Footnotes

Footnotes

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

[1]        The Hon Nicola Roxon MP, Attorney-General, and Senator the Hon Penny Wong, Minister for Finance and Deregulation, 'Clearer, simpler, stronger anti-discrimination laws', Joint Media Release, 20 November 2012, http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/132822/20130204-0704/www.attorneygeneral.gov.au/Media-releases/Pages/2012/Fourth%20Quarter/20November2012-Clearersimplerstrongerantidiscriminationlaws.html (accessed 20 February 2013).

[2]        Journals of the Senate, 21 November 2012, p. 3344.

[3]        Journals of the Senate, 7 February 2013, p. 3613.

[4]        'Clearer, simpler, stronger anti-discrimination laws', Joint Media Release, 20 November 2012.

[5]        'Clearer, simpler, stronger anti-discrimination laws', Joint Media Release, 20 November 2012.

[6]        Attorney-General's Department, Consolidation of Commonwealth Anti-Discrimination Laws: Discussion Paper, September 2011, pp 5-6, http://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/ConsolidationofCommonwealthanti-discriminationlaws.aspx (accessed 13 February 2013).

[7]        Explanatory Notes to the Draft Bill (EN), p. 32.

[8]        Attorney-General's Department, Consolidation of Commonwealth Anti-Discrimination Laws: Discussion Paper, September 2011, pp 5 and 37.

[9]        EN, p. 1.

[10]      Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Effectiveness of the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 in eliminating discrimination and promoting gender equality, December 2008, pp 164-165.

[11]      Attorney-General's Department, Australia's Human Rights Framework, http://www.ag.gov.au/RightsAndProtections/HumanRights/HumanRightsFramework/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 13 February 2013).

[12]      The Hon Robert McClelland MP, and Senator the Hon Penny Wong, 'Launch of discussion paper on new anti-discrimination law', Joint Media Release, 22 September 2011, http://www.robertmcclelland.com.au/2011/09/22/launch-of-discussion-paper-on-new-anti-discrimination-law/ (accessed 12 November 2012).

[13]      Attorney-General's Department, Consolidation of Commonwealth Anti-Discrimination Laws: Regulation Impact Statement, November 2012, p. 84, http://www.ag.gov.au/Consultations/Pages/ConsolidationofCommonwealthanti-discriminationlaws.aspx (accessed 20 February 2013).

[14]      Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 2.

[15]      EN, p. 1.

[16]      For example, the current anti-discrimination Acts differ in the approach to coverage of protected attributes. The Draft Bill adopts the approach in the Racial Discrimination Act – which offers the broadest protection of the current Acts – by providing that discrimination is unlawful in connection with any area of public life. See: EN, pp 32-33.

[17]      EN, p. 1.

[18]      Introducing protection for these two attributes implements a 2010 election commitment made by the government. See: Attorney-General's Department, Consolidation of Commonwealth Anti-Discrimination Laws: Discussion Paper, September 2011, p. 21.

[19]      EN, pp 2-3.

[20]      A submission was categorised as a form letter where it contained a specific, or easily identifiable, template of words. A submission was included as a variation to a particular form letter where the template of words was modified but could still be identified as having derived from a form letter, or where the template was supplemented with additional material.

[21]      Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, pp 1-2.

CHAPTER 2 - KEY PROVISIONS OF THE BILL

[1]        'Political opinion', 'social origin' and 'religion' are explicitly included in the definition of 'discrimination' in section 3 of the Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986, while 'trade union activity', 'medical record', 'nationality', and 'criminal record' are prescribed as protected grounds in the Australian Human Rights Commission Regulations 1989.

[2]        Attorney-General's Department, Submission 130, p. 4. The committee notes that the Federal Circuit Court of Australia Legislation Amendment Act 2012 was assented to on 28 November 2012, and provides that the Federal Magistrates Court will continue in existence as the renamed Federal Circuit Court of Australia from 28 May 2013 (unless proclaimed earlier).

[3]        'Criminal record' is the only attribute from the 'equal opportunity in employment' complaints scheme not included in the Draft Bill.

[4]        Submission 130, p. 4.

[5]        EN, p. 22.

[6]        EN, p. 28.

[7]        The 'work-only' attributes are: 'family responsibilities' (which under the Sex Discrimination Act only applies to work-related discrimination) and the six attributes from the 'equal opportunity in employment' complaints scheme.

[8]        EN, p. 33.

[9]        An 'inherent requirements for work' exemption is currently in both the Age Discrimination Act and the Disability Discrimination Act. The Sex Discrimination Act provides an exemption for 'genuine occupational qualification', while the Racial Discrimination Act has provision for prohibiting discrimination in employment and refers to work 'for which [the] person is qualified': EN, pp 35-36.

[10]      The exception in clause 32 of the Draft Bill is currently found in the Sex Discrimination Act.

[11]      The exceptions in subclause 33 of the Draft Bill are currently found in section 35 of the Age Discrimination Act, and in paragraph 37(d) and section 38 of the Sex Discrimination Act.

[12]      EN, p. 41.

[13]      EN, pp 41-42.

[14]      EN, p. 41.

[15]      EN, p. 42.

[16]      EN, p. 49.

[17]      'Disability standards', 'compliance codes', 'special measure determinations' and 'temporary exemptions' are defined terms: see clause 6 of the Draft Bill.

[18]      EN, p. 3.

[19]      EN, p. 85.

[20]      EN, p. 85.

[21]      Paragraph 117(2)(a).

[22]      Paragraph 117(2)(b).

[23]      Paragraph 117(2)(c).

[24]      Paragraph 117(2)(d).

[25]      Paragraph 117(2)(e).

[26]      EN, p. 86. Also see EN, p. 87.

[27]      EN, p. 89.

[28]      EN, p. 89.

[29]      EN, p. 89.

[30]      EN, p. 89.

[31]      Submission 130, p. 2.

[32]      EN, p. 94.

CHAPTER 3 - PROTECTED ATTRIBUTES

[1]        See, for example, Dr Tiffany Jones, Submission 3, p. 11; Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 9, p. 5; Anti-Discrimination Board of NSW, Submission 21, p. 1; Australian Domestic and Family Violence Clearinghouse, Submission 24, p. 1; beyondblue, Submission 217, p. 1; ACON, Submission 244, p. 3; UnitingJustice Australia, Submission 466, p. 5; Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby (VGLRL), Submission 534, pp 14 and 17.

[2]        See, for example, Australian Association of Christian Schools, Submission 359, p. 24; Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Submission 360, p. 5; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 409, p. 5.

[3]        Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, pp 12-13; ANU College of Law 'Equality Project', Submission 446, pp 3-4.

[4]        Submission 207, p. 12. See also ANU College of Law 'Equality Project', Submission 446,
pp 4-6.

[5]        Submission 534, p. 14.

[6]        Submission 534, p. 15.

[7]        See, for example, Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, pp 12-13; A Gender Agenda, Submission 322, p. 9; Liberty Victoria, Submission 379, p. 5; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, p. 6; VGLRL, Submission 534, pp 17‑19.

[8]        See, for example, Anti-Discrimination Board of NSW, Submission 21, pp 3-4; National Association of Community Legal Centres and Kingsford Legal Centre, Submission 334, p. 30; LGBTI Legal Service, Submission 368, p. 4.

[9]        Submission 3, p. 9.

[10]      Submission 446, p. 8. See also: Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 12.

[11]      Submission 534, pp 17-18. See also: Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 298, p. 6; LGBTI Legal Service, Submission 368, p. 4; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 421, p. 21.

[12]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 1.

[13]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 60.

[14]      See, for example, National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 320, p. 2; Liberty Victoria, Submission 379, p. 5; Anti-Discrimination Commissioner of Tasmania, Submission 429, p. 4.

[15]      Item 4 of Part 2 of the Anti-Discrimination Amendment Bill 45 of 2012 (Tasmania), which proposes amendments to the definitions in section 3 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tasmania). See: http://www.parliament.tas.gov.au/bills/Bills2012/45_of_2012.htm (accessed 18 December 2012).

[16]      See, for example, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Submission 12, pp 5-6; Cr Tony Briffa, Submission 203, pp 1-3; Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 13; Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 298, pp 4-5; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, pp 27-28.

[17]      Explanatory Notes (EN), p. 23.

[18]      EN, p. 23.

[19]      Submission 12, p. 1.

[20]      Submission 12, p. 6.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 4.

[22]      Submission 12, p. 14.

[23]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 7.

[24]      Submission 203, p. 2.

[25]      Submission 21, p. 3, quoting from the Anti-Discrimination Board of NSW's submission to the Consolidation of Commonwealth Anti-Discrimination Laws Discussion Paper. See also: beyondblue, Submission 217, p. 2; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 308, p. 4.

[26]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 48.

[27]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 49.

[28]      Submission 12, pp 9, 17-18.

[29]      See Item 4 of Part 2 of the Anti-Discrimination Amendment Bill 45 of 2012 (Tasmania), http://www.parliament.tas.gov.au/bills/Bills2012/45_of_2012.htm (accessed
18 December 2012).

[30]      See, for example, Dr Tiffany Jones, Submission 3, p. 16; Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Submission 298, p. 6; VGLRL, Submission 534, pp 20-22;
Ms Robin Banks, Tasmanian Anti-Discrimination Commissioner, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, pp 47-48; Ms Frieda Lee, National Association of Community Legal Centres, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 10; Professor Simon Rice OAM, Discrimination Law Experts Group, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 57.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, pp 1-2.

[32]      Submission 9, p. 10.

[33]      Submission 9, p. 10.

[34]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 2.

[35]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 2.

[36]      Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 9.

[37]      Submission 207, pp 16-17. See also: Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 9, p. 9; Australian Education Union, Submission 343, p. 4; Cairns Community Legal Centre, Submission 385, p. 8; Mr Tim Lyons, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 8; Ms Rachel O'Brien, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 48.

[38]      See, for example, Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 9, p. 9; National Tertiary Education Union, Submission 317, p. 56.

[39]      Submission 310, p. 5.

[40]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 5.

[41]      EN, p. 25.

[42]      Submission 411, p. 3. See also: Mr Robert Johnston, Australian Association of Christian Schools, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 62; Mr Simon Breheny, Institute of Public Affairs, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, pp 37 and 40.

[43]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 47.

[44]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 54.

[45]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 3.

[46]      Attorney-General's Department, Submission 130, p. 4. See also: Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 3.

[47]      Submission 130, p. 4.

[48]      EN, p. 25.

[49]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 40.

[50]      Submission 21, p. 4.

[51]      See, for example, Ms Karen Toohey, Australian Council of Human Rights Agencies, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 54; Ms Tracey Raymond, Australian Human Rights Commission, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 66.

[52]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 54.

[53]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 10.

[54]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 48.

[55]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 2.

[56]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 3.

[57]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 4.

[58]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 4.

[59]      Australian Bahá'í Community, Submission 246, pp 2-3; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 419, p. 11; Ad Hoc Interfaith Committee, Submission 476, p. 10. Other submitters argued that all of the attributes in the AHRC's 'equal opportunity in employment' complaints scheme, including 'religion', should be protected in any area of public life. See, for example, Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 249, p. 6; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, p. 5.

[60]      Submission 246, p. 2.

[61]      Submission 419, p. 11.

[62]      Submission 360, p. 4. See also: Christian Schools Australia, Submission 237, p. 4; HammondCare, Submission 388, pp 28-29.

[63]      See, for example, Australian Domestic and Family Violence Clearinghouse, Submission 24, p. 1; Working Women's Centre SA, Submission 26, p. 1; Queensland Working Women's Service, Submission 28, p. 1; Women's Health Victoria, Submission 36, p. 1; Victorian Trade Halls Council, Submission 104, pp 1-2; Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 18; National Tertiary Education Union, Submission 317, p. 7; Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 310, p. 7; Australian Education Union, Submission 343, p. 3; Australian Services Union, Submission 351, p. 1.

[64]      Submission 28, p. 1.

[65]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 34.

[66]      Submission 24, p. 1.

[67]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 28.

[68]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 28. See also Ms Frieda Lee, National Association of Community Legal Centres, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 10.

[69]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 9.

[70]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 28.

[71]      See, for example, Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, pp 17‑18; Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 310, pp 6-7; National Association of Community Legal Centres and Kingsford Legal Centre, Submission 334, pp 25-27; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 421, p. 21.

[72]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 5.

[73]      Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 16.

[74]      See, for example, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 310, p. 8; The National Association of Community Legal Centres and Kingsford Legal Centre, Submission 334,
pp 31-34; Australian Council of Human Rights Agencies, Submission 358, pp 9-10; Disability Discrimination Legal Service and Villamanta Disability Rights Legal Service, Submission 366, pp 2-3; Maurice Blackburn Lawyers, Submission 374, p. 1; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, pp 28-29; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, p. 7; Public Interest Advocacy Group, Submission 421, pp 12-14; Public Interest Law Clearing House, Submission 425, pp 12-14; Anti-Discrimination Commissioner of Tasmania, Submission 429, pp 9-10.

[75]      Submission 475, p. 3.

[76]      Submission 475, pp 3-4. In 2011-2012, the Australian Human Rights Commission received 290 enquiries and 67 complaints of discrimination in employment on the basis of a criminal record. This was the most common complaint made under ILO 111, and represented 13 per cent of all human rights complaints under the Australian Human Rights Commission Act: Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 16, citing figures from the Australian Human Rights Commission's annual report 2011-2012.

[77]      Submission 9, p. 7.

[78]      Submission 9, pp 7-8.

[79]      Submission 207, p. 15.

[80]      See, for example, Catholic Prison Ministry, Submission 247, p. 1; National Association of Community Legal Centres and Kingsford Legal Centre, Submission 334, p. 34; Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, pp 21-22.

[81]      Submission 275, p. 6.

[82]      Submission 279, p. 2. See also Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Submission 411, p. 3.

[83]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 5.

[84]      Supplementary Submission 130, pp 5-6, quoting from the Draft Bill's Regulatory Impact Statement.

CHAPTER 4 - MEANING OF DISCRIMINATION AND CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH DISCRIMINATION IS UNLAWFUL

[1]        See, for example, Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 18; Institute of Public Affairs, Submission 331, pp 4-5; Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Submission 411, p. 4; Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, pp 26-27; Freedom 4 Faith, Submission 447, p. 10; NSW Government, Submission 467, pp 2 and 7; Human Rights Council of Australia, Submission 475, p. 5.

[2]        The Hon James Spigelman AC QC, 'Hate Speech and Free Speech: Drawing the Line', Human Rights Day Oration, 10 December 2012, http://humanrights.gov.au/about/media/news/2012/132_12.html (accessed 11 December 2012).

[3]        See, for example, Institute of Public Affairs, Submission 331, pp 4-5; Master Builders Australia, Submission 353, pp 6-7; Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, p. 26;
Seventh-day Adventist Church Australia, Submission 496, p. 5; Queensland Council for Civil Liberties, Submission 554, p. 3.

[4]        Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 62.

[5]        See, for example, Institute of Public Affairs, Submission 331, p. 5; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 419, pp 12-13; Freedom 4 Faith, Submission 447, p. 10; Law Society of South Australia, Submission 248, p. 2.

[6]        Submission 435, p. 26, (emphasis in original).

[7]        Submission 484, p. 4. See also: Free TV Australia, Submission 330, pp 2-3.

[8]        Submission 331, p. 5.

[9]        Explanatory Notes (EN), pp 27-28.

[10]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 6.

[11]      Supplementary Submission 130, pp 6-7.

[12]      Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at the public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 1.

[13]      Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, pp. 2 and 5.

[14]      Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at the public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', pp 1‑4.

[15]      Submission 435, p. 27. See also: Ms Rachel Ball, Human Rights Law Centre, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 58.

[16]      Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at the public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 2.

[17]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, pp 9 and 11.

[18]      Submission 379, p. 6.

[19]      Submission 421, p. 4.

[20]      Submission 475, p. 5.

[21]      Submission 379, p. 6.

[22]      Submission 379, p. 6.

[23]      Mr Jamie Gardiner, Liberty Victoria, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 4.

[24]      Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at the public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 3.

[25]      Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at the public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 3.

[26]      Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at the public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 4 (emphasis in original).

[27]      Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at the public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 4.

[28]      Submission 435, pp 26-27.

[29]      Submission 350, p. 2.

[30]      EN, p. 32.

[31]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 8.

[32]      Submission 558, p. 3 (emphasis in original).

[33]      Submission 558, p. 4.

[34]      Submission 447, p. 11.

[35]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 50.

[36]      Submission 402, p. 42.

[37]      EN, p. 33.

[38]      Mr Greg Manning, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 8.

[39]      All of these attributes, except 'family responsibilities', are part of the Australian Human Rights Commission's 'equal opportunity in employment' complaints scheme, while 'family responsibilities' is a protected attribute in work-related areas only under section 7A of the Sex Discrimination Act 1984. See: EN, pp 20-21.

[40]      Submission 9, pp 8-9.

[41]      Submission 9, p. 9.

[42]      Ms Anne Hewitt, Professor Andrew Stewart, Professor Rosemary Owens, Ms Gabrielle Appleby and Ms Beth Nosworthy, University of Adelaide Law School, Submission 204, pp 3-4.

[43]      Submission 207, p. 14. See also: Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, p. 5.

[44]      Submission 411, p. 3. See also: Clubs Australia Industrial, Submission 314, pp 8-9.

[45]      Submission 411, p. 3.

[46]      Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 3.

[47]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 2.

[48]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 2.

[49]      Submission 334, p. 12.

[50]      Submission 402, p. 42.

[51]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 57.

[52]      Submission 425, p. 19.

[53]      Submission 425, p. 19.

[54]      Submission 425, p. 19.

[55]      Submission 425, p. 19.

[56]      Submission 558, pp 7-8.

[57]      Submission 447, pp 7-8.

[58]      Submission 447, pp 8-9. See also Presbyterian Church of Australia's General Assembly, Submission 465, p. 3; The Salvation Army Australia, Submission 499, p. 5.

[59]      Submission 360, p. 3. See also: Anglicare Sydney, Submission 329, pp 4-5; HammondCare, Submission 388, p. 17.

[60]      Submission 238, p. 6. See also: Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, pp 21-22; National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 255, pp 11-12.

[61]      Submission 207, p. 33. The Discrimination Law Experts Group also made this argument in relation to Disability Standards, Compliance Codes and Temporary Exemptions.

[62]      Submission 435, p. 29.

[63]      Submission 435, p. 30.

[64]      Submission 366, p. 3.

[65]      Submission 207, p. 19.

[66]      Submission 366, p. 3.

[67]      Submission 323, p. 2.

[68]      Submission 207, p. 19.

[69]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 11.

CHAPTER 5 - EXCEPTIONS TO UNLAWFUL DISCRIMINATION

[1]        Submission 207, p. 23. See also: Australian Council of Human Rights Agencies, Submission 358, pp 11-12; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, p. 44; Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Submission 411, p. 4; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 421, pp 27‑28; Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, p. 33.

[2]        See, for example, Victoria Legal Aid, Submission 346, pp 17-19; Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Submission 411, pp 4-5; Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, pp 33-36; Ms Katherine Eastman SC, Submission 452, pp 6-8.

[3]        Submission 279, p. 3.

[4]        See, for example, The Equal Rights Trust, Submission 367, pp 24-25; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, p. 44; Mr Tim Lyons, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 9.

[5]        Submission 275, p. 9, quoting from Job Watch's submission to the Consolidation of Commonwealth Anti-Discrimination Laws Discussion Paper. See also: Civil Contractors Federation, Submission 307, p. 12.

[6]        Submission 207, pp 24-25.

[7]        Submission 402, p. 45.

[8]        Submission 358, p. 13.

[9]        Submission 452, pp 6-7.

[10]      Submission 452, pp 7-8. Ms Eastman noted that the concept of 'reasonableness' has been used for many years in federal anti-discrimination law, and is familiar to the Australian courts.

[11]      Submission 435, pp 35-36.

[12]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 9.

[13]      Submission 310, p. 9.

[14]      Submission 310, p. 9.

[15]      Submission 207, p. 26.

[16]      Submission 207, p. 26.

[17]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 10.

[18]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 10.

[19]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 10.

[20]      Australian Association of Christian Schools, Submission 359, p. 11; Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Submission 360, pp 2-3; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 409, p. 5; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 419, pp 4-5; Freedom 4 Faith, Submission 447, p. 19.

[21]      Submission 359, p. 12 (emphasis in original). See also: Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 419, pp 4-5; The Salvation Army Australia, Submission 499, p. 6.

[22]      Professor Nicholas Aroney and Professor Patrick Parkinson AM, Submission 558, Attachment 1, pp 5 and 7. See also: Australian Association of Christian Schools, Submission 359, p. 13.

[23]      Freedom 4 Faith, Submission 447, pp 20-21.

[24]      Freedom 4 Faith, Submission 447, p. 22.

[25]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 26.

[26]      See, for example, The Humanist Society of Victoria, Submission 153, p. 2; The Equal Rights Trust, Submission 367, pp 30-31; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, p. 11.

[27]      Submission 402, p. 47.

[28]      Submission 466, pp 7-8.

[29]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 60. See also: Australian GLBTIQ Multicultural Council, Submission 383, pp 7-8; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 421, p. 30; Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Submission 534, p. 30.

[30]      Submission 207, p. 27. See also: Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 310, p. 11; Independent Education Union of Australia, Submission 356, pp 1-2; UnitingJustice Australia, Submission 466, p. 8.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 29.

[32]      Submission 475, p. 11.

[33]      Submission 447, p. 23.

[34]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 64.

[35]      Submission 380, p. 13.

[36]      Submission 275, p. 8.

[37]      Submission 356, p. 2.

[38]      Submission 342, pp 3-5. Under section 25 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld), the religious exception related to employment is limited to discrimination where a person openly acts in a way that is contrary to the employer's religious beliefs and it is a genuine occupational requirement that the person acts in a way consistent with the employer's religious beliefs in the course of work.

[39]      Submission 207, p. 28. See also: Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 352, pp 11-12.

[40]      Submission 447, p. 22.

[41]      Submission 466, p. 8.

[42]      Submission 359, p. 14. See also: HammondCare, Submission 388, p. 13.

[43]      See, for example, Australian Association of Social Workers, Submission 227, p. 6; Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations, Submission 239, p. 6; Australian Psychological Society, Submission 308, p. 6; Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 352, p. 13; Diversity Council Australia, Submission 378, p. 6; Australian GLBTIQ Multicultural Council, Submission 383, p. 7; Ms Jessie Taylor, Liberty Victoria, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 7; Dr Justin Koonin, NSW Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 2; Associate Professor Mark Hughes, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 40.

[44]      'LGBTI' is a term used to describe lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex and other sex and gender diverse communities.

[45]      Submission 430, p. 5.

[46]      Submission 320, p. 2.

[47]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 40.

[48]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 40.

[49]      Submission 413, pp 1 and 2.

[50]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 42.

[51]      Submission 360, pp 6-7.

[52]      Submission 386, p. 4.

[53]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 35.

[54]      See, for example, Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 249, pp 6‑7; North Melbourne Legal Service, Submission 327, pp 4-5; Diversity Council Australia, Submission 378, p. 6; Australian GLBTIQ Multicultural Council, Submission 383, p. 7; Legal Aid New South Wales, Submission 498, p. 3; Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Submission 534, p. 32.

[55]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 2.

[56]      Submission 3, pp 20-23.

[57]      Submission 207, pp 28-29 (emphasis in original).

[58]      Submission 207, p. 29.

[59]      Submission 475, p. 13. See also: Australian Association of Social Workers, Submission 227, p. 2; Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Submission 249, pp 6-7; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 320, p. 3; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, pp 48-49.

[60]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, pp 1-2.

[61]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 37.

[62]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 28.

[63]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 28.

[64]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 5. See also: Associate Professor Mark Hughes, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 41.

[65]      Sections 51-52, Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tasmania).

[66]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 47.

[67]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 2.

[68]      Submission 207, p. 28.

[69]      Ms Anne Hewitt, Professor Andrew Stewart, Professor Rosemary Owens, Ms Gabrielle Appleby and Ms Beth Nosworthy, University of Adelaide Law School, Submission 204, p. 6.

[70]      Submission 402, p. 50.

[71]      Submission 9, p. 11.

[72]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 27.

[73]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 63.

[74]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 12.

[75]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 13.

CHAPTER 6 - COMPLAINTS AND COURT PROCESSES

[1]        EN, p. 89.

[2]        Submission 130, p. 2.

[3]        Master Builders Australia, Submission 353, p. 27. See also: Mr Daniel Mammone, Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013,
pp 14-15; Civil Contractors Federations, Submission 307, pp 15-16; Chartered Secretaries Australia, Submission 321, pp 3-4; Institute of Public Affairs, Submission 331, pp 9-10; The Hon Diana Bryant AO, Chief Justice, Family Court of Australia, Submission 345, pp 6-7; Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Submission 360, pp 7-8; Freedom 4 Faith, Submission  447, pp 14-16.

[4]        See, for example, Ms Anne Hewitt, Professor Andrew Stewart, Professor Rosemary Owens, Ms Gabrielle Appleby and Ms Beth Nosworthy, University of Adelaide Law School, Submission 204, p. 7; National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services, Submission 255, p. 15; Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 310, pp 12-13; National Association of Community Legal Centres and Kingsford Legal Centre, Submission 334, p. 14; Australian Council of Human Rights Agencies, Submission 358, p. 17; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, pp 13-17; Australian Centre for Disability Law, Submission 556, pp 1-2.

[5]        Submission 207, p. 31.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 50.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 59.

[8]        Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 71.

[9]        Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 71.

[10]      Mr Roger Wilkins AO, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 3.

[11]      EN, p. 94.

[12]      EN, p. 94.

[13]      Submission 334, p. 15.

[14]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 9.

[15]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 10.

[16]      See, for example, Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, pp 2-3; Australian Industry Group, Submission 415, p. 19; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 421, p. 50; Public Interest Law Clearing House, Submission 425, p. 9; Ms Anna Brown, Human Rights Law Centre, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 56.

[17]      Submission 374, pp 4-7.

[18]      Submission 361, p. 3.

[19]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 17.

[20]      Supplementary Submission 130, p. 17.

[21]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 22.

[22]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 22.

[23]      See, for example, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Submission 310, pp 13-14; Public Interest Law Clearing House, Submission 425, pp 27-28; Mr Tim Lyons, Australian Council of Trade Unions, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 8; Ms Rachel O'Brien, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services (NATSILS), Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 44.

[24]      Submission 425, pp 27-28.

[25]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 44. See also: Ms Rachel O'Brien, NATSILS, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 49.

[26]      See, for example, Australian Human Rights Commission, Submission 9, p. 13; Vision Australia, Submission 324, p. 10; Equality Rights Alliance, Submission 352, pp 15-16; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, pp 54-55; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, pp 14-15; Queensland Advocacy Incorporated, Submission 412, p. 2; Anti-Discrimination Commissioner of Tasmania, Submission 429, pp 26-27; COTA Australia, Submission 430, p. 5; Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, p. 54; National Council on Intellectual Disability, Submission 448, p. 7.

[27]      Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, pp 18-19.

[28]      See, for example, Australian Council of Human Rights Agencies, Submission 358, p. 17; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 421, p. 52; Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, p. 49.

[29]      Submission 447, p. 12.

[30]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 62.

[31]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 62.

[32]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 62.

CHAPTER 7

[1]        Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Effectiveness of the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 in eliminating discrimination and promoting gender equality, December 2008, pp 164-165.

[2]        Supplementary Submission 130, p. 2.

[3]        Supplementary Submission 130, p. 6; Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 1.

[4]        Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 3.

[5]        Additional Information tabled by the Attorney-General's Department at public hearing on 4 February 2013, 'Options in response to concerns raised in respect of paragraph 19(2)(b)', p. 2.

[6]        See Ms Kate Eastman SC, Submission 452, pp 6-7; Australian Council of Human Rights Agencies, Submission 358, pp 12-13.

[7]        See Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, pp 24-25; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, p. 45.

[8]        See Law Council of Australia, Submission 435, p. 36; Ms Kate Eastman SC, Submission 452,
pp 7-8.

[9]        Supplementary Submission 130, p. 10.

[10]      See, for example, Australian Association of Christian Schools, Submission 359, p. 14; Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Submission 360, pp 2-3; Ambrose Centre for Religious Liberty, Submission 409, p. 5; Australian Christian Lobby, Submission 419, pp 4-5; Freedom 4 Faith, Submission 447, pp 20-23.

[11]      Submission 595, p. 5.

[12]      See, for example, Freedom 4 Faith, Submission 447, p. 23; Mr Robert Johnston, Australian Association of Christian Schools, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 64.

[13]      See, for example, Associate Professor Mark Hughes, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 40.

[14]      Ms Robin Banks, Anti-Discrimination Commissioner of Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 47.

[15]      The Salvation Army Australia, Submission 499, pp 3 and 7; Mr David Martin, HammondCare, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, pp 34-35. These these stakeholders supported the retention of religious exceptions in anti-discrimination legislation. See also: The Reverend Peter Sandeman, Anglicare SA, 'If we believe all people are equal we must live this', article tabled by Liberty Victoria at public hearing on 23 January 2013.

[16]      Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, pp 28-29; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Submission 320, p. 2; The Equal Rights Trust, Submission 367, pp 30-31; Human Rights Law Centre, Submission 402, pp 48-49; Human Rights Council of Australia, Submission 475, p. 13; Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Submission 534,
 pp 27 and 31-36.

[17]      Mr Greg Manning and Mr Paul Pfitzner, Attorney-General's Department, Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 17.

[18]      See, for example, Ms Lucy Adams, Public Interest Law Clearing House Homeless Persons' Legal Clinic, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 60; Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Submission 421, p. 30.

[19]      The Reverend Brian Lucas, Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 27.

[20]      Mr Robert Johnston, Australian Association of Christian Schools, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 63.

[21]      Submission 595, p. 6.

[22]      See, for example, National Association of Community Legal Centres and Kingsford Legal Centre, Submission 334, p. 15; Australian Lawyers for Human Rights, Submission 406, pp 2-3; Mr Edward Santow, Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 10.

DISSENTING REPORT BY COALITION SENATORS

[1]        Mill, On Liberty Ch. 2.

[2]        See, for instance, s. 4F of the Competition and Consumer Act.

[3]        Explanatory Memorandum, p. 13.

[4]        Sub-clauses 17(1)(k) and (r), respectively.

[5]        Sub-clause 3(3)(b).

[6]        Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 8.

[7]        Sub-clause 22(3).

[8]        Subclause 3(1)(d)(i).

[9]        Committee Hansard, 4 February 2013, p. 7.

[10]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 56.

[11]      R Hughes, Culture of complaint: the fraying of America, Harvill, London, 1995.

[12]      See, for instance, Nicola Roxon doorstop interview, 20 November 2012; and interview with Mark Dreyfus by Steve Austin, ABC 612 (Brisbane), 22 January 2013.

[13]      Cl. 133.

[14]      Cl. 124.

[15]      Cl. 131.

[16]      Acronym for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex.

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS BY THE AUSTRALIAN GREENS

[1]        Attorney General's Department, Consolidation of Commonwealth Anti-Discrimination Laws: Discussion Paper, September 2011, p. 5 (accessed on 19 February 2013).  

[2]        Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 17.

[3]        ACTU, Submission 310, p 5; AHRC, Submission 9, p. 9.

[4]        Philip Lynch and Bella Stagoll, 'Promoting Equality: Homelessness and Discrimination', Deakin Law Review15 (2002), Volume 7(2).

[5]        United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 20: Non-discrimination in economic, social and cultural rights, E/C.12/GC/20, 2 July 2009,
para 35.

[6]        Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 57.

[7]        Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 60.

[8]        VGLRL, Submission 534, p 5; PIAC, Submission 421, p. 4.

[9]        The seven attributes are: family responsibilities; industrial history; medical history; nationality or citizenship; political opinion; religion; and social origin.

[10]      AHRC, Submission 9, p. 9; HRLC, Submission 402, p. 30; Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 14.

[11]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights, Submission 595, p. 8.

[12]      Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 24.

[13]      Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 24; HRLC, Submission 402, p. 45.

[14]      ACTU, Submission 301, p 8.

[15]      Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 26.

[16]      Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 26.

[17]      PIAC, Submission 421, p. 30.  See also HRLC, Submission 402, pp 46-48; PILCH, Submission 425, pp 17-18; NACLC/KLS, Submission 334, pp 38-42.

[18]      HRLC, Submission 402, p. 47.

[19]      Ms Lucy Adams, PILCH Homeless Persons' Legal Clinic, Committee Hansard, 23 January 2013, p. 60.

[20]      PILCH, Submission 425, p. 17.

[21]      NACLC/KLS, Submission 334, p. 38.

[22]      Discrimination Law Experts Group, Submission 207, p. 19.

[23]      National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Submission 238, p. 7.

[24]      PJCHR, Submission 595, p. 9.

[25]      HRLC, Advance Australia Fair: Addressing Systemic Discrimination and Promoting Equality, 2011, p. 4.

[26]      Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Vic), section 15; and Equality Act 2010 (UK), section 149.

[27]      Committee Hansard, 24 January 2013, p. 43.

[28]      Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Vic), section 113.

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