ABC Commercial, Interview with Chief Justice Alistair Nicholson, 12 May 2003, http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/20030616_sterilisation/int_nicholson.htm (accessed 12 April 2013).

[45]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 22; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[46]      Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of people with disabilities in Australia, July 2013, pp 10–13.

[47]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 6.

[48]      Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 6.

[49]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 22; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[50]      Mr Jim Simpson, NSW Council for Intellectual Disability, Committee Hansard, 11 December 2012, p. 9.

[51]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 3; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[52]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.1, p. 4.

[53]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 4; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

[54]      Victorian Department of Health, Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and adolescents with intersex conditions, February 2013, p. 15; tabled by Organisation Intersex International Australia, 28 March 2013.

Chapter 6 - Research and future directions

[1]        William G. Reiner, 'Gender identity and sex-of-rearing in children with disorders of sexual differentiation', Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 18, 2005, p. 552.

[2]        Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk, S. Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan A. Hughes et al, 'Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders', Paediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2006. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/e488.full#xref-ref-2-1 (accessed 26 July 2013).

[3]        J. Pleskacova, R. Hersmus, J.W. Oosterhuis, B.A. Setyawati, S.M. Faradz, M. Cools, K.P. Wolffenbuttel, J. Lebl, S.L. Drop, and L.H. Looijenga, ' Tumor Risk in Disorders of Sex Development', Sexual Development, Vol. 4, No. 4–5, 2010, p. 268.

[4]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.3, p. 3.

[5]        Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.1, p. 16.

[6]        Australasia Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 7.

[7]        Australasia Paediatric Endocrine Group, Submission 88, p. 9.

[8]        Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, Curtis Dolezal, Susan W. Baker and Maria I. New, 'Sexual orientation in women with classical or non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a function of degree of prenatal androgen excess', Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 37, 2007, p. 87.

[9]        Alice Dreger, Ellen K. Feder, and Anne Tamar-Mattis, 'Prenatal dexamethasone for congenital adrenal hyperplasia', Bioethical Inquiry, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2012, p. 277.

[10]      Heino Meyer-Bahlburg, 'What Causes Low Rates of Child-Bearing in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia?', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, Vol. 84, No. 6, 1999, pp 1844–1847, cited in Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23.4, p. 14.

[11]      See, for example, Tatja Hirvikoski, Anna Nordenström, Anna Wedell, Martin Ritzén,and Svetlana Lajic, 'Prenatal Dexamethasone Treatment of Children at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: The Swedish Experience and Standpoint', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 97, No. 6, 2012.

[12]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 13.

[13]      Tatja Hirvikoski, Anna Nordenström, Anna Wedell, Martin Ritzén,and Svetlana Lajic, 'Prenatal Dexamethasone Treatment of Children at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: The Swedish Experience and Standpoint', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 97, No. 6, 2012.

[14]      Alice Dreger, Ellen K. Feder, and Anne Tamar-Mattis, 'Prenatal dexamethasone for congenital adrenal hyperplasia', Bioethical Inquiry, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2012, pp 277–294, citing M.M. Fernández-Balsells, K. Muthusamy, and G. Smushkin et al, 'Prenatal dexamethasone use for the prevention of virilization in pregnancies at risk for classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia because of 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) deficiency: A systematic review and meta-analyses', Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2010, pp 436–444.

[15]      Phyllis W. Speiser et al, 'Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 95, 2010, p. 4138.

[16]      Alice Dreger, Ellen K. Feder, and Anne Tamar-Mattis, 'Prenatal dexamethasone for congenital adrenal hyperplasia', Bioethical Inquiry, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2012, p. 291.

[17]      Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Support Group Australia, What is CAH?, http://www.cah.org.au/education/about-cah/ (accessed 24 September 2013).

[18]      Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 23, p. 13.

[19]      Martine Cools, Arianne Dessens, Stenvert Drop, Jacqueline Hewitt and Gary Warne, answers to questions on notice (received 27 September 2013).

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