Footnotes

Footnotes

[1] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, August 2004. See Committee’s website: http://www.aph.gov.au/senate_ca

[2] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, Report on Child Migration, August 2001.

[3] Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC), Bringing them home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, April 1997.

[4] A list of witnesses who appeared at public hearings is in Appendix 2 of Forgotten Australians.

[5] Copies of the statements referred to in this section are in Appendix 2. There may have been other responses and statements that have not been drawn to the Committee's attention.

[6] The Canberra Times, 'Diocese offers abuse apology', 19.9.04, p.2.

[7] The Anglican Church of Australia General Synod, 'Church apologises to victims of institutions', Media Statement, 6.10.04.

[8] Sydney takes the lead to protect children from abuse, 26.10.04, sydneyanglicans.net.

[9] Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, 'Statement on Senate Report into Children in Institutional Care', Media Statement, 14.12.04.

[10] The Benevolent Society, 'The Benevolent Society supports the Senate's Forgotten Australians report', Media Release, 15.10.04.

[11] Uniting Church in Australia National Assembly, 'The "Forgotten Australians" Report', Media Release, 27.9.04; also ABC News Online, 'Church sorry for institutional care suffering', 27.9.04.

[12] The Age, 'Uniting Church says sorry for abuse', 28.9.04, p.3; Australian, 29.9.04, p.2; West Australian, 29.9.04, p.17.

[13] Forgotten Australians, pp.82-83.

[14] Sydney Legacy, Additional information, 26.8.04, p.1.

[15] Sydney Legacy, Additional information, 26.8.04, p.2.

[16] Brisbane Legacy, Personal communication, 21.12.04.

[17] Melbourne Legacy, Additional information, 5.1.05, p.1.

[18] Forgotten Australians, pp.199-213.

[19] Submission 300, Supplementary submission, 11.11.04 (Dr Mathews).

[20] Submission 50, Supplementary submission 'Acknowledging Mothers', 5.12.03 (MacKillop Family Services).

[21] The issue of forced adoption of babies was raised in Forgotten Australians at pp.107-9.

[22] Submission 224, Additional information 11.12.04.

[23] Submission 50, Supplementary submission, 5.12.03, p.2 (MacKillop Family Services).

[24] See also Forgotten Australians, p.136.

[25] Submission 373, pp.1-9.

[26] Submission 383.

[27] Forgotten Australians, pp.114-7.

[28] The Age, 'Deadly shots', 23-24.10.04, News Review p.31 and 'Polio vaccine tested at orphanages before release', 25.10.04, pp.1, 3; also ABC Online, AM, 25.10.04.

[29] Submission 155, Supplementary submission 5.12.03 and Additional information 12.1.04. The supplementary submission contains notes taken from CSL files opened for inspection at National Archives relating to the Salk polio vaccine and includes the experiments on babies and children, experiments on monkeys and CSL knowledge that batches of the vaccine were issued with the SV40 virus present.

[30] Submission 155, Additional information 12.1.04, Draft report on medical research conducted in babies and children's homes in Victoria – 1945 to 1970, Department of Human Services, November 1997, (released under FOI).

[31] Parliamentary Debates (Ireland), Seanad Eireann, v.164, 15.11.2000, Mr Martin.

[32] Forgotten Australians 2004, p.8.

[33] Australia ratified the Convention, with reservations, on 17 December 1990.

[34] Lynch Francis, 'Australia needs a uniform national approach to child-protection legislation', On line opinion, 15 April 2002.

[35] ACT Commissioner for Public Administration, The Territory as Parent: review of the safety of children in care in the ACT and of ACT child protection management, May 2004 (Vardon Report 2004), http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/child_protection_review/, pp.43-44.

[36] Cunneen C & White R, Juvenile justice: youth and crime in Australia, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, 2002, p.276.

[37] Thorpe, Professor Ros, What works!? Evidence based practice in child and family services, ACWA 2002 Conference, 2-4 September 2002. See also NSW Law Reform Commission, Review of the Disability Services Act 1993 (NSW), Report 91, July 1999, pp.118-119 re: children's rights under the UN Convention.

[38] For example the Burdekin Report (1989); Wood Royal Commission in NSW; Cashmore and Paxman study on leaving care (1996); Victorian Department of Human Services study showing link between leaving out-of-home care and homelessness (2002).

[39] Parliament of NSW, Legislative Council Standing Committee on Social Issues, Care and Support: Final Report on Child Protection Services, Report 29, December 2002 (Care and Support 2002).

[40] Care and Support 2002, p.31.

[41] Care and Support 2002, pp.93-94.

[42] Care and Support 2002, p.135.

[43] South Australian Government, Our best investment: A state plan to protect and advance the interests of children, Child Protection Review by Robyn Layton QC, March 2003 (Layton Report 2003). http://www.dhs.sa.gov.au/childprotectionreview/cpr-report.asp

[44] Semple, Des (2002) Alternative Care Review - investigated the alternative care system in South Australia, given the significant upsurge in demand for alternative care services for children.

[45] Layton Report 2003, pp.11.3-11.4.

[46] Australian Institute of Health & Welfare (AIHW) Child protection Australia 2003-04, AIHW cat. no.24, Canberra:AIHW (Child Welfare Series no.36), 2005, p.10.

[47] Commission of Inquiry (Children in State Care) Act 2004.

[48] Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions, May 1999 (Forde Report). www.qld.gov.au/html/fordeinquiry See also Forgotten Australians, pp.10-12.

[49] Submission 125, Supplementary submission, 22.3.04, p.1 (Queensland Government).

[50] Crime and Misconduct Commission, Queensland, Protecting Children: An inquiry into abuse of children in foster care, January 2004 (Protecting children 2004). http://www.cmc.qld.gov.au

[51] Protecting children 2004, Summary, pp.xii-xviii.

[52] Submission 125, Supplementary submission, 22.3.04, pp.3-4 (Queensland Government).

[53] Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly: Standing Committee on Community Services and Social Equity, The rights, interests and well-being of children and young people, Report No 3, August 2003 (ACT Assembly 2003).

[54] ACT Assembly 2003, pp.47-48, 53, 57.

[55] ACT Commissioner for Public Administration, The Territory as Parent: review of the safety of children in care in the ACT and of ACT child protection management, May 2004 (Vardon Report 2004). http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/child_protection_review/

[56] Vardon Report 2004, pp.xvii-xxiv, 27, 29, 45, 128, 166.

[57] ACT Chief Minister and Minister for Education, Youth and Family Services, 'ACT Government acts swiftly in response to child protection report', Media Release, 25 May 2004.

[58] Murray G, The Territory's Children: ensuring safety and quality care for children and young people, Report on the Audit and Case Review, July 2004, pp.v-xxvii.

[59] Tasmanian Ombudsman, Review of Claims of Abuse from Adults in State Care as Children, November 2004 (O'Grady Review 2004). The January 2004 interim report is discussed in Forgotten Australians, pp.13-14.

[60] O'Grady Review 2004, pp.39-40.

[61] Premier of Tasmania, Paul Lennon, MHA, 'Providing Closure for Victims of Abuse in State Care', Media Release, 6.12.04.

[62] Submission 177, p.7 (WA Department of Justice).

[63] Submission 55, p.17 (WA Department for Community Development).

[64] Care and Support 2002, p.64; Layton Report 2003, p.1.3.

[65] ACT Assembly 2003, p.v.

[66] Care and Support 2002, p.35; Protecting children 2004, pp. xiv & xiii.

[67] Care and Support 2002, p.36; Layton Report 2003, p.11.3; Vardon Report 2004, pp.99-100.

[68] Layton Report 2003, pp.11.3-11.4; ACT Assembly 2003, pp.55-56.

[69] ACT Assembly 2003, pp. 54-55, 123-126.

[70] ACT Assembly 2003, p.63; Care and Support 2002, pp.110-111; Vardon Report 2004, p.21.

[71] Care and Support 2002, pp.93-94; Vardon Report 2004, p.166.

[72] Care and Support 2002, rec 44; Layton Report 2003, rec 131; ACT Assembly 2003, rec 27; Vardon Report 2004, p.101.

[73] Submission 71, p.12 (Catholic Welfare Australia), quoting Dickey B, 1987, No charity there: a short history of social welfare in Australia, Sydney, Allen & Unwin.

[74] Submission 160, p.7 (Mofflyn).

[75] Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC), Seen and heard: priority for children in the legal process, Report No. 84, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997, p.151.

[76] Lynch, Francis, 'Australian needs a uniform national approach to child-protection legislation', On line opinion, Monday 15 April 2002.

[77] ALRC 1997, pp.80-81.

[78] Kerin P and Murphy P, 'Overview of an emerging model of an integrated family court system', Paper presented at the Eight Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference, Melbourne, 12-14 February 2003, p.3.

[79] Ellingsen P, 'Too close to home: the hidden horror of child abuse', The Sunday Age, 24 October 2004, pp.1-8.

[80] Family Law Council, Family Law and Child Protection, Final Report, September 2002, pp.9-10, 34-35.

[81] Submission 35, p.22 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[82] McInnes Elspeth ‘Parental Alienation Syndrome: family law's paradigm for child abuse', On Line Opinion, 19 May 2003, pp.1-2.

[83] Family Law Council 2002, p.49.

[84] Family Law Council 2002, pp.24-25, 58-59.

[85] Parliament of NSW, Legislative Council Standing Committee on Social Issues, Care and Support: Final Report on Child Protection Services, Report 29, December 2002, p.133.

[86] Brown, Thea, 'Project Magellan', Paper presented at: Child sexual abuse: justice response or alternative resolution conference, convened by the Australian Institute of Criminology, Adelaide 1-2 May 2003, pp.7-9.

[87] Family Court of Australia, Annual Report 2003-2004, p.3 – www.familycourt.gov.au

[88] Kerin and Murphy 2003, p.3.

[89] Care and Support, p.135.

[90] ALRC 1997, p.142.

[91] Submission 71, p.12 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[92] Mandatory reporting is defined in relevant legislation. It specifies that persons must report child abuse to the relevant community services department. Reporting rules and what may warrant reporting, vary among jurisdictions. See: AIHW, Child protection Australia 2003-04, AIHW cat. no.24, Canberra:AIHW (Child Welfare Series no.36), 2005, pp.1; 69-71

[93] Lynch 2002.

[94] Family Law Council, The best interests of the child? The interaction of public and private law in Australia, Discussion paper no. 2, Family Law Council, October 2000, Appendix A.

[95] Tomison, A, 'A history of child protection: back to the future', Family Matters, No 60 Spring-Summer 2001, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 50.

[96] AIHW 2005, p.5. Also see pp.19-26, for details of classifications of forms of abuse, and information on children in the child and protection system.

[97] Lynch 2002.

[98] Submission 277, p.11 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[99] AIHW 2005, pp.63-68.

[100] Family Law Council 2000, Appendix A.

[101] AIHW 2005, pp.63-68.

[102] South Government, Our best investment, A State plan to protect and advance the interests of children: Child Protection Review by Robyn Layton QC, March 2003, pp.23.10-23.13. http://www.dhs.sa.gov.au/childprotectionreview/cpr-report.asp

[103] Submission 173, p.21 (Victorian Government).

[104] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.57 (Centacare Catholic Family Services).

[105] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.78 (Berry Street Victoria).

[106] Submission 277, p.7 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[107] Submission 35, p.3 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[108] ACT Commissioner for Public Administration, The Territory as Parent: review of the safety of children in care in the ACT and of ACT child protection management, May 2004 (Vardon Report 2004), p.11.

[109] Vardon Report 2004, p.11.

[110] Submission 253, pp.1-3 (The Law Society of New South Wales).

[111] Submission 160, p.15 (Mofflyn).

[112] Submission 82, p.8 (Centacare-Sydney).

[113] Submission 277, p.15 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[114] Submission 226, p.9 (Anglicare Australia).

[115] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.51 (Senator Murray).

[116] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.52 (Australian Council of Children & Youth Organisations).

[117] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.80 (Bravehearts).

[118] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.28 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[119] Submission 160, p.15 (Mofflyn).

[120] AIHW 2005, p.2-3.

[121] AIHW 2005, p.5.

[122] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.22 (WA Department for Community Development).

[123] AIHW 2005, p.3.

[124] Submission 277, pp.3-4, 10-11 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[125] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.52 (Australian Council of Children & Youth Organisations).

[126] As a child can be the subject of more than one notification, investigation or substantiation in a year, there are fewer children than there are total numbers of notifications, investigations and substantiations – AIHW 2005, p.14-16.

[127] AIHW 2005, p.15.

[128] AIHW 2005, p.16.

[129] AIHW 2005, p.17.

[130] Submission 49, p.10 (CBERSS).

[131] Submission 55, p.18 (WA Department for Community Development).

[132] Submission 55, p.23 (WA Department for Community Development).

[133] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.23 (WA Department for Community Development).

[134] AIHW 2005, pp.27-28.

[135] AIHW 2005, pp.28-29. See pps.28-40 for details of care and protection orders.

[136] AIHW 2005, p.4.

[137] AIHW 2005, pp.34-35.

[138] AIHW 2005, pp.30-38.

[139] AIHW 2005, p.1.

[140] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.18 (WA Department for Community Development).

[141] Vardon Report 2004, p.116.

[142] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.68 (Anglicare Victoria).

[143] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.107 (Dr Mathews).

[144] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.18-19 (WA Department for Community Development).

[145] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.48 (CBERSS).

[146] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.48-49 (CBERSS).

[147] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.51 (CBERSS).

[148] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.51 (CBERSS).

[149] Crime and Misconduct Commission, Queensland, Protecting Children: An inquiry into abuse of children in foster care, January 2004 (Protecting children 2004), p.184.

[150] Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2005, Volume 2: Health, Community Services, Housing, Canberra, January 2005, p.15.10.

[151] A discussion of State and Territory funding increases for the care and protection of children appears in the Vardon Report 2004, pp.197-198.

[152] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.62 (Anglicare Victoria).

[153] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.29, 31 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[154] Submission 81, p.4 (Youth Off The Streets).

[155] Submission 81, pp.3-5 (Youth Off The Streets).

[156] Committee Hansard 12.03.04, p.47 (Father Dethlefs).

[157] Submission 160, p.9 (Mofflyn).

[158] Submission 81, p.7 (Youth Off The Streets).

[159] Submission 160, p.15 (Mofflyn).

[160] Submission 223, p.2 (Ms Janet Lowe).

[161] Submission 35, p.3 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[162] ACT Government , A position paper: for a proposed Australian Capital Territory Commissioner for Children and Young People, Chief Minister's Department, September 2004, p.6.

[163] Submission 72, pp.1-2 (Queensland Commission for Children and Young People).

[164] ACT Government 2004, pp.6-8.

[165] Submission 277, p.2 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[166] Submission 277, pp.2-3 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[167] ACT Government 2004, p.10.

[168] Kenny N and Tait A, 'Commissioners for children and young people: comparing state and territory statutory bodies for protecting the rights and interests of children', NCPC newsletter, vol 13, no. 1, Summer 2005, p.32.

[169] ACT Government 2004, pp.4, 10-11.

[170] McHale Sheila, 'Western Australia's independent children's commission model finalised', Media Release, 6 December 2004.

[171] This was illustrated in Bennett v Minister for Community Welfare (1992) 176 CKR 408 where the High Court held that the Director of Community Welfare should have arranged for a boy to have independent legal advice on whether to bring a claim - Parkinson P, The Children's Guardian 1999, pp.5-6.

[172] Parkinson 1999, pp.2-14.

[173] Kenny and Tait 2005, p.32.

[174] Department of Human Services Victoria, Advocate for children in care: progress update, current activities and future directions, Attachment 1, 8 December 2004.

[175] Queensland Government, The Public Advocate – http://www.justice.qld.gov.au/guardian/pa.htm

[176] Queensland Government, The Public Advocate – http://www.justice.qld.gov.au/guardian/ag.htm

[177] Vardon Report 2004, p.185.

[178] ACT Government 2004, p.13.

[179] ALRC 1997, p.143.

[180] Submission 13, p.1 (NSW Ombudsman).

[181] Vardon Report, pp.185-186.

[182] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.14 (Association of Children's Welfare Agencies).

[183] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.26 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[184] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.47 (Father Dethlefs).

[185] Submission 82, p.7 (Centacare-Sydney).

[186] Submission 277, p.15 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[187] Submission 55, p.20 (WA Department for Community Development).

[188] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.78, 81 (Berry Street Victoria).

[189] Submission 175, p.5 (Families Australia).

[190] Layton Report 2003, p.3.7. http://www.dhs.sa.gov.au/childprotectionreview/cpr-report.asp

[191] Submission 511, pp.1-2.

[192] Submission 81, p.6 (Youth Off The Streets).

[193] Submission 53, pp.4-8 (Post Adoption Resource Centre – The Benevolent Society).

[194] McIntosh, Jennifer, 'The inside journey through care: a phenomenology of attachment and its loss in fostered children', Children Australia, vol 28, no. 3, 2003, p.12.

[195] Department of Family and Community Services, Additional information, 4.1.05.

[196] Department of Family and Community Services, Additional information, 4.1.05.

[197] Department of Family and Community Services, Additional information, 4.1.05.

[198] Department of Family and Community Services, Additional information, 23.2.05.

[199] Submission 125, pp.1-6 (Queensland Government).

[200] Submission 125, Supplementary Submission, pp.1-5 (Queensland Government).

[201] Submission 277, p.8 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[202] Submission 55, pp.24-33 & 43 (WA Department for Community Development).

[203] Submission 55, p.23 (WA Department for Community Development).

[204] Submission 55, pp.45-46 (WA Department for Community Development).

[205] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.86 (Berry Street Victoria).

[206] Submission 55, p.32 (WA Department for Community Development).

[207] Submission 50, p.19 (MacKillop Family Services).

[208] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.20 (WA Department for Community Development).

[209] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.76 (Berry Street Victoria).

[210] Submission 81, p.19 (Youth Off The Streets).

[211] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.78-79 (Berry Street Victoria).

[212] Submission 71, p.19 (Catholic Welfare Australia). Centacare-Sydney programs are listed on pp.19-20.

[213] Submission 71, pp.18-19 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[214] Submission 226, p.3 (Anglicare Australia).

[215] Submission 46, pp.3-6 (Salvation Army).

[216] Submission 69, p.31 (CREATE Foundation).

[217] Submission 81, p.13 (Youth Off The Streets).

[218] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.79 (Berry Street Victoria).

[219] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.61-62.

[220] Committee Hansard 12.03.04, p.49 (Father Dethlefs).

[221] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.32 (Positive Justice Centre).

[222] Submission 160, p.10 (Mofflyn).

[223] Submission 61, p.16 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[224] Submission 511, p.2.

[225] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.80 (Berry Street Victoria).

[226] Submission 226, p.11 (Anglicare Australia).

[227] Submission 160, p.15 (Mofflyn).

[228] Submission 69, p.30 (CREATE Foundation).

[229] Submission 61, p.1 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[230] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.63 (Anglicare Victoria).

[231] Submission 61, p.18 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[232] Submission 44, pp.1-2 (Professor Chris Goddard).

[233] Submission 35, pp.14-15 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[234] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.66 (CREATE Foundation).

[235] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.20.

[236] Submission 18, p.39.

[237] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.36.

[238] Submission 175, p.3 (Families Australia).

[239] Submission 61, p.16 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[240] Submission 70, p.7 (National Children's and Youth Law Centre).

[241] This subsequently went to the High Court: Commonwealth v State of Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1 (the Dams Case).

[242] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.107 (Dr Mathews).

[243] Lynch 2002. A discussion of the Commonwealth's obligations regarding the UN Convention appears in the ALRC's report, Seen and heard pp.74-79. See also the Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 17th Report, 1998.

[244] Portfolio Ministers, Australian Department of Family and Community Services, Media Release, 'Working together for children in foster care', 1.11.02.

[245] For details of key areas of action and proposed outcomes, see http://www.facs.gov.au/internet/facsinternet.nsf/via/national_plan_foster_children/$file/NationalPlanFosterChildren.pdf

[246] Committee Hansard 9.3.04, p.3 (WA Department for Community Development).

[247] Submission 53, p.8 (Post Adoption Resource Centre – The Benevolent Society).

[248] Submission 160, p.16 (Mofflyn).

[249] Submission 82, p.14 (Centacare-Sydney).

[250] Submission 44, pp.1-2 (Professor Chris Goddard).

[251] Submission 70, p.7 (National Children's and Youth Law Centre).

[252] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.76 (Berry Street Victoria).

[253] Australian Medical Association, 'More must be done to protect our children from abuse and bullying', Media Release, 17 September 2004.

[254] Submission 49, pp.7-8 (CBERSS).

[255] ALRC 1997, pp.148-149.

[256] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.16 (Senator Murray).

[257] Confidential submission, Additional information.

[258] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.63 (Anglicare Victoria).

[259] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Australia's Welfare 2001,AIHW, Canberra 2001, p.101.

[260] Johnstone H, 'The demise of the institution – national trends in substitute care for children and young people from 1970 to 2000', Paper presented at the 8th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect 2001, Melbourne, November, p.2.

[261] Submission 82, p.3 (Centacare-Sydney).

[262] Submission 55, p.18 (WA Department for Community Development).

[263] Scott D, 'Home on the hill', Background Briefing, Radio National, Sunday 7 September 2003.

[264] Submission 175, pp.14-16 (Families Australia).

[265] Submission 61, p.17 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[266] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: a report on Australians who experienced institutional or out-of-home care as children, 2004, pp.xv-xvi.

[267] AIHW, Australia's Welfare 2003, Canberra, 2003, p.257.

[268] Thorpe R, 'What Works!? Evidence based practice in child & family services', Paper presented at the ACWA 2002 Conference, 2-4 September 2002.

[269] AIHW, Child protection Australia 2003-04, AIHW cat. no.24, AIHW (Child Welfare Series no.36), 2005, p.42.

[270] AIHW 2005, p.46; AIHW, Child protection Australia 1999-00, AIHW cat. no.24, Canberra:AIHW (Child Welfare Series no.36), 2000, p.40. See also Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2005, Volume 2: Health, Community Services, Housing, Canberra, p.15.21.

[271] Productivity Commission 2005, p.15.23. See also AIHW 2005, p.50.

[272] Crime and Misconduct Commission, Protecting Children: An Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Foster Care, CMC, January 2004, pp.127-28; 234.

[273] Department of Human Services Victoria, Public Parenting: A review of home-based care in Victoria, June 2003, p.12.

[274] AIHW 2005, p.41.

[275] CMC, pp.25, 35.

[276] Department of Human Services Victoria 2003, p.14.

[277] Department of Human Services Victoria 2003, p.x.

[278] Submission 35, p.19 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[279] AIHW 2005, p.43.

[280] AIHW 2005, p.44. The national data for children in out-of-home care is based on a count of children at 30 June of the relevant year and are therefore a prevalence measure.

[281] AIHW 2005, pp.48,49.

[282] Submission 55, p.17 (WA Department for Community Development).

[283] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.22 (WA Department for Community Development).

[284] AIHW 2005, pp.45-47.

[285] Department of Human Services Victoria 2003, p.25.

[286] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.65 (CREATE Foundation).

[287] AIHW 2005, p.48.

[288] AIHW 2005, p.50.

[289] AIHW 2003, p.253.

[290] Hanson D, Why are they in children's homes? Report of the ACOSS children's home intake study, Department of Social Security, 1979, pp.14-17.

[291] Johnstone, pp.3-4.

[292] Johnstone, p.4.

[293] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.61 (Anglicare Australia).

[294] Submission 71, p.16 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[295] Department of Human Services Victoria 2003, p.30.

[296] AIHW 2003, p.258.

[297] Department of Human Services Victoria 2003, p.35.

[298] Ainsworth Frank, 'Drug use by parents: the challenge for child protection and drug alcohol services', Children Australia, vol 29, no. 3, 2004, p.4.

[299] Submission 55, p.17 (WA Department for Community Development).

[300] Ainsworth 2004, p.6.

[301] Committee Hansard 12.3.04, p.30.

[302] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.67 (CREATE Foundation).

[303] Johnstone, p.4.

[304] Senate Community Affairs References Committee, A hand up not a hand out: renewing the fight against poverty, Report on poverty and financial hardship, March 2004, p.258.

[305] Submission 59, p.11 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[306] Submission 165, pp.13-14 (People With Disability Australia Inc), (citing: Parliament of NSW, Legislative Council Standing Committee on Social Issues, Care and Support, Final Report on Child Protection Services, Report 29, Parliament of NSW, Sydney, 2002, 147).

[307] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.22 (WA Department for Community Development).

[308] Department of Human Services Victoria 2003, p.35.

[309] Submission 226, p.2 (Anglicare Australia).

[310] Submission 35, p.15 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[311] SNAICC, Their Future Our Responsibility: making a commitment to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, p.7.

[312] SNAICC, p.7. See also Robertson Boni, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women's taskforce on violence report. The State of Queensland, 1999.

[313] AIHW 2005, p.41.

[314] Submission 226, p.2 (Anglicare Australia).

[315] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.5 (WA Department for Community Development).

[316] Submission 115, p.3 (Children's Welfare Association of Victoria).

[317] Submission 115, pp.3-7 (Children's Welfare Association of Victoria).

[318] Submission 115, p.4 (Children's Welfare Association of Victoria).

[319] Submission 35, p.5 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[320] Submission 92.

[321] Submission 433, pp.1-2.

[322] Submission 35, p.18 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[323] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.57-58 (CREATE Foundation).

[324] Submission 369, pp.6-20.

[325] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.57 (CREATE Foundation).

[326] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.10 (WA Department for Community Development).

[327] Thomas Helen, 'Home on the Hill', Background Briefing, Radio National, Sunday 7.9.03.

[328] Submission 81, p.3 (Youth Off The Streets).

[329] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.2 (Youth Off The Streets).

[330] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.77 (Berry Street Victoria).

[331] Confidential attachment.

[332] Submission 69, pp.12-15 (CREATE Foundation).

[333] Thomas Helen, 'High risk kids', Background Briefing, Radio National, Sunday 19.10.03.

[334] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.33 (MacKillop Family Services).

[335] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.68 (Anglicare Victoria).

[336] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.69 (Anglicare Victoria).

[337] Cashmore J, 'Child protection in the new millennium', Social Policy Research Centre Newsletter, May 2001, No 79, quoted in submission 35.

[338] Thomas 19.10.03.

[339] Thomas 19.10.03.

[340] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.46 (CBERSS).

[341] Radio National, Interview with delegate -Knowledge into action: effective practice for children and family services conference, Sydney, 2-4 August 2004, Life Matters, 3.8.04.

[342] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.46-47 and Submission 49, p.9 (CBERSS).

[343] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.58 (CREATE Foundation).

[344] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.71.

[345] Submission 55, p.13 (WA Department for Community Development).

[346] Submissions 131; 239, p.2; 185, p.2; 190; 237, p.3; 139, p.2; 258, p.1.

[347] Submissions 293, p.1; 244, p.1; 395, pp.2-4.

[348] Submission 315, pp.2-3; see also Submissions 367, p.1; 368, p.7; 434 and 443.

[349] Submissions 327, p.6; 320, pp.1-2; 16, p.2; 17, p.1.

[350] Submission 126, pp.7-8.

[351] Submission 142, p.2.

[352] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.69.

[353] Submission 413, pp.3-4; also Submission 364, p.2.

[354] Submission 419, pp.4-5.

[355] Thomas 7.9.03.

[356] Submission 50, p.14 (MacKillop Family Services).

[357] Submission 20, p.2.

[358] Submission 45, p.6 (NSW Committee on Adoption and Permanent Care).

[359] Submission 127, p.2 (West Heidelberg Community Legal Service).

[360] Cashmore, Dr Judy & Paxman, Ms Marina, Wards leaving care: a longitudinal study, NSW Department of Community Services, Sydney, 1996.

[361] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.62-68.

[362] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.60-61.

[363] Scott D, 'Looking back to see ahead: enduring insights and emerging understanding in relation to vulnerable children and their families in the child welfare system', Lecture to mark Child Protection Week, October 2000.

[364] Submission 53, p.7 (Post Adoption Resource Centre-The Benevolent Society).

[365] Submission 69, pp.19-21 (CREATE Foundation).

[366] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.2-3 (Youth Off The Streets).

[367] Submission 253, pp.1-3 (The Law Society of New South Wales).

[368] SNAICC, p.8.

[369] Submission 175, p.23 (Families Australia).

[370] SNAICC, p.5.

[371] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.66 (CREATE Foundation).

[372] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, p.74 (Mrs Ziino).

[373] Department of Human Services Victoria 2003, p.57.

[374] Submission 55, p.45 (WA Department for Community Development).

[375] Submission 61, p.18 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[376] Submission 45, pp.6-7 (NSW Committee on Adoption and Permanent Care).

[377] AIHW 2004, p.41.

[378] Submission 433, p.2.

[379] Submission 45, p.4 (NSW Committee on Adoption and Permanent Care).

[380] Mendes Philip and Moslehuddin Badal, 'Moving out from the State parental home: a comparison of leaving care policies in Victoria and New South Wales', Children Australia, vol 29, no. 2, 2004, pp.20-29.

[381] Cashmore and Paxman 1996, Wards leaving care.

[382] Submission 369, p.6.

[383] Child Wise, Speaking for themselves: voices of young people involved in commercial sexual activity, August 2004, p.6.

[384] Submission 160, p.12 (Mofflyn).

[385] Submission 2, Additional information, p.1 (Dr Philip Mendes).

[386] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.30 (Positive Justice Centre).

[387] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.87 (Berry Street Victoria).

[388] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.3,5 (Centacare Catholic Community Services and UnitingCare Burnside).

[389] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.13 (Youth Off The Streets).

[390] Mendes and Moslehuddin 2004, pp.20-29.

[391] Submission 2, p.1 (Dr Philip Mendes), additional information.

[392] Mendes Philip, 'A boost for those most in need', The Canberra Times, 4.9.03, p.17.

[393] Mendes and Moslehuddin 2004, pp.20-29.

[394] Submission 55, Additional information 4.3.05 (WA Department for Community Development).

[395] Mendes and Moslehuddin, 2004, pp.20-29.

[396] Submission 226, p.3 (Anglicare Australia).

[397] Submission 45, p.10 (NSW Committee on Adoption & Permanent Care).

[398] Orr Bev, 'Surviving the allegation of abuse investigation process', Presentation to Victorian Foster Care Conference, Melbourne, Victoria, 2003, p.4.

[399] Australian Foster Care Association (AFCA), Securing a safe and effective foster care system, Priorities and position statements, 2004, p.2 (Forward by Bev Orr, AFCA President).

[400] Department of Human Services Victoria, Public Parenting: A review of home-based care in Victoria, June 2003, p.40.

[401] AFCA, Securing a safe and effective foster care system, Priorities and position statements, 2002-2003, p.14.

[402] Submission 175, p.23 (Families Australia).

[403] Submission 44, p.1 (Professor Goddard).

[404] Dowling, Liz, 'Home on the Hill', Background Briefing, Radio National, Sunday 7.9.03.

[405] Orr, Bev, 'Home on the Hill', Background Briefing, Radio National, Sunday 7.9.03.

[406] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.11 (WA Department for Community Development).

[407] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.31 (Mercy Community Care Inc).

[408] Submission 35, p.4 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[409] Information cited in: Securing a safe and effective foster care system, Priorities and position statements, 2002-2003, p.14.

[410] 'Home on the Hill', Background Briefing, Radio National, Sunday 7.9.03.

[411] Submission 35, p.5 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[412] Scott, Dorothy, 'Home on the Hill', Background Briefing, Radio National, 7.9.03.

[413] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.4 (Wesley Mission Dalmar).

[414] AFCA 2002-2003, p.2.

[415] Submission 61, p.17 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[416] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.76 (Berry Street Victoria).

[417] McHugh, Marilyn, The costs of caring: a study of appropriate foster care payments for stable and adequate out of home care in Australia, Social Policy Research Centre, University of NSW, February 2002.

[418] McHugh 2002, pp.xi-xvii.

[419] McHugh Marilyn, 'Paying for care: the state of affairs in fostering', Paper presented at 8th Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference, Melbourne, 12-14 February 2003, pp.7-9.

[420] McHugh 2003, pp.9-10.

[421] Submission 35, p.21 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[422] McHugh 2003, p.11.

[423] AFCA 2004, pp.25-26.

[424] Committee Hansard 11.11.03, pp.72,74 (Mrs Ziino) and Submission 12, p.3.

[425] Confidential Attachment, pp.16-17.

[426] Submission 220, p.1.

[427] Confidential Submission.

[428] Submission 61, p.20 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[429] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.11-12 (WA Department for Community Development).

[430] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.19 (Centacare Catholic Community Services).

[431] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.15 (Association of Children's Welfare Agencies).

[432] Submission 45, p.9 (NSW Committee on Adoption & Permanent Care) – citing DHS survey.

[433] Submission 127, p.2 (West Heidelberg Community Legal Service).

[434] Submission 45, p.9 (NSW Committee on Adoption & Permanent Care).

[435] Submission 61, p.16 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[436] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.17 (Association of Children's Welfare Agencies).

[437] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.17 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[438] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, p.65 (Anglicare Victoria).

[439] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.15 (Youth Off The Streets).

[440] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.56 & 60 (Centacare Catholic Family Services); Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.34 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[441] Submission 115, p.7 (Children's Welfare Association of Victoria).

[442] Submission 55, pp.13-15 (WA Department for Community Development).

[443] Committee Hansard 12.11.03, pp.48-49 (Australian Council for Children & Youth Organisations).

[444] Submission 54, p.6 (Australian Council for Children & Youth Organisations).

[445] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.36 (Mercy Community Services Inc).

[446] Department of Justice (Victoria), Working with Children Bill 2005, Discussion paper, December 2004, p.4.

[447] Submission 72, p.3 (Queensland Commission for Children and Young People).

[448] Department of Justice (Victoria), p.4.

[449] Department of Justice (Victoria), pp.3-5.

[450] WA Department for Community Development – www.dcd.wa.gov.au

[451] Northern Territory Government (Department of Health and Community Services), Consultation paper and response sheet on the discussion draft for a proposed Act – Care and Protection of Children and Young People Act 2005www.children.nt.gov.au

[452] Tasmanian Commissioner for Children, 'Screening of individuals who work with children in Tasmania', Media Release, 7 January 2005.

[453] Department for Families and Communities (South Australia), Screening and criminal history checks policy, 1.2.2005, pp.1-3.

[454] Department for Families and Communities (South Australia) 2005, pp.1-11.

[455] ACT Commissioner for Public Administration, The territory as parent: review of the safety of children in care in the ACT and of ACT child protection management, May 2004 (Vardon Report 2004), p.187.

[456] Murray G, The territory's children: ensuring safety and quality care for children and young people, Report on the audit and case review, July 2004, p.xxvii.

[457] Horin A, 'Weak watchdog raises abuse risk: report', The Sydney Morning Herald, 27.10.04, p.6.

[458] McMenamin B, 'Police checks not enough to protect our children' [Letters Page], The Age, 29.10.04.

[459] Submission 45, p.10 (NSW Committee on Adoption & Permanent Care).

[460] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.16 (UnitingCare Burnside).

[461] Townsend, Ian, 'Child pornography raids conducted in Qld', ABC PM, Friday 11.2.05.

[462] Orr, Bev, 'Surviving the allegation of abuse investigation process', Presentation to Victorian Foster Care Conference, Melbourne, Victoria, 2003, pp.1-6.

[463] Orr, Bev 2003, p.4.

[464] Confidential Attachment, pp.11-34.

[465] Orr, Bev 2003, pp.2, 6-10.

[466] Submission 77, p.3 (Disability Council of NSW), quoting Community Services Commission, Inquiry into the practice and provision of substitute care in NSW – new directions: from substitute to support care, NSW Government, Sydney, 2000, pp.47-48.

[467] This definition is similar to that in the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW). However, it is broader than that in other Acts in Australia, including that in the Disability Services Act 1993 (NSW) – New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Review of the Disability Services Act 1993 (NSW), Report 91, July 1999, pp.75-77.

[468] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Children with disabilities in Australia, 2004, pp.14-15, [AIHW Cat. No. DIS 38].

[469] Bain KJ, 'Children with severe disabilities: options for residential care: is living under the same roof necessary for a nurturing family relationship?', Medical Journal of Australia 1998, 169, pp.598-600.

[470] Submission 173, p.15 (Victorian Government), quoting Ozanne, Rigby, Forbes, Glennen, Gordon & Fyffe, Reframing opportunities for people with intellectual disability, University of Melbourne School of Social Work, 1999, p.173.

[471] Mellor EJ, Stepping stones: the development of early childhood services in Australia, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, London, 1990, pp.27-28.

[472] ACROD, 'Children with disability', Fact Sheet, May 2004, p.1.

[473] Submission 165, p.8 (People With Disability Australia Inc), quoting reports from the Community Services Commission, Family Advocacy and Leadership Development, and Amicus Brief to the Community Services Appeals Tribunal.

[474] AIHW, 'Deinstitutionalisation: the move towards community-based care', Australia's Welfare 2001, Canberra, 2001, p.99.

[475] Submission 77, p.4 (Disability Council of NSW).

[476] Submission 82, p.3 (Centacare-Sydney).

[477] AIHW 2001, pp.97-103.

[478] AIHW 2001, p.102.

[479] Gordon Meg, 'Family care of children with an intellectual disability', in Reframing opportunities for people with an intellectual disability, A report funded by the Myer Foundation undertaken by School of Social Work, University of Melbourne, 1999, pp.225-226.

[480] Bain 1998, pp.598-600.

[481] Bain 1998, pp.598-600.

[482] Gordon 1999, p.226.

[483] Gordon 1999, pp.198, 202-204.

[484] Gordon 1999, pp.203-205.

[485] Bain 1998, pp.598-600.

[486] Gordon 1999, p.199.

[487] Gordon 1999, p.211.

[488] Bain 1998, pp.598-600.

[489] AIHW 2004, p.14.

[490] AIHW 2004, pp.xii-xiii.

[491] Submission 77, p.5 (Disability Council of NSW).

[492] Submission 173, p.16 (Victorian Government); as this submission notes, many older adults with disabilities have spent at least part of their childhood in institutions.

[493] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.77 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[494] AIHW 2004, p.42.

[495] AIHW 2004, pp.29-30.

[496] AIHW 2004, p.xiii.

[497] Yeatman A, Getting real: the final report of the review of the Commonwealth-State Disability Agreement, AGPS, Canberra, 1996, p.1.

[498] New South Wales Law Reform Commission 1999, pp.53-55.

[499] Productivity Commission, Report on Government Services 2005, Volume 2: Health, Community Services, Housing, Canberra, 2005, pp.13.4-13.5.

[500] Department of Family and Community Services (FaCS), 'Commonwealth State Territory Disability Agreement', Factsheet, 30 July 2004 – www.facs.gov.au

[501] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 'Disability and disability services', Australia's Welfare 2003, Canberra, 2003, p.358.

[502] New South Wales Law Reform Commission 1999, pp.8-9, 17.

[503] Submission 165, p.22 (People with Disability Australia Inc).

[504] New South Wales Law Reform Commission 1999, pp.10-11.

[505] Gordon 1999, p.226.

[506] Submission 125, pp.7-8 (Queensland Government).

[507] Submission 72, pp.1-2 (Queensland Commission for Children and Young People).

[508] Submission 165, p.1 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[509] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.74 (Family Advocacy).

[510] Submission 77, p.7 (Disability Council of NSW).

[511] Submission 77, pp.4-5 (Disability Council of NSW); Submission 165, p.14 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[512] Submission 165, p.16 (People With Disability Australia Inc); Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.58-59 (CREATE Foundation); Submission 77, p.12 (Disability Council of NSW); Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.83-84 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[513] Submission 165, pp.11-12 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[514] Submission 165, p.20 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[515] Gordon 1999, pp.228, 230.

[516] Submission 84, pp.4-6 (Disability Services Commission WA).

[517] Submission 165, p.25 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[518] Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC), Seen and heard: priority for children in the legal process, Report No. 84, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997, p.109.

[519] Submission 220, p.2.

[520] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.85 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[521] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.85 (Family Advocacy).

[522] Submission 502, p.7.

[523] New South Wales Law Reform Commission 1999, p.120.

[524] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.84 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[525] Submission 84, p.3 (Disability Services Commission WA).

[526] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.75 (Family Advocacy); Submission 165, p.8 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[527] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.75 (Family Advocacy).

[528] Submission 60 (Family Advocacy, pp.1-2 additional information).

[529] Submission 165, p.21 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[530] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.77 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[531] Submission 165, p.21 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[532] Confidential Submission 91, p.13.

[533] Submission 77, p.9 (Disability Council of NSW).

[534] Submission 84, p.4 (Disability Services Commission WA).

[535] Submission 165, p.10 (People With Disability Australia Inc), quoting Audit Office of NSW, Performance Audit Report: Ageing and Disability Department, Group homes for people with disabilities in NSW, 2000, p.30.

[536] Submission 165, p.20 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[537] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.77 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[538] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.77 (Family Advocacy).

[539] Submission 502, p.7.

[540] Submission 502, pp.1-3.

[541] Submission 502, pp.1-3.

[542] Submission 503, p.2.

[543] Submission 503, p.2.

[544] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.78 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[545] SAAP provides transitional supported accommodation and associated services to help people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness.

[546] Submission 165, pp.17, 21 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[547] Submission 165, pp.15-17 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[548] Submission 77, pp.13-14 (Disability Council of NSW).

[549] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.81 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[550] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.81 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[551] Submission 77, p.15 (Disability Council of NSW).

[552] Submission 77, p.16 (Disability Council of NSW).

[553] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.79 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[554] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.78 (Family Advocacy).

[555] Submission 77, p.15 (Disability Council of NSW).

[556] Submission 71, p.19 (Catholic Welfare Australia).

[557] Submission 160, p.11 (Mofflyn).

[558] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.80 (Family Advocacy).

[559] Submission 84, pp.2-3 (Disability Services Commission WA).

[560] Submission 173, p.16 (Victorian Government).

[561] Submission 125, p.8 (Queensland Government).

[562] Submission 165, p.5 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[563] ACROD, 'Children with a disability', Factsheet, May 2004, p.2.

[564] Submission 125, p.7 (Queensland Government).

[565] ACROD, 'Children with a disability', Factsheet, May 2004, p.2.

[566] Submission 165, p.24 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[567] Submission 77, p.17 (Disability Council of NSW).

[568] Forgotten Australians 2004, pp.197-198.

[569] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.76 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[570] Submission 165, p.25 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[571] Submission 77, pp.18-19 (Disability Council of NSW).

[572] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.76 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[573] Submission 165, p.25 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[574] Submission 165, pp.22,25 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[575] Submission 165, p.10 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[576] Submission 77, p.8 (Disability Council of NSW).

[577] Submission 165, p.20 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[578] Submission 77, p.7 (Disability Council of NSW), citing Community Services Commission (CSC), Suffer the children: the Hall for children report, NSW Government, Sydney, 1997, pp.4-7.

[579] Submission 165, p.5 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[580] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.83 (Family Advocacy).

[581] Submission 288, p.1.

[582] AAP, 'Catholic priest and brother to be extradited to NZ', 14.2.05.

[583] Submission 79, p.8 (Broken Rites [Australia] Collective Inc).

[584] Confidential Submission, pp.1-2.

[585] Confidential Submission, pp.1-2, 5.

[586] Confidential Submission, pp.8-12.

[587] Submission 125, p.6 (Queensland Government).

[588] Submission 125, p.7 (Queensland Government).

[589] Submission 160, p.11 (Mofflyn).

[590] Submission 160, p.12 (Mofflyn).

[591] Bain 1998, 169, pp.598-600.

[592] Submission 77, p.3 (Disability Council of NSW).

[593] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.81 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[594] Bain 1998, pp.598-600.

[595] Bain 1998, pp.598-600.

[596] Submission 165, p.25 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[597] Submission 277, p.1 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[598] Submission 177, p.8 (WA Department of Justice).

[599] Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC), Seen and heard: priority for children in the legal process, Report No. 84, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997, p.467.

[600] Australian Institute of Criminology – http://www.aic.gov.au

[601] Submission 177, p.8 (WA Department of Justice).

[602] Submission 72, p.2 (Queensland Commission for Children and Young People).

[603] Forgotten Australians, p.38.

[604] Submission 69, p.9 (CREATE Foundation)

[605] Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) 'Juvenile detention rates 1994-2003', Crime Facts Info, No 87, 14.12.04.

[606] Submission 35, p.7 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[607] ALRC 1997, p.103.

[608] Submission 81, p.4 (Youth Off The Streets).

[609] Submission 35, p.7 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[610] Submission 82, p.6 (Centacare-Sydney) quoting Vinson 1974 and CAMA Report 1996.

[611] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, p.77 (WA Department of Justice).

[612] Stewart A, Dennison S & Waterson E, 'Pathways from child maltreatment to juvenile offending', Trends and Issues, No 241, AIC, October 2002, pp.1-6.

[613] Korn Y, 'Strategic directions in the prevention of youth crime', Paper presented at the juvenile crime and juvenile justice: Towards 2000 and beyond conference, AIC, Adelaide, 26-27 June 1997, p.2, citing Youth Voice from the National Youth in Care Network quoted in 'Young People Say' NCPC 1997, p.1.

[614] Kosky R, Sawyer M & Gowland J, 'Adolescents in custody: hidden psychological morbidity?', Medical Journal of Australia, vol 53, July 1990, p.24.

[615] Submission 463, pp.1-4.

[616] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.75-76 (WA Department of Justice).

[617] Submission 81, p.4 (Youth Off The Streets).

[618] Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly: Standing Committee on Community Services and Social Equity, The rights, interests and well-being of children and young people, Report No 3, August 2003, p.71.

[619] Submission 177, pp.2-4 (WA Department of Justice).

[620] AIC, 'Juvenile detention rates 1994-2003', Crime Facts Info, No 87, 14.12.04.

[621] Norden Fr Peter, 'Are some states or territories more delinquent than others? Inter-jurisdictional comparisons', Paper presented at: Juvenile justice: from lessons of the past to a road map for the future conference, AIC in conjunction with the NSW Department of Juvenile Justice, Sydney, 1-2 December 2003.

[622] Committee Hansard 12.03.04, p.46 (Father Dethlefs).

[623] Submission 81, p.6 (Youth Off The Streets).

[624] Submission 80, p.2 (Corrections Health Service).

[625] Submission 165, p.17 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[626] ALRC 1997, p.109.

[627] Submission 165, pp.17-18 (People With Disability Australia Inc).

[628] Submission 19, p.1 (Centre for Adolescent Health) - based on: Coffey C, Veit F, Wolfe R, Cini E & Patton G, 'Mortality in young offenders: retrospective cohort study', British Medical Journal, vol 326, 17.5.03.

[629] Submission 177, p.6 (WA Department of Justice).

[630] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.72-73 (WA Department of Justice).

[631] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.74-75 (WA Department of Justice) and Senator Humphries.

[632] Submission 173, p.22 (Victorian Government).

[633] Submission 480, p.1.

[634] Submission 480, p.1.

[635] Norden 2003.

[636] Submission 177, pp.2-5 (WA Department of Justice).

[637] Thompson J & Carrol M, 'Program Initiatives within Juvenile Justice Victoria', Paper presented at the Juvenile Justice: From lessons of the past to a road map for the future conference convened by the AIC in conjunction with the NSW Department of Juvenile Justice, Sydney, December 2003.

[638] ALRC 1997, p.476.

[639] Daly K & Hennessey H, 'Restorative justice and conferencing in Australia', Trends and Issues, No 186, AIC, February 2001, p.1.

[640] Bargen J, 'Diverting ATSI young offenders from court and custody in New South Wales – practices, perspectives and possibilities under the Young Offenders Act 1997', Paper presented at the best practice interventions in corrections for indigenous people conference, convened by the AIC, Sydney, 8-9 October 2001, pp.4-5.

[641] Korn 1997, pp.3-4.

[642] ALRC 1997, pp.477-478.

[643] Bargen 2001, p.11.

[644] ALRC 1997, pp.484-485, citing National inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families (Bringing them home), HREOC, Sydney, 1997, pp.521 & 525.

[645] Bargen 2001, pp.9-11.

[646] Sherman LW, Strang H & Woods DJ, Recidivism patterns in the Canberra reintegrative shaming experiments (RISE), Centre for Restorative Justice, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, November 2000, pp.3-4.

[647] Sherman, Strang & Woods 2000, pp.5-7.

[648] Sherman, Strang & Woods 2000, pp. 15, 18-19.

[649] Norden 2003.

[650] Carcah C and Leverett S, 'Juvenile offending: specialisation or versatility', Trends and Issues, No. 108, AIC, April 1999.

[651] Stewart A, Dennison S and Waterson E, 'Pathways from child maltreatment to juvenile offending', Trends and Issues, No 241, AIC, October 2002, p.6.

[652] Bargen 2001, p.11.

[653] Submissions 29, p.2 (ChilOut); 35, pp.25-26 (NSW Commissioner for Children and Young People); 74, pp.3-4,31-36 (Western Young People's Independent Network and Catholic Commission for Justice Development and Peace); 165, pp.19-21 (People with Disability Australia Inc); 396, pp.5-6 (A Van Boeyen).

[654] Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, A last resort? National Inquiry into Children in Detention Centres, April 2004. The report may be accessed at: http://www.hreoc.gov.au/human_rights/children_detention_report/index.html

[655] Submission 175, pp.6-8 (Families Australia).

[656] Australian Medical Association, 'More must be done to protect our children from abuse and bullying – AMA', Media Release, 17 September 2004.

[657] Submission 35, pp.27-28 (NSW Commission for Children and Young People).

[658] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, pp.30-31 (Positive Justice Centre).

[659] Submission 122A, p.21 (Positive Justice Centre).

[660] Committee Hansard 4.2.04, p.31 (Positive Justice Centre).

[661] Committee Hansard 9.12.03, pp.44-45 (CBERSS).

[662] Submission 49, p.9 (CBERSS).

[663] Forgotten Australians 2004, p.322.

[664] Cashmore J and Ainsworth F, Audit of Australian out-of-home care research, Child and Family Welfare Association with support from the Ian Potter Foundation, 2004, p.9.

[665] Submission 122A, (Positive Justice Centre).

[666] Submission 70, p.6 (National Children's and Youth Law Centre).

[667] Submission 67, p.16 (Australian Institute of Family Studies) – citing Tomison & Stanley 2001.

[668] AIHW 2005, p.12.

[669] AMA, Media Release, 17 September 2004.

[670] Taken from a media conference transcript on the AMA Summit on Child Abuse, Canberra, 19 February 2004, p.1.

[671] Submission 49, pp.11-12 (CBERSS).

[672] Stanley AC Prof Fiona, The real brain drain – why putting children first is so important for Australia, National Press Club Address, 6 August 2003.

[673] Stanley AC Prof Fiona 2003.

[674] Submission 49, p.11 (CBERSS).

[675] AMA, Media Release, Attachment, 17 September 2004.

[676] Submission 277, p.9 (Office of the Commissioner for Children Tasmania).

[677] Department of Family and Community Services, Additional information, 23.2.05.

[678] Submission 175, p.19 (Families Australia).

[679] Submission 511, p.4.

[680] Submission 175, p.21 (Families Australia).

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