Footnotes

Footnotes

Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Trick or Treaty? Commonwealth Power to Make and Implement Treaties, November 1995.

[2]        The issues raised in evidence in relation to the negotiation and consultation process and parliamentary oversight do not in general apply to identifiably minor treaty actions which do not impact significantly on the national interest.

Chapter 2 - Background

[1]        Department of the Parliamentary Library, Federal Parliament's Changing Role in Treaty Making and External Affairs, Research Paper No. 15 1999–2000, p. 23.

[2]        Department of the Parliamentary Library, Federal Parliament's Changing Role in Treaty Making and External Affairs, Research Paper No. 15 1999–2000, pp 29-30.

[3]        Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee, Trick or Treaty? Commonwealth Power to Make and Implement Treaties, November 1995.

[4]        Commonwealth of Australia, Review of the Treaty-Making Process, August 1999.

[5]        Federal–State relations Committee, International Treaty Making and the Role of the States, Parliament of Victoria, October 1997.

[6]        Federal–State relations Committee, International Treaty Making and the Role of the States, Parliament of Victoria, October 1997, p. xvi.

[7]        Federal–State relations Committee, International Treaty Making and the Role of the States, Parliament of Victoria, October 1997, pp 77-78.

[8]        Government Response, Report of the Federal–State relations Committee on International Treaty Making and the Role of the States, April 1998.

[9]        Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 24, A Seminar on the Role of Parliaments in Treaty Making, August 1999, Forward.

[10]      Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 24, A Seminar on the Role of Parliaments in Treaty Making, August 1999, p. 16.

[11]      Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Submission 74, p. 9.

[12]      Ms Cooper, Senior Legal Adviser, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 28.

[13]      Ms Cooper, Senior Legal Adviser, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 29.

[14]      Ms Holmes, Assistant Secretary, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 32.

[15]      DFAT, Supplementary Submission 74.1, p. 1.

[16]      DFAT, Supplementary Submission 74.1, p. 1.

[17]      DFAT, Supplementary Submission 74.1, p. 2.

[18]      DFAT, Supplementary Submission 74.1, p. 2.

[19]      Submission 68, p. 19.

[20]      Dr Williams, Law Council of Australia, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 25.

[21]      Professor Triggs, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 14.

[22]      Dr Gleeson, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 21.

[23]      Dr Ranald, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 15.

[24]      Mr Dettmer, ACTU, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 8.

[25]      Ms Hepworth, Australian Digital Alliance, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 1.

[26]      Ms Hepworth, Australian Digital Alliance, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 5.

[27]      Ms Hepworth, Australian Digital Alliance, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 2.

Chapter 3 - The role of parliament in treaty making

[1]        Constitutional Commission, Advisory Committee on the Distribution of Powers Report, June 1987, pp84-85; Constitutional Commission, Final Report of the Constitutional Commission, 1988, Volume Two p. 731.

[2]        Constitutional Commission, Advisory Committee on the Distribution of Powers Report, June 1987, p. 233.

[3]        Constitutional Commission, Final Report of the Constitutional Commission, 1988, Volume Two, p. 745.

[4]        Department of the Parliamentary Library, Federal Parliament's Changing Role in Treaty Making and External Affairs, Research Paper No. 15 1999–2000, pp 35-36.

[5]        Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee, Voting on Trade: the general Agreement on Trade in Services and an Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, November 2003

[6]        Government Response to the report of the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee— Voting on Trade: the general Agreement on Trade in Services and an Australia-US Free Trade Agreement

[7]        Government Response to the report of the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee— Voting on Trade: the general Agreement on Trade in Services and an Australia-US Free Trade Agreement

[8]        Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 128, Inquiry into the Treaties Ratification Bill 2012, August 2012, p. 15.

[9]        Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 95, Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement, October 2008, p. 35.

[10]      Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 128, Inquiry into the Treaties Ratification Bill 2012, August 2012, p. 15.

[11]      Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 128, Inquiry into the Treaties Ratification Bill 2012, August 2012, p. 15.

[12]      The Trick or Treaty? report contains an overview of treaty-making practices in other federations which details the process in some countries not discussed here.

[13]      Anthony Aust, Modern Treaty Law and Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013, p. 168.

[14]      The Ponsonby Rule was said to apply where a treaty 'places continuing obligations' on the United Kingdom, where a further formal act to signify commitment is required after signature and where the matter is not one of "urgency"'. C. Saunders, 'Articles of Faith or Lucky Breaks', 17 Sydney Law Review 150, p. 170.

[15]      Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010 (UK), s. 20

[16]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Answer to Question on Notice, 27 May 2015, p. 5.

[17]      Anthony Aust, Modern Treaty Law and Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013, p. 175.

[18]      Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Trick or Treaty? Commonwealth power to make and implement treaties, November 1995, p. 168.

[19]      Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Trick or Treaty? Commonwealth power to make and implement treaties, November 1995, p. 168.

[20]      Stefan A. Riesenfeld and Frederick M. Abbott, Parliamentary Participation in the Making and Operation of Treaties: A Comparative Study, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1994, p. 302.

[21]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Answer to Question on Notice, 27 May 2015, p. 2.

[22]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Answer to Question on Notice, 27 May 2015, p. 4.

[23]      This information is sourced from a May 2015 Congressional Research Service Research Report, quoted by Associate Professor Weatherall, Answer to Question on Notice, 27 May 2015, p. 2.

[24]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Answer to Question on Notice, 27 May 2015, p. 1.

[25]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Answer to Question on Notice, 27 May 2015, p. 4.

[26]      Library of Parliament, Canada's Approach to the Treaty-Making Process, November 2012, p. 1.

[27]      Library of Parliament, Canada's Approach to the Treaty-Making Process, November 2012, p. 3.

[28]      Library of Parliament, Canada's Approach to the Treaty-Making Process, November 2012, p. 4.

[29]      Library of Parliament, Canada's Approach to the Treaty-Making Process, November 2012, p. 3.

[30]      New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, The Treaty making process in New Zealand, updated 12 January 2015, http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Treaties-and-International-Law/03-Treaty-making-process/index.php.

[31]      Submission 74. p. 1.

[32]      Mr Clark, Committee Hansard,  5 May 2015, p. 48.

[33]      Dr Ranald, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 15.

[34]      Ms Kearney, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 1.

[35]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 8.

[36]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 9.

[37]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 2.

[38]      Submission 11, p. 1.

[39]      Submission 1, p. 1.

[40]      Dr Ranald, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 15.

[41]      Mr Dettmer, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 3.

[42]      Dr Rimmer, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 60.

[43]      Submission 36, p. 12.

[44]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 2.

[45]      Submission 78, p. 15.

[46]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 6.

[47]      The committee's understanding is that the confidentiality agreement that Australia entered into for the TPP negotiations (detailed in Chapter 4) should not prevent parliamentarians from viewing draft text as (1) the agreement specifically mentions that 'government officials' are allowed to view draft texts; and (2) it has been the Obama administration's practice to allow members of Congress to see draft texts.

[48]      Parliament of Australia, Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Treaties

[49]      Professor Triggs, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 16.

[50]      Ms Cooper, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 28.

[51]      Submission 68, p. 9.

[52]      Ms McGrath, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 20.

[53]      Ms Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 8.

[54]      Dr Ranald, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 17.

[55]      Submission 89, p. 2.

[56]      The one exception is the committee's 2012 report on the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement which the committee recommended a delay in implementation following the agreement's rejection by the European Union.

[57]      Dr Ranald, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 17.

[58]      Dr Moir, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, pp 53-54.

[59]      Ms Kearney, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 2.

[60]      AFTINET, Submission 52, p. 9.

[61]      Submission 36, p. 9.

[62]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 2.

[63]      Ms Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 12.

[64]      Submission 94, p. 8.

[65]      Professor Triggs, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 15.

[66]      Parliament of Australia, Role of the Committee, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Human_Rights/Role_of_the_Committee

[67]      The seven treaties include International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence against Women; Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; Convention on the Rights of the Child; and Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

[68]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights, Guidance Note 1: Drafting statements of compatibility, December 2014, p. 3.

[69]      Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights, Guidance Note 1: Drafting statements of compatibility, December 2014, p. 3.

[70]      Submission 94, p. 7.

[71]      Submission 94, p. 7.

[72]      Professor Triggs, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 14.

[73]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 12.

Chapter 4 - Consultation and transparency

[1]        Submission 74, p. 1.

[2]        Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 'Treaty making process', http://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/treaties/treaty-making-process/Pages/treaty-making-process.aspx

[3]        Submission 74, p. 4.

[4]        Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 'Release of Confidentiality Letter', http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/news/Pages/release-of-confidentiality-letter.aspx

[5]        Ms Holmes, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p.

[6]        European Commission, 'Opening the windows: Commission commits to enhanced transparency in TTIP', http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1205&title=Opening-the-windows-Commission-commits-to-enhanced-transparency-in-TTIP

[7]        European Commission, 'Communication to the commission  concerning transparency in TTIP negotiations', http://ec.europa.eu/news/2014/docs/c_2014_9052_en.pdf p. 2.

[8]        London School of Economics, 'Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment of the EU-Japan Free Trade Agreement', 8 December 2014, http://www.lse.ac.uk/businessAndConsultancy/LSEConsulting/currentProjects/tsia.aspx

[9]        EU-Japan FTA: Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment, 'Approach', http://www.tsia-eujapantrade.com/approach.html

[10]      Office of the United States Trade Representative, 'Advisory Committees'. https://ustr.gov/about-us/advisory-committees

[11]      Office of the United States Trade Representative, 'Trade and Environment Policy Advisory Committee', https://ustr.gov/about-us/advisory-committees/trade-and-environment-policy-advisory-committee-tepac

[12]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Answer to Question on Notice, 27 May 2015, p. 5.

[13]      Submission 66, pp 7-8.

[14]      Submission 74, p. 4.

[15]      Ms Holmes, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 32.

[16]      Submission 79, p. 6.

[17]      Submission 71, p. 2.

[18]      Submission 69, p. 3.

[19]      Submission 35, p. 1

[20]      Submission 78, p. 43

[21]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 7

[22]      Ms Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 13

[23]      Submission 74, p. 7.

[24]      Mr Hudson, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 40.

[25]      Submission 74, p. 8.

[26]      Mr Kirkland, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, pp 34-35.

[27]      Ms McGrath, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 18.

[28]      Mr Melville, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 20.

[29]      Professor Moore, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 22.

[30]      Dr Gleeson, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, pp 24-25.

[31]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 3.

[32]      Mr Kirkland, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 35.

[33]      Professor Moore, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 27.

[34]      Submission 79, p. 6.

[35]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 1.

[36]      Submission 71, p. 2.

[37]      Submission 66, p. 1.

[38]      Dr Ranald, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 15.

[39]      Submission 89, p. 12.

[40]      Journals of the Senate, 4 December 2013, p. 231.

[41]      Trade Trans-Pacific Partnership plurilateral free trade agreement Letter to the President from the Minister for Finance (Senator Cormann) responding to the order of the Senate of 4 December 2013 and raising a public interest immunity claim, dated 5 December 2013, tabled 5 December 2013, p. 254

[42]      Journals of the Senate, 11 December 2013, p. 343.

[43]      Trade Free trade agreements Letter to the President of the Senate from the Minister for Finance (Senator Cormann) responding to the order of the Senate of 11 December 2013, dated 11 December 2013, tabled 12 December 2013, p. 391.

[44]      Journals of the Senate, 26 March 2015, pp 2471-2472.

[45]      Submission 69, p. 7.

[46]      Submission 78, p. 13.

[47]      Submission 52, p. 8.

[48]      Submission 71, p. 6.

[49]      Submission 78, p. 2.

[50]      Submission 61, p. 1.

[51]      Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 'Release of Confidentiality Letter', http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/news/Pages/release-of-confidentiality-letter.aspx

[52]      Submission 74, p. 6.

[53]      Australia International Treaty Making Information Kit, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, July 2000, p. 8.

[54]      Submission 74, p. 6.

[55]      Submission 75, p. 1.

[56]      Submission 93, pp 1-2.

[57]      Submission 93, p. 2.

[58]      Submission 93.

[59]      Submission 71, pp 27-28.

[60]      Submission 71, p. 28.

Chapter 5 - Agenda setting and post-implementation issues

[1]        Productivity Commission Research Report, Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements, November 2010, p. 302.

[2]        Submission 79, p. 4.

[3]        Submission 79, p. 2.

[4]        Submission 52, p. 8.

[5]        Submission 78, p. 2.

[6]        Submission 78, p. 7.

[7]        Submission 51, p. 2.

[8]        Mr Kirkland, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 34.

[9]        Submission 36, p. 4.

[10]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 3.

[11]      Mr Clark, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 45.

[12]      Mr Willcocks, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 52.

[13]      Submission 79, p. 3.

[14]      Submission 21 to Foreign Affairs Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, Trade and Foreign Investment (Protecting the Public Interest) Bill 2014, pp 1-2.

[15]      Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Committee, Trade and Foreign Investment (Protecting the Public Interest) Bill 2014, August 2014, p. 17.

[16]      Professor Nottage, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 64.

[17]      Professor Nottage, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 64.

[18]      Submission 44, p. 2.

[19]      Submission 78, p. 7.

[20]      Mr Clark, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 46.

[21]      Submission 71, p. 5.

[22]      Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 95, Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement, October 2008, p. 35; Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, Report 128, Inquiry into the Treaties Ratification Bill 2012, August 2012, p. 15.

[23]      Submission 74, p. 5.

[24]      Ms Hepworth, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 5.

[25]      Ms Kearney, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 2.

[26]      Submission 71, p. 3.

[27]      Dr Rimmer, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 57.

[28]      Dr Ranald, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 16.

[29]      Ms Kearney, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 1.

[30]      Submission 94, p. 6.

[31]      Submission 58, p. 2.

[32]      Submission 50, p. 10.

[33]      Submission 74, p. 8.

[34]      Submission 71, p. 17.

[35]      Associate Professor Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 10.

[36]      Submission 78, p. 18.

[37]      Mr Clark, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 46.

[38]      Submission 78, p. 18.

[39]      Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee, Korea–Australia Free Trade Agreement, October 2004.

[40]      Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee, Korea–Australia Free Trade Agreement, October 2004, p. 56.

Chapter 6 - Conclusion

[1]        Ms Cooper, Senior Legal Adviser, Committee Hansard  4 May 2015, p. 34.

[2]        Associate Professor Weatherall, Committee Hansard, 4 May 2015, p. 8.

[3]        Mr Kirkland, CHOICE, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2015, p. 35.

[4]        Professor Moir, Submission 68, p. 11.

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