Footnotes

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

[1]        Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017, pp xi–xii.

[2]        Nationally, the National Drug and Alcohol Centre (NDARC) surveyed 888 people in 2017 (877 people in 2016), of that total: 67 per cent were male; 98 per cent came from an English speaking background; 19 per cent were Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander; 60 per cent were single; 87 per cent were heterosexual; and 84 per cent were unemployed. 38 per cent of participants had participated in the survey for 2016 and participants were primarily recruited through needle and syringe programs and by word of mouth. See NDARC, Australian Drug Trends 2017: Preliminary findings from the Illicit Drugs Reporting System, October 2017, pp 4–5, https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource/illicit-drug-reporting-system-idrs-2017-key-findings (accessed 18 October 2017).

[3]        NDARC, Australian Drug Trends 2017: Preliminary findings from the Illicit Drugs Reporting System, October 2017, p. 1.

[4]        NDARC, Australian Drug Trends 2017: Preliminary findings from the Illicit Drugs Reporting System, October 2017, p. 2.

[5]        NDARC, Australian Drug Trends 2017: Preliminary findings from the Illicit Drugs Reporting System, October 2017, p. 17.

[6]        NDARC, Australian Drug Trends 2017: Preliminary findings from the Illicit Drugs Reporting System, October 2017, p. 2.

[7]        NDARC, Australian Drug Trends 2017: Preliminary findings from the Illicit Drugs Reporting System, October 2017, p. 2.

[8]        Stephen Smiley, 'Ice use down but risky behaviour among ecstasy users', ABC Radio: AM, 3 October 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/radio/sydney/programs/am/ice-use-down-but-risky-behaviour-among-ecstasy-users/9009846 (accessed 18 October 2017).

[9]        It should be noted that cannabis is not tested as part of the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program (wastewater program). Other wastewater analysis, such as the South Australian (SA) wastewater program includes cannabis as a tested drug. See SA Health, Drug use in Adelaide Monitored by Wastewater Analysis, October 2017, http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/f801a20045027ebea445f4005ba75f87/Standard+report+October+2017+data.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-f801a20045027ebea445f4005ba75f87-m3EwM.l (accessed 21 February 2018).

[10]      The wastewater program tested for the following substances: methylamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethylampethamine (MDMA), 3.4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), heroin, JWH-018, JSWH-073, mephedrone, methylone, oxycodone, fentanyl, nicotine and alcohol. See Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC), National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program–Third report, November 2017, p. 8, https://www.acic.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3726/f/national_wastewater_drug_monitoring_program_report_3.pdf?v=1513140704 (accessed 21 December 2017). 

[11]      ACIC, National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program–Third report, November 2017, p. 16.

[12]      ACIC, National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program–Third report, November 2017, p. 16.

[13]      Australian Federal Police (AFP), 'International methamphetamine strategy launched, taking the fight against illicit drugs offshore', Media release, 19 September 2017, https://www.afp.gov.au/news-media/media-releases/international-methamphetamine-strategy-launched-taking-fight-against (accessed 21 December 2017).

[14]      The AFP, the Attorney-General's Department, the Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Department of Defence, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Department of Health, Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre, Australian Border Force, and the ACIC.

[15]      AFP, 'International methamphetamine strategy launched, taking the fight against illicit drugs offshore', Media release, 19 September 2017.

Chapter 2 - Demand and treatment policies

[1]        Professor Alison Ritter, Dr Lynda Berends, Dr Jenny Chalmers, Mr Phil Hull, Dr Kari Lancaster and Ms Maria Gomez (Ritter et al.), New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), July 2014, p. 25, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/FD5975AFBFDC7013CA258082000F5DAB/$File/The-Review-of-alcohol-and-other-drug-treatment-services-in-Australia.pdf (accessed 21 December 2017).

[2]        Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 25.

[3]        Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 25.

[4]        Dr Jacqueline Hallam, Policy and Research Officer, Alcohol, Tobacco and other Drugs Council of Tasmania (ATDC), Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 8.

[5]        Dr Hallam, ATDC, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 8.

[6]        Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 248.

[7]        Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 248.

[8]        Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 248.

[9]        Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 254.

[10]      Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 265.

[11]      Professor Steve Allsop, Project Leader, National Drug Research Institute (NDRI), Curtin University, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 31.

[12]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 31.

[13]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 31.

[14]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 31.

[15]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 31.

[16]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 32.

[17]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol-other-drug-treatment-services/aodts-2015-16/contents/table-of-contents (accessed 21 December 2017).

[18]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii.

[19]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii.

[20]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii.

[21]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 16.

[22]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 18.

[23]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 18.

[24]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii.

[25]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii.

[26]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 27.

[27]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 27.

[28]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 27.

[29]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii.

[30]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 30.

[31]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 27.

[32]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 27.

[33]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 27.

[34]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 28.

[35]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 28.

[36]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 28.

[37]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 28.

[38]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[39]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 48.

[40]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[41]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[42]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[43]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[44]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[45]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[46]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 29.

[47]      Department of Health (DoH), National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/MC15-009596-national-ice-taskforce (accessed 7 December 2017).

[48]      Alcohol and Drug Foundation (ADF), Local Drug Action Team Program, https://adf.org.au/programs/local-drug-action-teams/ (accessed 7 December 2017).

[49]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[50]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[51]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[52]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[53]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[54]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[55]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[56]      DoH, National Ice Action Strategy, 3 July 2017.

[57]      Ms Helene Nielson, Assistant Executive Manager, Centracare, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2015, p. 45 and p. 47.

[58]      Mr Craig Cooper, Secretary, Treasurer and Chief Executive Officer, National Association of People with HIV Australia and Positive Life NSW, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 21.

[59]      Ms Kathryn Wright, Territorial Drug and Alcohol Director, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 29.

[60]      Mr Mark Ferry, Chief Operating Officer, Ted Noffs Foundation, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 52.

[61]      Professor Nadine Ezard, St Vincent's Hospital, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 73

[62]      Ms Rebecca MacBean, Chief Executive Officer, Queensland Network of Alcohol and Other Drug Agencies (QNADA), Committee Hansard, 30 July 2015, p. 3.

[63]      Mrs Rebecca Armitage, Allied Health Manager, Metro North Mental Health, Alcohol and Drug Service, Queensland Health, Committee Hansard, 30 July 2015, p. 27.

[64]      Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 13.

[65]      Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 13.

[66]      Ritter et al., New Horizons: The review of alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia, Drug Policy Modelling Program, NDARC, July 2014, p. 183.

[67]      Mr Sam Biondo, Executive Officer, Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association (VAADA), Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 31.

[68]      Dr Hallam, ATDC, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 10.

[69]      Dr Hallam, ATDC, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 10.

[70]      Dr Hallam, ATDC, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 11.

[71]      Dr Hallam, ATDC, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 11.

[72]      Ms Sarah Charlton, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 16.

[73]      Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 16.

[74]      Australian Medical Association (AMA), Harmful substance use, dependence and behavioural addiction (Addiction) – 2017, AMA position, https://ama.com.au/position-statement/harmful-substance-use-dependence-and-behavioural-addiction-addiction-2017 (accessed 29 November 2017).

[75]      AMA, 'Substance abuse needs mature policy approach', Media release, 14 August 2017, https://ama.com.au/ausmed/substance-abuse-needs-mature-policy-approach (accessed 29 November 2017).

[76]      AMA, Harmful substance use, dependence and behavioural addiction (Addiction) – 2017, AMA position, https://ama.com.au/position-statement/harmful-substance-use-dependence-and-behavioural-addiction-addiction-2017 (accessed 29 November 2017).

[77]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 38.

[78]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 38.

[79]      Mr David Laffan, Assistant Secretary, Drug Strategy Branch, Population Health and Sport Division, DoH, Senate Standing Committee for Community Affairs, Committee Hansard, 30 May 2017, p. 71.

[80]      DoH, answers to question on notice, No. SQ17-001525, 30 May 2017 (received 5 January 2018).

[81]      DoH, answers to question on notice, No. SQ17-001525, 30 May 2017 (received 5 January 2018).

[82]      Dr Louise Roufeil, Executive Manager Professional Practice, Australian Psychological Society (APS), Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 60.

[83]      Dr Roufeil, APS, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 60.

[84]      Dr Roufeil, APS, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 60.

[85]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 38.

[86]      Palmerston Association, Submission 100, p. 3.

[87]      Ms Wright, The Salvation Army, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 29.

[88]      National Ice Taskforce (NIT), Final Report, p. 131.

[89]      NIT, Final Report, p. 132.

[90]      NIT, Final Report, p. 132.

[91]      Commonwealth of Australia, Taking action to combat ice, December 2015, p. 2, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/396377B005C71DD0CA257F100005FD5C/$File/combat%20ICE%20glossy.pdf (accessed 21 December 2017).

[92]      See Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First report, September 2017, pp 167–168.

[93]      See paragraph 2.16. AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. vii.

[94]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 64.

[95]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 10.

[96]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16, 2017, p. 64.

[97]      AIHW, Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2015–16: Data tables: SE State and territory (episodes), 28 June 2017, https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/d7fda0d8-12f5-4dba-a1eb-7d1468fd9525/SE-State-and-territory-episodes.xls.aspx (accessed 15 February 2018).

[98]      VAADA, Submission 95, p. 7.

[99]      VAADA, Submission 95, p. 7.

[100]    Dr Roufeil, APS, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 54.

[101]    NDRI, Submission 113, p. 6.

[102]    NDRI, Submission 113, p. 6.

[103]    UnitingCare ReGen, Submission 22, p. 7.

[104]    NDRI, Submission 113, p. 6.

[105]    Turning Point, A Study of patient pathways in alcohol and other drug treatment, Patient Pathways National Project, Final Report, June 2014, p. xii, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/C51C9F3326D93748CA258082001232CB/$File/Patient%20Pathways%20National%20Project.pdf (accessed 21 December 2017).

[106]    Turning Point, A Study of patient pathways in alcohol and other drug treatment, Patient Pathways National Project, Final Report, June 2014, p. xii.

[107]    Mutual aid groups, or self-help groups, are community-based groups that offer collective AOD support services. Typical mutual aid groups are Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous. See Recovery Connect, Mutual Aid Groups, https://www.recoveryconnection.com/in-recovery/mutual-aid-groups/ (accessed 15 February 2017).

[108]    Turning Point, A Study of patient pathways in alcohol and other drug treatment, Patient Pathways National Project, Final Report, June 2014, p. xiii.

[109]    Turning Point, A Study of patient pathways in alcohol and other drug treatment, Patient Pathways National Project, Final Report, June 2014, p. xvi.

[110]    Turning Point, A Study of patient pathways in alcohol and other drug treatment, Patient Pathways National Project, Final Report, June 2014, p. xvi.

[111]    NIT, Final Report, p. 122.

[112]    NIT, Final Report, p. 122.

[113]    NIT, Final Report, p. 128.

[114]    NIT, Final Report, p. 128.

[115]    NIT, Final Report, p. 128.

[116]    NIT, Final Report, p. 128.

[117]    NIT, Final Report, p. 128.

[118]    NIT, Final Report, p. 128.

[119]    NDARC, Methamphetamine treatment evaluation study (MATES): Three-year outcomes from the Sydney site, 2010, https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource/methamphetamine-treatment-evaluation-study-mates-three-year-outcomes-sydney-site (accessed 11 December 2017).

[120]    NIT, Final Report, p. 122.

[121]    NIT, Final Report, p. 156.

[122]    UnitingCare ReGen, Submission 22, p. 7.

[123]    UnitingCare ReGen, Submission 22, p. 7.

[124]    UnitingCare ReGen, Submission 22, p. 8.

[125]    UnitingCare ReGen, Submission 22, p. 8.

[126]    Palmerston Association, Submission 100, p. 2.

[127]    Palmerston Association, Submission 100, p. 2.

[128]    Palmerston Association, Submission 100, p. 2.

[129]    Palmerston Association, Submission 100, p. 2.

[130]    VAADA, Submission 95, p. 7.

[131]    VAADA, Submission 95, p. 7.

[132]    WA's Methamphetamine Action Plan Taskforce is tasked with informing the WA government on how to distribute the $131.7 million committed to the plan. See Noor Gillani, 'Taskforce seeks input over meth scourge', The West Australian, 18 February 2018, https://thewest.com.au/news/kalgoorlie-miner/taskforce-seeks-input-over-meth-scourge-ng-b88747039z (accessed 21 February 2018).

[133]    Western Australian Network of Alcohol & Other Drug Agencies (WANADA), Submission 107, p. 9.

[134]    VAADA, Submission 95, p. 7.

[135]    Department of Health (Vic), Residential treatment services, https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/alcohol-and-drugs/aod-treatment-services/aod-residential-treatment (accessed 30 November 2017).

[136]    Department of Health (Vic), Residential treatment services, https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/alcohol-and-drugs/aod-treatment-services/aod-residential-treatment (accessed 30 November 2017).

[137]    Angelique Donnellan, 'Ice problem in SA to be tackled by Government's $8 million 'Stop the Hurt' strategy', ABC News,  15 June 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-06-15/sa-government-pledges-eight-million-dollars-tackle-ice-problem/8622024 (accessed 21 December 2017).

[138]    Chloe Hart, 'NSW's first youth drug detox clinic opens in Knights Hill', ABC News, 2 June 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-06-02/nsw-first-ice-drug-clinic-helps-youth-in-crisis/8585768 (accessed 30 November 2017).

[139]    Ms Hart, 'NSW's first youth drug detox clinic opens in Knights Hill', ABC News, 2 June 2017.

[140]    Ms Hart, 'NSW's first youth drug detox clinic opens in Knights Hill', ABC News, 2 June 2017.

[141]    NIT, Final Report, p. 201.

[142]    VAADA, Submission 95, p. 8.

[143]    VAADA, Submission 95, p. 8.

[144]    VAADA, Submission 95, p. 8.

[145]    Four Corners, 'Rehab Inc: The high price parents pay to get their kids off ice', ABC, 12 September 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/rehab-inc.-promo/7827128 (accessed 30 November 2017).

[146]    Four Corners, 'Rehab Inc: The high price parents pay to get their kids off ice', ABC, 12 September 2016.

[147]    Four Corners, 'Rehab Inc: The high price parents pay to get their kids off ice', ABC, 12 September 2016.

[148]    Four Corners, 'Rehab Inc: The high price parents pay to get their kids off ice', ABC, 12 September 2016.

[149]    Four Corners, 'Rehab Inc: The high price parents pay to get their kids off ice', ABC, 12 September 2016.

[150]    Four Corners, 'Rehab Inc: The high price parents pay to get their kids off ice', ABC, 12 September 2016.

[151]    VAADA, Submission 95, p. 8.

[152]    Ms Jill Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 27.

[153]    Laurence Alvis, CEO, UnitingCare ReGen, Decline of mainstream media a boon for for-profit drug services; a bust for informed debate, 11 August 2016, http://www.regen.org.au/news-advocacy/regen-in-the-media/781-decline-of-mainstream-media-a-boon-for-for-profit-drug-services-a-bust-for-informed-debate-11-08-16 (accessed 1 December 2017).

[154]    Alvis, Decline of mainstream media a boon for for-profit drug services; a bust for informed debate, 11 August 2016.

[155]    Alvis, Decline of mainstream media a boon for for-profit drug services; a bust for informed debate, 11 August 2016.

[156]    Alvis, Decline of mainstream media a boon for for-profit drug services; a bust for informed debate, 11 August 2016.

[157]    Alvis, Decline of mainstream media a boon for for-profit drug services; a bust for informed debate, 11 August 2016.

[158]    Alvis, Decline of mainstream media a boon for for-profit drug services; a bust for informed debate, 11 August 2016.

[159]    NIT, Final Report, p. x.

[160]    Dr Wendy Southern, Deputy Secretary, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 23.

[161]    Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 23.

[162]    Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 23.

[163]    Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 24.

[164]    Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 24.

[165]    Ministerial Drug and Alcohol Forum, Ministerial Drug and Alcohol Forum Communique, 16 December 2016, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/55E4796388E9EDE5CA25808F00035035/$File/MDAF%20Communique.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[166]    Australian Network of State and Territory Alcohol and Other Drug Peaks (Network of Peaks), A national alcohol and other drug quality framework brief 1: For AOD peak bodies' State, Territory and Australian health department contacts, 27 March 2017, http://www.atoda.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/AOD-Peaks-Quality-Framework-Statement-Final-270317.pdf (accessed 1 December 2017).

[167]    Network of Peaks, A national alcohol and other drug quality framework brief 1: For AOD peak bodies' State, Territory and Australian health department contacts, 27 March 2017.

[168]    Turning Point, National Project: The AOD quality framework project–the development of a quality framework for Australian governments funded drug and alcohol treatment services, July 2013–June 2014, http://www.turningpoint.org.au/Research/Clinical-Research/CR-Projects/The-AOD-Quality-Framework-Project.aspx (accessed 10 January 2018).

[169]    Health Complaints Commissioner, Private drug and alcohol rehabilitation, 1 December 2017, https://hcc.vic.gov.au/news/105-private-drug-and-alcohol-rehabilitation (accessed 6 December 2017).

[170]    Health Complaints Commissioner, Private drug and alcohol rehabilitation, 1 December 2017.

[171]    Health Complaints Commissioner, Code of Conduct for General Health Services, 1 December 2017, https://hcc.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/code_of_conduct_full_text_a3_poster.pdf (accessed 6 December 2017).

[172]    Health Complaints Commissioner, Code of Conduct for General Health Services, 1 December 2017.

[173]    Health Complaints Commissioner, Commissioner investigates drug & alcohol services, 16 February 2018, https://hcc.vic.gov.au/news/125-commissioner-investigates-drug-alcohol-services (accessed 21 February 2018).

[174]    This recommendation is considered further in the context of private treatment services.

[175]    Australian Institute of Criminology, Australian responses to illicit drugs: Drug Courts, http://www.aic.gov.au/criminal_justice_system/courts/specialist/drugcourts.html (accessed 16 January 2018).

[176]    Professor Paul Dietze, Deputy Director, Burnet Institute, Committee Hansard, 9 September 2015, p. 6.

[177]    Professor Dietze, Burnet Institute, Committee Hansard, 9 September 2015, p. 6.

[178]    Dr Roufeil, APS, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, pp 60–61.

[179]    Dr Roufeil, APS, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 61.

[180]    Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 19.

[181]    Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 19.

[182]    Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 17.

[183]    Ms Learne Durrington, WA Primary Health Alliance (WAPHA), Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 19.

[184]    Ms Durrington, WAPHA, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 19.

[185]    Ms Durrington, WAPHA, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 19.

[186]    Ms Durrington, WAPHA, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 19.

[187]    Ms Durrington, WAPHA, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 20.

[188]    Ms Durrington, WAPHA, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 20.

[189]    Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[190]    Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[191]    Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[192]    Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[193]    Angie Raphael, 'Labor pledges $9.6m to WA's first drug and alcohol rehab prison', The Age, 27 August 2017, http://www.theage.com.au/wa-news/labor-pledges-96m-to-was-first-drug-and-alcohol-rehab-prison-20170827-gy54qs.html (accessed 25 October 2017).

[194]    Raphael, 'Labor pledges $9.6m to WA's first drug and alcohol rehab prison', The Age, 27 August 2017.

[195]    Raphael, 'Labor pledges $9.6m to WA's first drug and alcohol rehab prison', The Age, 27 August 2017.

[196]    Ms Jennifer Bowles, Submission 74, p. 6.

[197]    Ms Jennifer Bowles, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 18.

[198]    Ms Bowles, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 18.

[199]    Ms Bowles, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 18.

[200]    Ms Bowles, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 20.

[201]    New South Wales, Victorian and Tasmanian legislation provides for mandatory treatment for people with AOD dependence issues. The Northern Territory legislation provides for mandatory treatment for people with volatile substance misuse, such as solvents and petrol, as well AOD dependencies. Limitations are in place under each jurisdiction's legislation, such as a requirement for a person to be at risk of serious harm and if less restrictive treatment is not available to that person. Substance dependence must also be severe, and mandatory treatment considered beneficial to the person. Detention periods vary, depending on each jurisdiction, and may be extended with the approval of an authorised officer (for example a magistrate or responsible medical officer). See NIT Final Report, 2015, p. 63.

[202]    NIT, Final Report, 2015, pp 63–64.

[203]    NIT, Final Report, 2015, pp 63–64.

[204]    NIT, Final Report, 2015, pp 63–64.

[205]    NIT, Final Report, 2015, p. 64.

[206]    AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 96, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/prisoners/health-of-australias-prisoners-2015/contents/table-of-contents (accessed 21 December 2017).

[207]    AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 97.

[208]    New South Wales does not provide discharge data, and Victoria did not collect data for these indicators. Data is self-reported, and therefore likely to be underestimated. See AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 102.

[209]    AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 102.

[210]    AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 102.

[211]    AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 103.

[212]    Harm reduction services in correctional facilities are discussed further in chapter 4 of this report.

[213]    AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 102.

[214]    AIHW, The health of Australia's prisoners 2015, 2015, p. 102.

[215]    Mr Craig Cumming, University of Western Australia (UWA), Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 33.

[216]    Mr Cumming, UWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, pp 33–34.

[217]    Mr Cumming, UWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 34.

[218]    Mr John Ryan, CEO, Penington Institute, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 10.

[219]    Mr Ryan, Penington Institute, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 13.

[220]    Mr Cumming, UWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 38.

[221]    Mr Cumming, UWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 38.

[222]    Mr Michael White, Executive Officer, South Australian Network of Drug and Alcohol Services, Committee Hansard, 28 July 2015, p. 52.

[223]    Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 17.

[224]    Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 17.

[225]    Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 17.

[226]    Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[227]    Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[228]    Ms MacBean, QNADA, Committee Hansard, 30 July 2015, p. 3.

[229]    Ms MacBean, QNADA, Committee Hansard, 30 July 2015, p. 3.

[230]    Mr Mark O'Reilly, Representative, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services (NATSILS), Committee Hansard, 30 July 2015, p. 12.

[231]    Mr O'Reilly, NATSILS, Committee Hansard, 30 July 2015, p. 12.

[232]    Mr O'Reilly, NATSILS, Committee Hansard, 30 July 2015, p. 12.

[233]    NIT, Final Report, p. 82.

[234]    NIT, Final Report, pp 83–84.

[235]    NIT, Final Report, p. 85.

[236]    NIT, Final Report, p. 85.

[237]    NIT, Final Report, p. 85.

[238]    Rural Health Tasmania, Submission 4, p. 8.

[239]    NIT, Final Report, p. 85.

[240]    NIT, Final Report, p. 85.

[241]    Council of Australian Governments (COAG), National Ice Action Strategy (NIAS), 2015, p. 13.

[242]    DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services Workshop, PHN National Forum, 23 March 2016, p. 23, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/00069147C384180DCA257F14008364CB/$File/Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Treatment%20Services%20Workshop-Department%20of%20Health.pdf (accessed 18 January 2018).

[243]    Harm Reduction Victoria, What is Pharmacotherapy?, http://hrvic.org.au/pharmacotherapy/general-information/what-is-pharmacotherapy/ (accessed 20 December 2017).

[244]    Harm Reduction Victoria, What is Pharmacotherapy?, http://hrvic.org.au/pharmacotherapy/general-information/what-is-pharmacotherapy/ (accessed 20 December 2017).

[245]    NDRI, Staff profile: Associate Professor Rebecca McKetin, http://db.ndri.curtin.edu.au/staff/staff.asp?persid=537 (accessed 20 December 2017).

[246]    Professor Rebecca McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[247]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[248]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[249]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[250]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[251]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[252]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 35.

[253]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 36.

[254]    Professor McKetin, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 36.

[255]    Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 36.

[256]    Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 5 May 2017, p. 36.

Chapter 3 - At-risk communities, people with children and workplace initiatives

[1]        See Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement (PJCLE), Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017, pp 21–30.

[2]        National Ice Taskforce (NIT), Final Report, p. vii.

[3]        NIT, Final Report, p. vii.

[4]        NIT, Final Report, p. vii.

[5]        NIT, Final Report, p. vii.

[6]        NIT, Final Report, p. viii.

[7]        NIT, Final Report, p. viii.

[8]        NIT, Final Report, p. viii.

[9]        NIT, Final Report, p. ix.

[10]      NIT, Final Report, p. x.

[11]      NIT, Final Report, p. xi.

[12]      Council of Australian Governments (COAG), National Ice Action Strategy (NIAS), pp 24–25.

[13]      PJCLE, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017, pp 25–26.

[14]      PJCLE, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017, pp 25–26.

[15]      National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), Submission 85, p. 1.

[16]      NDARC, Submission 85, p. 1.

[17]      Alcohol, Tobacco and other Drugs Council Tasmania (ATDC), Submission 97, p. 5.

[18]      ATDC, Submission 97, pp 5–6.

[19]      NIT, Final Report, p. xiv.

[20]      COAG, National Ice Action Strategy (NIAS), p. 25.

[21]      PJCLE, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017, pp 25–26.

[22]      Professor Steve Allsop, Project Leader, National Drug Research Institute (NDRI), Curtin University, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 39.

[23]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 39.

[24]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, pp 39–40.

[25]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 40.

[26]      See chapter 5, pp 4–6.

[27]      PJCLE, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017, pp 27–29.

[28]      PJCLE, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017, pp 27–29.

[29]      Ms Michelle Nelson-Cox, Chairperson, Aboriginal Health Council of Western Australia (AHCWA), Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 46.

[30]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 46.

[31]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 46.

[32]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 46.

[33]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 46.

[34]      Ms Learne Durrington, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), WA Primary Health Alliance (WAPHA), Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 18.

[35]      Ms Durrington, WAPHA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 18.

[36]      Ms Durrington, WAPHA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 18.

[37]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 42.

[38]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 42.

[39]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 42.

[40]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 42.

[41]      Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association (VAADA), Submission 95, p. 7

[42]      VAADA, Submission 95, p. 7.

[43]      Mr Shaun Wyn-Jones, Senior Policy Officer, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 46.

[44]      Mr Wyn-Jones, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 46.

[45]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 47.

[46]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 47.

[47]      Ms Nelson-Cox, AHCWA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 47.

[48]      NDRI, Submission 113, p. 5.

[49]      COAG, NIAS, p. 24.

[50]      COAG, NIAS, p. 25.

[51]      Dr Wendy Southern, Deputy Secretary, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 21.

[52]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 5, 24 March 2017 (received 10 May 2017).

[53]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 1 (received 10 May 2017).

[54]      The Hon. Ken Wyatt AM, Minister for Indigenous Health, 'Kimberley post-residential rehabilitation program supports sustained recovery', Media release, 4 September 2017.

[55]      The Hon. Ken Wyatt, AM, Minister for Indigenous Health, 'Ice dependence, chronic disease among targets of North Coast Health Blitz', Media release, 6 November 2017.

[56]      The Hon. Ken Wyatt AM, Minister for Indigenous Health, 'More Indigenous Health Leaders for Remote Australia', Media release, 15 December 2017.

[57]      Mr Craig Cumming, Research Associate, Centre for Health Services Research (CHSR), School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 39.

[58]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 39.

[59]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 39.

[60]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 39.

[61]      The Hon. Sheila McHale, CEO, Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 14.

[62]      Ms McHale, Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 14.

[63]      Ms McHale, Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 14.

[64]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 31.

[65]      Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 26.

[66]      COAG, National Ice Action Strategy, 2015, p. 24.

[67]      Alcohol and Drug Foundation, Help and support services, https://adf.org.au/help-support/support-services-directory/ (accessed 21 February 2018).

[68]      Ms Sarah Charlton, CEO, Holyaoke Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 18.

[69]      Mr David Taylor, Policy Officer, Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association (VAADA), Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 36.

[70]      Mr Ryan, Penington Institute, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 12.

[71]      Mr Ryan, Penington Institute, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2015, p. 12.

[72]      Mr Stephen Smith, Head, National Workplace Relations Policy, Australian Industry Group (Ai Group), Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 63.

[73]      Ai Group, Submission 112, p. 2.

[74]      Ai Group, Submission 112, p. 2.

[75]      Professor Nadine Ezard, Clinical Director, Alcohol and Drug Service, St Vincent's Hospital, St Vincent's Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 14 October 2015, p. 15.

[76]      Professor Ezard, St Vincent's Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 14 October 2015, p. 15.

[77]      Professor Ezard, St Vincent's Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 14 October 2015, p. 15.

[78]      NIT, Final Report, p. 119.

[79]      NIT, Final Report, p. 119.

[80]      NIT, Final Report, p. 119.

[81]      NIT, Final Report, p. 119.

[82]      NIT, Final Report, p. 154.

[83]      COAG, NIAS, p. 23.

[84]      COAG, NIAS, p. 23.

[85]      COAG, NIAS, p. 24.

Chapter 4 - Harm reduction measures

[1]        Cohealth, Submission 110, p. 4.

[2]        Commonwealth of Australia, National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, p. 6.

[3]        Commonwealth of Australia, National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, p. 6.

[4]        Australian government, National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, p. 13.

[5]        Australian government, National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, p. 14.

[6]        Australian government, National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, p. 14.

[7]        Victoria Police, Submission 59, p. 24.

[8]        Dr Terry Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow Laura McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 11.

[9]        Dr Alex Wodak AM, 'The abject failure of drug prohibition', Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol. 47, no. 2, 2014, p. 195.

[10]      Wodak, 'The abject failure of drug prohibition', Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol. 47, no. 2, 2014, pp 195–196.

[11]      Dr Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 12.

[12]      NSW Users and AIDS Association, Submission 91, p. 4.

[13]      Western Australian Network of Alcohol and other Drug Agencies (WANADA), Submission 107, p. 7.

[14]      Australian Drug Foundation (ADF), Submission 51, p. 12.

[15]      Cohealth, Submission 110, p. 4.

[16]      National Association of People Living with HIV Australia (NAPWHA), Submission 104, p. 4.

[17]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, p. 14.

[18]      Commonwealth of Australia, National Drug Strategy 2017–2026, pp 50–51.

[19]      Scarlet Alliance, Submission 12, p. 2. See also Hepatitis NSW, Submission 38, p. 2.

[20]      Dr Wodak, Submission 79, p. 2.

[21]      Dr Wodak, Submission 79, p. 3.

[22]      Dr Wodak, Submission 79, p. 3.

[23]      NAPWHA, Submission 104, p. 4 (citation omitted).

[24]      Network of Alcohol and other Drugs Agencies (NADA), Submission 96, p. 7.

[25]      NADA, Submission 96, p. 7.

[26]      Australian Injecting & Illicit Drug Users League (AIVL), Submission 105, p. 3.

[27]      Goya Dmytryshchak, 'We probably weren't brave enough on injecting rooms', says Victoria's former police chief Ken Lay', The Age, 22 July 2017, http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/we-probably-werent-brave-enough-on-injecting-rooms-says-victorias-former-police-chief-ken-lay-20170722-gxgn84.html (accessed 11 January 2018).

[28]      Dmytryshchak, 'We probably weren't brave enough on injecting rooms', says Victoria's former police chief Ken Lay', The Age, 22 July 2017.

[29]      See, for example, Western Australian AIDS Council (WAAC), Submission 28, p. 1; NADA, Submission 96, p. 3; Mr Sam Biondo, Executive Officer, Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association, Committee Hansard, 27 July 2017, p. 31.

[30]      Alison Ritter, Ross McLeod and Marian Shanahan, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), Drug Policy Modelling Program Monograph Series: government drug policy expenditure in Australia – 2009/10, June 2013, p. 1.

[31]      Queensland Network of Alcohol and Other Drug Agencies (QNADA), Submission 20, p. 3.

[32]      QNADA, Submission 20, p. 3.

[33]      NAPWHA, Submission 29, p. 3.

[34]      Dr Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 13.

[35]      Dr Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 13.

[36]      Dr Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 13.

[37]      Dr Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 13.

[38]      Ms Linda Athalie Forbes, Manager, Policy and Communications, AFAO, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 15.

[39]      Matthew Y Frei and Alex D Wodak, 'Beyond ice: rethinking Australia’s approach to illicit drugs', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 206, no. 4, 2017, p. 152.

[40]      Frei and Wodak, 'Beyond ice: rethinking Australia’s approach to illicit drugs', The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 206, no. 4, 2017, p. 152.

[41]      NDARC, University of New South Wales, Submission 16, pp 8–10.

[42]      Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association (VAADA), Submission 14, p. 3.

[43]      VAADA, Submission 14, p. 16.

[44]      NAPWHA, Submission 104, p. 2.

[45]      Mr Matthew Creamer, Manager, Health Promotion, WAAC, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, pp 49–50.

[46]      Mr Anthony Maynard, Treataware Project Officer, NAPWHA, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 22.

[47]      NAPWHA, Submission 104, pp 4–5.

[48]      Ms Forbes, AFAO, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, pp 14–15.

[49]      VAADA, Submission 14, p. 14.

[50]      VAADA, Submission 14, p. 14.

[51]      National Drug Research Institute (NDRI), Curtin University, Submission 113, pp 5–6.

[52]      Dr Louise Roufeil, Executive Manager Professional Practice, Australian Psychological Society (APS), Committee Hansard, 27 July 2017, p. 55.

[53]      NDRI, Submission 10, p. 21.

[54]      NDRI, Submission 10, p. 21.

[55]      NDRI, Submission 10, p. 21.

[56]      Australian Press Council (APC), Specific Standards on Coverage of Suicide, 2 August 2011, p. 1.

[57]      The Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, Position Statement 70: Suicide Reporting in the Media, August 2015, p. 1, available: https://www.ranzcp.org/Files/Resources/College_Statements/Position_Statements/ps70-pdf.aspx (accessed 6 March 2018).

[58]      APC, Specific Standards on Coverage of Suicide, 2 August 2011, pp 1–2.

[59]      Dr Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 13.

[60]      Dr Goldsworthy and Adjunct Teaching Fellow McGillivray, Submission 70, p. 13.

[61]      DPMP, Submission 16, p. 9.

[62]      See for example, NSW Users and AIDS Association, Submission 91, p. 3; NAPWHA, Submission 104, p. 2.

[63]      Ms Annie Madden, Executive Officer, AVIL, Committee Hansard, 25 November 2015, pp 6–7.

[64]      DPMP, Submission 16, p. 9.

[65]      Alcohol, Tobacco and other Drugs Council of Tasmania (ATDC), Submission 97, p. 3.

[66]      ATDC, Submission 97, p. 3.

[67]      ATDC, Submission 97, p. 3.

[68]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, p. 27.

[69]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, pp 27–28.

[70]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, p. 27.

[71]      Penington Institute, In brief, http://www.penington.org.au/anexbulletin/in-brief-3/ (accessed 23 February 2018).

[72]      See for example, AIVL, Submission 34, p. 5; DPMP, Submission 16, p. 9.

[73]      The Kirby Institute, Needle and Syringe Program National Minimum Data Collection: National Data Report 2016, 2016, p. 3.

[74]      Ms Annie Madden and Dr Alex Wodak, 'Australia's Response to HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs', AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 26, no 3, 2014, p. 238.

[75]      Ms Madden and Dr Wodak, 'Australia's Response to HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs', AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 26, no 3, 2014, p. 238.

[76]      The Kirby Institute, Needle and Syringe Program National Minimum Data Collection: National Data Report 2016, 2016, p. 1.

[77]      South Australian Government, Submission 78, p. 15.

[78]      Government of Western Australia, The Plan 2015 – 2025, http://www.mentalhealth.wa.gov.au/about-us/strategic-direction/the-plan-2015-2025#main (accessed 23 November 2017).

[79]      Mental Health Commission, Government of Western Australia (MHC), Better Choices. Better Lives.: Western Australian Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drug Services Plan 2015-2025, 2015, p. 36. 

[80]      MHC, Better Choices. Better Lives.: Western Australian Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drug Services Plan 2015-2025, 2015, p. 38.

[81]      Mr Creamer, WAAC, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 49.

[82]      Mr Creamer, WAAC, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 51.

[83]      Mr Creamer, WAAC, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 49.

[84]      Hepatitis NSW, Submission 38, p. 3 (citations omitted).

[85]      Hepatitis NSW, Submission 38, p. 3.

[86]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, p. 28.

[87]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, p. 28.

[88]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, p. 28.

[89]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, p. 28.

[90]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, pp 28–29.

[91]      Penington Institute, Submission 26, p. 29.

[92]      AIVL, Submission 34, p. 5.

[93]      AIVL, Submission 34, p. 5.

[94]      See chapter 2, pp 12–15.

[95]      Mr Loveday, Hepatitis NSW, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 60.

[96]      Mr Loveday, Hepatitis NSW, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 57.

[97]      Scarlet Alliance, Submission 12, p. 4.

[98]      AIDS Council of NSW (ACON), Submission 102, p. 5.

[99]      Uniting, What the Uniting MSIC does, https://uniting.org/who-we-help/for-adults/sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre/what-the-uniting-sydney-msic-does (accessed 27 November 2017).

[100]    Uniting, The MSIC story, https://uniting.org/who-we-help/for-adults/sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre/our-story (accessed 27 November 2017).

[101]    Uniting, The MSIC story, https://uniting.org/who-we-help/for-adults/sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre/our-story (accessed 27 November 2017).

[102]    KPMG, Further evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre during its extended Trial period (2007-2011): Final report, 14 September 2010, p. ix.

[103]    Uniting, Cross currents: The story behind Australia's first and only Medically Supervised Injecting Centre, 2014, pp 32–33.

[104]    Uniting, Cross currents: The story behind Australia's first and only Medically Supervised Injecting Centre, 2014, p. 43.

[105]    Uniting, Inside Uniting MSIC, https://uniting.org/who-we-help/for-adults/sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre/inside-the-medically-supervised-injecting-centre (accessed 27 November 2017).

[106]    KPMG, Further evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre during its extended Trial period (2007-2011): Final report, 14 September 2010.

[107]    KPMG, Further evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre during its extended Trial period (2007-2011): Final report, 14 September 2010, p. ix.

[108]    KPMG, Further evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre during its extended Trial period (2007-2011): Final report, 14 September 2010, p. ix.

[109]    KPMG, Further evaluation of the Medically Supervised Injecting Centre during its extended Trial period (2007-2011): Final report, 14 September 2010, p. xi.

[110]    AAP, 'Sydney injecting room a success: PM', SBS, 24 February 2017, http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2017/02/24/sydney-injecting-room-success-pm (accessed 27 November 2017).

[111]    The Hon. Daniel Andrews MP, Premier, 'More rehab beds, better treatment and safer streets', Media Release, 31 October 2017, p. 1.

[112]    The Hon. Daniel Andrews MP, Premier, 'More rehab beds, better treatment and safer streets', Media Release, 31 October 2017, p. 1.

[113]    The Hon. Daniel Andrews MP, Premier, 'More rehab beds, better treatment and safer streets', Media Release, 31 October 2017, p. 1.

[114]    Noel Towell and Benjamin Preiss, 'Ice won't be allowed in Melbourne safe injecting room', The Age, 31 October 2017, http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/ice-wont-be-allowed-in-melbourne-safe-injecting-room-20171031-gzbydr.html (accessed 21 November 2011).

[115]    Noel Towell and Benjamin Preiss, 'Ice won't be allowed in Melbourne safe injecting room', The Age, 31 October 2017, quoting Mental Health Minister Martin Foley.

[116]    Dr James Martin, Senior Lecturer, Macquarie University, Submission to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement (PJCLE), Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 3.

[117]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 2.

[118]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 3.

[119]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 4.

[120]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 4.

[121]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 4.

[122]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 5.

[123]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 5.

[124]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 6.

[125]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 6.

[126]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 6.

[127]    Dr Martin, Macquarie University, Submission to the PJCLE, Inquiry into the Impact of New and Emerging Information and Communication Technology on Australian Law Enforcement Agencies, Submission 9, p. 6.

Chapter 5 - Funding of alcohol and other drug services

[1]        Department of Health (DoH), Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1–4 February 2016, 4 February 2016, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/PHN-Circular1_AOD (accessed 21 July 2017).

[2]        DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1–4 February 2016, 4 February 2016.

[3]        DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1–4 February 2016, 4 February 2016.

[4]        DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1–4 February 2016, 4 February 2016.

[5]        DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1–4 February 2016, 4 February 2016.

[6]        DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 5, 24 March 2017 (received 10 May 2017).

[7]        Dr Wendy Southern, Deputy Secretary, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 21.

[8]        Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 21.

[9]        DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 5, 24 March 2017 (received 10 May 2017).

[10]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 1 (received 10 May 2017).

[11]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 1 (received 10 May 2017).

[12]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 1 (received 10 May 2017).

[13]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 3 (received 10 May 2017).

[14]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 3 (received 10 May 2017).

[15]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 2 (received 10 May 2017).

[16]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 1, 24 March 2017, p. 2 (received 10 May 2017).

[17]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 4, 24 March 2017 (received 10 May 2017).

[18]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 4, 24 March 2017 (received 10 May 2017).

[19]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 4, 24 March 2017 (received 10 May 2017).

[20]      DoH, answer to question on notice, no. 4, 24 March 2017, Attachment A (received 10 May 2017).

[21]      There were five levels of weighting: 1 (major city), 1.2, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 (very remote location). See Mr David Laffan, Assistant Secretary, Drug Strategy Branch, Population Health and Sport Division, DoH, Committee Hansard, 30 May 2017, p. 87.

[22]      Mr Laffan, DoH, Committee Hansard, 30 May 2017, pp 86–87.

[23]      DoH, answers to questions on notice, no. SQ17-000589, (received 16 August 2017).

[24]      DoH, answers to questions on notice, no. SQ17-000589, (received 16 August 2017).

[25]      DoH, answers to questions on notice, no. SQ17-000589, (received 16 August 2017).

[26]      DoH, answers to questions on notice, no. SQ17-000589, (received 16 August 2017).

[27]      Weighted funding is determined by Indigenous population, socioeconomic disadvantage and rural and remoteness.

[28]      DoH, answer to question on notice, 30 May 2017, No SQ17-000699 (received 21 July 2017).

[29]      The Hon. Sheila McHale, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 14.

[30]      Ms McHale, Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 15.

[31]      Ms McHale, Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 15.

[32]      Ms Jill Rundle, CEO, Western Australian Network of Alcohol & Other Drug Agencies (WANADA), Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[33]      Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[34]      Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 30.

[35]      Associate Professor Rebecca McKetin, Senior Research Fellow, National Drug Research Institute (NDRI), Curtin University, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 40.

[36]      Professor Steve Allsop, Project Leader, NDRI, Curtin University, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 40.

[37]      Mr David Laffan, Assistant Secretary, DoH, Committee Hansard, 30 May 2017, p. 88.

[38]      Dr Lisa Studdert, First Assistant Secretary, Population Health and Sport Division, DoH, Committee Hansard, 30 May 2017, p. 87.

[39]      DoH, answer to question on notice, No. SQ17-00589, 30 May 2017 (received 21 July 2017).

[40]      DoH, answer to question on notice, No. SQ17-000597, 30 May 2017 (received 21 July 2017)

[41]      Ms Sarah Charlton, CEO, Holyoake Tasmania, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 17.

[42]      Ms Charlton, Holyoake Tasmania, answer to questions on notice, 24 March 2017 (received 20 April 2017), p. 1.

[43]      Network of Alcohol and other Drug Agencies (NADA), Submission 96, p. 8.

[44]      NADA, Submission 96, p. 8.

[45]      Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 26.

[46]      Dr Southern, DoH, Committee Hansard, 24 March 2017, p. 26.

[47]      Australian Medical Association (AMA), Submission 86, p. 4.

[48]      Ms McHale, Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 14.

[49]      Ms Learne Durrington, The Western Australian Primary Health Alliance (WAPHA), correction of evidence, 3 May 2017, p. 2 (received 29 May 2017).

[50]      Daniel Burdon, '$2.8 million for ACT drug treatment flows two years after ice strategy announced', The Age, 31 August 2017, http://www.theage.com.au/act-news/28-million-for-act-drug-treatment-flows-two-years-after-ice-strategy-announced-20170831-gy7tzp.html (accessed 15 November 2017).

[51]      Sarah Fitzpatrick Gray and AAP, 'Federal funds to combat ice in Tassie', Hobart Mercury, 13 April 2017.

[52]      Ms McHale, Palmerston Association, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 14.

[53]      National Drug and Research Centre (NDARC), Submission 85, p. 1.

[54]      Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 29.

[55]      Ms Rundle, WANADA, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 29.

[56]      Available at: DoH, PHN Programme Guidelines, 21 April 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/PHN-Program_Guidelines (accessed 18 January 2018). Other resources available to inform PHNs on the commissioning processes are: PHN Commissioning Resources, 27 February 2017, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/PHNCommissioningResources (accessed 18 January 2018); PHN Needs Assessment Guide, 24 December 2015, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/PHN-Needs_Assessment_Guide (accessed 18 January 2018).

[57]      Ms Durrington, WAPHA, correction of evidence, 3 May 2017, p. 2 (received 29 May 2017).

[58]      Ms Durrington, WAPHA, correction of evidence, 3 May 2017, p. 2 (received 29 May 2017).

[59]      DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1 – 4 February 2016, 4 February 2016.

[60]      DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1 – 4 February 2016, 4 February 2016.

[61]      DoH, Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services PHN Circular 1 – 4 February 2016, 4 February 2016.

[62]      Dr Jenny Charmers, Professor Alison Ritter, Dr Lynda Berends and Dr Kari Lancaster (Charmers et al.), 'Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 35, May 2016

[63]      Charmers et al., 'Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 35, May 2016, p. 256.

[64]      Charmers et al., 'Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 35, May 2016, p. 262.

[65]      Charmers et al., 'Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 35, May 2016, p. 262.

[66]      Charmers et al., 'Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 35, May 2016, p. 262.

[67]      NDARC, Submission 85, p. 1.

[68]      NDARC, Submission 85, p. 1.

[69]      DoH, answer to question on notice, SQ17-000497, Budget Estimates 2017–18.

[70]      DoH, answer to question on notice, SQ17-000497, Budget Estimates 2017–18.

[71]      DoH, answer to question on notice, SQ17-000497, Budget Estimates 2017–18.

[72]      Charmers et al., 'Following the money: Mapping the sources and funding flows of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 35, May 2016, p. 261.

[73]      See for example, Deputy Commissioner Naguib (Nick) Kaldas, Deputy Commissioner, Field Operations, New South Wales Police Force, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2017, p. 4.

[74]      The Hon. Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister, 'Joint Doorstop Interview with Minister Keenan and Minister Nash', Sydney, 6 December 2015, https://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/joint-doorstop-interview-with-minister-keenan-and-minister-nash-sydney (accessed 11 January 2018).

[75]      The three pillars of the National Drug Strategy are supply, demand and harm reduction measures. See Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First report, September 2017, pp 55-57.

[76]      Evidence presented by submitters shows original estimates from the Alison Ritter, Ross McLeod and Marian Shanahan et al. (Ritter et al.) report. On 20 August 2013 an addendum was issued due to amendments being made to the Australian Federal Police's allocation of resources towards illicit drug strategies. These changes resulted two scaled down estimates for law enforcement, one was 70 per cent the original estimate, the other was 50 per cent. This report has opted to use the 50 per cent estimate. See Ritter et al. Government Drug Policy Expenditure in Australia – 2009/10, Drug Policy Modelling Program Monograph 24, NDARC, June 2013, https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/ndarc/resources/24%20Government%20drug%20policy%20expenditure%20in%20Australia%20-%202009_10.pdf (accessed 17 November 2017).

[77]      Ritter et al. Government Drug Policy Expenditure in Australia – 2009/10, Drug Policy Modelling Program Monograph 24, NDARC, June 2013.

[78]      Ritter et al. Government Drug Policy Expenditure in Australia – 2009/10, Drug Policy Modelling Program Monograph 24, NDARC, June 2013.

[79]      Australian Network of State and Territory Alcohol and other Drug Peak Bodies (Network of Peaks), Submission 108, p. 8.

[80]      Mr Mark Ferry, Chief Operating Officer, Ted Noffs Foundation, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 51.

[81]      Professor Nadine Ezard, Clinical Director, Alcohol and Drug Service, St Vincent's Hospital, St Vincent's Health Australia, Committee Hansard, 29 July 2015, p. 74.

[82]      WANADA, Submission 107, p. 7.

[83]      WANADA, Submission 107, p. 7.

[84]      WANADA, Submission 107, p. 7.

[85]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 37.

[86]      Professor Allsop, NDRI, Committee Hansard, 3 May 2017, p. 38.

[87]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings, 2017, p. 131, https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/15db8c15-7062-4cde-bfa4-3c2079f30af3/21028a.pdf.aspx?inline=true (accessed 28 February 2018).

[88]      AIHW, National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings, 2017, p. 131.

[89]      AIHW, National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings, 2017, p. 132.

[90]      See paragraphs 5.16–5.19, 5.29 and 5.69.

[91]      Proceeds of Crime Act 2002, s. 298.

[92]      Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Proceeds of Crime, 22 March 2017, https://www.anao.gov.au/work/performance-audit/proceeds-of-crime (accessed 22 December 2017).

[93]      ANAO, Proceeds of Crime, 22 March 2017.

[94]      ANAO, Proceeds of Crime, 22 March 2017.

[95]      ANAO, Proceeds of Crime, 22 March 2017.

[96]      ANAO, Proceeds of Crime, 22 March 2017.

[97]      Attorney-General's Department (AGD), Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Funded Projects, March 2015, https://www.ag.gov.au/CrimeAndCorruption/CrimePrevention/Documents/POCA%20Funded%20Projects.pdf (accessed 11 January 2018).

[98]      AGD, Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Funded Projects, March 2015, pp 17–51.

[99]      AGD, Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Funded Projects, March 2015, p. 2.

Chapter 6 - Decriminalisation

[1]        The Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement's (PJCLE) first report for the inquiry into crystal methamphetamine discusses the current status of drug diversionary schemes in Australia. The committee recommended that, subsequent to the national review of drug diversionary programs articled by the National Ice Taskforce and in the National Ice Action Strategy (NIAS), states and territories commit to improving, expanding, or where no drug diversionary program(s) currently exists, implementing such programs across their jurisdictions.

[2]        Professor Alison Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), 22 April 2016, https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/blog/decriminalisation-or-legalisation-injecting-evidence-drug-law-reform-debate (accessed 4 August 2017).

[3]        Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[4]        Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[5]        Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[6]        NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4, https://dpmp.unsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/dpmp/resources/Decriminalisation%20briefing%20note%20Feb%202016%20FINAL.pdf (accessed 4 August 2017).

[7]        Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[8]        NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[9]        Global Commission on Drug Policy, Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalisation, 2016, p. 21, http://www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/reports/advancing-drug-policy-reform/ (accessed 20 November 2017).

[10]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[11]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[12]      Global Commission on Drug Policy, Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalisation, 2016, p. 20.

[13]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[14]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[15]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[16]      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings, 2017, p. 130, https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/15db8c15-7062-4cde-bfa4-3c2079f30af3/21028a.pdf.aspx?inline=true (accessed 28 February 2018).

[17]      AIHW, National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings, 2017, p. 131.

[18]      AIHW, National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings, 2017, p. 131.

[19]      AIHW, National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings, 2017, p. 131.

[20]      Peter Homel and Rick Brown, Marijuana legislation in the United States: An Australian perspective, Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, No. 535, June 2017, AIC, p. 2, http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/tandi_pdf/tandi535.pdf (accessed 4 August 2017).

[21]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 2.

[22]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 2.

[23]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[24]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 3.

[25]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[26]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[27]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 3.

[28]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 3.

[29]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[30]      Kitty Holland, 'Legislation to decriminalise drugs could come in early 2019', The Irish Times, 30 November 2017, https://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/legislation-to-decriminalise-drugs-could-come-in-early-2019-1.3311583 (accessed 18 December 2017).

[31]      Kitty Holland, 'Legislation to decriminalise drugs could come in early 2019', The Irish Times, 30 November 2017.

[32]      Kitty Holland, 'Legislation to decriminalise drugs could come in early 2019', The Irish Times, 30 November 2017.

[33]      Rebecca Flood 'Norway becomes first Scandinavian country to decriminalise drugs in historic vote', The Independent, 15 December 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/norway-parliament-drugs-decriminalise-recreational-cocaine-heroin-marijuana-a8111761.html (accessed 18 December 2017).

[34]      Rebecca Flood 'Norway becomes first Scandinavian country to decriminalise drugs in historic vote', The Independent, 15 December 2017.

[35]      Melia Robinson, 'This South American country has decriminalised all drugs for 40 years, Business Insider, 10 June 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/uruguay-has-decriminalized-all-drugs-for-40-years-2016-6/?r=AU&IR=T (accessed 28 February 2018).

[36]      Jeremy B White, 'Californians to have marijuana offences wiped from records after drug is legalised, Independent, 31 January 2018, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/california-marijuana-law-weed-cannabis-illegal-criminal-record-wiped-san-francisco-a8188356.html (accessed 28 February 2018).

[37]      On 24 February 2016, the Commonwealth Parliament passed amendments to the Narcotics Drugs Act 1967 to establish licensing and permit schemes for the legal cultivation and production of cannabis and cannabis resin for medical and scientific purposes. Amendments were also made to the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989. See Parliament of Australia, Narcotic Drugs Amendment Bill 2016 Summary, 2016, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5609 (accessed 28 February 2018).

[38]      Therapeutic Goods Administration, Access to medicinal cannabis products, 14 February 2018, https://www.tga.gov.au/access-medicinal-cannabis-products (accessed 28 February 2018).

[39]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[40]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[41]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[42]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[43]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[44]      Although no country has legalised drugs, certain states in the United States have legalised cannabis for recreational use. See paragraph 6.23 for further information. Both Uruguay and the Netherlands have strict (de facto) laws in place surrounding the use and sale of cannabis. See Brookings Institute, Uruguay's Drug Policy: Major Innovations, Major Challenges, July 2016, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Walsh-Uruguay-final.pdf (accessed 28 February 2018); and, Government of Netherlands, Toleration policy regarding soft drugs and coffee shops,  https://www.government.nl/topics/drugs/toleration-policy-regarding-soft-drugs-and-coffee-shops (accessed 28 February 2018).

[45]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[46]      Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[47]      Medicinal cannabis legislation has been in place in a number of states since 1996. In 2016 there were 30 US states and the Federal District of Columbia that had enacted laws to allow the medical use of cannabis. See Homel and Brown, Marijuana legislation in the United States: An Australian perspective, Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, No. 535, June 2017, AIC, p. 4, http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/tandi_pdf/tandi535.pdf (accessed 4 August 2017).

[48]      Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon and Washington.

[49]      Homel and Brown, Marijuana legislation in the United States: An Australian perspective, Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, No. 535, June 2017, AIC, p. 1.

[50]      Homel and Brown, Marijuana legislation in the United States: An Australian perspective, Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, No. 535, June 2017, AIC, p. 1.

[51]      Bill C-45 will establish strict cannabis framework that will restrict its sale to young people, protect public health and public safety measures, and deter criminal activity by imposing serious criminal penalties for those operating outside the legal framework. See Parliament of Canada, House of Commons of Canada, Bill C-45, 27 November 2017, http://www.parl.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/bill/C-45/third-reading (accessed 28 February 2018).

[52]      Parliament of Canada, House of Commons of Canada, Bill C-45, 27 November 2017, http://www.parl.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/bill/C-45/third-reading (accessed 28 February 2018).

[53]      Parliament of Canada, House of Commons of Canada, Bill C-45, 27 November 2017, http://www.parl.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/bill/C-45/third-reading (accessed 28 February 2018).

[54]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[55]      Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, pp 1–2, https://www.unodc.org/documents/ungass2016/Contributions/Civil/Transform-Drug-Policy-Foundation/Drug-decriminalisation-in-Portugal.pdf (accessed 20 November 2017).

[56]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 18, https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/drug-policy-in-portugal-english-20120814.pdf (accessed 4 August 2017).

[57]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 19.

[58]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 20.

[59]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 21.

[60]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, pp 23.

[61]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, pp 21–22.

[62]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 22.

[63]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 22.

[64]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 22.

[65]      Glen Greenwald, Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies, Cato Institute, 2009, p. 7, https://www.cato.org/publications/white-paper/drug-decriminalization-portugal-lessons-creating-fair-successful-drug-policies (accessed 21 November 2017).

[66]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 22.

[67]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 1.

[68]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 1.

[69]      Servico de Intervencao nos Comportamentos Aditovos e nas Dependencias/General-Directorate for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies (SICAD), Interventions on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies, 12 September 2017, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 13.

[70]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, pp 1–2.

[71]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 4.

[72]      SICAD, Promote the reduction of the consumption of psychoactive substances and prevent addictive behaviours and decrease dependencies, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 17.

[73]      Greenwald, Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies, Cato Institute, 2009, p. 26.

[74]      Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 23.

[75]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 2.

[76]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 2.

[77]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 2.

[78]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 2.

[79]      Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 2.

[80]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 6.

[81]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 6.

[82]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 6.

[83]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 6.

[84]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 5.

[85]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 6.

[86]      SICAD, Decriminalisation: Portuguese legal framework applicable to the consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 6.

[87]      SICAD, Promote the reduction of the consumption of psychoactive substances and prevent addictive behaviours and decrease dependencies, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 19.

[88]      For example, the president of the International Narcotics Control Board in 2015 said Portugal's policy as 'a model of best practices'. See Global Commission on Drug Policy, Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalisation, 2016 Report, p. 20.

[89]      NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 4.

[90]      Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 2.

[91]      Transform added that lifetime use is considered to be the least accurate measure of a country's current drug use situation.

[92]      Transform noted that these two measures are viewed as the best indicators of drug use trends.

[93]      Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 2.

[94]      Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 2.

[95]      Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes and Alex Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 105, https://kar.kent.ac.uk/29901/1/Hughes%20%20Stevens%202012.pdf (accessed 23 November 2017).

[96]      Hughes and Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 105, https://kar.kent.ac.uk/29901/1/Hughes%20%20Stevens%202012.pdf (accessed 23 November 2017).

[97]      Hughes and Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 105.

[98]      Greenwald, Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies, Cato Institute, 2009, p. 15.

[99]      Greenwald, Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies, Cato Institute, 2009, p. 15.

[100]    Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 3.

[101]    Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 3.

[102]    Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 3.

[103]    Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 3.

[104]    Greenwald, Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies, Cato Institute, 2009, p. 17.

[105]    Greenwald, Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies, Cato Institute, 2009, p. 17.

[106]    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Portugal Country Drug Report 2017, http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/countries/drug-reports/2017/portugal_en (accessed 22 November 2017).

[107]    EMCDDA, Portugal Country Drug Report 2017.

[108]    EMCDDA, Portugal Country Drug Report 2017.

[109]    Hughes and Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 105.

[110]    SICAD, Interventions on Addictive Behaviour and Dependencies, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 32.

[111]    SICAD, Interventions on Addictive Behaviour and Dependencies, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 32.

[112]    SICAD, Interventions on Addictive Behaviour and Dependencies, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 32.

[113]    Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: setting the record straight, June 2014, p. 3.

[114]    Hughes and Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 108.

[115]    Hughes and Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 108.

[116]    Hughes and Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 108.

[117]    Hughes and Stevens, 'A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretations of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs, Harm Reduction Digest–44, Drug and Alcohol Review, January 2012, p. 108.

[118]    EMCDDA, Portugal Country Drug Report 2017, http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/countries/drug-reports/2017/portugal_en (accessed 22 November 2017).

[119]    EMCDDA, Portugal Country Drug Report 2017.

[120]    Open Society Foundation, Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of Decriminalizing drug use, Global Drug Policy Program, June 2011, p. 24.

[121]    Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 4.

[122]    Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 4.

[123]    Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 4.

[124]    Greenwald, Drug Decriminalisation in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies, Cato Institute, 2009, p. 6 and p. 8.

[125]    Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 3.

[126]    Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 3.

[127]    Policia Judiciaria, Ministerio da Justica, Police Action in Drug Use Situations, additional information received 24 to 30 September 2017, p. 3.

[128]    Global Commission on Drug Policy, Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalisation, 2016, p. 21.

[129]    Global Commission on Drug Policy, Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalisation, 2016, p. 21.

[130]    Global Commission on Drug Policy, Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalisation, 2016, p. 21.

[131]    NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 5.

[132]    Professor Ritter, Decriminalisation or legalisation: injecting evidence in the drug law reform debate, NDARC, 22 April 2016.

[133]    NDARC's submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 164, March 2017, p. 3.

[134]    NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 5.

[135]    NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 5.

[136]    NDARC, Decriminalisation of drug use and possession in Australia – A briefing note, Drug Policy Modelling Program, 2016, p. 5.

[137]    NDARC, submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 164, March 2017, p. 3.

[138]    Queensland Network of Alcohol and Other Drug Agencies (QNADA), Submission 20, p. 4.

[139]    St Vincent's Health Australia, Submission 18, p. 22.

[140]    Australia's first drug court opened in NSW in 1999. South Australia and Western Australia have had drug courts since 2000, Victoria since 2002. See Ryan Kornhauser, 'The effectiveness of Australia's drug courts', Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Vol. 51(1), p. 77, 2018. 

[141]    Queensland Courts, Queensland Drug and Alcohol Court, http://www.courts.qld.gov.au/courts/drug-court (accessed 21 March 2018).

[142]    The NT has an Infringement Notice System, and for young offenders a cautioning system available through police and the court. See NT Government, Young people: diversion programs, https://nt.gov.au/law/young-people/young-people-diversion-programs (accessed 21 March 2018).

[143]    The ACT has a Court Alcohol and Drug Assessment Service (CADAS) scheme in use by its Magistrates, Children's and Supreme courts. See ACT Health, Diversionary services, http://www.health.act.gov.au/our-services/alcohol-and-other-drugs/diversion-services (accessed 21 March 2018).

[144]    Magistrates Court of Tasmania, Doing a drug treatment order, http://www.magistratescourt.tas.gov.au/about_us/criminal_division/drug_treatment_orders (accessed 21 March 2018).

[145]    St Vincent's Health Australia, Submission 18, p. 22.

[146]    St Vincent's Health Australia, Submission 18, p. 22.

[147]    PJCLE, Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ice): First Report, September 2017,
pp 105–110.

[148]    Australian Drug Law Reform Foundation, Charter, https://adlrf.org.au/charter/ (accessed 23 November 2017).

[149]    Australia21, Report on the second Australia21 Roundtable on illicit drugs held at The University of Melbourne on 6 July 2012, September 2012, p. 38.

[150]    Drug Policy Forum, Parliamentary Drug Summit 2016, http://www.drugpolicyreform.com.au/ (accessed 23 November 2017).

[151]    Parliament of New South Wales, Illegal drug use and possession: Current policy and debates, https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/news/Pages/IllegaldruguseandpossessionCurrentpolicyanddebates.aspx (accessed 24 November 2017).

[152]    Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into drug law reform, https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lrrcsc/inquiries/article/2809 (accessed 24 November 2017).

[153]    The National Drug Research Institute's (NDRI) submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 136, p. 5.

[154]    NDRI's submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 136, p. 5.

[155]    NDRI's submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 136, p. 6.

[156]    NDRARC's submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 164, p. 6.

[157]    NDRARC's submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 164, p. 6.

[158]    UnitingCare ReGen, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Submission no. 168, p. 1.

[159]    UnitingCare ReGen, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Submission no. 168, p. 1.

[160]    The Alcohol and Drug Foundation's (ADF) submission refers to the Portugal's drug policy as a depenalisation, citing that it is commonly confused with the term decriminalised. See ADF, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Submission no. 218, p. 9.

[161]    ADF submission refers to Portugal's drug policy as a depenalisation, citing that it is commonly confused with the term 'decriminalised'. See ADF, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Submission no. 218, p. 9.

[162]    ADF, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 218, p. 9.

[163]    Associate Professor Nadine Ezard, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 221, p. 1.

[164]    Associate Professor Ezard, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 221, p. 1.

[165]    Associate Professor Ezard, Submission to the Parliament of Victoria's Law Reform, Road and Community Safety Committee, Inquiry into drug law reform, Submission no. 221, p. 1.

[166]    NIT, Final Report, p. 170.

Appendix 1 - Australian Press Council's Specific Standards on Coverage of Suicide

[1]        References above to suicide apply also to attempted suicide. References to reports include all types of report (including of court proceedings or inquests) and headlines, text, images and sounds.

[2]        A matter is in the public interest if it is of substantial and widespread significance, not merely something in which many people may be interested. It may often be helpful for the assessment to be made at editorial level after seeking advice from an appropriate mental health expert. It may also be necessary to consult police, school principals, public health authorities or other people with special knowledge of the likely impacts of publication in the particular case.

[3]        A person can give informed consent to a report if they are reasonably aware of the circumstances to which it relates and the likely consequences for them of it being published. This may be difficult or impossible to obtain in the immediate aftermath of a suicide.

[4]        Often it will be important to request and conduct interviews with closely affected people by going through an intermediary such as a relative, professional counsellor or support organisation.

[5]        It may be preferable to use words such as “died by suicide” or “took his life” rather than a term such as “committed suicide” which can imply commission of a crime.

[6]        Mindframe publishes a range of resources for media professionals on the reporting of suicide. The SANE Media Centre provides media with guidance about reporting mental illness and suicide. When deciding what sources of assistance should be mentioned in a report, advice could also be sought directly from organisations providing services to people with problems relating to suicide or mental illness, such as Suicide Call Back Service, SANE Australia, Lifeline, or beyondblue. Services providing assistance to young people include Kids Helpline, ReachOut.com, and headspace.

[7]        Australian Press Council, Specific Standards on Coverage of Suicide, July 2014, http://www.presscouncil.org.au/uploads/52321/ufiles/SPECIFIC_STANDARDS_SUICIDE_-_July_2014.pdf (accessed 6 March 2018).

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